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C o p y r i g h t 1989 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I n c .

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kobayashi, Shiro.
Metal forming and the finite-element method /
Shiro Kobayashi, Soo-lk Oh, Taylan Altan.
p. cm. - - (Oxford series on advanced manufacturing;
4) Bibliography: p. Includes index.
ISBN 0-19-504402-9
1. Metal-work--Mathematical models. 2. Finite-element method.
I. Oh, Soo-lk. II. Altan, Taylan. III. Title. IV. Series.
TS213.K56 1989
671'.072'4-Mc19 88-11995

Printed in the United States of America
on acid-free paper

The application of computer-aided engineering, design, and manufactur-

ing, CAE/CAD/CAM, is essential in modern metal-forming technology.
Thus, process modeling for the investigation and understanding of
deformation mechanics has become a major concern in research, and the
finite-element method (FEM) has assumed increased importance, particu-
larly in the modeling of forming processes.
There are many excellent textbooks on the principles and fundamentals
of metal forming, but only a few describe the application of FEM to the
analysis and simulation of metal-forming processes.
The main purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals and
applications of FEM in metal-forming analysis and technology. The book
is primarily written for graduate students and researchers. However, it
should also be useful to practicing engineers who have a good background
in FEM and who are interested in applying this technique to the analysis of
metal-deformation processes.
In the application of FEM to metal forming, there are two formulations,
namely, flow formulation and solid formulation. Flow formulation assumes
that the deforming material has a negligible elastic response, while solid
formulation includes elasticity. Despite recent advances, the application of
solid formulation to the analysis of metal-forming problems remains
limited. On the other hand, flow formulation has found applications in a
wide variety of important forming problems. This book, therefore, is
mainly devoted to the applications that are based on flow formulation
(purely plastic and viscoplastic). However, recent advances achieved in
solid formulation have made it applicable to the analysis of some forming
problems. In order not to neglect these investigations, comparisons of
solutions based on both formulations, solid and flow, are presented in
Chapter 16.
The book begins with a general background on the subject in Chapter 1,
The description of metal-forming processes is given in Chapter 2, and
Chapter 3 details important technological aspects of these processes.
Chapters 4 and 5 present the theory of plasticity and methods of analysis as
applied to metal forming. The FEM formulations are described in
Chapters 6 and 7, and the applications of the method to the analyses of
various forming processes are presented in Chapters 8 through 11. Chapter
vi Preface
12 presents a thermo-viscoplastic analysis and Chapters 13, 14, and 15
include developments in the areas of deformation of porous materials,
three-dimensional problems, and preform design. The book concludes with
Chapter 16, in which further developments are discussed, along with the
outline of solid formulation and comparison of the results by both solid
and flow formulations.
Although this book primarily deals with metals, some of the principles
and solution techniques should be applicable to deformation analyses of
other materials, such as polymers and composites.
Sincere thanks are due to a number of individuals. First of all, we wish
to express our appreciation to Professor E. G. Thomsen, Professor
Emeritus, University of California at Berkeley, who helped us to devote
our careers to research in metal forming. We also thank Professor M. C.
Shaw, Arizona State University, for his encouragement and support in
writing this book, and Professor W. Johnson, Emeritus Professor, Univer-
sity of Cambridge, for his critical comments during the preparation of the
The senior author wishes to thank his former graduate students in the
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at
Berkeley, who have contributed to the advances in the application of FEM
to metal forming.
The contents of this book are largely the results of research supported
by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, the National Science
Foundation, and the Army Research Office, and their support is
We also thank Mr. and Mrs. Joe Bavonese for typing the manuscript.

Berkeley S. K.
Columbus S. O.
May 1988 T. A.

A Cross-sectional area H Height

A Function of relative Ho Initial height
density for porous Final height
H(~) Work-hardening function
Ao Initial cross-sectional /t Time derivative of height
AH Increment of height
AjN area contribution of the
jth element to node N t, Linear invariant of stress
B Function of relative
density for porous Quadratic invariant of
materials stress tensor
B Breadth & Cubic invariant of stress
Bo Initial breadth
J, Linear invariant of
B Strain-rate matrix
deviatoric stress tensor
C Constant J~ Quadratic invariant of
C Class of functions with deviatoric stress tensor
continuous derivatives of
J~ Cubic invariant of
all orders up to and
deviatoric stress tensor
including r
J Jacobian of coordinate
C Volumetric strain-rate
K Penalty constant
C Heat capacity matrix
K Stiffness matrix
D Diameter
Heat conduction matrix
Do Initial diameter
L Coefficient of anistropy
D Effective strain-rate
coefficient matrix L,, L2, L3 Area coordinate
E Young's modulus Lqk! Small-strain moduli
e(~,j) Work function Constitutive moduli
Energy-rate M Coefficient of anisotropy
Lagrangian strain M Gradient matrix of shape
function vector N
F Coefficient of anisotropy
F(o,;) Function of stresses N Coefficient of anisotropy
F, Traction N Shape function matrix
G Shear modulus P Load
G Coefficient of anisotropy P Effective strain-rate
H Coefficient of anisotropy matrix
xiv Symbols

P. Element of strain-rate Tw Workpiece temperature

matrix B Time derivative of
Q Heat flux vector temperature
R Roll radius T Coordinate
R Relative density of transformation matrix
porous materials v~ Die or roll velocity
Ro Average relative density Uo Entrance velocity in
of porous materials rolling
Ro Initial relative density of u~ Exit velocity in rolling
porous materials up Punch velocity
Ro Initial radius V Volume
Ri Internal radius of tings Vo Initial volume
and tubes
lib Volume of base metal in
Re Radius of extruded or porous materials
drawn bars
V~ Volume of void in porous
R. Radius of neutral point in materials
ring compression
AV Volume change
RD Die comer radius
W Width
Rp Punch radius
Wo Initial width
S Microstmcture
w. Average width
S Surface Time derivative of width
s~ Surface of tool- Total plastic work per
workpiece contact
unit volume
s~, Surface of discontinuity Plastic work-rate per unit
Surface where traction is volume
prescribed Work-rate per unit
s, Internal surface volume in reference state
s. Surface where velocity is x~ Element of strain-rate
prescribed matrix B
s~ Surface where heat flux is Y Yield stress in uniaxial
prescribed tension
T Thickness Y0 Initial yield stress
T Temperature Y~ Yield stress of base metal
T~, Nodal-point temperature in porous materials
Tb Temperature of base YR Apparent yield stress of
metal in porous materials porous materials
T, Die temperature Y. Element of strain-rate
matrix B
T~ Environmental
temperature z~ Element of strain-rate
matrix B
TR Apparent temperature of
porous materials a Height-to-diameter ratio
T~ Surface temperature c Specific heat
xvi Symbols

vo Initial velocity vector at r/ Natural coordinate

nodal point r/~ r/-Coordinate of orth
Av Velocity corrections of node
nodal values 0 Angle
wj Virtual velocity x Heat generation
w/ Weight factors efficiency factor
x=, y~, z= x, y, z-Coordinates of 3, Lagrangian multiplier
trth node Proportionality factor
tg Die semi-angle (rate) in flow rules
t~ Deceleration coefficient d3, Proportionality factor
Coupling coefficient in (infinitesimal) in flow
P rules
temperature calculation
y, y', y" Viscosity coefficients # Coefficient of friction
6b Radial displacement in v Poisson's ratio
bore expanding Natural coordinate
6o Radial displacement in ~ ~-Coordinate of o:th
flange drawing node
6~p Kronecker delta ~r Plane of zero mean stress
Emissivity in stress space
g Effective strain Jr Functional
gb Effective strain of base 6~ Variation of functional
metal in porous materials 6~(, 6at-value at jth element
Effective strain value at &to Term due to deformation
node N energy-rate in 6~r
Strain-rate 6~tp Penalty term in 6~r
deq Infinitesimal strain 6~rs~ Term due to traction in
Volumetric strain-rate &r
Plastic strain-rate 6~ Term that includes
Lagrangian multiplier in
Elastic strain-rate
Effective strain-rate
6~rs, Term due to friction in
Effective strain-rate of &r
base metal in porous
materials P
Initial density
Apparent effective strain- Po
Density of base metal in
rate of porous materials Pb
porous materials
~o Limiting strain-rate
Pd Density of die material
Natural coordinate Apparent density of
t-Coordinate of trth porous materials
node p~ Density of void in porous
Function of relative materials
density in porous o Stephan-Boltzman
materials constant
Symbols XV

Cd Specific heat of die t~ Unit tangent vector

material m Friction factor
Cb Specific heat of base m Strain-rate exponent
metal in porous materials Coefficient of anisotropy
c~ Specific heat of void in Strain-hardening
porous materials exponent
CR Apparent specific heat of Coefficient of anisotropy
porous materials
n Unit normal to the
d Punch depth in sheet- surface
metal forming
e Engineering strain P
Average pressure
Engineering strain-rate P
Die pressure in drawing
f Coefficient of anisotropy Po
First Piola-Kirchhoff
Frictional stress P#
f Nodal-point force vector Heat generated through
f(o,~) Yield function friction
g Coefficient of anisotropy q. Heat flux across surface
g(a,j) Scalar function of stress s~
invariants q~ Shape functions
h Heat transfer coefficient r r-Value in sheet forming
h~ Heat transfer coefficient rx, r4s, ry r-Values in the rolling,
at tool-workpiece 45 , and transverse
contact surface directions, respectively
hlub Heat transfer coefficient i Heat generation-rate
of lubricant Second Piola-Kirchhoff
h Coefficient of anisotropy stress
h(oo) Scalar function of stress t Time
At Time-increment
k Shear yield stress ui Velocity component
k, Apparent shear yield u~=)
Velocity component at
stress of porous materials
the ~th node
kl Thermal conductivity Initial velocity
k~ Apparent thermal Relative sliding velocity
conductivity of porous u,
meterials u. Velodty component
normal to a surface
k~ Thermal conductivity of
base metal in porous ut Velocity component
materials tangent to a surface
! Gage length in tensile Au Velocity discontinuity
test v, Relative sliding velocity
l Coefficient of anisotropy at nodal point
lo Initial gage length in v Velocity vector at nodal
tensile test point
Symbols xvii

Cauchy stress ,/,(z) Bulge function in simple

Deviatoric stress compression
0 Effective stress, flow ~(F) Strain-rate sensitivity
stress function
Mean stress tbo Rate of rotation
Kirchhoff stress
Shear traction in Hill's