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Recommended

machining
parameters for copper
and copper alloys

DKI Monograph i.18


Issued by:
German Copper Institute / Deutsches Kupferinstitut
Information and Advisory Centre for the Use of Copper and Copper Alloys
Am Bonneshof 5
40474 Dsseldorf
Germany
Tel.: +49 (0)211 47963-00
Fax: +49 (0)211 47963-10
info@kupferinstitut.de
www.kupferinstitut.de

All rights reserved.

Print run 2010

Revised and expanded by:


Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering
WZL at RWTH Aachen University
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing E.h. Dr. h.c. Fritz Klocke
Dipl.-Ing. Dieter Lung
Dr.-Ing. Klaus Gerschwiler
Dipl.-Ing. Patrik Vogtel
Dipl.-Ing. Susanne Cordes
Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT in Aachen
Dipl.-Ing. Frank Niehaus

Translation:
Dr. Andrew Symonds BD

Picture credits:
TORNOS, Pforzheim; Wieland-Werke, Ulm

Kindly supported by International Copper Association, New York


Contents

Contents............................................................ 1 6 Cutting-tool geometry....................................35


Foreword........................................................... 2 6.1 Rake and clearance angles..........................35
1 The situation today......................................... 3 7 Cutting fluids................................................. 37
2 Fundamental principles.................................... 5 8 Calculating machining costs............................ 38
2.1 Tool geometry and how it influences 9 Ultra-precision machining of copper................ 40
the cutting process..................................... 5
9.1 Principles of ultra-precision machining........ 40
2.1.1 Tool geometry........................................... 5
9.2 Example applications involving copper alloys.40
2.1.2 Effect of tool geometry on the
9.3 Work material properties and their
cutting process..........................................6
influence on ultra-precision machining......... 41
2.2 Tool wear................................................10
10 Recommended machining parameters
2.3 Chip formation......................................... 11 for copper and copper alloys............................43
3 Machinability................................................. 13 10.1 Turning of copper and copper alloys..............43
3.1 Tool life.................................................. 13 10.2 Drilling and counterboring of copper
and copper alloys.................................... 44
3.2 Cutting force............................................ 15
10.3 Reaming copper and copper alloys............... 46
3.3 Surface quality.........................................18
10.4 Tapping and thread milling copper
3.4 Chip shape.............................................. 21
and copper alloys.................................... 46
4 Classification of copper-based
10.5 Milling copper and copper alloys..................47
materials into machinability groups.................23
11 Appendix...................................................... 49
4.1 Standardization of copper materials..............23
11.1 Sample machining applications.................. 49
4.2 Machinability assessment criteria.................23
12 Mathematical formulae.................................. 56
4.3 The effect of casting, cold forming and
age hardening on machinability...................24 12.1 Equations............................................... 56
4.4 Alloying elements and their effect 12.2 symbols and abbreviations........................ 58
on machinability......................................25
13 References .................................................... 61
4.5 Classification of copper and copper alloys
14 Standards, regulations and guidelines............. 63
into main machinability groups.................. 28
5 Cutting-tool materials....................................32
5.1 High-speed steel......................................32
5.2 Carbides..................................................32
5.3 Diamond as a cutting material.....................33
5.4 Selecting the cutting material..................... 34

DKI Monograph i.18 |1


Foreword

Recommended machining parameters Like its predecessors, this edition of


for copper and copper alloys contin- the handbook has been designed to
ues a long tradition established by address the concerns of practitioners,
the German Copper Institute (DKI). The helping them to find the most effec-
publication Processing Copper and tive and economical solutions to their
Copper Alloys (Das Bearbeiten von metal cutting problems. It also aims
Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen) first to assist designers and development
appeared in 1938 and again in 1940. engineers when comparing the machin-
The handbook Metal cutting tech- ability of different materials, making
niques for copper and copper alloys it easier for them to estimate the fab-
(Die spanabhebende Bearbeitung rication costs of a particular part. Ma-
von Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen) chinability index ratings have therefore
by J. Witthoff, which was published in been added to the tables included in
1956, represented a thorough revision the handbook. Machinability ratings
and rewriting of the earlier work. The are commonplace in the specialist
new handbook included for the first literature and not only help to make
time a complete overview of all the comparisons between different copper
standardized copper materials and materials but also comparisons with
metal cutting data known at the time. other metallic materials such as steel
In addition to the easily machinable or aluminium.
free-cutting brass, the handbook also
gave an account of copper alloys that The tables have also been brought
had been developed for specific appli- up to date to reflect the most recent
cations and that were often far harder materials standards, and the tables
to machine. In 1987 large sections of reference values for the various
of the handbook were reorganized, machining methods have been revised
revised and updated by Hans-Jrn and expanded. As the machinability
Burmester and Manfred Kleinau and of a material is highly complex and
re-issued under the current title depends on a large number of fac-
Recommended machining parameters tors, the benchmark values provided
for copper and copper alloys (German here can only offer broad guidance. To
original: Richtwerte fr die spanende establish the optimal machining pa-
Bearbeitung von Kupfer und Kupferle- rameters for a specific production pro-
gierungen). The handbook included cess and thus optimize the productivity
recommended machining parameters and cost-efficiency of that process,
for all relevant machining techniques additional cutting and machining tests
for a broad range of copper alloys. under the actual production conditions
must be carried out.
In order to take account of recent
technical developments in the field,
the handbook has once again been
revised and updated while retaining
the previous title.

2 | DKI Monograph i.18


1 State of the art

Compared to other metallic structural als. In order to meet a very wide range ters for the machining of copper and
materials, most copper-based materials of technical and engineering require- copper alloys particularly in view of
are relatively easy to machine. The free- ments, a great number of copper-based the ongoing developments in the metal
cutting brass with the designation materials have been developed over cutting sector. Furthermore, optimizing
CuZn39Pb3 has established itself as the years. Examples of more recent machining operations by selecting and
an excellent material for manufactur- developments include the low-alloyed adapting the relevant machining data
ing all kinds of form turned parts. The copper alloys, copper-nickel alloys and is of huge commercial importance in
excellent machining properties of these lead-free copper alloys. The spectrum high-volume serial production.
copper-zinc alloys is so well-known of materials available ranges from the
that they are often used as benchmarks high-strength copper-aluminium alloys Material development is focused on
for describing the machining properties to the very soft pure coppers with their the continuous improvement of a
of copper and copper alloys high elongation after fracture. materials properties. In order to lower
machining costs, fabricators frequent-
Machining copper alloys is considerably The differences in the machinability ly demand materials with improved
easier than machining steels or alumin- of one material compared to that of machinability properties but with
ium alloys of the same strength (see another can be traced to the differences mechanical and physical properties that
Figure 1). This is reflected in the signif- in their mechanical and physical prop- are essentially unchanged. Examples
icantly lower cutting forces as shown erties. Many machine operators have of this trend are the CuTeP and CuSP
in Figure 2. Unless specific technical only a limited knowledge of the ma- alloys. Although pure copper has very
requirements dictate the use of another chinability of the less commonly used high conductivity values, the fact that it
Vergleich der Zerspanbarkeit von Kupferwerklegierungen mit ein
material, free-cutting brass CuZn39Pb3
is the material of choice in contract
copper materials. As a result, the ma-
chining data assumed for one and the
produces long tubular or tangled chips
can make it difficult to machine. For
enstahl und einer Aluminiumlegierung [THIE90
turning shops.
[THIE90, DKI10
turning and machining shops and CNC
DKI10, WIEL10] same material may differ considerably
from one machining shop to another.
this reason alloys have been developed
in which tellurium, sulphur or lead
There is therefore a very definite need have been added to the pure copper
Parts that are mass-manufactured are for up-to-date reference values and as chip-breaking alloying elements.
typically machined from copper materi- recommended processing parame- The conductivity of these alloys is only

100
*
80
***
dex
index
arkeitsind

60
Machinability

*
panba

40 * *
Zersp
Z

20 **
*
AL Stahl
0
CuZn36Pb3 CuZn21Si3P CuZn35Pb1 CuZn39Sn1 CuZn36* AlCu6BiPb 11SMnPb3
(CuZn39Pb3)
(C Z 39Pb3)
Werkstoff
Material

**  CDA machinability ratings


Zerspanbarkeitsindex using CDA
gem the ASTMnachE618 test method with
Testmethode ASTM CuZn36Pb3
E618 mitasCuZn36Pb3
the referenceals
material
(in Europe the reference
Referenzwerkstoff material
(in Europa istisder
the Referenzwerkstoff
copper-zinc alloy CuZn39Pb3)
die Kupfer-Zink-Legierung CuZn39Pb3)
**** CuZn36:
CCuZn36:
36 Machinability ratingndex
Zerspanbarkeitsi based on the
nach DKIDKI material
ff data sheet
Werkstoffdatenblatt
*** CuZn21Si3P: Machinability
p rating
*** CuZn21Si3P: Zerspanbarkeitsindex as specified by manufacturer
nach Herstellerangabe
g

Fig. 1: Comparison of the machinability of copper alloys with a free-cutting steel and an aluminium alloy [1, 2, 3]

* Comparative
C ti M Machinability
hi bilit off Brasses,
B Steels
St l and d Aluminum
Al i Alloys:
All CDAs
CDA Universal
U i l Machinability
M hi bilit Index,
I d www.copp
DKI Monograph i.18 | 3
**CuZn36: Zerspanbakrisindex
p nach DKI Werkstoffdatenblatt
Abb. 2
Abb 2: Vergleich
V l i hdder spezifischen
ifi h S Schnittkraft
h i k f von d
dreii K
Kupferlegierungen
f l i
mit einem Einsatzstahl nach Untersuchungeng des DKI und [KNI73]
[ ]

vc kc1.1
c1 1 1-mc
Werkstoff
Material m/min N/mm
CuZn39Pb3 200 539 0 7886
0,7886
2000 Automatenmessing
Free-cutting brass 400 521 0 7458
0,7458
m)
mm

1500 CuSn8P 200 1137 0,8211


((N/m
krafft kc /force

Kupfer-Zinn-Legierung
p
Copper-tin g
alloy g 400 1020 0 8059
0,8059
CuZn37MnAl2PbSi 200 845 0 7561
0,7561
cutting

Sondermessing
Special brass 400 715 0,7036
1000
hniittk

16MnCr5+N
200 1302 0,7092
Specific

Einsatzstahl
Case-hardened steel
Sch
S

Cu 39 b3
CuZn39Pb3 N10 0 - N200
ez.
spe

CuSn8P = 7;; = 0;; = 0


s

vc = 200 m/min CuZn37MnAl2PbSi r = 93; r = 55;


500 vc = 400 m/min r = 0,4 mm; ap = 1 mm

16MnCr5+N P10
01
0,1 0,2
0 2 0 4 0,6
0,4 06 10
1,0 20
2,0 = 5;
5 ; = 6 ;; s = 0
Spanungsdicke h / mm
Undeformed chip thickness r = 70;
70 ; r = 90;
90 ;
r = 0
0,8
8 mm; ap = 3 mm

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 3


Fig. 2: Comparison of the specific cutting force of three copper alloys with a case-hardened steel based on data from DKI and from reference [4]

slightly below that of pure copper, but ting tool materials makes it difficult and recommendations provided in this
the presence of the alloying elements for todays manufacturers to provide handbook can help machine operators
means that they can be processed on recommended cutting parameters or to find the optimal machining parame-
automatic screw machines or other benchmarks that remain valid for a ters for a specific machining task. If only
high-speed machine tools. longer period of time. If supplement- low-volume production is required,
ed and/or verified by cutting tests the reference values provided in the
The continuous improvements being conducted under realistic machining handbook should be sufficient to yield
made to both workpiece and cut- conditions, the guideline parameters a satisfactory machining result.

4 | DKI Monograph i.18


2 Fundamental principles

In this section explainations are given


on the basic terminology of metal Direction of primary
cutting relating to cutting tool geo- Tool holder
Werkzeughalter Schnittrichtung
motion
metry, tool wear and chip formation,
using a standard turning tool (single-
point cutting tool) for illustrative pur-
poses. The terminology applies equally
to any other machining procedure
that uses a tool with a defined cutting Direction of feed
Vorschubrichtung
motion
edge. Being acquainted with the basic Rakefl
S face
Spanflche
h A Major cutting edge
Hauptschneide S S
terminology is fundamental to under-
standing the machining properties of Minor cutting Hauptfreiflche
p flank face
Major A A
copper and copper alloys. edge S S
Nebenschneide
Corner
Schneidenecke
2.1 Tool geometry and how it Minor
N bflank
faceh AA
Nebenfreiflche
f ifl
influences the cutting process
Fig. 3: Face, flanks, cutting edges and corner of a turning tool (DIN 6581)
The fundamental terminology of metal
cutting technology has been standard-
ized in DIN 6580, DIN 6581, DIN 6583 and lative orientation of these surfaces to one The tool-in-use system is defined in
DIN 6584 standards. The surfaces and another determines the tool angles. relation to the relative speeds of the
cutting edges of a single-point cutting cutting tool and the workpiece during
tool are shown in Fig. 3. To explain the terms and angles used the machining operation. The working
to describe a cutting tool, it is useful to reference plane Pre passes through a
distinguish between the so-called tool- selected point on the cutting edge and
2.1.1 Tool geometry in-hand system and the tool-in-use is perpendicular to the resultant cutting
As Fig. 3 shows, the cutting part of a system (see Fig. 4). The two systems are direction. The orientation of the resultant
bb. 4 ((a)) Wirk- und ((b)) Werkzeug-Bezugsystem
g g y
turning tool comprises the rake face and
the major and minor flank faces. The re-
((nach DIN 6581))
based on different sets of orthogonal
reference planes.
cutting direction is given by the resultant
of the cutting and feed speed vectors.

Resultant cutting
Wirkrichtung
direction Direction of primary angenommene
Assumed direction of
Schnittrichtung
motion Schnittrichtung
primary motion
ve vc
Wirk- cutting Wi k
Wirk- Werkzeug
Werkzeug-
Working Working Tool cutting edge
Schneidenebene Orthogonal-
g Schneidenebene
edge plane Pse orthogonal plane Ps
Pse ebene Ps
plane Poe
Poe
angenommen
Assumed e
direction
Vorschub-
Direction of feed Vorschubrichtung
of feed motion Werkzeug-
W
Tool korthogonal
richtung
motion Orthogonalebene
plane Po
vf betrachteter
Selected point on Po
Schneidenpunkt
cutting edge

Auflageebene
Tool base A Tool
Auflageebene
fl base
b
W k
Werkzeug-Bezugsebene
B b
Wirk-Bezugsebene
Working reference senkrecht
Tool zur
reference angenommenen
g perpendicular
plane
senkrecht
plane zur
perpendicular toSchnittrichtung
assumed direction
undofparallel
primary
Wirkrichtung
to resultant cutting motionA and
fl parallel
zur Auflageebene
b to tool base Pr
a Pre
direction Pre b Pr

Fig. 4: (a) Tool-in-use reference system (b) Tool-in-hand reference system (DIN 6581)

DKI Monograph i.18 |5


In the tool-in-hand system, the tool The sum of these three angles is cutting tools with a geometrically
reference plane Pr is parallel to the tool always 90: defined cutting edge.
base. The tool cutting edge plane Ps
is tangential to the cutting edge and o + o + o = 90 (1)
perpendicular to the tool reference plane 2.1.2 Effect of tool geometry on the
Pr. The geometry of the cutting tool is The tool cutting edge angle r is the cutting process
measured in the tool orthogonal plane angle between the assumed direction The choice of cutting angles has a
Po. This plane passes through the select- of feed motion and the tool cutting major effect on the results of a ma-
ed point on the cutting edge perpendic- edge plane Ps measured in the tool chining operation and on the tool life.
ular to both the tool reference plane Pr reference plane Pr. The greater the emphasis on achieving
and tool cutting edge plane Ps. cost-effective material processing, the
The tool included angle r is the greater the importance of determining
In the tool-in-hand system, the angles angle between the tool cutting edge an optimal tool geometry. The stability
of the wedge-shaped cutting tool are plane Ps and the tool minor cutting and therefore the life of the cutting
defined as follows (see Fig. 5): edge plane Ps' measured in the tool tool can be raised by selecting ap-
reference plane Pr. propriate cutting angles and by using
The tool orthogonal clearance o chamfered and rounded cutting edges.
is the angle between the flank A and The tool cutting edge inclination r Optimizing the geometry of a cutting
the tool cutting edge plane Ps mea- is the angle between the major cutting tool always means taking into account
sured in the tool orthogonal plane Po. edge S and the tool reference plane the specific requirements of the ma-
Pr measured in the tool cutting edge chining operation to be performed and
The tool orthogonal wedge angle plane Ps. the machining conditions to be used.
o is the angle between the flank A
We have chosen here to describe the
and the face A measured in the tool It is also important to remember that
orthogonal plane Po. terminology and tool angles using a the effect of modifying tool angles is
single-point cutting tool, specifically a two-fold. Changing the tool angles
The tool orthogonal rake o is the turning tool, as it permits the clearest to strengthen the tool impairs chip
angle between the face A and the tool illustration of the different quantities. formation and increases the cutting
reference plane Pr, measured in the In principle, however, the definitions forces and the extent of tool wear.
Abb.5tool
Wichtigste Winkel
orthogonal plane Po. am Schneidteil
provided here can(nach DINto6581)
be applied all Conversely, changing the tool angles to

Section A A
Schnitt A inAthe A A
Z
plane
in PPo o A

A A
- r
r
+

-
+

Ansicht
View along Z
Z in the o = O th orthogonal
Orthogonalfreiwinkel
Tool lf i iclearance
k l
planeinPsPs o = Orthogonalspanwinkel
Tool orthogonal rake
o = Orthogonalkeilwinkel
Tool g
orthogonal wedge angle
r = Einstellwinkel
Tool cutting edge angle
r = E k included
Eckenwinkel
Tool i k l angle
s = Neigungswinkel
Tool cutting edge inclination
A = Freiflche
Flank
A = Spanflche
Face
s Pr = Werkzeug
Werkzeug-Bezugsebene
Tool Bezugsebene
reference plane
- Po = Werkzeug-Orthogonalebene
Werkzeug
Tool Orthogonalebene
orthogonal plane
+ Ps = Werkzeug-Schneidenebene
Tool cutting edge plane

Fig. 5: The most important tool angles (DIN 6581)


WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 6

6 | DKI Monograph i.18


improve chip formation results in a de- to improve chip formation and chip the clearance can be increased. As the
crease in tool strength and hence tool removal. clearance angle increases, heat can
life. Any choice of tool angles therefore build up in the tool tip thus increasing
represents a compromise that can only When machining copper materials with the risk of material break-out at the
partially meet the different machining a high-speed steel cutting tool, the tip. The bending moment resistance
requirements. It is important that this clearance is typically between 6 and of the tip also decreases strongly with
is understood when using the tables of 8; if a cemented carbide cutting tool increasing clearance angle.
recommended tool geometry parame- is used, the clearance lies in the range
ters included in this handbook. The 8 to 10. Large clearances tend to Of all the tool angles, the tool rake 0
recommended tool geometry will also reduce flank wear and make it easier has the greatest significance. The ma-
need to be modified based on prac- for the wedge-shaped cutting tool gnitude of the deformation energy and
tical operating experience whenever to penetrate the workpiece materi- cutting energy dissipated during chip
other factors have to be taken into al. For a given constant value of the formation depends on the tool rake.
account. In such cases, it is important flank wear land VB, small increases in
to know how a specific change in a the clearance angle will lengthen the When machining copper materials, the
cutting angle will affect the machining service life of the cutting edge due to tool rake typically lies within the broad
parameters. In view of the consid- the increased wear volume. Removing range 0 to 25. When machining with
erable progress that has been made a larger wear volume requires a longer a cemented carbide tool, the largest
in the field of cutting tool materials, period of time so that the tool life in- rake angles are chosen for the softest
modifying tool geometry in order to creases accordingly. However, a larger materials with the lowest cutting forces
ingriffsverhltnisse
g beim Lngs-Runddrehen
g
reduce tool wear is not so important
today as it once was. The predomi-
((nach DIN 6580))
clearance angle also means a weaker
tool cutting tip and this therefore
(pure copper, CuZn10) as these are the
only materials that do not result in
nant reason for altering tool angles is places a limit on the extent to which overloading of the cutting edge.

DirectionSchnittbewegung
of primary motion /
(Werkstck)
cutting direction (workpiece)

ap r: Tool
Einstellwinkel
ste e angle
cutting edge

ap: Depth
Schnitttiefe
of cut
b
f: Feed
Vorschub
(here: distance travelled per revolution)

r h b: Undeformed
Spanungsbreite
chip width

ap h Undeformed
h: S
Spanungsdicke
dichip
k thickness
b=
sin r a p f = bh : Spanungsquerschnitt
Area of uncut chip

h = f sin r
Vorschubbewegung
Direction g g
of feed motion
(Werkzeug)
(tool)

Fig. 6: Geometry of tool engagement during cylindrical turning (oblique cutting con-figuration) (DIN 6580)

DKI Monograph i.18 |7


The larger the tool rake, the lower the chining copper-based materials, the copper alloys. In the case of work ma-
deformation and cutting energy and smallest tool rakes are used for high- terials that are liable to smear, such as
thus the lower the pressure exerted on strength copper alloys. Strong cutting soft copper or gunmetal, a tool cutting
the cutting edge. The cutting forces are tools enable the workpiece to undergo edge angle of r = 90 is preferred. On
reduced accordingly and the tempera- high-speed turning. The disadvantage the other hand, if the depth of cut is
ture of the cutting edge decreases. The is that as the rake angle is reduced, held constant, a reduction in the tool
chip compression ratio is reduced and the cutting forces increase therefore cutting edge angle results in an increa-
the quality of the machined surface raising the required machine power. se in the undeformed chip width b as
improves accordingly. Large rake angles the stress is distributed over a longer
facilitate chip flow when machining For a fixed depth of cut ap and a fixed portion of the cutting edge. The tool
ductile copper materials, but they also tool feed f, the undeformed chip width life rises accordingly and this permits
facilitate the formation of ribbon chips b and the undeformed chip thickness a slight increase in the cutting speeds.
and tangled chips. h depend on the tool cutting edge The machining parameters listed in the
angle r (Fig. 6). If the tool cutting tables apply to large tool cutting edge
The rake angle must be reduced if edge angle is too small (or equally if angles from about 70 to 90.
the specific cutting force is increased, the tools nose radius is too large), the
or if the undeformed (i.e. uncut) passive forces will be greater, which The tool cutting edge inclination s
chip thickness is increased, or if the facilitates deformation and chattering (Fig. 5, Fig. 7) offers a simple means of
transverse rupture strength of the tool if the work material being machined is stabilizing the cutting edge if the cut is
material is lowered. This improves the weak. A large tool cutting edge angle interrupted, and of influencing chip
stability of the cutting tool and reduces r in the range 70 to 95 is typically flow. If the angle of inclination of the
the risk of tool breakage. When ma- chosen when machining copper and tool cutting edge is negative, the first

Einfluss der Schneidengeometrie


g auf den Zerspansvorgang
p g g
Sharp Scharfkantig
cutting edge (tool tip) steigende tool
increasing
Section
Schnitt A AA
geringere
> reduced i tool stability
S
Schneidenstabilitt
h id t bilitt S h id
Schneidenstabilitt
stability t bilitt
A in
inthe
Po plane Po
kleine
> small Spanungsdicken
p
undeformed gchip thickness

oo == 0
0 bis
bi 25
to 25
b
bessere Oberflche
Ob fl h
improved surface quality
verminderte Schnittkrfte
lower cutting forces
abnehmender Verschlei
oo ==6
6 bis
to 10
10 less wear chip
mit F
Tool with ase
bevelled cutting edge gegebenenfalls
b f ll schlechtere
hl ht
forms may be worse
erhhte
> greater Schneidenstabilitt
tool stability Spanformen
p
steigende
increasing
groe
> larger Spanungsdicken
undeformed chip thickness abnehmender
less wear
Schneiden-
tool
stabilitt Verschlei
stability

abnehmender
less wear
steigende
r betterflsurface quality Ansicht
View alongZ Z in the
Verschlei r Ob
Oberflchenqualitt
h litt
in PPss
plane
vermindertes
less chatter Rattern
sinkende
i k d Passivkrfte
decreasingPpassive
i k f
forces
vermindertes
less chatter Rattern
sinkende Passivkrfte
decreasing passive forces
gelenkter
guided chip flow
S
Spanablauf
bl f
s
grere Passivkrfte
larger passive forces
steigende
increasing tool stability
Schneidteilstabilitt

nhofer IPTFig. 7: Effect of tool geometry on the cutting process

8 | DKI Monograph i.18


point of contact between the work- the cutting edge corner to withstand is too small, the corner of the cutting
piece and the tool occurs above the stresses. The smaller the tool included edge will suffer premature damage.
tool tip thus protecting the tip, which angle, the lower the mechanical load- Small corner radii are consequently
is the most vulnerable part of the tool. ing that can be sustained by the cut- reserved for fine machining work. If
As high impact loading of the cut- ting edge. In addition, heat generated the selected nose radius is too large,
ting edge is unlikely when machining during machining is less well conduct- there is a tendency for the tools minor
copper materials, s is often set to 0, ed away from the cutting edge corner cutting edge to scrape against surface
particularly when only light machining so that the tool is exposed to greater of the workpiece creating notch wear
of the workpiece is required. A nega- thermal stress. The tool included angle on the flank of the minor cutting edge
tive tool cutting edge inclination is pre- should be as large as possible. For (see Fig. 8) that has a detrimental
ferred for rough machining work and most machining operations on copper affect on the quality of the machined
for interrupted cuts in high-strength materials r is chosen to be 90. How- workpiece surface. The optimal value
copper alloys. A positive angle of ever, when machining a right-angled of the nose radius r depends on the
inclination improves chip flow across corner in the workpiece, a tool includ- undeformed chip thickness h and thus
the tool face and is therefore preferred ed angle of less than 90 is required. on the feed displacement f. The nose
when machining materials such as In many cases a compromise has to be radius r should generally be between
pure copper that show a propensity to found between the tool cutting edge 1.2 and 2 times the feed f; for copper
adhere to the working surfaces or to angle and the tool included angle. r should be chosen to be less than
undergo strain hardening. 1.5f. For soft copper materials, such as
The size of the nose radius (also Cu-DHP, the machined surface quali-
The tool included angle r (Fig. 5 / Fig. known as the tool corner radius) r ty is strongly dependent on the nose
7) is the angle between the major and (Fig. 5 / Fig. 7) should be selected for radius r. When machining very ductile
minor cutting edges. The size of r has the particular machining operation materials, a small nose radius can
a significant effect on the capacity of to be performed. If the nose radius improve cutting in the region of the

Flank wear land VB


Verschleimarkenbreite VB

KB:
KB: crater width
Kolkbreite
V

BN
VB
SV

KM: 
KM: dKolkmittenabstand
istance of centre of crater
max.

VBB
BC

r
VB

KT: from tool edge


VBB m

Kolktiefe b/4
KT: maximum crater depth
SV: Schneidenversatz in
SV: FRichtung
lank-sideFreiflche
displacement of C B A N
SV:cutting edge
Schneidenversatz in
Richtung Spanflche
SV: Face-side displacement of b Verschleikerbe
Notch wear on major
an der
d
cutting edge cutting edge
Hauptschneide
Schnitt
SectionA-A
AA Verschleikerben
Notch an der
wear on minor Nebenschneide
cutting edge

Kolk
Crater

A
EbenePPs
Plane s
Nach:
(ISO ISO 3685:93
3685)

Fig. 8: Types of wear and wear parameters on turning tools (ISO 3685)

DKI Monograph i.18 |9


minor cutting edge. This is because the 2.2 Tool wear primarily the wear on the tools flank
larger minimum thickness of cut means During the machining process, wear and face that are used as the criteria
that the material can be cut more marks will appear on the tool. The for assessing tool life. The wear that
easily and does not therefore tend extent of tool wear will depend on the develops on the tools flank is known as
to smear so much. This reduces the stresses to which the tool is subject- flank wear land (VB). A tool is deemed
roughness and improves the quality of ed. Wear marks appear on the major to be worn and therefore at the end of
the cut surface. As a rule, if the feed and minor flanks of the cutting tool its useful service life if the flank wear
is held constant, a larger nose radius where it is contact with the workpiece, land VB has reached a specified width
will lead to the formation of shal- and on the tool face where it is in (Fig. 8). The width of the permissible
lower and less pronounced feed marks contact with the chip being removed. flank wear land depends on the specific
on the workpiece. The kinematic As a rule, the greater the amount of workpiece requirements.
roughness is reduced and the quality wear, the greater the mechanical and A large flank wear land VB results in
of the workpiece surface, expressed by thermal stress experienced by the tool. a large face-side displacement of the
the two surface parameters Ra and Rz, Tempering in the tool material, which cutting edge SV causing dimensional
is improved. This effect is used in tools occurs in tool steel at about 300 C and inaccuracies. Furthermore, the greater
with so-called wiper geometry. A wiper in high-speed steel at around 600 C, area of frictional contact between the
nose radius insert features additional causes a loss in tool hardness and can tool and the workpiece results in a de-
larger radii that are located along result in the sudden tool failure as a terioration in the quality of the work-
the minor cutting edge behind the result of so-called bright braking. piece surface and an increase in cut-
tool nose. Compared to inserts with a In the case of tool inserts made of ting temperature. When machining on
conventional nose radius, wiper inserts cemented carbide, which at 1000C still an automatic lathe, the maximum per-
can produce an improved surface finish exhibits the same hardness that high- missible width of the flank wear land
with the same feed, or the same sur- speed steel does at room temperature, is 0.2 mm if cemented carbide tools are
face quality at higher feeds [5]. the wear is predominantly abrasive in used, for rough machining the width
nature. In practical applications, it is of the flank wear land should not ex-

Struktur in
Structuring imworkpiece
Werkstck

vc Scher-
Scher
Shear
plane
ebene
Struktur
Structuring
im Span
within chip
5
1
3

2
4
Freiflche
Flank
Spanflche
Face

Cut surface of
W k
Werkzeug
Tool
Schnittflche
Sc tt c e
workpiece
Drehmeiel
Turning tool
1 Primary
1. primre Scherzone
shear zone
2 Secondary
2. sekundre Scherzone
shear zone on theantool
derrake
Spanflche
face
3 Ssekundre
3. Scherzone
econdary shear zone at thean der Stau-
stagnation andund Trennzone
separation zone Werkstoff:
Material: Cu-ETP Cu-ETP
S h ittspeed: h i di vkc =it80vm/min
Cutting
Schnittgeschwindigkeit:
4 Secondary
sekundre
k d shearS
Scherzone
hzone on the
anflank
d
der face
F
Freiflche
ifl h c = 80 m/min
/ i
4.
5.
5 Elastic-plastic
V f deformation
Verformungsvorlaufzone
l f zone Feed
V per h revolution:
Vorschub: b f = 0,02f =
mm 0,02
0 02 mm

Fig. 9: Material deformation zones during chip formation (Source: [6])

10 | DKI Monograph i.18


ceed a value between 0.4 and 0.6 mm, The details of chip formation process zones (see Fig. 9). These shear stresses
depending on the diameter of the part can be most readily seen using the or- cause plastic deformation in the sec-
being made, the specified tolerances thogonal cutting model. In the ortho- ondary shear zones thereby compress-
and the required surface quality (Fig. gonal model, chip formation is consid- ing the chip. The result of this defor-
8). Wear land widths of 1 mm or more ered to occur as a two-dimensional mation is that the thickness of the chip
can arise during heavy roughing work process in a plane perpendicular to the after separation hch is greater than the
involving feeds rates of 1.0 to 1.8 mm/ cutting edge, as depicted photograph- original thickness of cut h (= thick-
rev and cutting depths of 1020 mm. ically and schematically in Fig. 9. ness of the undeformed chip), and the
The wear on the tools rake face (Fig. 8) width of the chip bch is greater than
is generally less significant than the During the machining process, the cut- the original width of cut b (= width of
wear on the flank and is expressed in ting tool penetrates the work material, the undeformed chip):
terms of the crater ratio K = KT/KM. K which deforms first elastically and then
is a measure of the weakening of the plastically. As soon as the shear stress
cutting tool as a result of cratering on induced by the tool reaches or exceeds
the rake face and should never signif- the shear strength of the work material Chip thickness
icantly exceed a value K = 0.1. in the shear zone, the material begins compression: (2)
to flow. Depending on the tool geome-
try used, the deformed work material Chip width
bch
> 1 (3)
anarten in Abhngigkeit
gg
2.3 Chip formation
von den Werkstoffeigenschaften
Chip formation and effective chip g [VI
[ forms a chip that flows across the face
of the cutting tool.
compression:
b
removal are important in those cutting
techniques in which the cutting zone Friction between the contact planes of
is spatially limited, such as drilling, the tool and the underside of the chip Four main types of chip can be formed:
reaming, milling and all turning oper- or the new workpiece surface creates continuous chips, continuous segment-
ations on automatic lathes. shear stresses in the secondary shear ed chips, semi-continuous segmented

(2) Continuous segmented (3) Semi-continuous segmented


(1) Fliespan
1 Continuous chip Lamellenspan
2(or serrated) chip Scherspan
3(or serrated) chip

elastischer
elastic zone
Lamellen-,ofScher
Lamellen
Formation und
segmen- Fliespan
Fliespan-
Formation of con- plastischer
plastic zone
Reispanbereich
ted or discontinuous bereich
Reispan
(4)4Discontinuous chip tinuous chips Fliebereich
chips
flow zone
eit
strength
tigke

1
B
rfest
S Shear

2 E Z
Sche

3
4

0
Verformungsgrad
V f of deformation
Degree d in the
Verformungsgrad
Degree of deformation inshear
der plane
Scherebene

Fig. 10: Influence of mechanical properties of workpiece material on type of chip formed (Source: [7])

DKI Monograph i.18 | 11


chips and discontinuous chips of chip sections that were completely built-up edge may periodically break
(see Fig. 10). separated in the shear zone. This type off and become deposited between
of chip forms when the degree of the tool flank and the surface of the
Continuous chips form when the mate- deformation in the shear zone exceeds workpiece, or may become dislodged
rial being cut flows away continuously the materials ductility. This applies with the chip. As a result the quality
from the machining point. The regions not only to brittle materials, but also of the workpiece surface deteriorates,
of deformed material undergo lamel- to materials in which the deformation tool wear increases, the dimensional
lar sliding but without exceeding the induces brittleness in the microstruct- accuracy of the machined workpiece
shear strength of the material. ure. Semi-continuous segmented worsens and the relative percentage of
chips can also form at extremely low dynamic cutting forces rises.
If the work material being machined is cutting speeds. Discontinuous chips
of sufficient ductility, the chip formed typically form when brittle materials The occurrence of built-up edges is
will usually be continuous in form, with an inhomogeneous microstructure temperature dependent. When copper
provided that the cutting process is not are machined. These chips are not cut and materials with a high copper
impaired by the influence of external but rather torn from the surface of the content are machined, BUE formation
vibrations. work material, with the result that the always occurs in a specific range of
workpiece surface is frequently damag- the cutting speed vc and the thickness
If the workpiece material is of lower ed by these small chip fragments. of cut h. BUE formation also depends
ductility, if it has an inhomogeneous on the tools angle of rake. To avoid
microstructure or if it is subjected to Machining highly ductile materials, the formation of a built-up edge,
external vibrations, machining will such as Cu-ETP or Cu-DHP, at low the machine operator can select a
result in the formation of continuous cutting speeds can lead to the forma- greater thickness of cut h, can raise the
segmented (or serrated) chips. tion of a so-called built-up edge (BUE) cutting speed vc and/or can increase
Compared with continuous chips, the on the tools cutting edge and rake the rake angle . If that is not possi-
upper surface of the chip in this case face. A built-up edge is made up of ble, vc should be reduced to below the
exhibits a pronounced sawtooth-like strain-hardened layers of the work- lower limit for BUE formation (e.g. in
structure. Continuous segmented (or piece material that adhere around the reaming, tapping). In the latter case,
serrated) chips can form at high feed cutting edge, giving the cutting edge it is important to reduce friction at the
rates and at high cutting speeds. an irregular shape and preventing the cutting interface by achieving the best
chip from coming into direct contact possible cooling lubrication of the tool.
Semi-continuous segmented (or serrat- with the tool. Depending on the spe-
ed) chips, on the other hand, consist cific cutting conditions employed, the

12 | DKI Monograph i.18


3 Machinability

There is no unique or unambiguous cutting zone than short spiral chips, formation. The emphasis in finishing
definition of the term machinability. chip curls or discontinuous chips. work, in contrast, is primarily on the
It can be understood as summarizing These longer chips can form tangled quality of the final surface, with chip
those properties of a material that balls within the machine, resulting shape and chip formation playing a
determine the ease or difficulty with in the interruption of the machining secondary role. However, when ma-
which that material can be machined process and damage to the workpiece chining on an automatic lathe, chip
by various machining operations or and tool. They are also a safety hazard shape and chip formation may be the
techniques. The machinability of a to the machine operator. In most sole criterion used to assess the ma-
material can vary very strongly de- cases, ribbon chips and tangled chips chinability of a workpiece material.
pending on the geometry and material have to be removed manually from
of the cutting tool, the machine tool the workpiece or cutting tool, which
and machining technique used and introduces machine downtimes thus 3.1 Tool life
the machining conditions. The main lowering productivity. As ribbon and The tool life T is defined as the time
goal of any machining operation is the continuous chips have a tendency to in minutes during which a cutting
fabrication of a workpiece of the de- form snarled and tangled balls, their tool performs a machining operation
sired geometry. In view of the complex formation should, wherever possible, under specified cutting conditions
relationships between the numerous be avoided. But fine needle-like chips from the start of the cut to the point at
factors involved, it is not possible to can also cause problems as they can which the tool has become unusable
assess machining operations in terms block cutting fluid filters or get under by reaching a predetermined tool-life
of one single standardized machining the machine housing where they can criterion.
criterion. cause increased wear.
The tool life depends on numerous
We will assess the machinability of The forces generated in metal cut- factors, including:
copper and copper alloys in terms of ting operations determine the power
the following four machining crite- requirements and the structural the material to be machined,
ria: tool wear; chip formation; cutting rigidity of the machine tool. They have
forces and surface quality. Although a considerable influence on tool wear the tool material,
these four quantities are mutually and therefore on tool life. Generally
interdependent, the additional influ- speaking, the harder a material is to the cutting speed, the feed and the
ence of factors such as the condition machine, the greater the forces that depth of cut,
of the workpiece material, the cutting have to be applied. Cutting forces
operation, the specifics of the machine tend to decrease in magnitude with the cutting tool geometry,
tool and cutting tool used and the role increasing cutting speed, because at
of lubricants and cooling fluids, means higher cutting speeds, the cutting the quality of the cutting edge
that it is not possible to create a single temperature is greater, which in turn (tool finish),
unambiguous machinability criterion. results in a reduction in material
strength (so-called thermal softening). the vibrations and motional ac-
Tool wear is understood to mean The cutting force components increase curacy of the workpiece, tool and
the progressive loss of material from proportionally with increasing depth of machining equipment,
the surface of the cutting tool. The cut and also increase with feed though
processes that cause tool wear during the rate of increase is less pronounced the tool-life criterion, i.e. the
machining are abrasion, adhesion, at higher feeds. threshold value of tool wear, typi-
scale from high-temperature oxida- cally expressed as the width of the
tion, diffusion, thermal and mechanical High dimensional accuracy and good flank wear land VB.
stresses and surface fatigue. surface quality are frequently required
when machining copper and copper The cutting speed has the strongest in-
Chip formation and chip shape play an alloys. The resulting quality of the fluence on tool wear. The effect of feed
extremely significant role in determin- machined workpiece surface (rough- on tool wear and thus on tool life is
ing efficient chip removal, process ness) is very often the most important also significant. The depth of cut also
safety and high productivity. This is machining criterion. influences tool wear, but the effect is
particularly true for those machining very minor in comparison.
operations in which the cutting zone The relative weighting of the four main
is of limited size. This is the case for machinability criteria mentioned above The dependence of the tool life on
machining techniques with restricted will depend on the goal of the particu- cutting speed can be represented in a
chip flow, e.g. drilling, tapping, plunge lar machining operation being used. tool-life graph. The tool-life graph is a
cutting, broaching, grooving and all For example, in rough machining work, log-log plot with cutting speed data vc
cutting and shaping operations on CNC the machinability criterion of greatest (in m/min) plotted on the abscissa and
machines. Long ribbon and tubular relevance is tool wear, followed by the corresponding tool life T (in min)
chips are harder to remove from the cutting forces, chip shape and chip plotted on the ordinate (see Fig. 11).

DKI Monograph i.18 | 13


unterBercksichtigung
unter Bercksichtigungder
derdoppeltlogarithmischen
doppeltlogarithmischenDarstellung
Darstellungwie
wiefolgt
folgtdarstellt:
darstellt:

logT==logC
logT logCv v++kk logv
logvc c (5)
(5)

Nachdem
Nach demEntlogarithmieren
Entlogarithmierenergibt
ergibtsich
sichdann
danndie
diesog.
sog."Taylor-Gleichung
"Taylor-Gleichung

panbarkeit
panbarkeit k 17
17
TT==vvc c  CCv v
k (6)
(6)
11.
11. Die
Die sich
sich ergebende Kurve lsst sich ber einen groen Bereich durch
As canergebende
Darin
be seen
Darin Kurve
bedeuten:
in bedeuten:
Fig. lsst
11, the sich
T:die
resulting
T: ber
die einen
Standzeit
k: groen
ininof
Gradient
Standzeit theBereich
min
min durch
straight line in the life curve, is of particular relevance to
.sogenannte Standzeit-Gerade oder Taylor-Geradetool-life annhern,
plot (k = tan die sich
curve can
.sogenannte be approximated over
Standzeit-Gerade odera vlarge
Taylor-Gerade
vc:c:die annhern,
dieSchnittgeschwindigkeit
Schnittgeschwindigkeitininm/min )
die m/min practical applications as it expresses
sich
part of the plot as a straight line with
rr Geradengleichung how the tool life T varies as a function
Geradengleichung k:diedieSteigung
Steigung der Geraden imStandzeitdiagramm
Standzeitdiagramm (k(kspeed
==tan
tanv)
)
the standard straight line equationk: Cv: Tool life
der T Geraden
for unit cutting
im speed of the cutting c. The steeper
(vc = 1 m/min.) the gradient of the tool life plot, i.e.
yy = CCv:v:die
dieStandzeit
Standzeit TTfr
frvvcc==11m/min.
m/min.
=mm  xx +
+ nn (4)
(4)
(4) the smaller the angle of inclination
The Taylor equation can be rearranged , the greater the dependence of tool
As the plotDurch
is a log-log
Durch representation,
Umstellen der to yield:
Taylor-Gleichung
UmstellenDarstellung
der Taylor-Gleichung ergibtsich
ergibt sich life on cutting speed. At low cutting
gung der
gung der this
doppeltlogarithmischen
equations becomes:
doppeltlogarithmischen wie folgt
Darstellung wie folgt darstellt:
darstellt: speeds, the relationship between log
1 1
vv c==TTk k CCT (6a)
c T
and log vc is no longer linear due to
T(6a)
(6a)
(5) built-up edge formation at the cutting
logT =
logT = logC
logC v +
dabei
dabei
kk  logv
v +ist
ist logv cc (5)
(5)
where tool edge.
Taking the antilogarithms to transform 11

back
rithmieren to thesich
ergibt original
dann variables
die generates CCTT ==CC k   (7)
k While
(7) the Taylor equation is completely
rithmieren ergibt sich dann die sog.
sog. "Taylor-Gleichung
"Taylor-Gleichung (7)
the so-called Taylor equation: adequate for most practical appli-
CTT, , CCvv und
undkk sind CT, Cv and kGren
sindkennzeichnende
kennzeichnende are quantities that charac-
der Schnittbedingungen,cations, this
Schnittbedingungen, simple-to-use
diesich
sich mit demtool-life
mit dem Werk-
k C Gren der die Werk-
k
T = v C
T = v cc  Cstoff, (6) terize
(6)
(6) the cutting conditions and that relationship does not have general va-
-Schnittgeschwindigkeits-Diagramm
S im doppeltlogarithmischen
v
v
stoff, dem Schneidstoff,
dem Schneidstoff, derder Schneidkeilgeometrie,
varySchneidkeilgeometrie,
depending on the work material, dem Spanungsquerschnitt
dem Spanungsquerschnitt und dessen
und
lidity. For example, milling dessen
operations
T: where: Aufteilung
Aufteilung inin Vorschub
Vorschub und the
und cutting tool geometry
Schnitttiefe and the
usw. ndern
ndern (nach VDI tend
VDI to exhibit3321).
Richtlinie tool-life
3321). Derrelationships
Der Expo-
T: diedie Standzeit in
in min Schnitttiefe usw. (nach Richtlinie Expo-
eit bzw. Taylor-Geraden
y
Standzeit min
T: Tool life in minutes area of the undeformed (i.e. uncut) that cannot usually be approximated
vvcc:: die nentk,k,das dasMaMa derSteigung
Steigungder derGeraden,
Geraden,ist istbesonders
besonderswichtig
wichtigfr
frdie
diePraxis.
Praxis.Er Er drckt die
die Schnittgeschwindigkeit
nent
Schnittgeschwindigkeit in m/min
in der
m/min chip, which is itself determined by by the Taylor expression.drckt die
vc: Cutting Vernderungen
speed in metres der Standzeit
Standzeit inin Abhngigkeit
Abhngigkeit von der Schnittgeschwindigkeit vvcc aus. aus. JeJe
k:
k: die
die Steigung
Steigung der Geraden
Vernderungen
der Geraden im per
im the chosen
Standzeitdiagramm
der
Standzeitdiagramm feed
(k
(k = and
= tan depth
tan )
) von of cut
der(cf.Schnittgeschwindigkeit
minute grer die VDI Guideline 3321). The exponent k, To deal with these cases, so-called
Cvv:: die
C die Standzeit
Standzeit grer
T
T frfr vvdie
c = 1Neigung
Neigung
m/min.der
c = 1 m/min.
der Geraden
Geradenist, ist, also
alsojejekleiner
kleinerder
which determines the slope of the tool
der Neigungswinkel
Neigungswinkelist, ist, desto
desto mehr
mehrver-
extended Taylor equations have been
ver-
ndert sich
ndert sich diedie Standzeit
Standzeit mit
mit der
der Schnittgeschwindigkeit.
Schnittgeschwindigkeit. Bei Bei niedrigen
niedrigenthat
developed Schnittgeschwindig-
take into account other
Schnittgeschwindig-
keiten wird der geradlinige Verlauf der Standzeitbeziehung variables gestrt,
dadurch that can influence
dass sich toolAuf-
sich life.
er
er Taylor-Gleichung
Taylor-Gleichung keitenergibt
ergibtwird sich
sichder geradlinige Verlauf der Standzeitbeziehung dadurch gestrt, dass Auf-
One example is the extended Taylor
1 100
bauschneiden
1 bauschneiden anander
derWerkzeugschneide
Werkzeugschneidebilden. bilden. equation that has been modified to
=T
vv cc = T kk  C
CT (6a)
(6a)
T account for the effects of feed and
3 Der Begriff
Fr die Belange der Praxis ist die einfache Taylor-Gleichung meist Zerspanbarkeit depth of cut: ausreichend. Diese
vllig
Fr die Belange der Praxis ist die einfache Taylor-Gleichung meist vllig ausreichend. Diese

1
recht einfach
 1recht
k
einfach zu
zu handhabende
handhabende Standzeitbeziehung
Standzeitbeziehung besitzt
besitzt allerdings
allerdings keine
keine allgemeine
allgemeine Gl-
Gl-
CTT =
C =C k
C tigkeit.
tigkeit. So werden
werden z.B.
z.B. beim
beim
(7)
(7) Frsen Standzeitbeziehungen gefunden, C
T = c a die
diec fsich 1
sich nur (8)
nur in (8)
in Aus-
Aus-
So Frsen Standzeitbeziehungen gefunden,
a p  f  v k c
kennzeichnende nahmefllen
Gren
kennzeichnende nahmefllen
Gren der mitTaylor
mit Taylorannhern
annhern
der Schnittbedingungen,
Schnittbedingungen, dielassen.
sich
sich mit
lassen.
die mit dem
dem Werk-
Werk-
dstoff, der Schneidkeilgeometrie, dem Spanungsquerschnitt und dessen where:
dstoff, der Schneidkeilgeometrie, dem Spanungsquerschnitt Mit: und dessen
T Werkzeugstandzeit in min
/[min]
min

T weitere
Tool lifedie
in minutes
k = tan
eitT T[min]

chub und Es
Schnitttiefe
Es gibt
usw.
gibt daher
daher noch
ndern
noch die
(nach
die sog.
VDI
sog. erweiterten
Richtlinie
erweiterten Taylor-Gleichungen,
3321). Der Expo-
Taylor-Gleichungen, die
die weitere die Standzeit
Standzeit eines
eines
m

chub und Schnitttiefe usw. ndern (nach VDI Richtlinie 3321). Der Expo- v c Schnittgeschwindigkeit in m/min
er Werkzeuges beeinflussende GrenPraxis.bercksichtigen. f EinEin Beispiel
Vorschub hierfr
(pro ist in
die
Umdrehung denper)Vor-
in mm
er Steigung
Steigung der
der Geraden,
Werkzeuges
Geraden, ist
ist besonders
besonders wichtig
beeinflussende fr
fr die
wichtig Gren Er
Er drckt
drckt die
bercksichtigen.
die Praxis. die Beispiel hierfr
vc Cutting ist
speed die den
metres Vor-
10
schubund unddie
die Schnitttiefe enthaltendeerweiterte
erweiterte a Schnitttiefe
Taylor-Gleichung
p minute in mm
er
er Standzeit
Standzeit in
in Abhngigkeit
schub
Abhngigkeit von der
der Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Schnitttiefe
von enthaltende
Schnittgeschwindigkeit v aus.
aus.k Je
vcc Taylor-Gleichung
Je
life
ndze

die Steigung der Geraden im Standzeitdiagram


g
g der
der Geraden
Geraden ist,
ist, also
also je
je kleiner
kleiner der
der Neigungswinkel
Neigungswinkel ist, ist, desto
desto mehr
mehr Cver-
ver-
1 f Feed in mm per revolution
dimensionsbehaftete, empirisch ermittelte Kon
Tool
Stan

andzeit mit der Schnittgeschwindigkeit. Bei niedrigen Schnittgeschwindig-


andzeit mit der Schnittgeschwindigkeit. Bei niedrigen Schnittgeschwindig- C a dimensionslose Konstante: Exponent der Schn
ap Depth of cutKonstante:
in mm
S

radlinige
radlinige Verlauf
Verlauf der
der Standzeitbeziehung
Standzeitbeziehung dadurch Standzeitgerade
Linear
dadurch gestrt,
gestrt,
tool-life
dass
dass sich
function
C
sich Auf-
f
Auf-
dimensionslose Exponent des Vors
er k Gradient of the straight line in
er Werkzeugschneide
Werkzeugschneide bilden.
bilden.
Den Einflssen entsprechend ist derthe tool-life plot
Exponent k (k = tan gro,
relativ ) whrend Ca u
er Cf nurausreichend.
kleine Werte annehmen. In der Zahlenwertgleichung ist C1 eine dim
er Praxis
Praxis ist
ist die
die einfache
einfache Taylor-Gleichung
Taylor-Gleichung meist
meist vllig
vllig ausreichend. Diese
Diese C1 Dimensioned, empirically
andhabende Standzeitbeziehung besitzt Konstante,
allerdings keine die von Werkstoff,
allgemeine Gl- Schneidstoff und
determined Zerspanungsverfahren abh
constant
andhabende Standzeitbeziehung besitzt allerdings keine allgemeine Gl-
z.B.
z.B. beim
beim Frsen 1
Frsen Standzeitbeziehungen
Standzeitbeziehungen gefunden,
gefunden, diedie sich
sich nur
nur in
in Aus-
Aus- Ca Dimensionless constant: the
aylor annhern lassen.10 C T 100 exponent of the depth of cut
aylor annhern lassen.
S h itt
Schnittgeschwindigkeit
h i di k it 100 Cf Dimensionless constant: the
Cutting speed v [m/min]
h
h die
die sog.
sog. erweiterten
erweiterten Taylor-Gleichungen,
Taylor-Gleichungen, vc [m/min]
/ (m/min)
die
die cweitere
weitere die die Standzeit
Standzeit eines
eines exponent of the feed
flussende
flussende Gren
Gren bercksichtigen.
bercksichtigen. Ein Ein Beispiel
Beispiel hierfr
hierfr istist die
die den
den Vor-
Vor-
The size of the parameters k, Ca and Cf
nitttiefe enthaltende
nitttiefe enthaltende erweiterte
erweiterte
Fig. 11: Taylor tool-life Taylor-Gleichung
diagramTaylor-Gleichung
(log-log plot of tool life against cutting speed) reflect the strength of their influence
Seite 1
14 | DKI Monograph i.18
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit 19

3.2 Zerspankraft

Zur Beurteilung der Zerspanbarkeit eines Werkstoffs wird als weitere Kenngre die entste-
hende Zerspankraft herangezogen. Die Kenntnis der Zerspankrfte ist Grundlage fr die
on tool life; the exponent k is rela- chinery. To determine the drive power where:
Werkzeugmaschinen-,
tively large, whereas Ca and particularly die Werkzeug-
requirements und or to die Vorrichtungs-Konstruktion.
dimension a tool Fc Auerdem
Cutting force in N erlaubt
Cf assume die
onlyKenntnis
small values.
derC1Zerspankrfte,
is a holding system it isZerspanaufgaben
anfallende generally suffi- leistungsgerecht auf vorhande-
dimensioned constant that depends on cient to make a rough estimate of the b Chip width in mm
ne Werkzeugmaschinen
the workpiece material, the tool mate- zuexpected verteilen.
cutting Dabeiforces.gengt fr den Betrieb im Allgemeinen eine
berschlgige
rial and the Abschtzung der Zerspankrfte, um z. B. die erforderliche
cutting operation. h UndeformedLeistungchipzu thickness
errech-
As shown in Fig. 12, the total cutting in mm
nen oder das Werkzeugspannsystem zu dimensionieren.
force F can be resolved into three
3.2 Cutting force components: the cutting force Fc, the mc Dimensionless index reflecting
The cuttingDieforce generated at the
Zerspankraft F kann, wie feedin force
Abb.Ff12 anddargestellt,
the passive force (or Komponenten
in drei the increase
in die of the specific
Schnittkraft
tools cutting edge is a further para- back force) Fp. The symbols used here cutting force
F , die Vorschubkraft F undtodie
meter used cto characterize the ma- f
Passivkraft F zerlegt werden. Die Bezeichnung der Kraft-
designate the forcepcomponents are
chinabilitykomponenten
of a material. Anerfolgt
under-dabei those nachfoundder DIN in the6584 DIN 6584Begriffe
standard.der Zerspantechnik
1-mc Gradient of Krfte, Ener-
the straight line
standing of the cutting forces acting is The required drive power is determi- Fc' = f(h) in a log-log plot
gie, Arbeit, Leistungen. Die fr die Zerspanung erforderliche Maschinenleistung wird ma-
fundamental to the design of machine ned primarily by the cutting force Fc.
geblich
tools, cutting durch
tools and tooldie Schnittkraft
holders Fc beeinflusst.
According to Kienzle and Nach Kienzle
Victor, the und k Victor lsst sich die Schnitt- 2
c1.1 Specific cutting force in N/mm
and workpiece holders. Knowledge
kraft Fc wie folgt berechnen: of cutting force F c can be calculated as for b = h = 1 mm
the cutting forces also enables machin- follows:
1m
ing jobs to be intelligently distributed The term h ( c ) is expressed in mm.
among the available production ma- (1m c )
(9)
Abb. 12: Zerlegung
g g der Zerspankraft
p ((nach DIN = k)c1.1  b  h
Fc6584) (9)
Corresponding equations can be de-
fined for the other two force com-
Mit: v Fc
Direction Schnittkraft
of primary inittNspeedh i di k it
vv :: Cutting
S h
Schnittgeschwindigkeit ponents Ff and Fp.
e vc cc
motion /
b h ittbdirection vvff:: Feed
Vorschubgeschwindigkeit
Spanungsbreite
Schnittbewegung
S
speedin mm
cutting The graphical determination of the spe-
vvee:: Effective
Wirkgeschwindigkeit
g cutting speed
h (Werkstck)
(workpiece) Spanungsdicke in mmg
cific cutting force kc1.1 or the material-de-
mc dimensionsloser
F :Total
F: Zerspankraft
Anstiegswert
f
cutting force
der pendent
spezifischen
factors mSchnittkraft
c or (1-mc) is illustrated
1-mc SteigungFFcc:: Cutting
der forceGeraden Fc' = f(h)
Schnittkraft im 13doppeltlogarithmischen
in Fig. and described in detail in the
vf Ff System FFf:f: Feed
Vorschubkraft
force literature [8, 9, 10]. The cutting force
Fp kc1.1 FFpp:: Passive
spezifische Passivkraft
force
Schnittkraft in N/mm2 fr b = h =given
expressions 1 mm above use only a
FFaa:: Active
Aktivkraft
force
limited set of parameters. Other factors
(1 m )
wobei h c Fmit der Dimension mm FFDD::einzusetzen
D
Drangkraft
Thrust k ft
force ist. Fr die Zerspankraftkomponenten
c F a
that influence the cutting force, suchFas
f

und Fp lassen sich entsprechende Gleichung definieren. the angle of rake , the cutting velocity vc,
tool wear and workpiece shape were
FD excluded for reasons of simplicity.
13:
13 G
Graphische Ermittlung
Die graphische derBestimmung
Kennwerte
F ki1.1
der und (1-m
spezifischen (1 Schnittkraft
c ) mit i = c, f
kc1.1 oder
bzw. pderversions
Extended werkstoffabhngigen
of the Victor-Kienzle
Vorschubbewegung
Direction of feed gmotion
g equations are available in which these
T72]] Faktoren(tool) mc oder (1-mc) entsprechend Abb. 13 ist in der Literatur [VICT72, VICT69, KIEN52]
(Werkzeug)
additional parameters are included as
WZL/Fraunhofer IPTdetailliert beschrieben. Neben den direkt in das Spankraftgesetz Seite 13
eingehenden
correction factors. Parametern
Fig. 12: Total cutting force resolved into component forces (DIN 6584)
mssen aus Grnden der bersichtlichkeit weitere Einflussgren wie Spanwinkel ,
In turning operations using carbide tools,
Schnittgeschwindigkeit vc, Werkzeugverschlei und Werkstckform unbercksichtigt
the only bleiben
parameters in addition to the
undeformed
bzw. werden in den sog. erweiterten Victor-Kienzle-Gleichungen durchchip thickness h that have
Korrekturfaktoren
1000 any practical influence the specific cutting
bercksichtigt.
ki1.1
i1 1 = 947 N/mm
2
force are the angle of rake , the angle
mm))
= Fii /[N/mm]

800 mi of inclination s and the degree of tool


(N/m

Beim
600
Drehen mit Hartmetall haben neben der Spanungsdicke hwear. It is generally
praktisch nur dertheSpanwinkel
case that as the
angle of rake increases, i.e. becomes
, der Neigungswinkel s und der Werkzeugverschlei 1 Einfluss
moreauf die Gre
positive, dercutting
the specific spezifi-
force kc
te bb

1 - mi = 0,7265 Spanwinkeldecreases by 1.5 % for every one sdegree


width

schen Schnittkraft. Man rechnet bei zunehmendem  bzw. Neigungswinkel mit


aft Fii

400
chipbrei

Schnittkraft k von 1,5 % je Grad change in angle. This statement is valid


force

einer Abnahme der spezifischen Abnahme in einem zuls-


ngsb
hnitttkra

45 c for the range of angles given by 10 %


Cutting
S anun

sigen Bereich von 10 %1 des ursprnglich der Messung zugrunde of the angle of rake originally
liegenden Span-measured.
bzw.
Undeformed

Tool wear plays a more significant role.


Spa
Sc

mi
Fi = ki1.1 b h1Greren
Neigungswinkels. i = cc, ff, pEinfluss hat der Verschlei. Eine quantitative Aussage ber den
However, in view of the numerous factors
200
Kraftanstieg
0,1
mit 0,2
zunehmendem 0,4
Werkzeugverschlei
0,6 0,8 1,0
ist
2,0
wegen der Vielzahl
influencing an Einflussgr-
the magnitude of the cutting
force, it is only possible to make appro-
en nur nherungsweise Undeformed mglich.
Spanungsdicke
chip h Als
/ mm
thickness Anhaltswerte fr den Kraftanstieg bis zum Erreichen
h [mm] ximate, semi-quantitative statements
about the increase in the cutting force
Fig. 13: Graphical determination of the parameters ki1.1 and (1-mc) with i = c, f or p [8] with progressive tool wear. It has been

DKI Monograph i.18 | 15


Fraunhofer IPT Seite 14
Machinability Material Principal va- Gradient Notes on
group lue of specific 1-mc experimental
cutting force conditions
Designation EN number UNS number kC1.1 [N/mm2] (see Table 2)
I CuSP CW114C C14700 820 0,93 1)
CuTeP CW118C C14500 910 0,88 1)
CuTeP CW118C C14500 544 0,7755 8)
CuZn35Pb2 CW601N C34200 835 0,85 4)
CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 450 0,68 1)
CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 389 0,69 8)
CuZn40Pb2 CW617N C37700 500 0,68 1)
CuSn4Zn4Pb4 CW456K C54400 758 0,91 8)
CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C CC491K C83600 756 0,86 6)
CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C CC493K C93200 1400 0,76 7)
CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C CC499K 756 0,86 6)
CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C CC499K 724 0,82 8)
CuNi7Zn39Pb3Mn2 CW400J 459 0,70 8)
II CuNi18Zn19Pb1 CW408J C76300 1120 0,94 1)
CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CW710R 1030 0,82 1)
CuZn37Mn3Al2PbSi CW713R 470 0,53 3)
CuZn38Mn1Al CW716R 422 0,62 5)
CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C CC333G C95500 1065 0,71 6)
CuSn12Ni2-C CC484K C91700 940 0,71 6)
CuZn33Pb2-C CC750S 470 0,53 3)
CuZn40 CW509L C28000 802 0,80 8)
CuAg0,10 CW013A C11600 1100 0,61 2)
CuNi1Pb1P C19160 696 0,8095 8)
III CuNi2Si CW111C C64700 1120 0,81 1)
CuAl8Fe3 CW303G C61400 970 0,82 1)
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 CW307G C63000 1300 0,88 1)
CuSn8 CW453K C52100 1180 0,90 1)
CuSn8P CW459K 1131 0,88 8)
CuZn37 CW508L C27400 1180 0,85 1)
CuZn20Al2As CW702R C68700 470 0,53 3)
CuMn20 1090 0,81 8)

The mechanical properties of the wrought alloys listed in the following tables refer mainly to rods and bars (as defined in EN 12164, EN 12163, EN 13601 and
EN 12166, strip (as in EN 1652 and EN 1654) and tubes (as in EN 12449). The values for the cast alloys are from EN 1982. The order in which the alloy groups are
presented follows CEN/TS 13388.

Table 1: Specific cutting forces kc1.1 and gradient factors 1-mc for copper and copper alloys. (Note: data drawn from a variety of sources.)

estimated that a flank wear land width The data in the table have been drawn the effect of the nose radius r can be
(VB) of 0.5 mm indicates that the cutting from numerous sources and cover a range ignored, a tool cutting edge angle of
force will have increased by about 20 %, of different test conditions. r = 90 means that the feed force Ff
the feed force by about 90 % and the will be little more than 30 % of Fc.
passive force by approximately 100 %. In some cases, the two other force com-
ponents, the feed force Ff and the passive As the forces acting when copper
The cutting force Fc can be calculated force Fp (Fig. 12) may also be of interest. materials are machined are generally
using Equation 9 and the kc1.1 values that quite low, the following relationship is
are listed in Table 1 . If a material is not The latter two forces are much smaller suitable for most approximate calcula-
listed in Table 1, it is usually acceptable than the cutting force Fc. The passive force tions:
for rough calculations to estimate the kc1.1 Fp does not do any work that would need
values by adopting the values listed for a to be supplied by machine power as it is Ff 0,3 Fc (10)
comparable material. orthogonal to the two main directions of
motion (direction of primary motion and When turning with cemented carbide
Table 2 contains information on the the direction of feed). tools at the now typical cutting speeds of
experimental conditions. vc = 200 m/min or more, it is adequate
The ratio of the feed force Ff to the for most approximate analyses to assume
Table 3 lists specific cutting forces in re- cutting force Fc depends on the tool that FP is of the same rough magnitude
lation to the undeformed chip thickness h. cutting edge angle r. Assuming that as Ff.

16 | DKI Monograph i.18


No. Machining Tool Feed range Depth of cut Cutting Cutting tool geometry Notes Source
operation material or unde- or undeformed speed
Machina- ----K; r
formed chip chip width vc
bility [degrees; mm]
thickness ap or b [m/min]
group
f or h [mm] [mm]

1 Cylindrical HM-K 10 f = 0,05-0,315 ap = 2,5 180 I 6-0-0--90/75/45; 0,5 Dry [7]


turning II 8-5-0--90/75/45; 0,5 cutting
III 10-20-0--90/75/45; 0,5

2 Cylindrical HSS (M2-AlSI) h = 0,05-0,28 a3p =


Der
2,54 Begriff 15-90
Zerspanbarkeit
-20---90; r Dry [11]
turning cutting

3 Turning SS u. HM f = 0,1-0,8 p :f= die


aDa 2:1 bisVorschubgeschwindigkeit
10:1 - I u. II SS 8-0-0/8-90-45;
in der Regel 0,5/2im Dry
Vergleich[12]
mit der Schn
HM 5-6-0/8-90-45; 0,5/2 cutting
sehr klein und die Vorschubkraft
III SS ebenfalls weitaus
8-14/18-0/8-90-45; 0,5/2 kleiner als die Schnittkr
HM
berschlgige Berechnung der Netto-Zerspanungsleistung die Vorschubleis
4 Cylindrical HM h = 0,04-0,6 ap = 2,5 200
turning
sigt werden. Damit errechnet sich5-15---90; r Dry
die Netto-Antriebsleistung
cutting
[13]
wie folgt:

5 Fly cutting HSS f = 0,08-0,6 ap = 8-9 40 5-10-0-90-90; r - [14]


b = 4-12 Fc  v c
Pe ' = (15)
6 Cylindrical HM-K 10 f = 0,08-0,32 ap = 2,5 200 60000 0,4
5-6-0-90-70; Dry [15]
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit
turning cutting
Mit: Pe Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
7 Cylindrical HSS u. HM f = 0,1-0,6 ap = 1 u. 2 Da 32die Vorschubgeschwindigkeit
HSS 8-0-0/8-90-45; 0,5/2
inin der Dry Vergleich
Regel im [16] mit der Schn
turning Fc HM Schnittkraft
5-6-0/8-90-45; N0,5/2 cutting
sehr klein und
vc die Vorschubkraft ebenfalls weitaus
Schnittgeschwindigkeit kleiner als die Schnittkr
in m/min
8 Cylindrical HM f = 0,05-0,14 ap = 1 200 HM 8-10-0-84-96; 0,4 Oil DKI
turning
60000
berschlgige Umrechnungsfaktor
Berechnung in (N  m)/(kWdie min)
der Netto-Zerspanungsleistung Vorschuble
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit 21
Mehrschneidige sigt werden. Damit errechnet
Werkzeuge arbeiten sich
i. diemit
A. Netto-Antriebsleistung
kleinern wie folgt: h a
Spanungsdicken
Table 2: Information on the experimental conditions relevant to the specific cutting forces listed in Table 1

Da die VorschubgeschwindigkeitBei in ihnen kannim


der Regel dieVergleich
Netto-Antriebsleistung aus dem je Zeiteinheit zu zers
mit der Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Fc  v c
FP Fsehr
f 0,3 Fc (11)
klein forstoffvolumen,
und die Vorschubkraft most approximate
ebenfalls dem
weitauscalculations removed
Zeitspanungsvolumen
kleiner als Pe ' =per
Vwunit
of die Schnittkraft ist, cm3/min
in time
darf and
fr per
und
die unit of
einem
(15) auf Z
overall cutting power. The net machine 60000
power supplied). 3
bezogenen Zeit-Leistungs-Spanungsvolumen
berschlgige Berechnung der Netto-Zerspanungsleistung die Vorschubleistung Vwpvernachls-
in cm / (min  kW), errech
While the magnitude of these forces is power can therefore be computed as
sigtwhen
of interest werden. Damit errechnet
dimensioning work- sich Mit:
die Netto-Antriebsleistung
follows: Pe folgt:
wie ForNetto-Antriebsleistung in kW
multipoint tools, the following
piece clamps, tool holders, etc., an Fc Schnittkraft in N
relationship applies:
Fr die oben angegebenen mehrschneidigen Werkzeuge gilt folgende Bezie
approximate calculation of the cutting vc Schnittgeschwindigkeit in m/min
power is important in order to deter- F v 60000 Umrechnungsfaktor in (N  m)/(kW  min)
Pe ' = c c (15) (15) Vw i. A. mit kleinern Spanungsdicken h
mine the power requirements of the 60000 Mehrschneidige WerkzeugeP arbeiten
e' = (16) (16)
machine tool performing the cutting Vwp
Bei ihnen kann die Netto-Antriebsleistung aus dem je Zeiteinheit zu zer
operation,
Mit:whereby the machinePe effi- where:
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
ciency must also be taken into account. Pe Net in stoffvolumen,
machine power indem
kW Zeitspanungsvolumen
Pe Net machine cm3/min
Vw inpower und einem auf
in kW
Fc Schnittkraft Pe N Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
vc bezogeneninZeit-Leistungs-Spanungsvolumen
Schnittgeschwindigkeit m/min 3 Vwp in cm3 / (min  kW), errech
According to the DIN 6584 standard, V
Fc w Zerspantes
Cutting force in NWerkstoffvolumen in cm /min
V Stock removal rate (volume of
60000 Umrechnungsfaktor
Vwp Spezifisches  m)/(kW  min)w in cm3/min  kW
in (NZerspanvolumen
the effective cutting power is the workpiece material removed
vc i. Cutting Fr
speeddie in
oben angegebenen mehrschneidigen
m/min per Werkzeuge gilt folgende Bezi
in cm3/min)
productMehrschneidige
of the effective cutting force
Werkzeuge arbeiten A. mit kleinern Spanungsdicken
Das spezifische Zerspanvolumen Vwp ist direkt h alsunit time
einschneidige.
proportional zu der spezifis
Fe and the resultant cutting velocity
Bei ihnen kann die Netto-Antriebsleistung
ve and is also the sum of the cutting wie folgende
60000  Conversion
aus dem je Zeiteinheit Vzu 
Ableitung
factor in zeigt:
zerspanenden
Specific
Werk-
wp Vw stock removal rate
power stoffvolumen, dem PZeitspanungsvolumen
Pc and the feed power Vw in min) 3
cm /min und einem auf (volume P ' =
e Zeit und Leistungmaterial (16)
f. (N m)/(kW
Vwp of workpiece
removed per unit time and
bezogenen Zeit-Leistungs-Spanungsvolumen Vwp in cm3 / (min  kW), Vw errechnet
A  per
v c unit werden.
A  v c supplied
1
Pe = Fe ve = Pc + Pf (12) Cutting tools with multiple active cut- V = = = of power = in
(17)
ting edges generallyP e Netto-Antriebsleistung
wp
work with smaller Pc in kW
Fc cmv c 3/(min
k c3  AkW)
 v)c kc
Pc = FFr Zerspantes
Vwthicknesses Werkstoffvolumen in cm /min
c vdie
c (13) undeformed chip
oben angegebenen mehrschneidigen Werkzeuge h than
gilt folgende Beziehung:3
single-point tools. The net machine Zerspanvolumen
V wp Spezifisches The specific in cm removal
stock /min  kWrate V is
wp
3
Pf = Ff vf (14) Auf die Einheit
power required when cm /min 
working with
Das spezifische kW umgerechnet
directly V
Zerspanvolumen ergibt
proportional
ist sich
direkt to folgendes:
the specific
proportional zu der spezifis
wp
multipoint Vw can be calculated from
tools cutting force, as the following deriva-
Pe = wie folgende Ableitung(16) zeigt:
As the tool feed velocity (feed rate) the stock Vwp rate Vw in cm3/min
removal tion shows:
V 60000
is generally much lower than the (i.e. the volume of workpiece material Vwp = w = 18)
cutting velocity and the feed force is removed per unit time) and a specific VwPc A  v ck c A  v c 1
Pe smaller
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW 3 Vwp = = = = (17)
(17)
also much than the cutting stock removal rate 3 Vwp in cm / (min kW) Pc Fc  v c k c  A  v c kc
V w Zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen
(i.e. in cm /min
force, the feed power can be neglected
Vwp Spezifisches Zerspanvolumen
wp V the volume
in cm /min  kW 3
of workpiece
spezifische material
Spanungsleistung in cm3/min  kW
Vw zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen in cm3/min
Auf die Einheit cm3/min  kW umgerechnet ergibt sich folgendes:
DKI Monograph i.18 | 17
Das spezifische ZerspanvolumenPcVwp istSchnittleistung
direkt proportional
in kWzu der spezifischen Schnittkraft,
2
keit Material Undeformed chip thickness h [mm] 21 Notes
on
experi-
ndigkeit inDesignation
der Regel im Vergleich
Num- Num- mit der
0,08 0,1 Schnittgeschwindigkeit
0,125 0,16 0,20 0,25 0,315 0,4 0,5 0,63 0,8 1,0 1,25 1,6 mental
ber ber condi-
ubkraft ebenfalls weitaus
(EN)
kleiner
(UNS)
als die Schnittkraft ist, darf fr die tions
g der Netto-Zerspanungsleistung die Vorschubleistung vernachls- Table 2
Machinability group I / Type I alloys
net sich die Netto-Antriebsleistung wie folgt:
CuSP CW114C C14700 979 963 948 932 918 904 889 874 861 847 833 820 807 793 1)

CuTeP CW118C C14500 1232 1200 1168 1134 1104 1075 1045 1016 989 962 935 910 886 860 1)
F v
c c
Pe ' = CuZn35Pb2 CW601N C34200(15)
1349 1293 1240 1183 1134 1087 1040 994 953 912 871 835 800 764 4)
60000
CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 1010 940 875 809 753 701 651 603 562 522 483 450 419 387 1)

CuZn40Pb2 CW617N C37700 1122 1045 973 899 837 779 724 670 624 580 537 500 466 430 1)
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C*) CC491K C83600 1114 1065 1019 969 927 887 847 807 772 737 703 672 643 612 7)
Schnittkraft in N
CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C CC493K
Schnittgeschwindigkeit in m/minC93200 2567 2433 2307 2173 2060 1953 1847 1744 1653 1564 1477 1400 1327 1251 7)

0 CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C
Umrechnungsfaktor CC499K
in (N  C92220
m)/(kW  min)

Machinability group II / Type II alloys
ge arbeiten i. A. mit kleinern Spanungsdicken h als einschneidige.
CuNi18Zn19Pb1 CW408J C76300 1303 1286 1269 1250 1234 1217 1200 1183 1168 1151 1135 1120 1105 1089 1)
-Antriebsleistung aus dem je Zeiteinheit
CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CW710R 1623
zu 1498
1559
zerspanenden
1433 1376
Werk-
1322 1268 1215 1167 1119 1072 1030 989 946 1)
anungsvolumen
CuZn37Mn3Al2PbSi cm3/min
Vw in CW713R und1542
einem
1432 auf
1330 Zeit
1227 und
1140 Leistung
1059 981 907 842 780 721 670 622 574 3)
3
-Spanungsvolumen Vwp in cm / (min  kW), errechnet
CuZn38Mn1Al CW716R 1102 1012 930 847 werden.
778 715 655 598 549 503 459 422 388 353 5)

CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C CC333G 2215 2077 1946 1812 1698 1592 1489 1389 1302 1218 1136 1065 998 929 6)

CuSn12Ni2-C CC484K C95500 1955 1833 1718 1599 1499 1405 1314 1226 1149 1075 1003 940 881 820 6)
n mehrschneidigen Werkzeuge gilt folgende Beziehung:
CuZn33Pb2-C CC750S C91700 1540 1387 1249 1112 1001 902 809 723 651 584 522 470 423 377 3)

Machinability group III / Type III alloys


V
CuAg0,10 w
P' = CW013A C11600 (16) 2700
2946 2475 2248 2061 1889 1726 1573 1441 1317 1200 1100 1008 916 2)
e
CuNi2Si
V
wp CW111C C64700 1810 1735 1663 1586 1521 1458 1395 1333 1278 1223 1169 1120 1074 1024 1)

CuAl8Fe3 CW303G C61400 1528 1468 1410 1349 1296 1245 1194 1144 1099 1054 1010 970 932 891 1)
ung in kW
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 CW307G C63000 1760 1714 1668 1620 1577 1535 1493 1451 1413 1374 1335 1300 1266 1229 1)
offvolumen in cm3/min
CuSn8 3 CW453K C52100 1519 1486 1453 1417 1386 1355 1325 1293 1265 1236 1207 1180 1154 1126 1)
anvolumen in cm /min  kW
CuZn37 CW508L C27400 1907 1828 1752 1671 1602 1536 1470 1404 1346 1288 1231 1180 1131 1079 1)
wp ist direkt proportional zu der spezifischen Schnittkraft,
olumen VCuZn20Al2As CW702R C68700 1540 1387 1249 1112 1001 902 809 723 651 584 522 470 423 377 3)
gt:
*) The low value can be explained by the low cutting velocities (vc = 32 m/min) used in the tests.
Table 3: Specific cutting force kc in N/mm as a function of the undeformed chip thickness h in mm for the materials listed in Table 1. (Note: data drawn from
V Av Av
wa variety of sources.)
c 1 c
Please note that because of the differences in the experimental conditions used, data from different sources cannot be directly compared.
Vwp = = = = (17)
Pc Fc  v c k c  A  v c kc
Converting to units of cm3/(min kW) 60000 Conversion factor in piece surface of a predefined quality, i.e.
W umgerechnet
yields: ergibt sich folgendes: cm3 N/(mm2 min kW) the roughness of the surface must not
(= N m/(kW min)) exceed a certain level. Decorative sur-
faces are often required when turning
Vw 60000 Table 4 provides values of Vwp for the components from free-cutting brass
Vwp = = (18) 18)
Pc kc materials listed in Table 1 at unde- (e.g. CuZn39Pb3) and this frequently
formed chip thicknesses h in the range requires the part to be smoothed or
V Specific stock removal rate in 0.08 to 0.315 mm that is typical when precision finished. The achievable
ngsleistungwpin cm 3
cm
/min
3/(min kW
kW) machining with multipoint tools. surface quality is therefore regarded as
offvolumen in cm3/min the most important machinability
W Vw Stock removal rate in cm3/min criterion when assessing the machin-
kraft in N/mm2 3.3 Surface quality ability of free-cutting alloys such as
N/mm2  P c  kW
min Cutting power in kW As with other materials, finish-machin- CuZn39Pb3, CuZn39Pb2, CuZn40Pb2,
ing of copper or copper alloys should CuZn30Pb3, CuNi18Zn19Pb1, CuTeP,
reten Werkstoffe nenntcutting
kc Specific Tab. force
4 Vwpin-Werte
N/mm2 fr die beiproduce
generally mehrschneidi-
a machined work- CuPb1P and CuSP.
gen blichen Spanungsdicken h = 0,08 bis 0,315 mm.
18 | DKI Monograph i.18
Material Undeformed chip thickness h in [mm] Notes on
experi-
mental
Designation Number (EN) Number (UNS) 0,08 0,1 0,125 0,16 0,20 0,25 0,315 condi-
tions
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit Table 2
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit
Machinability group I / Type I alloys
sen d.h. eine bestimmte Rauheit darf nicht berschritten werden. In
CuSP CW114C C14700 sen 61,3
d.h. eine
62,3 bestimmte
63,3 Rauheit
64,4 darf nicht
65,4 66,4 berschritten
67,5 1) werden. In
teilen aus Automatenmessing (z. B. aus CuZn39Pb3) werden oft d
CuTeP CW118C C14500 48,7 50,0 51,4 52,9 54,4 55,8 57,4 1)
teilen aus Automatenmessing (z. B. aus CuZn39Pb3) werden oft d
CuZn35Pb2 CW601N C34200
gefordert,
44,5
die
46,4
ein Schlichten
48,4
oder 52,9
50,7
Feinschlichten
55,2 57,7
des 4)Drehteils bedin
gefordert, die ein Schlichten oder Feinschlichten des Drehteils bedin
CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 Beurteilung
59,4 der Zerspanbarkeit
63,8 68,6 74,2 von Automatenwerkstoffen,
79,7 85,6 92,2 1) wie
Beurteilung der Zerspanbarkeit von Automatenwerkstoffen, wie
CuZn40Pb2 CW617N C37700 CuZn39Pb2,
53,5 CuZn40Pb2,
57,4 61,7 CuZn30Pb3,
66,7 71,7 CuNi18Zn19Pb1,
77,0 82,9 1) CuTeP, Cu
CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C *) CC491K C83600 CuZn39Pb2,
20,5 21,7CuZn40Pb2,
23,0 CuZn30Pb3,
24,5 26,0 CuNi18Zn19Pb1,
27,5 29,2 CuTeP, C
7) wichtigste
Beurteilung der erreichbaren Oberflchenqualitt als das Ze
CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C CC493K C93200 Beurteilung
23,4 der
24,7 erreichbaren
26,0 Oberflchenqualitt
27,6 29,1 30,7 als das
32,5 7) wichtigste Ze
anzusehen.
CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C CC499K
anzusehen.
Machinability group II / Type II alloys
Zur quantitativen Beurteilung der Oberflchengte spanend bearbei
CuNi18Zn19Pb1 CW408J C7630046,1 46,7 47,3 48,0
Zur quantitativen Beurteilung der 48,6 49,3
Oberflchengte 48,2 1)
spanend bearbei
3 Der Begriff Zerspanbarkeit
CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CW710R Rauheit,
37,0 meist
38,5 gemessen
40,1 in m,
41,9 herangezogen.
43,6 45,4 Dabei
47,3 1)interessiert
27 vor
Rauheit, meist gemessen in m, herangezogen. Dabei interessiert vor
CuZn37Mn3Al2PbSi CW713R (kinematische
65,9 71,9Rauheit),
78,4 gemessen
86,3 in Vorschubrichtung,
94,2 102,7 112,4 3) weil sie mei
sen d.h. eine bestimmte Rauheit (kinematische
darf 54,5
nichtder Rauheit),
berschritten gemessen
werden. in Vorschubrichtung,
Insbesondere weil sie mei
beiLngsrauheit
Dreh-
CuZn38Mn1Al CW716R Richtung Schnittgeschwindigkeit
59,3 65,4 70,8 77,1 gemessene
83,9 91,6 5) (Schn
teilen aus Automatenmessing
CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C CC333G Richtung
(z. kinmetische
B. aus der28,9Schnittgeschwindigkeit
27,1 CuZn39Pb3) werden
30,8ergibt 33,1 oftaus gemessene
dekorative
35,3 dem37,7 Lngsrauheit
Oberflchen
40,3 6)und der (Sch
Rauheit sich Eckenradius Rela
CuSn12Ni2-C CC484K
gefordert, die ein C95500
Schlichten kinmetische
oder Werkzeug 30,7
Feinschlichten Rauheit
32,7
des34,9ergibt 37,5
Drehteilssich aus
40,0dem42,7
bedingen. Eckenradius
Daher 45,7
ist fr 6) und der Rela
die
und Werkstck.
CuZn33Pb2-C CC750S C91700 39,0 43,3 Werkstck.
48,0 54,0 59,9 66,5 74,2 3)
Beurteilung der Zerspanbarkeit Werkzeug und
von Automatenwerkstoffen, wie z. B. CuZn39Pb3,
Machinability group III / Type III alloys
CuZn39Pb2, CuZn40Pb2,
CuAg0,10 CW013A
Die theoretisch
CuZn30Pb3, erzielbare
CuNi18Zn19Pb1, Rautiefe
CuTeP, Rt,th beiund
CuPb1P einschneidigem
CuSp, die Werkzeu
C11600 20,3 22,2 24,2 26,7 29,1 31,8 34,8 2)
Die theoretisch erzielbare Rautiefe Rt,th bei einschneidigem Werkzeu
Beurteilung der erreichbaren
CuNi2Si CW111C lsst 33,2
sich aus
Oberflchenqualitt
C64700 dem
34,6als dasVorschub
36,1 37,8 f und
wichtigste 39,5dem41,2Eckenradius
Zerspanbarkeitskriterium
43,0 1) r (Abb. 14) n
lsst sich aus dem Vorschub f und dem Eckenradius r (Abb. 14) n
anzusehen.
CuAl8Fe3 CW303G C61400 errechnen:
39,3 40,9 42,6 44,5 46,3 48,2 50,3 1)
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 CW307G C63000 errechnen:
34,1 34,5 36,0 37,0 38,1 39,1 40,2 1)
CuSn8Zur quantitativenCW453K
Beurteilung der Oberflchengte spanend bearbeiteter Flchen
f 2 wird die
C52100 39,5 40,4 41,3 42,3 43,3 44,3 45,3 1)
2
CuZn37 CW508L
Rauheit, meist gemessen inC27400 31,5 32,8
m, herangezogen. 35,9Rt,th =
Dabei34,3interessiert r  39,1
vor37,5allem  2 Querrauheit
rdie f 40,8
2 1) (19)
CuZn20Al2As CW702R C68700 39,0 43,3 48,0 R = r
54,0 t,th 59,9  r
66,5
  4 74,2 3) (19)
(kinematische Rauheit), gemessen in Vorschubrichtung, weil sie meist grer ist4als die in
*) The low value can be explained by the low cutting velocities (vc = 32 m/min) used in the tests.
Richtung der Schnittgeschwindigkeit gemessene Lngsrauheit (Schnittflchenrauheit). Die
ber eine Reihenentwicklung
Table 4: Specific stock removal rate Vwp in cm/(minkW) as a function of the undeformed chip thicknessnach
h in mmTaylor lsst listed
for the materials sichin der Ausdruck
Table 1.
kinmetische
(Note: data drawn from aRauheit ergibt sich aus
variety of sources.) ber dem eine Reihenentwicklung
Eckenradius nach Taylor lsstzwischen
und der Relativbewegung sich der Ausdruck
berschlgig gilt:
Werkzeug und Werkstck. berschlgig gilt:
Surface roughness, which is usual- The theoretically achievable peak-to-
ly measured in m, is the property valley roughness Rt,th with a single f 22
Dieused
theoretisch erzielbare R  (20) Drehen) (20)
assess Rautiefe Rt,th beisuch
einschneidigem
as turning can Werkzeug (z.
f B. beim
t,th
typically to quantitatively point operation Rt,th  8  r (20)
lsst ofsich
the quality aus dem
a machined Vorschubbef calculated
surface. und demfrom Eckenradius
the feed f andrthe
(Abb. 14) nach 8  rfolgender Formel
The transverse roughness (kinematic nose radius r (Fig. 14) by means of the For most machining operations the
errechnen:
roughness), which is measured in the Weilequation:
following fr die spanende Bearbeitung requireddie Rautiefe meist
peak-to-valley surface vorgegeben
rough- is
direction of feed motion, is usually Weil fr die spanende Bearbeitung die Rautiefe
ness is usually specified, meist
so that vorgegeben
Eq. 20 i
larger than the longitudinal roughness
welchem Vorschub f bei gegebenem Eckenradius gedreht werden mu
can be used to determine the required
welchem2 Vorschub
f 2 f bei gegebenem Eckenradius gedreht werden mu
(cut surface roughness) measured in Beziehung
Rt,th = r  r nach dem (19)
Vorschub aufgelst:
(19) feed for a given nose radius. The above
the direction of primary motion and Beziehung nach 4 dem Vorschub aufgelst:
expression can be rearranged to yield
is therefore of greater interest. The the feed:
kinematic roughness is determined by This expression can be simplified by a f  8  r  Rt,th (21)
ber
the tools eine
nose Reihenentwicklung
radius and the relative nach
Taylor Taylor
series lsst which
expansion, sich yields
der Ausdruck 8  r  Rt,th (21) sodass (21)
f  vereinfachen,
motion of the tool and the workpiece. the following approximation:
berschlgig gilt:
Fr vorgegebene Rautiefen knnen die theoretisch
The theoretically erforderlichen
required feed f to Vors
Fr vorgegebene Rautiefen knnen producedie theoretisch
a specified erforderlichen Vors
peak-to-valley
Eckenradius r Tab. 5 entnommen werden. An der Drehmaschine ist,
f2
Eckenradius r Tab. 5 entnommen werden. An der Drehmaschine ist,
Rt,th Wert
 nicht eingestellt werden
(20) kann, der nchst
DKIkleinere
MonographVorschubwert
i.18 | 19 z
8  rnicht eingestellt werden kann, der nchst kleinere Vorschubwert
Wert
Abb. 14: Geometrische Eingriffsverhltnisse
g beim Drehen

roughness Rt,th using a cutting tool


with a given nose radius r can be
z
found by consulting Tab. 5. If the theo-
retically required feed cannot be set on
the lathe, the next lower feed setting
should be chosen.
Rt,th
However, in practical applications the x r
r Rt,th
peak-to-valley roughness achieved f
often deviates significantly from the M1 M2 f2
r f/2 R t , th = r
2
r
theoretical value. This can be traced to 4
the following three main causes: f oder
or
f2
R t , th =
8 r
Finish machining, particularly
when carried out with small feeds
(f < 0.1 mm/rev), can lead to the Gltigkeitsbereich:
Range of validity: f < 2 re cos(r + r 90) und r + r < 180
formation of wear grooves in the
vicinity of the minor cutting edge and Fig. 14: Geometric relationships when turning
the nose radius, resulting in a devia-
tion from the theoretical profile of the
machined surface. The transverse roughness of the work- value [17, 18]. When machining with a
piece surface that can be achieved also cutting tool of defined geometry (i.e.
At higher feeds (f > 0.1 mm/rev), depends on the tool angles, particu- excluding operations such as grin-
the continuous growth of flank
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT wear, larly the rake angle. Increasing the rake ding, lapping, honing, etc.), it can be
particularly at the nose radius, leads angle improves work surface quality. roughly assumed that the grain size
to a deterioration in the quality of the The theoretically achievable value can of the work material approximately
machined surface. be more closely approximated when represents the lowest degree of surface
machining copper and copper alloys roughness achievable in practice.
As discussed earlier in Section 2.3, than when machining other metals. When high demands are placed upon
there is a range of cutting speeds in However, increasing the rake angle the quality of the work surface finish,
which built-up edge (BUE) formation reduces the wedge angle and thus re- the use of diamond-tipped tools at
is likely to occur. Periodic breakage of duces the tool life. As is the case with high cutting speeds and low feeds is
the BUE and displacement of these other metals, machining copper and recommended. Such a configuration
pieces of BUE often causes a signif- copper alloys at high cutting speeds can produce mirror surface finishes.
icant deterioration in the quality of produces a better work surface quality
the machined surface. Built-up edges than when machining at lower speeds. When machining with multipoint tools
form when heavily strained workpiece (e.g. milling operations), a form error
material temporarily deposits on the The expressions (19), (20) and (21) are known as waviness may be superim-
cutting edge, giving the cutting edge useful approximations when dealing posed on the peak-to-valley height Rt
an irregular shape. When the BUE with fine-grained materials; for more of the surface. The wavelength corre-
breaks periodically, the bits of BUE can coarsely grained material, the actual sponds to the feed per revolution, the
then become welded to the chip or the peak-to-valley roughness Rt is signif- amplitude reflects the tool runout error
machined workpiece surface. icantly larger than the calculated if this is greater than about 10 m. The

Nose radius Feed f in mm/rev = f (Rth,r)


r [mm]
Fine finishing Finishing Rough cutting


Rt,th 4 m Rt,th 6,3 m Rt,th 16 m Rt,th 25 m Rt,th 63 m Rt,th 100 m

0,5 0,13 0,16 0,26 0,32 0,50 063

1,0 0,18 0,22 0,36 0,45 0,71 0,89

1,5 0,22 0,27 0,44 0,55 0,87 1,10

2,0 0,25 0,31 0,50 0,63 1,00 1,26

3,0 0,31 0,38 0,62 0,77 1,22 1,55

Tab. 5: Feed f in mm/rev as a function of the required theoretical roughness Rt,th and the nose radius r

20 | DKI Monograph i.18


quality of the surface can be improved chip flow and chip removal. Pure cop- The first five chip shapes depicted in
in face milling operations by using a per and solid-solution copper alloys Figure 16: ribbon, tangled, corkscrew,
milling cutter with indexable teeth with a high copper content belong conical helical and long cylindrical
inserts that have an active minor cut- to the group of materials that have a chips are not ideal as they make it
ting edge, that is, the inserts have a tendency to produce long continuous difficult to eject the chip from the
chamfer on the minor cutting edge so chips if the chip is allowed to form cutting zone. Corkscrew chips prefer
that the chamfered edge lies parallel and flow in an uninterrupted manner. to migrate over the flank of the tool
to the workpiece surface with a cutting These materials are generally less easy causing damage to the tool holder
edge angle of r = 0. The chamfer to machine. and to those sections of the cutting
on the minor cutting edge may be up edge outside the contact zone. Ribbon
to several millimetres long. The feed The assessment of whether a chip chips, tangled chips and discontinuous
per tooth should not exceed 2/3 of the shape is unfavourable, acceptable or chips all present an injury hazard for
active chamfer length. If the minor good (see Fig. 16) is made on the basis persons near the machine. Fine needle
cutting edge is larger than the feed per of the following criteria: chips can be formed when machining
revolution, overlapping reduces the free-cutting brasses. Needle chips are
unavoidable runout error and improves Transportability: The chips should undesirable as they tend to clog the
the machined surface finish. be of a shape that enables them to chip conveyor systems and cutting fluid
be removed easily from the machines filters and increase the risk of injury to
cutting zone and they should not be so the machine operator.
3.4 Chip shape small that they clog up the chip con-
In addition to the type of chip form- veyor system or the cutting fluid filters. Machining homogeneous copper
ed, the shape of the chip is an materials, such as pure coppers and
important criterion for assessing the Injury hazard: Injury to operating high copper copper-zinc alloys, tends
machinability of a material. A distinc- personnel from sharp-edged tangled to produce long flowing ribbon chips
tion is often made between materials or corkscrew chips should be avoided. if the area of the uncut chip is large
that produce short chips and those and the chip is allowed to develop
that tend to form long chips. Short Risk of damage: The chips should unhindered. Tangled or snarled chips
chips, with the exception perhaps of not damage the workpiece, cutting tool tend to form at low or medium feed
discontinuous and needle chips, tend or machine tool. rates, while corkscrew chips arise when
to be more favourable with regard to machining with small nose radii, small

Rz1 Rz1 R 2 (=
Rz ( Rz
RRmax)
R 2 (=
( Rmax)
R
) )
Rz5 Rz5
Rz3 Rz3 Rz4 Rz4

lr lr
ln ln
1 5
1 5
lr:
ln:
lr:Sampling
ln:Evaluation
Messstrecke
length
Einzelmessstrecke
Einzelmessstrecke
Messstrecke
length
Rz ( 5 ) Rz
= (
5 )
5 i =1
= Rz i
=1 5 i =1
=1
Rzi
Rzi:RzIndividual
Einzelrautiefen
i: Einzelrautiefen
roughness depth (peak-to-valley)
Rz: Rz:Rautiefe
Mean Rautiefe
(arithmetischer
roughness (arithmetischer
Mittelwert
depth (ten-point Mittelwert
der Einzelrautiefen
height): der Einzelrautiefen
arithmetic mean Rzofi aufeinander-
Rzindividual
the i aufeinander-
folgender
folgender
roughness Einzelmessstrecken)
depths Einzelmessstrecken)
Rzi measured for five consecutive sampling lengths
R
Rmax:
RMaximum
Rmax:
maximale
i maximale
l roughness
Rautiefe
R
i lti Rautiefe
Rf ((grte
ti t
depth:f ((grte
Ei
Einzelrautiefe
t peak-to-valley
largest lEi
Einzelrautiefe
ti fl iinnerhalb
ti f hroughness
iinnerhalb
lb d der
h lb
G
Gesamtmess-
d
der G
value Gesamtmess-
t
within t
the
strecke)
t k strecke)
)t length
evaluation k )

Fig. 15: Roughness parameters (according to Mahr and DIN EN ISO 4287)

DKI Monograph i.18 | 21


depths of cut or large cutting edge cooling lubricant, cutting conditions It is often not possible to alter cutting
angles. Corkscrew chips are particularly and tool geometry. The tool geometry conditions in order to modify the chip
unfavourable because of the injury recommendations provided do not shape, as the cutting conditions have
risk associated with their sharp edges. address the shape of chip breakers. usually been set by other criteria. In
Conical helical chips can be expected such cases, chip shape formation can
to form when machining with small Assuming that all other cutting condi- only be influenced by deploying chip
depths of cut and when only the nose tions remain equal, short-breaking breakers.
radius of the tool engages with the chips are generally more likely to
workpiece. With increasing depth of form in workpiece materials of greater Generally speaking, chip formation is
cut, the chips become longer and strength and with lower elongation. relatively unfavourable when machin-
tubular in appearance. This chip form A coarse microstructure can also help to ing pure copper and solid-solution
is not desirable as its bulkiness chip produce more favourable chip shapes high-copper copper alloys. The plas-
makes it difficult to remove the chip when turning. This is the reason why tically deformed chip that is created
from the cutting zone and convey it out cast alloys, particularly sanding-cast during the shearing process still has
of the machine. alloys, exhibit better chip formation a high elongation after fracture and
properties than wrought alloys. therefore tends not to break a
The preferred chip forms are short- fact that can cause problems for the
breaking chips such as short tubular The cutting parameter with the greatest machining operation. The addition of
chips, conical coiled chips and spiral influence on chip formation is the feed. chip-breaking alloying elements such
chips. Arc chips, discontinuous chips The larger the feed, the shorter the as lead, tellurium or sulphur can sig-
and needle chips are also regarded as chip. A negative angle of rake leads to nificantly improve the materials chip
acceptable when machining free-cut- a greater degree of chip compression, breaking properties (see Sec. 4.4).
ting alloys such as free-cutting brasses, which generally promotes the forma-
provided that the chips do not block tion of more favourable chip shapes.
the filters of the chip conveyor system. In-creasing cutting speeds result in in-
creasing cutting temperatures and the
Factors influencing chip shape include: accompanying rise in the ductility of
work material, tool material, machine the work material favours the forma-
tion of ribbon and continuous chips.
16: Spanformen
p beim Drehen und deren Beurteilung
tool characteristics, chip breaking,
g nach [KLUF79]
[ ]

ungnstig
g g
unfavourable brauchbar
acceptable gut
g
good brauchbar
acceptable

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Bandspne
1 Ribbon p
chips 6 kurze Wendelspne
6 Short tubular chips p
2 Wirrspne
2 Tangled (or snarled) chips 7 konische
7 Conical coiled chips Wendelspne
3 Flachwendelspne
3 Corkscrew (or washer-type helical) chips 8 Spiral chips 8 Spiralspne
44 Schrgwendelspne
Conical helical chips 9 Spanlocken
9 Arc chips (or chip curls or short comma chips)
55 lange
Long Wendelspne
tubular chips 10 Discontinuous10(or Brckelspne
elemental or short comma) chips

Fig. 16: Classification of chip forms (Source: [19])

22 | DKI Monograph i.18


aunhofer IPT Seite 17
4 Classification of copper-based materials into
machinability groups

4.1 Standardization of copper composition-based classification or any single characteristic parameter,


materials scheme is unsuitable for categorizing as is possible for properties such as
The EN standards provide information materials according to their machin- mechanical strength or hardness. Any
on the chemical composition, proper- ability because alloys in the same alloy assessment of machinability has to
ties and main applications of copper group often exhibit different machin- take into account a number of differ-
alloys, with a distinction being made ability properties. ent criteria. Which criteria are most
between standards for wrought alloys important will depend on the particu-
and standards for casting alloys. For lar machining operation being consid-
each of these two main classes of alloy, 4.2 Machinability assessment ered a fact that makes it impossible
the materials are further classified into criteria to order machinability criteria into a
alloy groups (see Table 6 and Table 7). As already discussed in Section 3, the single generally applicable system.
Although the properties of copper machinability of a material is a highly
materials are mainly determined by complex property that cannot be de- It is also not enough to simply consid-
the composition of the alloy, this scribed adequately by any one term er one or two assessment criteria as

Designation
Designation Further subdivisions
(non-standardized)
Copper - oxygen-containing; oxygen-free;
non-deoxidized; silver-bearing oxygen-free;
phosphorous deoxidized

Low-alloyed copper alloys - non age-hardenable


(alloying elements < 5 %) age-hardenable
Copper-aluminium alloys Aluminium bronze binr (without other elements)

Multi-component aluminium bronzes with additional Fe, Mn, Ni

Copper-nickel alloys - -

Copper-nickel-zinc alloys Nickel silver without additional alloying elements


with added lead to improve machinability
Copper-tin alloys Tin bronze binary alloy

Multi-component aluminium bronzes with additional zinc

Copper-zinc alloys, binary alloys Brass without other alloying elements

free-cutting brass with additional lead

Copper-zinc alloys, multi-component alloys Special brass with other alloying elements

Table 6: Wrought copper alloys (Classification as per CEN/TS 13388)

Designation Designation (non-standardized)

Copper unalloyed

Copper-chromium casting alloys Copper-chromium

Copper-zinc casting alloys Brass


Special brass
Copper-tin casting alloys Tin bronze

Copper-tin-zinc-lead casting alloys Gunmetal

Copper-aluminium casting alloys Aluminium bronze

Copper-manganese-aluminium casting alloys -

Copper-nickel casting alloys -

Table 7: Copper casting alloys (Classification as per EN 1982)

DKI Monograph i.18 | 23


complex relationships can exist be- machining performance of different However, as the test is very time-con-
tween the various criteria. As discussed steels to be compared under typical suming and as significant quantities of
in Section 3, the main criteria used to production conditions. material are required to perform the
assess machinability are tool wear, tool The Copper Development Association test, data are not currently available
life, chip formation, cutting forces and (CDA) subsequently applied the test to for all copper alloys.
surface quality. a variety of copper-based materials in
order to assess their relative machin- In Europe, the copper alloy used for
Nevertheless, in order to provide prac- ability and to compare them with steel reference purposes is the free-cutting
titioners with a basic overview of the and other alloys (see Fig. 1). The test brass CuZn39Pb3; in the USA it is the
machinability of the materials avail- generally known as ASTM E618 is alloy CuZn36Pb3. These materials are
able, a machinability rating index for based on the volume production of a considered to exhibit optimum ma-
copper and copper alloys has become standard part, see Fig. 17. The standard chinability and are therefore assigned
established in the literature and in the part itself is designed to be fabricated a defined machinability rating of 100.
technical documentation published using the most common operations Decreasing machinability is repre-
by copper producers. In Europe, the on automatic screw machines: rough sented by reducing the machinability
reference material used for comparison turning, fine turning and drilling. The index in steps of 10 down to the mini-
purposes is the lead-bearing free- goal of the test is to determine the mum value of 20.
cutting brass CuZn39Pb3, while in the maximum number of standard parts
USA it is the alloy CuZn36Pb3. These that can be produced in eight hours. Machinability indices for copper alloys
reference materials have been assigned A number of test runs are performed are provided by the German Copper In-
a machinability index of 100. The rating to optimize the machining parameters stitute (DKI) in its material data sheets,
index ranges from 100 for copper alloys such that the form tool only needs to by the American Copper Development
with excellent machinability charac- be changed after eight hours. The as- Association and by copper produ-
teristics down to 20 for those that are sessment criteria used are dimensional cers. As a rule, machinability indices
very hard to machine. accuracy and the surface finish of the are not based on specific measured
machined part. The maximum number values. They provide a ranking system
based primarily on tool wear and chip
rbauteil nach copper ASTM
alloy is madeE618
mainly und die Position der Formwerkzeuge
Formwerkzeuge. Fr
The machinability index assigned to a of parts produced is determined for
particular each of the materials to be compared formation. A machinability index may
ng andrawn
denfromKupferlegierungen
on the basis of experience and data
practical applications.
wurde der Halbzeugdurchmesser auf
and the values are then ranked. The
resulting machinability index is there-
therefore vary slightly in magnitude
depending on source.
t und
d These
di
dievalues
G
Geometrie t isupport
have received angepasst.
from
a series of experimental studies. In 1977,
t Dies
Di ist
i t laut
l t ASTM E618 zulssig l i
fore a measure of the productivity level
achievable during volume production
ikation fr alle
the American zu vergleichenden
standardization body Werkstoffe gleich
4.3 The ist. [THIE90,
effect of casting, cold
operations using one material compar-
ASTM developed a test that allows the ed to when another material is used. forming and age hardening on
machinability
When machining cast copper alloys, it
is important to realize that the proper-
Schlicht-
Schlicht
Finish form ties of the casting skin are significantly
25.4
25,4mm
mm werkzeug
tool different to those of the core material.
Bar stock
Halbzeug Generally speaking, the skin of the cast
alloy is much stronger and harder than
that of the bulk material. This has a
detrimental effect on tool wear and
can result in a substantial worsening
of surface quality and dimensional
accuracy.

The hardness and tensile strength of


cast parts are generally lower than
rolled or drawn products of the same
composition, with elongation values
varying within a broad band. If the
Schruppwerkzeug
Rough form tool casting skin is ignored, it is generally
the case that casting alloys are more
readily machinable than wrought al-
loys because of their microstructure.
Fig. 17: Standard part used in the ASTM E618 test and the position of the form tool. For the tests
performed on copper alloys, the diameter of the bar stock was reduced to 19 mm and the geo-
metry of the part adjusted accordingly. This is permitted under ASTM E618 if the modification is Microstructure inhomogeneities, pores
made for all the materials being compared. [1] and non-metallic inclusions all create

24 | DKI Monograph i.18


additional dynamic loads at the tools zinc alloys insensitive to stress corro- grades exhibit a certain degree of
cutting edge and this can cause edge sion cracking; improving the materials microstructural inhomogeneity, which
chipping or frittering and significant elastic properties without any reduc- to a small extent has a favourable
reductions in tool life. Hard inclusions tion in strength. effect on chip formation and a unfa-
of aluminium oxide (corundum, spi- vourable influence on tool life. While
nel), silicon carbide, silicides, such as Due to the relatively low modulus of the differences are not large, oxygen-
iron silicide, or quartz are particularly elasticity of copper alloys, parts ex- free coppers tend to exhibit a greater
unwelcome when machining. Porosity, hibiting high resilience after under- degree of stickiness, making oxygen-
e.g. gas porosity caused by small cavi- going major cold forming should be bearing coppers generally preferable
ties or voids, can also have a similarly processed in machines that operate for machining purposes.
negative impact on tool wear, but the without any play. If necessary, the
effect is likely to be less pronounced workpiece has to be supported. In Chip formation can be improved by
than that due to repeatedly inter- view of particularly pronounced strain adding chip-breaking elements such as
rupted cutting. hardening that copper-based materials lead, sulphur, tellurium and selenium.
undergo, they should, whenever pos- The chips break into fine needle-like
The cold working of copper alloys leads sible, be machined in their hardened fragments that are ejected from the
to greater material hardness and ten- state. This is in fact one of the reasons cutting zone. In Germany the prefer-
sile strength and a reduction in elonga- why large differences in machinability red alloys are CuSP with 0.20.7 % S
tion. These changes in the mechanical are sometimes observed for the same and CuTeP with 0.40.7 % Te, whereas
properties have a favourable effect material. internationally CuPb1P with 0.71.5 %
on machinability. In particular, these lead has established itself as the alloy
materials show better chip breaking Machining of age hardenable (precipi- of choice. The addition of tellurium
characteristics than materials that have tation hardenable) copper alloys is best reduces the electrical conductivity only
not been strain hardened through cold carried out on the cold-formed mate- by about 58 %. These alloys are used
forming. rial prior to precipitation heat treat- for electrical engineering applications
ment, as cutting tool wear would be that require materials with both
Cold forming of wrought alloys can too great after hardening has occurred. good electrical conductivity and good
produce strain within the material, as The only operations favoured when the machinability.
the forming process frequently only material is in its precipitation harden-
affects a portion of the materials ed state are grinding and polishing. As even traces of tellurium can sub-
crosssection. For instance, when cold To prevent material hardening due to stantially lower the hot forming prop-
drawing a rod, the outer layers of high cutting temperatures, cutting flu- erties of copper alloys, it is important
the material are subjected to tensile ids should be used to ensure adequate to prevent chips of CuTeP mixing with
stresses while the bulk of the material cooling and lubrication. other copper chips. The same applies
is in compression. A similar situation to CuSP, as sulphur impurities have a
is found in cold skin-rolled semi-fin- detrimental effect on the cold forming
ished stock. Completely removing the 4.4 Alloying elements and their capacity of copper alloys.
outer layers of the material, as occurs effect on machinability
in turning, may in some cases result in Pure copper is difficult to machine be- In terms of chip formation and tool
a lengthening of the rod. Conversely, cause of its high ductility and high cold life, alloys of copper with zinc, tin,
milling slots, grooves or keyways, or workability. Tool wear is very high and nickel and aluminium show machining
indeed performing any other ma- chip formation very poor. As chip com- characteristics similar to those of pure
chining operation that removes only pression is substantial, the cutting copper, provided that the microstruc-
a part of a material layer, can cause edge is subjected to large mechanical tures of these alloys are composed of
twisting or bending of the workpiece. loads. The long tubular chips that form homogeneous mixed crystals (solid
Difficulties of this nature can also arise when pure copper is machined are solutions).
when processing non-circular tubing, difficult to handle and remove. As the
e.g. in form turning, or when planing cutting pressure remains uniform when Quite different machining properties
or milling cold-rolled sheet. machining pure copper, chatter marks are shown by heterogeneous cop-
tend not to form. There is however a per alloys that do not contain any
Deficiencies of this kind can, however, risk of built-up edge formation when chip-breaking elements. The group of
be eliminated by subjecting the ma- machining pure copper and this can heterogeneous copper alloys consists
chined parts to stress-relief annealing lead to a poor machined finish. The of copper-based alloys containing the
for about one hour. Copper can be tendency to form a built-up edge de- elements zinc, tin, nickel or aluminium
treated at a temperature between 150 creases with increasing cutting speed at concentrations so high that a second
and 180C, while copper-zinc alloys are and greater feed rates. mixed crystal is formed. The second
treated between 250 and 300C. This mixed crystal, which is usually harder
sort of heat treatment is equivalent to As copper oxide does not dissolve in and more brittle than the primary
the procedure used to make copper- copper, the oxygen-bearing copper mixed crystal, causes an increase in

DKI Monograph i.18 | 25


the tensile strength and hardness of strength and impact-resistant copper- or hot working brasses) that con-
the alloy at the expense of its elon- aluminium alloys. tain between 54 and 63 % of copper.
gation and formability, particularly its In their soft state, the single-phase
cold workability. In this regard here, Lead-bearing copper alloys are only of -brasses behave similarly to pure
mention should also be made of the limited applicability if the workpiece copper in terms of chip formation and
multi-component copper alloys that undergoes subsequent soldering or tool life. The hardness and tensile
contain more than two alloying com- welding. The same applies to work- strength of these materials increases
ponents. pieces that, in addition to being with rising zinc content or through cold
machined, are also subjected to work hardening, leading to a slight
The machinability of heterogeneous extensive cold forming operations. improvement in machinability.
(i.e. two-phase or multiphase) copper
alloys is significantly better than that Alloys containing chip-breaking addi- Better machinability is shown by het-
of the homogeneous single-phase tives form fine, needle-like chips or erogeneous copper-zinc alloys, such as
copper alloys. In alloys with low discontinuous chips. The manner in CuZn40. The so-called special brasses,
elongation, such as the cast copper-tin which chips are formed when machin- i.e. copper-zinc alloys that contain
alloys, the chips break to form short ing leaded copper alloys makes them other elements except lead, also show
spiral chips. In alloys exhibiting high more susceptible to chatter marks than somewhat better machining properties
elongation, such as CuZn40Mn2, the lead-free copper alloys of the same than the single-phase -brasses. This
chips formed are either short spiral tensile strength. This can be counter- is particularly true of chip formation,
chips or long cylindrical chips depend- acted by using machines that operate though tool life is effected negative-
ing on the feed rate deployed, with without any play and by using tools ly due to the presence of the harder
the latter being formed at low feeds. and tool holders of sufficient rigidity. components of the second mixed
On the other hand, the cutting forces crystal (tin, aluminium, nickel, silicon,
The process of chip formation can lead that need to be applied when machin- manganese).
to tool vibrations, which, if of large ing leaded copper alloys are low, as
enough amplitude, can cause chatter can be seen in Table 3. The excellent Optimal machining properties in terms
marks on the workpiece. This can be machinability of leaded copper alloys of chip formation (see Fig. 18c) and
counteracted by using tools and tool is attributable to the ease with which tool life are shown by the so-called
holders of maximum stiffness and the material can be broken into tiny leaded brasses, i.e. (+)-copper-zinc
minimizing tool overhang. fragments. In addition to the low cut- alloys that contain added lead. For
ting forces, the service life of the cut- turning operations, particularly those
The machinability of heterogeneous ting tools are also longer, being limited carried out on automatic screw machin-
two-phase copper alloys is reduced as only by the average flank wear. es, the alloys with the best machin-
a result of the presence of the second ability are CuZn39Pb3 and CuZn40Pb2.
harder mixed crystal. Increasing tin It should, however, also be recalled
content, e.g. in copper-tin casting that fine needle-like chips can be Lead is practically insoluble in the
alloys, causes a drop in cutting speed disadvantageous as they can block copper-zinc alloy, and when finely
for the same tool life. Aluminium and the cutting fluid filters. Copper alloys dispersed it acts as an excellent chip
larger quantities of iron and nickel also that produce longer chips may also breaker and in some cases even as
have a detrimental effect on the ma- be preferable when drilling, as this a friction-reducing lubricant. A lead
chinability of copper alloys. The ma- chip form is easier to remove from the content greater than 3.5 % is uncom-
chining properties of multi-component drilled hole. mon, as it then becomes too difficult
copper-aluminium alloys approach to achieve a highly dispersed distri-
those of steel. In what follows, we shall take a closer bution of the lead within the copper-
look at the machinability of the indi- zinc alloy. The small improvement in
As already discussed for pure copper, vidual groups of copper alloys in order machinability that could be achieved if
chip-breaking additives can increase to better understand why copper alloys higher lead concentrations were used
the machinability of copper alloys. The are classified into three main machin- does not provide sufficient justification
sole chip-breaking alloying element ability categories. for accepting the associated deterio-
used in copper alloys is lead. Add- ration in mechanical properties. For
ing lead to the alloy has only a minor In the case of copper-zinc alloys (i.e. brasses that will not only be machin-
effect on the materials mechanical the brasses), a distinction is made bet- ed, but will also undergo cold or hot
strength. However, the ability of the ween the single-phase solid-solution forming, the lead content is limited to
alloy to undergo cold forming and its -copper-zinc alloys (also known as about 1.5 %. Too high a concentration
ability to withstand impact and shock alpha brasses or cold working of lead also impairs polishability.
are both reduced significantly. For brasses), which contain at least 63%
these reasons and particularly because of copper, and the heterogeneous Further the European Directive 2000/53/EC
the hot forming properties are im- two-phase (+)-copper-zinc alloys restricts the use of automobile com-
paired, lead is not added to high- (alpha-beta brasses, duplex brasses ponents containing heavy metals and

26 | DKI Monograph i.18


the EU Directive 2002/95/EC rules the promote tool wear so that compared -mixed crystals. Like other single-
lead content in electrical and electronic with other copper alloys the cutting phase copper-based materials, these
equipment. However an exemption speed has to be reduced. alloys are difficult to machine as they
rule applies to copper-based materials tend to produce long, ductile chips.
that allow a maximum lead content The cast copper-tin-zinc alloys have Better machinability is exhibited by
of 4 percent by weight. The European a heterogeneous microstructure and the two-phase aluminium bronzes and
Directive 98/83/EC states that plumbing those that contain added lead also multi-component aluminium bronzes.
materials must release no more than exhibit good machinability. The same However, because of their high tensile
25 g of lead (Pb) per litre of drinking applies to the leaded cast copper-tin strength and hardness these materials
water, and as of 2013, no more than alloy CuSn11Pb2-C. These materials are cause substantial tool wear. Compared
10 g Pb/l will be permitted. solid lubricants to which the added with cast copper-tin bronzes, an alloy
lead content may significantly exceed such as CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C has to be ma-
Efforts to find a suitable element to 3 % in order to achieve the desired chined at a much lower cutting speed
replace lead as an additive in copper- lubrication and casting properties. to maintain the same tool life. Silicon-
based alloys led to the development bearing copper-aluminium alloys, such
of a lead-free silicon-bearing copper Machinability that is as good or better as CuAl7Si, may contain hard inclusions
alloy for use in sanitary fittings. The is exhibited by the heterogeneous cast of iron silicides as a result of contam-
machinability of this material is at a leaded tin bronzes that contain up to ination with iron. Carbide tools are
level comparable to that of the leaded 26 % of added lead to improve lubri- therefore recommended when machin-
brasses (Fig. 18b; machinability group I). cation properties. ing this type of material. The machin-
The silicon-rich phases in the micro- ability of the heterogeneous two-phase
structure (kappa phases) act as chip The strengthening influence of nickel aluminium bronzes is more like that of
breakers. Compared to lead, these in heterogeneous but lead-free cop- medium-hard steel grades than that of
phases are hard chip breakers [20]. per-nickel-zinc alloys (nickel silvers) other copper-based materials.
As the silicon increases the strength of also tends to reduce tool life.
the material and the -phase acts as In contrast, the machinability of lead-
an abrasive, tool wear is greater than ed nickel silvers is almost as good as
when machining leaded alloys. that of the free-cutting brasses. Tool
lives, however, are significantly shorter
In copper-tin alloys (i.e. the tin due to the greater hardness of the
bronzes) the boundary between nickel silvers.
homogeneous single-phase and
heterogeneous two-phase alloys lies The single-phase copper-nickel alloys
at around only 8 %. Nevertheless, the are extremely difficult to machine due
two-phase cast tin bronzes with higher to their strong propensity to form burrs
tin content also tend to be less easy and very long, ductile chips.
to machine when assessed in terms
of tool wear and chip formation (Fig. Copper-aluminium alloys (aluminium
18a). And while cast tin bronzes are bronzes) exhibit a homogeneous sin-
more machinable than single-phase gle-phase micro-structure up to about
wrought bronzes, the increase in ten- 8 % aluminium. The microstructure of
sile strength and hardness that accom- single-phase binary copper-alumin-
panies increasing tin content tends to ium alloys consists of relatively soft

a b c

CuSn8P CuZn21Si3P CuZn39Pb3


f=0,12 mm ap=1 mm Mineral oil ISO VG 15

Fig. 18 Chip forms

DKI Monograph i.18 | 27


4.5 Classification of copper and cold form. The greater cold formability copper alloy with a lead content below
copper alloys into main of type II copper alloys means that they the maximum permissible limit depends
machinability groups generally produce longer chips than on the actual concentration of lead in
Copper and copper alloys are con- the type I alloys. the alloy. Under certain conditions, the
ventionally classified into three main lead content may justify reclassifying
machinability groups, with each main Machinability group III a type II copper alloy as type I or vice
group containing materials of similar (Type III or long-chip alloys) versa.
machinability. The broad classifica- This group contains those copper-based
tion into the three main machina- materials that are harder to machine In each of the three main machinability
bility groups is based on estimations than the alloys in groups I and II. The groups a distinction is made between
of the assessment criteria discussed single-phase microstructures of these wrought and cast alloys. The machin-
in Section 3. For copper and copper materials and their excellent cold work- ability of the copper alloys can vary
alloys, the main machinability criteria ability result in higher cutting forces significantly, even between materials
of relevance are chip form and wear. and long, ductile chips. The excellent in the same machinability group. The
In addition to the attributes chip form cold forming properties of low-alloyed tables have been supplemented by
and tool wear, micro-structure is also copper-based alloys seriously impair machinability ratings for the individual
used to assist classification as it too chip formation and result in accelerated alloys (see earlier discussion). These
has a significant influence on a mate- tool wear. Homogeneous (i.e. single- ratings enable the materials within a
rials machinability. Table Table 8 lists phase, solid-solution) copper alloys main group to be distinguished more
the attributes used to classify copper containing zinc, tin, nickel or alumin- precisely. The machinability ratings of
and copper alloys into the three main ium also exhibit poor chip forming the alloys in group I range from 100 to
machinability groups. qualities and low tool lives. Type III 70, those in group II vary from 60 to 40,
materials also include heterogeneous while the materials in group III exhibit
Machinability group I alloys such as the high-strength copper- machinability ratings from 30 to 20. The
(Type I or free-cutting alloys) aluminium alloys and the low-alloyed, machinability rating is based partly on
This group includes copper-based strain-hardened copper alloys. experimental evidence and partly on
materials containing added lead, tel- experience. It is important to realize
lurium or sulphur with a homogeneous Tables Table 9, Table 10 and Table 11 that the machinability ratings listed
or heterogeneous microstructure. The present the conventional classification were determined using a variety of
excellent machinability of the type of standardized copper and copper alloy different constraints and criteria. There
I materials is due to the addition of materials into the machinability groups is therefore a degree of uncertainty and
these chip-breaking elements. I, II and III respectively. Classification imprecision associated with the quoted
was based primarily on expected rating values and with their applicability
Machinability group II chip formation, though for a number to a particular machining situation. In
(Type II or short-chip alloys) of hard-to-machine type III alloys, turning work, the applicability of the
Type II copper alloys are mostly lead- classification was based on the more rating figures is estimated to be around
free and exhibit moderate to good ma- pronounced tool wear. 70 %.
chinability. They are generally harder
than type I materials with a heteroge- As chip formation is strongly dependent
neous microstructure and are easier to on lead content, the machinability of a

Attributes Machinability group

I II III
(Type I Alloys) (Type II Alloys) (Type III Alloys)
Microstructure homogeneous/heterogeneous Heterogeneous a) homogeneous
structure with chip-breaking (coarse particulate phase) b) heterogeneous
particles (Pb, S, Te) no Pb particles (finely dispersed deposits)

Chip form short medium length long and ductile (tightly coiled
(discontinuous, brittle chips) (coiled cylindrical chips) cylindrical, tangled or ribbon chips)
Tool wear low medium high

Cold workability of generally poor generally good a) very good


wrought materials b) low
Hot workability of generally good moderately good a) moderately good
wrought materials b) good

Table 8: Conventional scheme for classifying the machinability of copper and copper alloys

28 | DKI Monograph i.18


Material 0,2% yield
Tensile Elongation Tool
strength Hardness Machinability
Alloy group I strength Rm after frac- geometry
Designation Number Number Rp0,2 [HB] rating
[N/mm2] ture A [%] designator
(EN) (UNS) [N/mm2]
Low-alloyed
CuPb1P CW113C C18700 - 80
copper alloys non-
age-hardenable
CuSP CW114C C14700 250 360 200 - 320 5-7 90-110 C* 80

CuTeP CW118C C14500 C* 80


Copper-nickel-zinc
CuNi7Zn39Pb3Mn2 CW400J - 510 - 680 400 -600 5 - 12 150 - 200 - 90
alloys
CuNi10Zn42Pb2 CW402J C79800 510 - 590 350 - 450 5 - 12 160 - 190 A / A* 80

CuNi12Zn30Pb1 CW406J C79300 420 - 650 280 - 600 8 - 20 130 - 180 A / A* 70


Copper-tin-zinc
CuSn4Zn4Pb4 CW456K C54400 450 - 720 350 - 680 10 150 - 210 - 80
alloys

Copper-tin alloy CuSn5Pb1 CW458K C53400 450 - 720 350 - 680 10 150 - 210 - 70
Wrought copper alloys

Leaded binary
CuZn35Pb2 CW601N C34200 330 - 440 150 - 340 14 - 30 90 - 130 A 90
copper-zinc alloys
CuZn36Pb2As CW602N C35330 280 - 430 120 - 200 15 - 30 80 - 110 - 80

CuZn36Pb3 CW603N C35600 340 - 550 160 - 450 8 - 20 90 - 150 A 100

CuZn38Pb1 CW607N C37000 A 80

CuZn38Pb2 CW608N C37700 A 90


360 - 550 150 - 420 8 - 25 90 - 150
CuZn39Pb0,5 CW610N C36500 A 70

CuZn39Pb2 CW612N - A 90

CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 A 100


360 - 550 150 - 420 8 - 20 90 - 150
CuZn40Pb2 CW617N C37700 - 90

CuZn43Pb2Al CW624N - as fabricated - 80


Multi-component
CuZn40Mn1Pb CW720R - 390 - 560 200 - 500 10 - 20 110 - 160 A 60
copper-zinc alloys
CuZn21Si3P CW724R C69300 530 - 700 300 - 450 10 - 20 - 80*
Copper-tin casting
alloy CuSn11Pb2-C CC482K - 240 - 280 130 - 150 5 80 90 A 70

Copper-tin and
CuSn3Zn8Pb5-C CC490K - 180 - 220 85 - 100 12 - 15 60 - 70 A 90
copper-tin-zinc
casting alloys
CuSn3Zn9Pb7-C - C84400 200 - 234 - 16 - 26 55 - 90

CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C CC491K C83600 180 - 220 85 - 100 12 - 15 60 - 70 A 90


Copper casting alloys

CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C CC493K C93200 230 - 260 120 12 - 15 60 - 70 A 90

CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C CC499K - 200 - 250 90 - 110 6 - 13 60 - 65 - 90


Copper-lead and
CuPb10Sn10-C CC495K C93700 180 - 220 80 - 110 3-8 60 - 70 A 90
copper-tin casting
alloys
CuSn7Pb15-C CC496K CC93800 170 - 200 80 - 90 7-8 60 - 65 A 90
Copper-zinc casting
CuZn33Pb2-C CC750S - 180 70 12 45 - 50 A 80
alloys
CuZn39Pb1Al-C CC754S - 220 - 350 80 - 250 4 - 15 65 - 110 - 80

CuZn16Si4-C CC761S C87800 400 - 530 230 - 370 5 - 10 100 - 150 A* 70*
* the use of a cutting tool with a chip breaker is recommended
Table 9: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials
Machinability group I: Copper-based materials with excellent machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 29


Material Tensile 0,2% yield Elongati-
Tool
strength strength on after Hardness Machinability
Alloy group II geometry
Designation Number Number Rm Rp0,2 fracture [HB] rating
designator
(EN) (UNS) [N/mm2] [N/mm2] A [%]
Low-alloyed copper
alloys, hardenable CuNi2SiCr C81540 40*
in cold-worked and
precipitation- CuNi3Si1 CW112C C70250 700 - 800 630 - 780 10 180 - 200 A* 40*
hardened state
Copper-nickel-zinc
CuNi18Zn19Pb1 CW408J C76300 420 - 650 280 - 600 8 - 20 130 - 180 A / A* 60
alloys
Binary copper-zinc
CuZn40 CW509L C28000 340 260 25 80 A* 40
alloys
Wrought copper alloys

Leaded binary copper-


CuZn37Pb0,5 CW604N C33500 300 - 440 200 - 320 10 - 45 55 - 115 A 60
zinc alloys
Multi-component
CuZn31Si1 CW708R C69800 460 - 530 250 - 330 12 - 22 115 - 145 A* 40
copper-zinc alloys

CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CW710R 490 - 550 300 - 400 10 - 20 120 - 150 A* 50

CuZn37Mn3Al2PbSi CW713R 540 - 640 280 - 400 5 - 15 150 - 180 A / A* 50

CuZn38Mn1Al CW716R 210 - 280 10 - 18 120 - 150 A* 40

CuZn39Sn1 CW719R C46400 340 - 460 170 - 340 12 - 30 80 -145 A* 40

CuZn40Mn2Fe1 CW723R 460 - 540 270 - 320 8 - 20 110 150 A* 50

Copper-aluminium
CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C CC332G 500 - 600 180 - 250 18 - 20 100 130 C* 50
casting alloys

CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C CC333G C95500 600 - 650 250 - 280 7 - 13 140 150 50

Copper-tin casting
Copper casting alloys

CuSn12-C CC483K C90800 260 - 300 140 - 150 5-7 80 - 90 A* 50


alloys

CuSn12Ni2-C CC484K C91700 280 - 300 160 - 180 8 - 12 85 - 95 A 40

Copper-zinc casting
CuZn32Al2Mn2Fe1-C CC763S 430 - 440 150 - 330 3 - 10 100 - 130 A* 40*
alloys

CuZn34Mn3Al2Fe1-C CC764S 600 - 620 250 - 260 10 - 15 140 - 150 A* 40*

CuZn37Al1-C CC766S 450 170 25 105 A* 40

CuZn38Al-C CC767S 380 130 30 75 A* 40

* the use of a cutting tool with a chip breaker is recommended

Table 10: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group II: Copper-based materials with good to moderate machining properties

30 | DKI Monograph i.18


Alloy group III Material Tensile 0,2% Elonga- Hardness Tool Machi-
strength Yield tion [HB] geo- nability
Designation Number Number
Rm strength after metry rating
(EN) (UNS)
Rp0,2 fracture desig-
[N/mm2] [N/mm2] A [%] nator
Copper Cu-OFE CW009A C10100 200 - 350 120 - 320 5 - 35 35 - 110 C* 20
CuAg0,10 CW013A C11600 200 - 350 120 - 320 5 - 35 35 100 C* 20
CuAg0,1P CW016A - C* 20
260 220 - 12
Cu-HCP CW021A - C* 20
Cu-DHP CW024A C12200 200 - 350 80 - 330 5 - 35 35 - 110 C* 20
Low-alloyed copper alloys, CuBe1,7 CW100C C17000 - - - - A 20
harde-nable, solution- CuBe2 CW101C C17200 1150 - 1300 1000 - 1150 2 320 - 350 A 30
annealed, cold-worked and CuCo2Be CW104C C17500 700 - 800 630 - 730 5 200 - 220 A 30
precipitation-hardened
CuCr1Zr CW106C C18150 400 - 470 310 - 380 8 - 12 135 - 180 A* 30
CuNi1Si CW109C - 500 - 590 420 - 570 10 - 12 140 - 160 A* 30
CuNi2Be CW110C C17510 700 - 800 630 - 730 5 200 - 220 30
CuNi2Si CW111C C64700 550 - 640 430 - 620 10 155 - 180 B* 30
CuZr CW120C C15000 280 - 350 180 - 260 18 - 20 90 - 130 20
Low-alloyed copper alloys, CuBe2 CW101C C17200 580 - 650 450 - 500 8 - 10 155 - 240 B / B* 20
harde-nable, solution- CuCo2Be CW104C C17500 400 - 500 330 - 430 8 - 10 110 - 175 B 30
annealed, cold-worked CuNi1Si CW109C 300 - 410 210 - 320 9 - 16 85 - 150 B* 20
CuNi2Si CW111C C64700 320 - 410 230 - 370 8 15 90 - 165 A* 30
CuNi3Si1 CW112C C70250 450 - 580 390 - 550 8 - 10 135 - 210 A 30
Low-alloyed copper alloys,
harde-nable, solution- CuCr1Zr CW106C C18150 200 60 30 65 - 90 B* 20
Wrought copper alloys

annealed
Low-alloyed copper alloys CuSi3Mn1 CW116C C65500 380 - 900 260 - 890 8 - 50 85 - 210 - 30
non-age-hardenable CuSn0,15 CW117C C14200 250 - 420 320 - 490 2-9 60 - 120 - 20
Copper-aluminium alloys CuAl10Fe3Mn2 CW306G - 590 - 690 330 - 510 6 - 12 140 - 180 - 30
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 CW307G C63000 680 - 740 480 - 530 8 - 10 170 - 210 - 30
Copper-nickel alloys CuNi25 CW350H C71300 290 100 - 70 - 100 - 20
CuNi10Fe1Mn CW352H C70600 280 - 350 90 - 150 10 - 30 70 - 100 A / A* 20
CuNi30Mn1Fe CW354H C71500 340 - 420 120 - 180 14 - 30 80 - 110 A / A* 20
Copper-nickel-zinc alloys CuNi12Zn24 CW403J C75700 380 - 640 270 - 550 5 - 38 90 190 A / A* 20
CuNi18Zn20 CW409J - 400 - 650 280 - 580 11 - 35 100 - 210 A / A* 20
Copper-tin alloys CuSn4 CW450K C51100 320 - 450 140 - 160 55 80 130 - 20
CuSn5 CW451K C51000 330 - 540 220 - 480 20 - 45 80 - 170 - 20
CuSn6 CW452K C51900 340 - 550 230 - 500 4 - 35 15 - 45 A* 20
CuSn8 CW453K C52100 390 - 620 260 - 550 15 - 45 90 190 A* 20
CuSn8P CW459K - 390 - 620 260 - 550 15 - 45 90 190 A* 30
Binary copper-zinc alloys CuZn5 CW500L C21000 240 - 350 60 - 310 15 - 30 55 115 A* 20
CuZn10 CW501L C22000 270 - 380 80 - 350 14 - 28 60 125 A* 20
CuZn15 CW502L C23000 290 - 430 100 - 390 12 - 27 75 - 135 A* 30
CuZn20 CW503L C24000 300 - 450 110 - 410 10 - 27 80 140 B* 30
CuZn28 CW504L - B* 30
CuZn30 CW505L C26000 310 - 460 120 - 420 10 - 27 85 145 B* 30
CuZn33 CW506L C26800 B* 30
CuZn36 CW507L C27200 A / B* 30
310 - 440 120 - 400 12 - 30 70 - 140
CuZn37 CW508L C27400 A / B* 30
Multi-component copper- CuZn20Al2As CW702R C68700 340 390 120 - 150 40 - 45 65 - 95 A 30
zinc alloys CuZn28Sn1AS CW706R C44300 320 - 360 100 - 140 45 - 55 60 - 110 A* 30
Copper-aluminium
Copper casting alloys

CuAl10Fe2-C CC331G C95200 500 - 600 180 - 250 15 - 20 100 130 B* 20


casting alloys
Copper-nickel CuNi10Fe1Mn1-C CC380H C96200 280 100 - 120 20 - 25 70 A* 20
casting alloys CuNi30Fe1Mn1NbSi-C CC383H C96400 440 230 18 115 A* 20
Copper-zinc
casting alloys CuZn25Al5Mn4Fe3-C CC762S C86100 440 450 - 480 5-8 180 - 190 A* 30*

* the use of a cutting tool with a chip breaker is recommended


Table 11: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials
Machinability group III: Copper-based materials with moderate to poor machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 31


5 Cutting-tool materials

The principal tool materials used to ma- j) HS2-9-1 1.3346 material. For these applications, high-
chine copper-based materials are high- k) HS2-9-2 1.3348 speed tool steels produced by powder
speed steels (HSS), cemented carbides l) HS6-5-3 1.3344 metallurgical methods are preferred.
and synthetic diamond. Plain carbon m) HS6-5-2C 1.3343
tool steels play no role in this field.
Cobalt (Co) is sometimes added to these 5.2 Carbides
steels to improve their hot hardness Carbides are sintered composite ma-
5.1 High-speed steel and their tempering resistance, while terials comprising a metallic binder
High-speed steels (HSS) are highly alloy- vanadium (V) is added to increase (typically cobalt) into which the car-
ed tool steels. High-speed steels differ resistance to wear. A number of these bides (WC, TiC, TaC, etc.) are embedded.
from other types of steel in that they steels, such as HS6-5-2C (material no. The function of the binder is to bind
contain a high concentration of carbides 1.3343) have a higher carbon content in the brittle carbide particles together
that gives these materials a relatively order to lengthen tool life. to form a relatively strong solid. The
high resistance to wear and good hot function of the carbides is to create a
hardness. The main alloying elements The high-speed steel HS10-4-3-0 (ma- material with a high hot hardness and
are tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, terial no. 1.3207; see above list) can be wear resistance.
cobalt and chromium. The hardness of recommended for many applications as
the high-speed steels is influenced by it exhibits high hot hardness and good Copper alloys are machined using tools
both the hardness of the base material wear resistance and therefore pro- made from uncoated WC-Co cemented
the martensite and the presence of longed tool life. However, a different carbides or using coated carbide tools.
the carbides. The tempering resistance HSS should be selected if the machin- Straight two-phase WC-Co carbides
of HSS is determined by the alloying ing process or tool geometry requires a consist exclusively of hard grains of
elements dissolved in the matrix. cutting-tool material of greater tungsten carbide (WC) embedded in
toughness. The toughest of the con- the cobalt (Co) binder. In the alloy-
High-speed steels are designated in ventional high-speed steels is the alloy ed WC-Co carbides part of the WC is
accordance with an established scheme: HS2-9-1 (material no. 1.3346), which replaced by vanadium carbide (VC),
They are identified by the initials HS is why small twist drills, end milling chromium carbide (Cr3C2) or tantalum/
followed by the percentage content of cutters, etc. are frequently manufac- niobium carbide ((Ta,Nb)C). WC-Co
tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and tured from this or a similar HSS. Milling carbides are characterized by high
cobalt. For example, the tool steel cutters and counterbores are produced abrasion resistance. The various grades
HS18-1-2-10 contains 18 % W, 1 % Mo, primarily from HS6-5-2 (material no. of WC-Co carbides available differ in
2 % V and 10 % Co. Designations such as 1.3243), reamers are generally made the relative content of cobalt binder
HSS, HSS-Co or other manufacturer- from HS6-5-3 (material no. 1.3344). and the size of the tungsten carbide
specific designations are of little value grains. With increasing cobalt content,
unless the composition of the HSS grade In addition to the high-speed steels the toughness of the cemented carbide
is unambiguously stated. produced by conventional metallurgi- rises at the expense of hardness and
cal processes, HSS materials produced wear resistance. The uncoated carbides
The conventionally produced high- by powder metallurgy (PM) are also used for finishing and semi-roughing
speed tool steels that are used for available commercially. Compared with operations typically contain about
machining copper and copper alloys are conventionally produced HSS materials, 6 % w/w of cobalt (WC-6Co). Tougher
divided into the high tungsten-alloyed those produced by PM generally exhibit cemented carbides with a higher cobalt
steels, with tungsten concentrations of a greater degree of alloying. Because of content (e.g. WC-9Co) are used for
above 12 %: the much finer distribution of carbide roughing operations or interrupted
particles within the microstructure, PM cuts.
Designation in acc. HSS alloys have a considerably better
with DIN EN ISO 4987 No. cuttingedge hardness than HSS types In terms of WC grain size, a distinction
produced by conventional metallurgi- is made between the conventional fine
a) HS18-1-2-10 1.3265 cal techniques. They are also easier to grain carbides with an average grain
b) HS18-1-2-5 1.3255 grind due to their finer grain structure size of 0.81.3 m, the finest grain
c) HS18-0-1 1.3355 and the absence of segregation streaks. carbides (0.50.8 m) and the ultrafine
d) HS12-1-4-5 1.3202 Both of these factors help to improve grain carbides (0.20.5 mm).
e) HS12-1-4 1.3302 tool life when performing difficult ma- If the cobalt binder content remains
f) HS12-1-2 1.3318 chining operations, such as tapping, constant, decreasing the WC grain size
profile reaming, gear hobbing and leads to an increase in hardness and
and the molybdenum-alloyed steels: gear shaping. The edge strength of the transverse rupture strength. High-qual-
cutting material is an important factor ity finest grain and ultrafine grain car-
g) HS10-4-3-10 1.3207 in such operations as chip flow is often bides exhibit superior hardness, edge
h) HS2-9-1-8 1.3247 restricted or because the cutting edge strength and toughness compared with
i) HS6-5-2-5 1.3243 engages very suddenly with the work conventional fine grain carbides [21].

32 | DKI Monograph i.18


These high-performance carbides are materials. Carbides in the application Coated tools show reduced wear
typically used for the production of groups N15N20 are preferred if the because of increased wear resistance
forming tools such as drills or end mill- machining operation requires a tool and reduced interfacial adhesion.
ing cutters. Cutting inserts for turning material with enhanced toughness, They also act as a diffusion barrier and
operations are usually made from fine such as when turning with geome- improve the tools thermal and chemi-
grain carbide with a grain size greater trically complex tools, or when the cal stability. The coatings used with the
than 0.8 mm. turning method produces an uncut cutting materials in main group N in-
chip of large area, or in uninterrup- clude TiAlN, TiN, AlCrN, CrN, AlTiCrN, DLC
According to the DIN ISO 513 standard, ted cutting. Compared with the N10 (a-C:H, a-C:Me) and diamond coatings.
copper-based work materials are in carbides, the N15-N20 carbides have a
main application group N (see Fig. 19). higher cobalt content and are corre-
Each of the main application groups spondingly tougher. 5.3 Diamond as a cutting material
(DIN ISO 513 distinguishes a total of six Diamond is composed of pure carbon
main groups) is further divided into and is the hardest of all known ma-
application groups (see Fig. 19). The Coatings terials. However, its extreme hardness
number after the letter N indicates The performance of (cemented carbide) makes it very brittle and therefore very
the toughness and wear resistance of cutting tools can be further improved sensitive to impact and thermal stress.
the cutting-tool material. The higher by coating. Coatings make high-speed These properties effectively define the
this number is, the higher the tough- machining possible and can significantly areas in which diamond is applied as
ness and therefore the lower the wear extend tool life. Coated carbides were a a cutting material. Both natural and
resistance of the cutting material. milestone in the development of cutting synthetic diamonds are used in machin-
Carbide manufacturers assign their tools that were both tough and wear- ing operations. Both monocrystalline
different carbide grades to one or more resistant. The most-important coating (DIN ISO 513 code: DM) and polycrystal-
suitable application groups depending materials are titanium carbide (TiC), tita- line diamond (DIN ISO 513 code: DP)
on the particular properties of the nium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminium are used. The abbreviation PCD is also
individual coated or uncoated carbide. nitride (TiAlN), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), frequently used when referring to tools

auptanwendungsgruppe
p g g pp N der harten Schneidstoffe nach DIN IS
Uncoated and coated carbides are
given the letter code designations HW
titanium carbonitride (TiCN), diamond-
like carbon (DLC) and diamond. By vary-
manufactured from polycrystalline
diamond.
and HC respectively. Examples of such ing the coating material, the structure
designations are: HW-N10 or HC-N20. of the coating layer, its thickness and Monocrystalline diamonds are par-
the coating method used, the properties ticularly well-suited for precision
Carbides in application group N10 of the coated material can be adjusted machining operations and are widely
exhibit the broadest application to suit the requirements of a specific applied in the field of ultra-precision
range when machining copper-based machining task. machining.

Hauptanwendungsgruppen
pMain applicationggroups
g pp Anwendungsgruppen
g groups
Application g pp
Kenn
Kenn- Kenn
Kenn- Werkstck-Werkstoff
Werkstck Werkstoff Harte
Code letter Colour code Workpiece material Hard cutting materials
buchstabe farbe Schneidstoffe

Nichteisenmetalle:
Non-ferrous metals: N01
N01 N05
N05
Aluminium und and other
aluminium N10
N10
NN green
Grn non-ferrous metals, N15
N15
andere Nichteisenmetalle, N20
N20
N25
non-metal materials N30 N25
Nichtmetallwerkstoffe N30

Zunehmende
increasing Schnittgeschwindigkeit,
cutting speed
zunehmende Verschleifestigkeit
increasing wear resistance of tool material des Schneidstoffs
Z
Zunehmender
h cutting
increasing d speed
V
Vorschub,
h b
zunehmende
increasing Zhigkeit
wear resistance of tooldes Schneidstoffs
material

Fig. 19: Main application group N of hard cutting materials (DIN ISO 513)

DKI Monograph i.18 | 33


begrenzt. In diesen Fllen reduziert sich der Einfluss des Schneidstoffs auf die anwendbare
Schnittgeschwindigkeit vc.

Eine weitere Einflussgre fr die Wahl des Schneidstoffs stellen die Werkzeugkosten je
Standzeit KWT dar. Sie ergeben sich angenhert nach VDI 3321 aus der Gleichung:

KWa
KWT = + KWw  (+KWs ) (22)
nT

PCD tools are used both for precision KWw Cost in associated with chan- same number of parts to be machined
machining andworin bedeuten:
for roughing operations. ging the worn tool in a faster time.
In some applications the rough machi-
WT Werkzeugkosten
ning and finishKmachining steps can be je 
KWs Standzeit in regrinding
Cost in for  the tool Such considerations generally lead to
combined intoK aWa
single step [22].
Anschaffungskosten (notWerkzeugs
des applicable if indexable
in  the conclusion that cemented carbide
nT Anzahl der Standzeiten inserts
(bei are used)
Wendeplatten Anzahl cutting
der tools (typically, N10 grade car-
Schneidkanten)
KWw Kosten fr das Wechseln des verschlissenen Werkzeugs inmuch bide) are  more preferable than
5.4 Selecting the cutting material Equation 22 shows that the cost of HSS tools. Indeed, carbide can remain
KWs Kosten fr das Nachschleifen des Werkzeugs (entfllt bei Wendeplatten) in 
The cost-effectiveness of a cutting ma- purchasing the tool KWa typically the material of choice even when cut-
terial depends Die on several factors. If(22)
Gleichung represents
no zeigt, dass only die aAnschaffungskosten
small fraction of the ting
K Wa speed
in der restrictions
Regel mean that therelativ
nur einen
restrictions are placed on the thickness total costs KWT associated with the number of parts produced per unit time
kleinen Anteil der Werkzeugkosten
of the uncut chip, the number of work-
je Standzeit KWT ausmachen.
service life of the tool. The two other
Die beiden anderen Sum-
is no greater than that achievable with
pieces machined per unit sind
manden time depends terms are generally larger.
meist grer. 52 a HSS tool. This is because the longer
on the cutting material used and is service life of a carbide tool allows a
given by the product h vc, where h is The tool costs associated with the pro- greater number of parts to be machin-
the thickness of
Schneidstoffs Die
theWerkzeugkosten
uncut chip and vc is jeduction
Werkstck of oneKpartW folgen dann given
are therefore der Gleichung
ed in one tool life, increasing the value
the applicable cutting speed. by the following equation: of nWT in Eq. 23. If indexable cutting
inserts are used, KWs, the third term in
If larger amounts of stock arevon
to bemehreren
K ab. Bei einer Eq. 22, is zero,
keit eines Schneidstoffs hngt KW Einflussgren
= WT (23) (23)which reduces the unit
removed, depth of cut ap is another n production cost given by Eq. 24.
n Wahl der Spanungsdicke ergibt sich die schneidspezifische WT Mengenrate
factor that directly influences tool
productivity
Werkstcke though one
je Zeiteinheit) austhatdemis only where:
Produkt h  vc, wobei h die Spanungs- The factors limiting the application
slightly dependentwobei bedeuten:
on the choice of tool of carbide as a cutting material
nwendbare Schnittgeschwindigkeit bezeichnet.
material. KW Tool costs in for fabricating are usually related to tool geometry.
KW Werkzeugkosten je Werkstck one part in  Geometrically complex cutting tools
ugaben zu In nearly
spanen all practical
sind, cases,
nWT tritt however,
als direkter Faktor
Standmenge, noch die
d. h. Anzahl der mgliche
pro Standzeit Schnitt- typically Werkstcke
bearbeiteten have to be made from
the depth of cut ap is fixed by the stock nWT Number of parts machined in extremely tough cutting materials.
geringfgig vom Schneidstoff
allowance, Diethevom
while beeinflusst
Schneidstoff
thickness of the wird.
abhngigen one toolBearbeitungskosten
life je Werkstck K1 sind
Cemented carbides aredann
often unable to
uncut chip h and/or the feed f are meet these requirements or the cost of
limited by the rigidity of the machine/ The total cost of manufacturing one manufacturing a complex tool shape
nden Mehrzahl der Bearbeitungsflle ist die th1Schnitttiefe aKp Wdurch
= Kth1die + Kent-
workpiece/tool system or by certain K1 =part isRtherefore
+ Kfix +given by: fix + K Wfrom carbide often
(24)proves prohibitively
be fest vorgegeben und die Spanungsdicke
specifications regarding the roughness h bzw. der Vorschub f entwe- expensive. Tapping is an example of
rheit desof Systems
the machined surface, irrespective of
Maschine/Werkstck/Werkzeug K1 = th1 R +oder
Kfix + Kbestimmte
W = Kth1 + Kfix + KW (24)
Forde- a cutting operation that places high
the cutting material used. In such cases, demands on the toughness of the tool
uheit derthebearbeiteten
influence of theFlche, unabhngigwhere:
cutting material vom Schneidstoff, nach oben material, as at the end of the opera-
n Fllenisreduziert
restricted simply to itsEinfluss
sich der effect on the K1 Total fabrication
des Schneidstoffs cost per unit
auf die anwendbare tion the tap has to be unscrewed from
cutting speed vc. product in the hole. The resulting frictional forces
gkeit vc. can generate high tensile stresses
Another factor influencing the choice of th1 Machining time per part in at the tools cutting edges. Taps are
cutting material is the cost per tool life, minutes
ussgre fr die Wahl des Schneidstoffs stellen die Werkzeugkosten je therefore typically produced in HSS.
which according to the VDI Guidelines
Sie ergeben
3321 cansich angenhertby:
be approximated nach VDI 3321 ausFixed
Kfix  der costs
Gleichung:
in (independent
of cutting speed vc)

KWa Kth1 Machining costs in


KWT = + KWw  (+KWs ) (22) (22)
nT
R Cost rate for operator and
where: machine (excluding tool costs)
in /min
KWT Tool costs per tool life in
osten je Standzeit in  Choosing the right type of cutting-tool
KWa Purchase price of tool in material is almost impossible with-
gskosten des Werkzeugs in 
out considerations of this kind. For
Standzeiten (bei Wendeplatten Anzahl der instance,
nT Number of tool lives per tool
Schneidkanten)
a tool with a high purchase
das Wechseln(for
dessolid
verschlissenen
shank tools or Werkzeugs pricein  be able to significantly
may
das Nachschleifen
brazeddes Werkzeugs
inserts: (entfllt
nT = number of bei Wendeplatten)
reduce in  either be-
unit fabrication costs
regrinds; for indexable cutting cause it can produce a larger number
2) zeigt, dass die Anschaffungskosten KWa in der Regel nur einen relativ
inserts; nT = number of cutting of parts during its service life (higher
Werkzeugkosten
edgesjeper
Standzeit
insert) KWT ausmachen.
value ofDie
nWT)beiden anderen
or because Sum-
it enables the
t grer.
34 | DKI Monograph i.18
6 Cutting-tool geometry

6.1 Rake and clearance angles machine operator and can disrupt the radius roughly in the range 0.30.5
Due to the large variation in the machining process. When performing mm. The width of the chip breaking
machinability of copper alloys, the continuous turning operations on element is determined primarily by
geometry of the cutting tool has to be these materials it is therefore fre- the thickness of the uncut chip h,
adjusted to meet the specific character- Abb. 20: Querschnitt einer eingeschliffenen
g
quently necessary to shape the chips Spanleitstu
p which is itself determined by the feed
istics of the work material being ma- into shorter coiled chips. This can be f and the tool cutting edge angle r
chined. Matching the tool geometry to achieved by using chip breakers that (h = f sin r), and to a lesser extent
the workpiece material is particularly force the flowing chip into a specific by the width of the uncut chip b. A
advisable if favourable chip formation form as soon as the chip has achieved wide chip requires a wide chip breaker.
is to be achieved. Categorizing tool a minimum thickness of about 0.20.3 The following approximate guidelines
geometry based on the main machin- mm. The tool geometry codes for tools are generally valid [23]:
ability groups IIII is unsatisfactory, as that possess a chip breaker are indi-
it represents too great a simplification. cated by an asterisk * in Table 12 (A*,
In order to classify tool geometry, the B*, C*). The table also lists the angle of
three main groups are further divided the chip breaker back wall.
into three groups with the letter codes bf
A, B and C (see Table 12). For cutting Chip breakers increase the extent of o r 70
50
tools with a more or less fixed cutting- chip compression, which induces
edge geometry (e.g. milling cutters), higher machining forces and reduces hf
the DIN 1836 standard distinguishes tool life. The tougher the chip material
between the cutting teeth forms H, is or the greater the extent to which it
N und W. Tooth shape H corresponds is deformed, the more pronounced this
approximately to class A, tooth shape N effect becomes.
to class B and tooth form W to class C.
The degree of chip deformation
The tool geometry designators assi- depends on the width of the chip
gned to the copper-based materials breaking element and on the angle
are listed in tables Table 9 to Table 11. between the effective rake face and Fig. 20: Cross-section through a chip breaking
The machinability of a copper alloy the back wall of the chip breaker [23]: element ground into the tool
can therefore be classified as in the the deeper the chip breaking ele-
following example:Material CuZn39Pb3 ment and the steeper the back wall,
= I.A.100 (I: main machinability group / the more the chip is compressed. As Undeformed
Spanungsbreite b in mm Width of chip
alloy type, A: tool geometry designator, a general rule, a chip breaker height chip
Breitewidth b bf in bmm
breaker
der Spanleitstufen f
100: machinability rating). of 0.8 mm and an angle of 70 or 50 in mm in mm
Quelle:
between the back wall and the tools 0,4
0,4 ......1,5
1,5 5 h5 h
Copper and cooper alloys have a effective rake face are recommended. 1,6
1,6 ......7 7 8 h8 h
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
pronounced tendency to form long The fillet between the rake face of the 7,5
7,5 ......
12 12 12 h
12 h
ductile chips. The resulting ribbon and cutting tool and the back wall of the
tangled chips can be hazardous to the chip breaking element should have a The chip breaker can also be aligned
parallel to the tools cutting edge or
aligned so that it widens or narrows
Tool geometry Carbide HSS Angle of back wall
towards the tools nose.
designator of chip breaker1)

Chip breakers that run parallel to the
() () () () ()
cutting edge (alignment angle = 0) do
A not tend to direct chip flow toward or
0-8 6 5 - 10 8 50
A* away from the workpiece and there-
B fore favour the formation of watch-
8 - 12 6 10 - 14 8 70 spring-like spiral chips. If the width
B* of the chip breaker decreases towards
C the nose of the tool (alignment angle
20 6 25 8 50 -70 > 0), chip flow is directed away from
C*
the workpiece, favouring the creation
1) An asterisk * after the tool geometry designator indicates a tool with chip breaker.
of cylindrical chips.
Note: The chip breaker data applies only to turning tools or indexable inserts for turning or
drilling; they do not apply to milling cutters, drill tools, etc. If the chip breaker is designed to wid-
en towards the tools nose (alignment
angle < 0), the direction of chip flow
Table 12: Tool geometry classification scheme is toward the workpiece surface, which

DKI Monograph i.18 | 35


anleitstufe

The effectiveness of a chip breaker is


generally dependent on the ductility
Chip breaker of the flowing chip, which itself is de-
Spanleitwinkel
alignment angle pendent on the properties of the work
material and on the dimensions of the
cut chip: the thinner the chip is, the
harder it is to deform or break.

If some aspect of the machining oper-


ation, such as the roughness of the
work surface or the weakness of the
workpiece or tool, forces a thin chip
to be produced, then chip form and
flow cannot be controlled with any
certainty. In such cases, machining
ductile copper-based materials will
almost inevitably lead to the forma-
tion of tangled chips. In order to limit
the operational disruption caused
by this type of chip, this stage of the
machining process has to be carried
out using a small depth of cut, as this
lowers the strength of the cut chip by
reducing its width.
Fig. 21: Alignment angle of chip breaker

Notwithstanding the above remarks, a


chip breaker is unnecessary in situa-
favours the formation of short chip tions in which it would be either useless
curls, provided that the chip is not too (thickness of uncut chip is small) or
ductile. There is, however, the risk that superfluous because the machining
the chip can damage the newly machin- operation involves interrupted cut-
ed work surface. ting (as in, for example, milling), or
because the chip is forced to flow in
a specific direction dictated by the Seite 22
geometry of the cutting operation (as
in drilling or tapping).

36 | DKI Monograph i.18


7 Cutting fluids

Some copper-based materials are ma- with HSS. In contrast, carbide tools can In cases in which normal cooling-
chined dry whereas others are machined maintain their hardness up to higher lubrication by a stream of cutting fluid
while applying a cutting fluid. On some temperatures. (flooding) is not applicable, the fluid
machine tools, the use of a cutting fluid can be applied as a high-speed mist.
is essential as the cutting fluid also If, on the other hand, the tool has sev-
serves to lubricate parts of the machine. eral regions that are in direct contact In mist application, the cutting fluid
with the workpiece but that do not con- is carried in a pressurized air stream
During machining, the cutting fluid tribute to the material removal process and deposited in the cutting zone. The
does not normally penetrate to the root (as is the case with reamers and taps), expansion of the air stream is accom-
of the chip so that there is no direct then the cutting fluid is more important panied by a temperature drop that also
influence of the tools cutting edge at as a lubricant than as a coolant. aids cooling (e.g. when tapping threads
the tool-work contact zone. However, using cutting oil on multistation ma-
the cutting fluid can have an indirect If the machine tool manufacturer does chines, which are normally operated
effect on processes at the contact zone not specify the cutting fluid to be used, with emulsified oils).
as cooling the workpiece and the tool emulsified oils are generally preferred
increases the temperature gradient that when cooling is the predominant aim. Besides conventional flood-cooling,
transports heat away from the work-tool copper-based materials can also be
interface. Additionally, the cutting fluid The favourable cooling properties of subjected to neardry machining, in
can quench the upper side of the chip these oil-in-water emulsions are due to which a minimum quantity lubrication
and therefore facilitate the curvature the high specific heat capacity of water. (MQL) system is used, or dry machining
and/or fracturing of the chip. Finally, If, though, lubrication is the primary in which no cutting fluid is used [25].
the cutting fluid also flushes clean the concern, cutting oils are preferred to Both approaches are technologically
machining area. emulsions. Low viscosity oils are fa- feasible for machining copper alloys.
voured as they are easier to deliver
Whether a cutting fluid functions more and remove from the cutting zone. Which cutting fluid is used in practice
as a coolant or as a lubricant depends depends not only technological feasi-
on the machining operation being Cutting oils with added sulphur can bility, but frequently also on factors
performed and the cutting tool used. As show a propensity to react with copper. determined by the machine tool set-up,
HSS tools only retain their hardness up Therefore, either a sulphur-free cutting such as chip removal, heat dissipation,
to the tempering temperature of around oil should be used or the workpiece lubrication of machine parts, and the
550600 C, cutting fluids are used should be rinsed immediately after possibility of influencing chip breakage.
primarily as coolants when machining machining [24].

DKI Monograph i.18 | 37


handenen Frsers. Diese fest vorgegebenen Gren werden ohne weiter
bernommen.

8 Calculating machining costs


Die nicht fest vorgegebenen Parameter werden im nchsten Schritt nach ste
ihrer Exponenten in der erweiterten Taylor-Gleichung (8) geordnet. Meist ergi
die Reihenfolge Schnitttiefe ap, Vorschub f (bzw. Spanungsdicke h) und Schni
keit vc. Da der Exponent von vc, verglichen mit den Exponenten von a und f,
gen fr ap und f rechnerisch so groe Werte, dass sie innerhalb der vorgegeb
zu optimieren sind. Dieses gilt auch fr den zulssigen Verschlei am Stan
Cutting parameters can be optimized of increasing
grte size of their
zulssige Wert exponents in
stellt hier Thekostengnstigsten
den optimization of the cutting
dar. pa-
using purely computational methods rameters has thus been reduced to
the expanded Taylor tool life equation
provided that only one parameter is (Eq. 8). determining the cutting speed vc as
optimized at any time [26]. However, Als letzte Einflussgre verbleibt die a function of the specified tool life
Schnittgeschwindigkeit vc,T.da ihr Expone
if, as is often the case in practice, sev- Generally speaking, the relationship
eral cutting parameters can be varied
ist. In der Mehrzahl der (8) zerspanenden Bearbeitungsaufgaben folgt die Standz
between cutting speed and tool life
simultaneously, a purely mathemati- chen Taylor-Gleichung can be expressed using the simple
cally based optimization is not usually Taylor equation (Eq. 6):
possible. This usually results in the following
k
sequence of parameters: depth of cut T = C v  v c (6) (6)
Typically, the cutting parameters are ap; feed f (or thickness of the uncut
determined and optimized by adopt- chip h); and cutting speed vc. In the range of cutting speeds typically
ing a stepwise approach [26] that Im normalen Schnittgeschwindigkeitsbereich used, the achievable
bewirkt tooljede
life T nderung
de- von vc e
begins by identifying those parameters The depth of cut ap should initially be creases with increasing cutting speed vc
that can be regarded as fixed. Which
von T:toWird
chosen vc erhht,
be as large so sinkt
as possible, pro- T and
undvice
umgekehrt.
versa. A higherGleichzeitig
value of vc reduziert ein h
parameters these are depends on the spanende
vided, Bearbeitungszeit
of course, th und will
that it was not iden- damit
alsoderen
reduce Kosten je Werkstck,
the machining time th erhht a
particular machining operation used. It tified as a fixed parameter (resulting, thus lowering the machining time costs
could be the depth of cut ap, which is
krzere Standzeit T die Werkzeugkosten
for example, from a specified stock al-
je Werkstck KW.reduces
per workpiece, but as it also
limited by the specified stock allow- lowance) in the first stage of the opti- the tool life T, it causes an increase
ance, or, as is frequently the case, mization
Da die process.
beiden Further adjustments
Einflsse gegenlufigin the tool hat
sind, cost die
per workpiece
Summe Kder W. Asbeiden Kosten
the cutting speed vc, which is limited to ap are then made in order to take these two costs evolve in opposite
by the rotational speed range of the stck bei
account einer
of the bestimmten
constraints set by theSchnittgeschwindigkeit
directions, their sum vper c,oKworkpiece
ein Minimum. Jedes A
machine tool and the diameter of the tool,
der work passes throughvc,oK
material and the Schnittgeschwindigkeit
kostenoptimalen machine a minimum
erhhtatdie a certain
Zerspanungsko
part being machined. A further ex- tool. Selecting the largest possible cutting speed voK. Fig. 22 shows how
ample of such a fixed parameter is the stck,ofda
depth cutentweder
reduces thedie spanende
number of Bearbeitungszeit oder aber
the various cost components varydie
as aWerkzeugkos
number of teeth on the milling cutter cuts
Abb. required.
22 ist Having function of cutting speed and
determined the Schnittgeschwindigkeit
die kostenoptimale vc,oKidenti-
dargestellt, welche
selected for use. These fixed value initial value of the depth of cut ap, the fies the location of the cost-optimized
parameters are then adopted as such
tragung der Kosten folgt. Dieser Wert
feed f should then also be selected to
wird ber die zugehrige Standzeit ToK
cutting speed voK. Any deviation from
in the calculation. chungen
be (23)
as large as und (6)
possible. errechnet:
Here, too, the this cost-optimized cutting speed voK
value selected will be limited by factors will increase the unit cost of produc-
Those parameters that are not prede- relating to the tool, work material and tion as either the machining time or
Abb. 22: are
termined Kosten in Abhngigkeit
then arranged in orderg g machine
derused.
Schnittgeschwindigkeit
g g the tool
(nach
( costs VDI 3321))
will rise.
KF ostten
sko n

Fertigungskosten
Total cost per piece
Werkzeugkosten
KFngs

Tool costs
gun
ertig
piece
Cost perFe

K F,min

Hauptzeitkosten
Machining time costs

Fixkosten
Non-productive
(fixed) costs

v c,okk
S h itt
Schnittgeschwindigkeit
h iCutting
di k speed
it vc Vc

Fig. 22: Cost components plotted as a function of cutting speed (VDI 3321)
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 23

38 | DKI Monograph i.18


The cost-optimized tool life Tok can be Equation 25 shows how the cost- As a general rule, expensive tools
derived with the aid of equations 6 optimized tool life ToK depends on should be used in combination with
and 24. Differentiation and rearrange- the exponent -k, the tool costs per low values of the cutting parameters
erechnung ment yields Eq. 25:
der Bearbeitungskosten tool life KWT, the cost rate for operator
60 and on machine tools that are eco-
and machine (including labour and nomical to run. On the other hand,
machining overheads) KML and the tool low-cost tools can be used in combi-
(k  1)  K WT change time tw. The magnitude of the nation with the maximum technically
ToK = (25) (25) exponent -k depends on the work realizable cutting parameters and on
R material/tool material pair and from machine tools that are more expensive
where: the machining operation in use. to run.

ToK = Cost-optimized tool life in The exponent -k is large for HSS tools Similar calculations can be carried out
min and/or work materials that are difficult to determine the time-optimized cut-
tenoptimale Standzeit in min
to machine, but smaller for cemented ting speed vot, i.e. the cutting speed
sprechend Gleichung
k (5) of straight line in
= Gradient carbide tools and/or work materials that minimizes machining time per
tool-life plot workpiece [26]. This will not be dis-
rkzeugkosten je Standzeit nach Gleichung (22) that in are easy to machine. It there-
fore follows that, all other machining cussed further here as there is gener-
stkostensatz,KWTd.h. Kostensatz
= Tool costs perdes Arbeitsplatzes
tool life in as ohne Werkzeugkosten
conditions in that
being equal, a material ally no significant difference between
defined in Eq. 22 is difficult to machine will require a voK and vot.
larger value of the cost-optimized tool
KML die
g 25 folgt, dass = Cost rate for operator
kostenoptimale and ma- Tlife von
Standzeit ToK. Itdem
is, however, not always
Exponenten k, If a number of (possibly different)
oK
chine + labour and machining possible to meet this requirement in tools are being used simultaneously
ten je Standzeit KWT und dem
overheads Restkostensatz practice.
in /h R abhngig ist. Dabei ist k to machine a part, Equation 25 has to
/Schneidstoff-Paarung und dem Zerspanungsverfahren abhngig. Aus den be modified as KWT now represents the
tw = Tool change time If the calculated value of ToK, and thus sum of the tool costs for each of the
e Standzeit KWT folgt, dass teure Werkzeuge auf
voK, kostengnstigen Maschi-
lies outside the tool life range cutting tools being used simultaneous-
typically used in practice,
ingesetzt werden sollten. Andererseits zeigt der Restkostensatz R, thedass
optimum ly. The value calculated for the cost-
value achievable under the given optimized tool life ToK will therefore be
Werkzeuge auf kostenintensiven Maschinen vom technologisch
operating maximal
conditions is that value greater than when a single tool is used
which comes closest to the ideal [27, 28].
calculated value.

ist bei HSS und/oder schwer zerspanbaren Werkstoffen gro, bei HM


panbaren Werkstoffen kleiner. Daraus folgt, dass ein schwer zerspanbarer
chen Verhltnissen eine grere Standzeit ToK verlangt. Dieser Forderung
immer entsprochen werden.

Wert fr ToK und damit vc,oK auerhalb des in der Praxis verwendbaren
die grte Annherung an ihn das in der Praxis erreichbare Optimum dar.

gste Schnittgeschwindigkeit vot existieren vergleichbare rechnerische Voge-


T52]. Hierauf wird jedoch nicht nher eingegangen, da in der Regel kein
rschied zwischen vc,oK und vot existiert.

an zerspanenden Werkzeugkollektiven mehrere, eventuell auch unter-


zeuge gleichzeitig zerspanen, ndert sich die Gleichung (25), da fr KWT
er Werkzeugkosten der gleichzeitig zerspanenden Werkzeuge einzusetzen
oK wird damit grer als beim separat zerspanenden Werkzeug [VOSS76,

DKI Monograph i.18 | 39


9 Ultra-precision machining of copper

Copper finds widespread use in optical of the chemical affinity of iron for car- that at the centre of the workpiece the
systems. Ultra-precision machining of bon [21, 29, 30]. cutting speed would be zero. Although
copper can produce optical compon- the cutting forces exerted in ultra-
ents with high-quality mirror surfaces The key features of ultra-precision precision machining are typically less
and high dimensional accuracy. In this machine tools are the aerostatic or than 1 N, machines of high rigidity are
chapter we briefly explain the basic hydrostatic guide systems, air spindles required in order to avoid vibrations
principles of ultraprecision machining and linear direct drives. To achieve and to achieve the required dimen-
and some of its applications, followed a high level of thermal stability and sional precision of less than 0.1 m.
by an examination of the quality good damping characteristics, granite
levels achievable and the technical is the preferred material for the base of The spindle speed chosen will depend
constraints of the technique. the ultra-precision machine. on the diameter of the component
being machined, the work material
The two main ultra-precision machin- and the dynamics of the additional
9.1 Principles of ultra-precision ing techniques used with diamond axes. Spindle speeds of up to 2500 rpm
machining cutting tools are turning and fly cut- are typically used in the production of
Ultra-precision machining (also com- ting. Turning enables a broad variety of metal optics by ultra-precision ma-
monly known as diamond turning) geometries to be machined, and fast chining. As in macro-scale machining,
differs from conventional machining tool servo (FTS) systems now allow the the feed is determined by the tool
techniques in the cutting material fabrication of non-rotationally sym- nose radius and the specified surface
used. Monocrystalline diamond metric optical surfaces. Fly cutting can roughness. The depth of cut depends
enables tools to be fashioned with very be thought of milling with a single- on the work material. For non-ferrous
precise cutting edge geometry and low tooth milling cutter. The fly cutter metals, recommended depths of cut
wear. The nose radii of such tools are typically has a single-point diamond for turning operations are 2050 m
typically around 50 nm. When com- cutting tool mounted on the periphery for roughing and about 3 m for finish
bined with ultra-precision machining of a rotating disc. Fly cutting is used to machining.
technology, diamond cutting tools can produce flat surfaces or to create linear
be used to fabricate optical surfaces grooves. The geometry of the groove or Ultra-precision machining lathes are
with a surface roughness (Ra) of only a slot is determined by the shape of the generally equipped with a minimum
few nanometres (see Fig. 23). cutting tool (radius, facetted, v-form). quantity lubrication system. Isoparaf-
fins are transported to the cutting zone
One advantage of copper alloys and The quality of a surface produced by in a pressurized air stream where they
other non-ferrous metals is that they diamond cutting is slightly depen- are atomized. In addition to lubricat-
are very easy to machine with mono- dent on the cutting speed. Generally ing, the MQL system also ensures that
crystalline diamond tools. Steel cannot speaking, turning operations are per- the chips are flushed from the cutting
be machined with these tools because formed at a constant spindle speed so zone. The lubricants have a high heat
of vaporization and do not therefore
influence the cutting process by evapo-
rative cooling [29].

9.2 Example applications involving


copper alloys
Copper and copper alloys are used for
different ultra-precision machining
applications. Copper is widely used
for fabricating optical components for
laser systems. Copper is chosen not
only because it permits fabrication of
high-quality surfaces, but also, and
importantly, because of its high heat
capacity. Despite the high-quality
surface finish and additional surface
coatings, the mirror material can heat
up thus deforming the shape of the
mirror. To avoid such impermissible
variations in form, the mirrors are
cooled by means of internal cooling
channels. In order to produce the
Fig. 23: Ultra-precision machining of a structured plane brass surface best possible mirror surfaces, the

40 | DKI Monograph i.18


copper that undergoes diamond turn- quality of the surface finish that can individual grains in the microstruc-
ing should have the highest possible be achieved and the cutting forces ture therefore respond differently
purity. The copper grade of choice is that arise [29, 31]. The characteristics and this leads to the variation in
so-called OFHC (oxygen-free high- of the machined surface are strongly levels described above.
conductivity) copper. The mirrors dependent on the materials grain
produced are used not only to guide structure and grain boundaries. The effects of grain structure are also
and focus the light beams, but also to As a result of the so-called spring- apparent in the microstructuring of
shape the beams as well. By deploy-
ing FTS systems, non-rotationally
symmetric surface structures can be
created on the mirror surface. For
example, multifaceted mirror sur-
faces can be created that act as beam
homogenizers. In addition, the focus
of the beam can be modified by using
free-formed mirrors.

Besides being used for mirror optics,


copper and copper alloys are also
used to make the moulds for the in-
jection moulding of polymeric optical
components. Because of their greater
hardness, copper-beryllium alloys
are also used in such applications.
However, according to the Restriction
of Hazardous Substances Directive
2002/95/EC (RoHS), beryllium-con-
taining components are subject to
labelling requirements. Brass is used
not only as a mould insert for the in-
jection moulding of plastics, but also Fig. 24: Diamond cut surface of OFHC copper [29]
for the fabrication of micro-structured
masters. Brass plate is the starting
material for these structural masters, back effect (compression of individ- the substrate surface, particularly
which can be up to one square metre ual grains during the machining the formation of burrs along grooved
in size. Replication masters of this process), diamond cutting of a plane structures. Figure 25 depicts V-shaped
kind are used, for example, in display surface of OFHC copper can yield level grooves with a depth of 7 m
applications where the grooved or differences of up to 40 nm between that have been produced by plunge-
pyramidal structures are machined by neighbouring crystals (see Fig. 24) cut turning in the surface of a piece
fly cutting. [29]. of OFHC copper. The burr formation
along the edges of the grooves varies
The formation of these surface struc- with the grain structure of the copper,
9.3 Material properties and tures is a result of the anisotropic which has been made visible here by
their influence on ultra-precision behaviour of the work material. Due etching.
machining to the face-centred cubic (fcc) lattice
The results of an ultra-precision structure of copper, the packing As the material properties change in
machining operation depend not densities within the individual lattice the vicinity of the grain boundaries,
only on the cutting tool and the planes differ, which results in elastic machining conditions and therefore
machine characteristics, but also on and plastic material properties that burr formation change accordingly.
the properties of the work material. are strongly directionally dependent. In the material shown here, the grain
The copper and copper alloys used For example, the modulus of elasticity size is in the range 5080 m. The
in engineering applications usually of a copper single crystal varies be- homogeneity of the microstructure
have a polycrystalline microstructu- tween 68 and 190 kN/mm depending can be improved by reducing the
re. This has to be taken into account on the load direction. In polycrystal- grain size. Microcrystalline copper
when the required precision in- line microstructures, these effects materials can be produced by severe
creases or when the dimensions of reinforce each other due to the differ- plastic deformation (SPD). One such
surface features decrease. A number ent orientations of the grains in the SPD technique is the ECAP method
of studies have been carried out on microstructure. When a polycrystalline (Equal Channel Angular Pressing) with
polycrystalline copper to examine the copper substrate is machined the which a high degree of deformation

DKI Monograph i.18 | 41


tbildung
g in Abhngigkeit
gg der Kornstruktur [BREC09]
[ ]

burr-free groove edge

burred groove edge

Fig. 25: Grain-structure-dependent burr formation [32]

can be achieved thus generating se- microstructuring tests [32]. Neverthe-


vere dislocations within the material. less, diamond cutting of OFHC copper
Samples of material produced by ECAP can produce surfaces with a roughness
have already been successfully used in parameter Ra down to 3 nm [29].

Seite 2

42 | DKI Monograph i.18


10 Recommended machining parameters for copper
and copper alloys

The tables of recommended machin- In the following sections we discuss the cutting speed vc of about 10 % is
ing parameters list suggested cutting and explain the recommended ma- recommended.
speeds for machining operations such chining parameters for a variety of
as turning and milling as a function machining operations. When turning is performed on a cast
of the undeformed chip thickness. The part with a normal sand-textured skin,
following procedure can be used to the cutting speed should be reduced by
identify the correct machining para- 10.1 Turning of copper and copper about 15 % when carbide cutting tools
meters: alloys are used and by about 20 % for HSS
The values quoted in Table 13 are tools.
If the material to be machined is stan- estimated to be valid in about 70 % of
dardized, locate the material in Tables cases. They are based on a flank wear When machining copper materials with
Table 9 to Table 11 and note down its land width of VB 0.6 mm at the end a strain hardened skin, the machin-
machinability rating and the tool geo- of the tools life, and a tool life of ability of the material is determined by
metry designator. If the material has T = 3060 min for carbide cutting tools the machinability of the skin, which is
not been standardized, select the most in group N10 (N20), or T = 4590 min itself dependent on the hardness of the
similar alternative material based on for HSS cutting tools (HS10-4-3-10). skin layer.
the main alloying components.
If the tool life T is to be doubled, the For turning operations in which chip
Use the materials machinability rat- value of vc should be reduced by about flow is restricted, such as form turning,
ing to determine the recommended 16 % for carbide tools and by about groove cutting, parting off and thread-
machining parameters in Table 13 to 10 % for HSS tools. However, in the ing, the cutting speed vc should be
Table 19 for the machining operation of case of ductile, high copper content lowered by about 40 % when carbide
interest. materials, doubling the tool life T of a tools are used and by about 50 % when
carbide tool requires a reduction in the HSS turning tools are deployed.
Use the tool geometry designator to cutting speed vc of around 30 %.
determine the recommended tool geo- If an HSS grade other than HS10-4-3-10
metry from Table 12. If the tool life is defined as the cutting is used, the following correction factors
time to reach a flank wear land width of apply:
As machinability depends on the VB 0.4 mm, then to achieve the same HSS Faktor for vc
strength and hardness of the work tool life T as that based on a value of VB HS10-1-4-5 0,82
material, tensile strength and Brinell 0.6 mm, the cutting speed vc would HS12-1-4 0,76
hardness data are included in Table 9 need to be reduced by about 35 % for HS6-5-2 0,72
to Table 11. If the material strength or carbide tools and by about 15 % for HSS HS2-9-1 0,65
hardness differs from the values given, tools.
the recommended machining parame- It is not uncommon that the recommend-
ter determined by the machinability Uninterrupted cutting has practically no ed cutting speeds in Table 13 cannot be
index will need to be interpolated or effect on the service life of HSS tools; if attained in practice due to constraints
extrapolated accordingly. carbide tools are used, a reduction in such as limits to the maximum achiev-

Undeformed chip thickness h [mm]

]Machinability Carbides HSS


rating
0,1 0,32 0,8 0,1 0,32 0,63

100 1260 1000 800 154 85 60

90 1150 910 730 142 79 57

80 1030 800 660 130 74 53

70 910 730 580 117 68 50

60 800 630 510 105 62 46

50 680 540 430 93 57 43

40 570 440 360 81 51 39

30 450 360 284 68 46 36

20 220 160 120 36 28 22

Table 13: Recommended machining parameters for turning copper and copper alloys
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min as a function of the undeformed chip thickness h in mm and the machinability rating

DKI Monograph i.18 | 43


Solid carbide
HSS Carbide inserts
D = 3 - 20 [mm]
Machinability rating
vc [m/min] vc [m/min] vc [m/min]

100 80 250 400

90 74 239 373

80 69 228 345

70 63 216 318

60 58 205 290

50 52 194 263

40 46 183 235

30 41 171 208

20 35 160 180

Table 14: Machining parameters for drilling copper and copper alloys
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min for HSS, solid carbide and index-able-insert drills as a function of the machinability rating

Diameter D [mm]

3-5 5-8 8 - 12 12 - 16 16 -20

HSS 0,1 - 0,16 0,16 - 0,25 0,25 - 0,32 0,32 - 0,4 0,4 - 0,5
Feed f [mm]
Carbide 0,08 - 0,12 0,12 - 0,18 0,18 - 0,23 0,24 - 029 0,3 - 0,35

Table 15: Feeds for drilling copper and copper alloys


Recommended feed as a function of drill diameter

able spindle speed or when a workpiece Because the properties of copper- than about 18 mm (and lengths up to
with a very small diameter is being based materials span such a broad about 2.5 d). Type N and type H drills
machined. In such cases, the machining range, the choice of drill type and/or can be used if the machine is suffi-
parameters have to be adjusted to take cutting-edge geometry depends on the ciently rigid and sufficiently powerful.
account of the particular machining type of material to be drilled: Copper Whether these drill types can be used
operation and the prevailing cutting alloys that yield short, fragmented to drill copper-based materials that
conditions. chips are drilled using type H drills (cf. produce long continuous tough chips
DIN 1414, sheet 1 and 2), type N drills depends on the availability of index-
are chosen for materials producing able inserts with chip breaker grooves.
10.2 Drilling and counterboring of longer curled chips, while type W drills
copper and copper alloys are used for those materials that yield Drills with internal cooling holes are
Copper-based materials are generally extremely long continuous chip forms. recommended for drilling deep holes.
drilled using HSS twist drills. These The removal of long tough chips is The cutting fluid flows through the
are supplemented by solid carbide easier in type W HSS drills that have coolant hole and can therefore be de-
drills, indexable-insert drills and polished or chromeplated flutes. livered more easily to the drills cutting
(deep-hole) gun drills. Recommended edges as well as helping to flush the
cutting speeds for HSS, solid carbide Type H drills correspond to a class A chips away from the cutting zone.
and indexable-insert drills are listed in cutting-edge geometry, type N drills
Table 14. to class B, and type W drills to class C Gun drills are used to drill extremely
(Table 12). deep holes (L > 10 d) whenever high
The feed rate to be used during a dril- demands are placed on the dimen-
ling operation depends on the work/ Commercially available carbide drills sional tolerances, alignment and
tool material pairing, but primarily include drills with brazed carbide surface quality of the bore hole wall.
on the drill diameter. The required tips, solid carbide drills or drills with
feed per revolution increases with in- indexable carbide inserts. Other rules apply when drilling with
creasing drill diameter. Recommended gun drills but will not be discussed
feed values are listed in Table 15 as a Carbide indexable insert drills prove further here. Suffice to say that the
function of drill diameter and the tool to be the most economical tools when geometry of the tools cutting-edge
material. drilling holes with diameters greater and the feed rate depend primarily on

44 | DKI Monograph i.18


achieving a chip form that can be easi- walls of a drill guide bushing, and on cutting tool material with a longer tool
ly removed from the cutting zone. how easily the cutting fluid is able to life can result in a significant reduc-
reach the cutting tip. This is why when tion in the machining costs per hole.
In drilling operations, the range of using a drill that does not have coolant
achievable cutting speeds is deter- channels the choice of cutting speed In addition to the above criteria, the
mined by the chip formation process. vc depends not only on the position of geometry of the hole to be produced
Within this range, the cutting speed vc the drill during drilling (horizontal or must also be taken in to account
is selected primarily on the basis of the vertical), but also on the depth of the when selecting vc and f. When drilling
tool costs per tool life, KWT, that itself hole being drilled. through-holes, the outer corners of the
depends on the type of drill used, drill tip are subject to increased wear
its diameter and length. The cutting Finally, the choice of cutting speed during drill breakthrough. It is there-
speed also depends on whether the is influenced by the work material. fore advisable to reduce the cutting
margin of the drill rubs against the Despite higher initial purchase costs, a speed and the feed rate by about 5 %

HSS Hole diameter d [mm]

Machinability
uncoated coated 5 10 16 25 40 63
rating
vc [m/min] f [mm]

100 14 19

90 13 18

80 13 17

70 12 16
0,15 0,2 0,25 0,4 0,4
60 11 15 - - - - - 0,6
0,2 0,3 0,35 0,5 0,5
50 10 14

40 10 13

30 9 12

20 8 11

Table 16: Recommended machining parameters for reaming copper and copper alloys with HSS reamers
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min as a function of the machinability rating and recommended feeds f in mm as a function of the hole
diameter

Carbide Hole diameter d [mm]

Machinability
HC - N10 5 10 16 25 40 63
rating
vc [m/min] f [mm]

100 30

90 27

80 25

70 22
0,2 0,3 0,35 0,4 05
60 19 - - - - - 0,6
0,3 0,4 0,45 0,5 0,6
50 16

40 14

30 11

20 8

Table 17: Recommended machining parameters for reaming copper and copper alloys with solid carbide reamers
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min as a function of the machinability rating and recommended feeds f in mm as a function of the hole
diameter

DKI Monograph i.18 | 45


during exit; this restriction does not The specified reaming allowance should the hole can be improved by using a
apply when drilling blind holes. not be too small and should be roughly tool in which the direction of the flute
equal to the allowance typically assum- helix is opposite to that of the cut (e.g.
For countersinks and core drills (as ed in countersinking. A tool cutting left-hand helix, right-hand cut) as
detailed in DIN 343, 344, 222 and in edge angle r of about 45 is generally this ensures that the chips are pushed
DIN 8043, 8022), the machining data selected for short-chip alloys, while an ahead of the tool as it progresses into
can be derived from the corresponding angle of approximately 30 is typical the hole.
data for HSS drills: the cutting speed vc for long-chip materials. Smaller angles
should be reduced by 30 %, while the tend to cause the reamer to seize, re- Cutting oils are recommended when
feed f should be increased by 100 %. ducing tool life without improving the performing reaming operations.
quality of the surface finish. It is im-
portant that the reamer runs sufficiently Tooling costs can be reduced if a reamer
10.3 Reaming copper and copper true at the start of the cut and that the with an indexable cutting insert can
alloys transition from the lip to the margin is be used instead of a solid multiflute
The service life of a reaming tool slightly curved. reamer for the reaming operation of
depends more on the dimensional tol- interest.
erances of the hole to be machined than The end of the tool life should not
on the work material. Under favourable be determined by the dimensional
conditions, the most cost-effective accuracy of the reamed hole, but rather 10.4 Tapping and thread milling
tool life ToK can be achieved down to a by a flank wear land width of VB 0.3 copper and copper alloys
tolerance grade of IT 8. If tolerances are mm at the lip. Failure to adopt this Selecting the right type of tap is crucial
tighter, it is generally not possible to wear criterion will result in a significant if a tapping operation is to be suc-
achieve the optimum tool life. reduction in the number of regrinds cessful. The choice of tap depends on
The cost-optimized cutting speed voK for possible, thereby substantially increas- the work material and the geometry
reaming operations is therefore signif- ing the tool costs per piece. of the required thread. Recommended
icantly lower than the values that are cutting speeds are listed in Table 18.
typically recommended. Recommended The roundness of a hole produced by a
values for reaming operations are listed multiflute reaming tool tends to adopt Straight-flute taps are generally used
in Table 16 and Table 17. a multi-cornered polygonal profile with for short-chip alloys and spiral-point
one corner more than the number of taps are usually chosen when tapping
In contrast, quite high feeds f can be cutting edges on the tool. Choosing a through-holes as they tend to eject
selected for reaming because the tool reamer with an odd number of cutting the chip ahead of the tool. This is not
feed has only a relatively minor effect edges does not, however, eliminate possible when tapping blind holes,
on the number of holes that can be this problem, though it can be reduced for which taps with bottoming style
reamed per tool life, on the conformity significantly by using reamers with very chamfers are used.
to prescribed tolerances and on the irregularly spaced flutes. When reaming
surface roughness of the hole wall. ductile materials, or when reaming Straight-fluted, spiral-point taps with
through-holes, the surface finish of a pitch of up to about 2 mm are also
used to cut threads in through-holes
or relatively deep holes in long-chip
HSS materials. However, taps with a right-
Carbide
N10 uncoated coated hand helix are used to cut (right-hand)
Machinability rating
threads in blind holes. Helix angles of
vc [m/min] about 15, 35 and 45 are readily avail-
able commercially. The greater the L/d
100 40 20 30 ratio and the tougher the chip formed,
90 39 19 29 the larger the helix angle should be.
80 38 19 28
Besides tapping, internal threads can also
70 36 18 26 be cut by thread-milling. Coated carbide
60 35 17 25 thread mills can cut threads in brass at
cutting speeds of 200400 m/min. If
50 34 17 24
uncoated tools are used, the cutting
40 33 16 23 speeds should be reduced by
30 32 15 22
25 %. The feed per tooth fz is typi-
cally in the range 0.05 to 0.15 mm.
20 30 15 20 The lower end of the range should be
selected if machining long-chip
Table 18 : Recommended cutting speeds for tapping copper and copper alloys brasses. Cutting speed and feed in

46 | DKI Monograph i.18


thread milling operations also depend If both types of milling operation We can distinguish two types of pe-
on the diameter of the thread: the can be used for a particular job, face ripheral milling depending on the di-
greater the thread diameter, the higher milling is generally more economical. rection of rotation of the milling cutter.
the cutting speed and the larger the In face milling an uncut chip thickness In up milling the direction of motion
feed per tooth that can be selected. If of zero does not usually arise. Very thin of the cutters teeth when they engage
unalloyed copper is being machined, chip thicknesses at the start of the cut with the work is opposite to the feed.
the cutting speeds can be increased by can cause rubbing between the cutting In down milling or climb milling the
about 25 % and the feeds doubled. edges and the workpiece surface, spoil- direction of motion of the teeth when
ing surface quality and promoting tool they cut into the work is the same as
wear. Furthermore, the minor cutting the feed direction.
10.5 Milling copper and copper edges dull more quickly than the major
alloys cutting edges whose wear during face If the work material does not have
In face milling, the machined surface milling is not of primary importance a hard, wear-inducing skin, down
is produced by the cutting edges on in determining the roughness of the milling is normally preferred to up
the end face. If the surface is produced milled surface. milling as down milling results in less
by the cutting edges on the outside rubbing between the cutting teeth
periphery of the cutter, the technique In contrast, peripheral milling has the and the work surface, and the cutting
is known as peripheral milling. If advantage that it can produce geo- forces are more favourably distributed.
the peripheral cutting edges are not metrically complex shapes in a single However, when copper and copper al-
straight, but profiled, the so-called pass. However, in peripheral milling loys are being machined, the resulting
form milling cutter generates a shaped the roughness of the machined sur- difference in tool life is not large.
surface determined by the form of the face is directly determined by the state
tools peripheral cutting edges. of the major cutting edges. The cutting materials typically used for
milling copper-based materials are the

Face milling with indexable inserts

HM N10 uncoated DP N05


Machinability rating
hz in mm

0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2

100 580 540 1050 1000

90 554 516 1006 954

80 530 494 963 910

70 507 472 923 868

60 484 451 884 829

50 463 431 847 791

40 443 412 811 754

30 423 394 777 720

20 405 377 744 687

Table 19: Machining parameters for face milling of copper-based materials using in-dexable teeth
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min as a function of the undeformed chip thickness hz in mm and the machinability rating

DKI Monograph i.18 | 47


Peripheral milling with an end milling cutter

Tool material fz in mm
Machinability
HSS solid carbide Diameter of mill cutter in mm
rating
uncoated coated uncoated coated 1 6 12 20
100 45 80 140 280 Roughing
90 41 73 120 230
80 38 67 110 210 0,004-0,006 0,01-0,02 0,04-0,5 0,05-0,07
70 35 61 100 200
60 32 56 96 190 Finishing
50 29 52 92 180
40 27 47 87 175
0,004-0,006 0,01-0,02 0,04-0,5 0,05-0,07
30 10 Richtwerte
24 fr die zerspanende
43 85 Bearbeitung
165 von Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen 75
20 22 40 80 160
bis unteren Bereich zerspanen. Die Spanungsdicke ergibt sich beim Stirnfrsen aus Vor-
Table 20: Machining parameters for peripheral milling of copper-based materials using end milling cutters
schub je Schneide und Umdrehung fz und Einstellwinkeln  nach
Recommended cutting speeds vc in m/min and feeds per tooth fz in mm as a function of the diameter of the milling cutter and the machinability
rating

114,6
carbide application groups N10 and In
h mperipheral
= milling, ( )a
 f z  sinthechipe is curled ae = Working
(25) engagement
N20, and the HSS grades HS6-5-2, HS6- somewhat a comma with
slike D one of (radial depth of cut)
5-2-5, HS2-9-1-8 and HS12-1-4-5. its ends having, in theory at least, zero D = Diameter of milling cutter
In milling operations, the undeformed thickness. The average thickness of
chip thickness perBeim
toothUmfangfrsen
and per wird ein kommafrmiger
the undeformed chip is given Span
by theabgehoben,
As millingder an einem
cutters Ende theore-
vary significantly in
revolution hm is typically in the range following equation: terms
tisch die Dicke Null hat. Als Spanungsdicke gilt hierbei ein mittlerer Wert nach der Gleichung of the number of cutting teeth
0.10.35 mm. Face milling cutters and they have and the associated tool costs,
heavy cutting tools tend to be at the the recommended cutting speeds vc can
upper end of this range, while periph- 114,6 ae provide only broad guidance. The values
hm =  fz  (26) (26)
eral and weaker tools are located in listed in Table 19 refer to face milling
e fr die the
zerspanende Bearbeitung 
von Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen
s D 75
middle to lower region. The unde- operations using indexable inserted
formed chip thickness in a face milling where: tooth cutters made from uncoated
operation is
ereich zerspanen. Die determined
Dabei h = U ndeformed chip thickness per
bedeuten ergibt sich beim Stirnfrsen aus Vor- carbide or polycrystalline diamond.
by the
Spanungsdicke feed m
per tooth and revolution fz and the tooth and revolution
eide undcutting
Umdrehung fz und
edge angle as Einstellwinkeln
follows: fznach
= Feed per tooth and revolution If the cutting speed vc is reduced by
hz = r = Tooljecutting
Spanungsdicke Schneide edge angle
und Umdrehungabout 10 %, the tool life can be
= Schneide
sje Angle of cutterundengagement effectively doubled; if the cutting
114,6 fz = a Vorschub Umdrehung
h m =g
bb. 26:Umfangsfrsen  f z  sin  () e
(25) h m = A verage
(25) thickness of undeformed speed is increased by 10 %, the tool
s im r
Gleich-
= DundEinstellwinkel
Gegenlauf
g chip life will be halved.
s = a p =
FrserschnittwinkelDepth of cut (feed)
If milling a material with a typical sand-
hm
frsen wird ein kommafrmiger = Span mittlere Spanungsdicke
abgehoben, der an einem Ende theore- cast skin, the cutting speed of a carbide
ap
e Null hat. Als Spanungsdicke =gilt hierbei
Schnitttiefe Wert nach der Gleichung milling cutter should be reduced by
(Zustellung)
ein mittlerer
about 15 %, that of a HSS tool should be
ae = Eingriffsgre lowered by around 20 %.
114,6 D a e = Frserdurchmesser
hm =  fz  (26) The recommended speeds are based on
s D a flank wear land width of VB 0.6 mm
n n at the end of the tools life (rough mill-
ing). If the tool life is defined to be the
en
Da Frser hinsichtlichae Schneidenzahl und Werkzeugkosten ae
machining
in einen time to reachBereich
groen a flank wear
variie-
land width of VB 0.4 mm, then to
v
ren, knnen Empfehlungen v
zur Wahl der Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Spanungsdickefz je Schneide f
und Umdrehung ffz
z
f Vorschub
achieve the vsame
c nur bedingt
tool gegeben
life as that based
werden. Die Richtwerte in Tab. 19beziehen auf das on VB
Strinfrsen0.6 mm,
mit the tabulated
Messerkpfen. values Als
Vorschub je Schneide Gl i hlund
Down ff Umdrehung
milling
Gleichlauffrsen GUp milling
Gegenlauffrsen
l ff
would need to be reduced by about 50 %
Schneidstoffs sind hier unbeschichtetes Hartmetall und Diamant aufgefhrt.
Einstellwinkel for carbide tools and by about 30 % for
Fig. 26: The down and up forms of peripheral milling HSS tools.
Frserschnittwinkel
Um die Standzeit T zu verdoppeln, ist der Wert vc um etwa 10 % zu senken, um sie zu hal-
mittlere 48
Spanungsdicke
| DKI Monograph i.18
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Seite 27
bieren um etwa 10 % zu erhhen.
Schnitttiefe (Zustellung)
11 Appendix

11.1 Sample machining applications

Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability


processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Low-alloyed copper CuPb1P CW113C C18700 85 (no P)


alloys non-age-
CuSP CW114C C14700 Good machinabil- Screw-machine prod- 85
hardenable
ity; free-cutting ucts, machine-turned
copper parts; screws; nuts;
nozzles for welding
and cutting torches;
valve seats for fittings
CuTeP CW118C C14500 Good machinabil- Nozzles for welding 85
ity; free-cutting and cutting torches;
copper screws
Copper-nickel-zinc alloys CuNi7Zn39Pb3Mn2 CW400J
CuNi10Zn42Pb2 CW402J C79800
CuNi12Zn30Pb1 CW406J C79300
CuNi18Zn19Pb1 CW408J C76300
Copper-tin-zinc alloys CuSn3Pb7Zn9 C84400 90
CuSn4Zn4Pb4 CW456K C54400 General plain bearings; 80
electrical connectors;
contacts; toggle lever
bearings
Leaded binary copper-zinc CuZn35Pb2 CW601N C34200 90
alloys
CuZn36Pb2As CW602N C35330 Sanitary fittings (85)
CuZn36Pb3 CW603N C35600 Good machinability Screw-machine prod- 100
and cold workable; ucts, machine-turned
Wrought copper alloys

main alloy in USA parts; pins; precision


for use on screw machined parts for
machines and clocks, watches and
machining centres optical applications
CuZn37Pb0,5 CW604N C33500 60
CuZn39Pb0,5 CW610N C36500 Contact pins 60
CuZn38Pb1 CW607N C37000 70
CuZn38Pb2 CW608N C37700 Good machinability Valve components, 80 (90)
and cold workable optical and precision
machined parts
CuZn39Pb2 CW612N Excellent machina- Watch and clock move- (85)
bility and drilling/ ments; terminal strips;
milling quality; electrical connectors
good stamping/
punching quality
CuZn39Pb3 CW614N C38500 Excellent machina- Form turned parts; 90 (100)
bility; main alloy in precision machined
Europe for use on parts; clock and watch
screw machines and components;
machining centres; electrical applications;
form turned parts ball pen tips
CuZn40Pb2 CW617N C37700 Excellent ma- Form turned parts of 80 (95)
chinability; good all kinds; precision
hot workability; machined parts; clock
extruded sections and watch components
CuZn43Pb2Al CW624N
Multi-component copper- CuZn40Mn1Pb CW720R Roller bearing cages;
zinc alloys screw-machine prod-
ucts

CuZn21Si3P CW724R C69300 Lead-free machining


alloy

Table 21 a: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group I: Copper alloys with excellent machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 49


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Copper-zinc casting alloys CuZn33Pb2-C CC750S Gas and water valve


bodies
CuZn39Pb1Al-C CC754S Valves for gas,
water and sanitary
installations
Copper-tin and copper- CuSn3Zn8Pb5-C CC490K Medium-hard Thin-walled valves 90
tin-zinc casting alloys structural material; (wall thickness up to 12
good castability; mm) suitable for appli-
corrosion-resistant cations up to 225 C.
to fresh water even
at raised tempera-
tures
CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C CC491K C83600 Structural material; Water and steam valve 90
Copper casting alloys

good castability; bodies for applications


good solderability, up to 225 C; regular-
moderate braze- duty pump housings;
ability; good corro- thin-walled castings of
sion resistance complex geometry
CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C CC493K C93200 Medium-hard Moderate-duty plain 70
material with bearings
good anti-seizure
properties
CuSn5Zn5Pb2-C CC499K Structural material; Fittings, valves and 90
good castability; pump housings par-
good solderability, ticularly for drinking
moderate braze- water applications
ability; good corro-
sion resistance
CuPb10Sn10-C CC495K C93700 Good self-lubricat- Plain bearings with 80
ing properties high surface pressure
Copper-lead and copper- CuSn7Pb15-C CC496K CC93800 Plain bearings; com- 80
tin casting alloys posite bearings

Table 21b: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group I: Copper alloys with excellent machining properties

50 | DKI Monograph i.18


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Low-alloyed copper alloys CuBe2 CW101C C17200 High-strength parts 20


(alloying elements < 5%)
CuCo2Be CW104C C17500 High-temperature Resistance welding 40
hardenable in cold-
stability electrodes
worked state
CuCr1Zr CW106C C18150 High-temperature Resistance welding 20
Standard does stability electrodes; contact
not define state elements
for stamped, cold
formed material
CuNi1Si CW109C Heavy-duty screws,
nuts and bolts; roller
bearing cages; spray
nozzles; bearing
bushes, applications
for hardened states
CuNi2Si CW111C C64700 High tensile In hardened state
strength
CuNi3Si1 CW112C C70250 High tensile Mould inserts
strength
Wrought copper alloys

Low-alloyed copper alloys CuSi3Mn1 CW116C C65500 30


(alloying elements < 5 %)
non-age-hardenable
Copper-tin alloy CuSn5Pb1 CW458K C53400 70
Binary copper-zinc alloys CuZn36 CW507L C27200 Main alloy for cold Deep-drawn parts
working
CuZn37 CW508L C27400 Good solderability, Screws; hollow riveting 35
weldability and
cold workability
CuZn40 CW509L C28000 Clock and watch cases 40
Multi-component copper- CuZn31Si1 CW708R C69800 For sliding loads Bearing bushes; guides
zinc alloys
CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CW710R Marine propeller shafts
CuZn37Mn3Al2PbSi CW713R Structural material Synchronizer rings;
of high strength for plain bearings; valve
sliding applications bearings; gear compo-
nents; piston rings
CuZn38Mn1Al CW716R Structural material Plain bearings; sliding
of medium strength elements
for sliding applica-
tions
CuZn39Sn1 CW719R C46400 Tube plates for 30
condensers; marine
propeller shafts
CuZn40Mn2Fe1 CW723R Valves; damper bars

Table 22a: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group II: Copper-based materials with good to moderate machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 51


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Copper-zinc casting CuZn16Si4-C CC761S C87800 High-strength High-strength and 40


alloys parts for electrical thin-walled parts for
engineering electrical engineering
applications applications
CuZn25Al5Mn4Fe3-C CC762S C86100 Worm wheel rims; 30
inner parts of high-
pressure valves
CuZn32Al2Mn2Fe1-C CC763S
Copper casting alloys

CuZn34Mn3Al2Fe1-C CC764S Valve parts; control


elements; taper plugs
CuZn37Al1-C CC766S Permanent mould
castings for precision
engineering applica-
tions
CuZn38Al-C CC767S Permanent mould cast-
ings for electrical and
mechanical engineer-
ing applications
Copper-tin casting alloy CuSn11Pb2-C CC482K Good anti-seizure Heavy-duty plain
properties bearings (high perma-
nent and impact loads)

Table 22b: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group II: Copper-based materials with good to moderate machining properties

52 | DKI Monograph i.18


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Copper Cu-OFE CW009A C10100 Highest electrical Vacuum and electronic 20


conductivity applications
Cu-HCP CW021A High electrical Slip rings for electric
conductivity; good motors
weldability and
brazeability
Cu-DHP CW024A C12200 Good weldability Fuel and oil pipes 20
and brazeability
Low-alloyed copper alloys CuAg0,10 CW013A C11600 Contacts; commutator 20
non-age-hardenable rings
CuAg0,1P CW016A Good solderability, Contacts; commutator
brazeability and rings
weldability
CuSn0,15 CW117C C14200 Connector pins 20
Low-alloyed copper alloys CuBe1,7 CW100C C17000 20
(alloying ele-ments < 5%) CuBe2 CW101C C17200 High-strength springs 20
hardenable in cold- CuCo2Be CW104C C17500 High-temperature Resistance welding 40
worked and precipitation- stability electrodes
hardened state
CuCr1Zr CW106C C18150 High-temperature Resistance welding 20
Several states stability electrodes; continuous
variations as per the casting moulds
EN 12163 standard
see unhardened state CuNi1Si CW109C Medium tensile Identical to CuNi1Si 20
strength; good
electrical conduc-
tivity
CuNi2Be CW110C C17510 High tensile Current carrying com-
Kupfer-Knetwerkstoffe

strength; good ponents in overhead


electrical conduc- lines (screws, bearing
tivity bushings, contacts)
CuNi2Si CW111C C64700 High tensile Bolts 30
strength
CuNi2SiCr Welding applications; 40
die-cast aluminium
and magnesium
CuNi3Si1 CW112C C70250 High tensile Mould inserts
strength
CuZr CW120C C15000 20
Copper-aluminium alloys CuAl5As CW300G C60800 Particularly good 20
corrosion resistance
to salt solutions
CuAl8Fe3 CW303G C61400 Salt-water resist- Valve seats and com- 20
ance; resistance bustion motors
to sulphuric and
acetic acids; anti-
magnetic
CuAl10Fe3Mn2 CW306G Engine and gear Bearing bushings, me-
parts subject to vi- chanical engineering
bration and wear; and process equipment
scale-resistant, applications
high-strength nuts
and bolts, shafts,
spindles, worm
drives, gear wheels
CuAl10Ni5Fe4 CW307G C63000 Hard; shock re- Toggle lever bearings; 20
sistant; high load shafts; screws; wear-
strength, good ing parts for combus-
salt-water resis- tion engines; mould
tance making
CuAl11Fe6Ni6 CW308G High tensile Journal bearings;
strength valves; forming dies

Table 23a: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group III: Copper-based materials with moderate to poor machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 53


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)

Copper-nickel alloys CuNi25 CW350H C71300 Wear resistant;


silver-white colour
CuNi10Fe1Mn CW352H C70600 Brake pipes; 20
intercoolers
CuNi30Mn1Fe CW354H C71500 Electrical contacts 20
Copper-nickel-zinc alloys CuNi12Zn24 CW403J C75700 Excellent Optical and precision 20
formability engineering compo-
nents
CuNi18Zn20 CW409J Spectacle frame parts;
membranes; connectors
Copper-tin alloys CuSn4 CW450K C51100 Lead frames; 20
connectors
CuSn5 CW451K C51000 Connecting rod 20
bearings
CuSn6 CW452K C51900 Gear wheels; bushings; 20
pump parts; clock/
watch components;
connectors; hose tub-
ing; Bourdon tubes
CuSn8 CW453K C52100 Worm gears; gear 20
wheels; bolts; screws;
small-end bushings;
rocker bearings; cotter
pins
Wrought copper alloys

CuSn8P CW459K Worm gear wheels; 30


gear parts; heavy-
duty plain bearings;
toggle levers; valve
guides in exhaust gas
systems; small-end
bushings, cam shaft
bearings; rocker bear-
ings; hydraulic cylinder
bearings; pump com-
ponents
Binary copper-zinc alloys CuZn5 CW500L C21000 Excellent cold Components for electri- 20
workability cal installations; rotor
bars; components for
the watchmaking
industry
CuZn10 CW501L C22000 Excellent cold Watchmaking industry 20
workability
CuZn15 CW502L C23000 Excellent cold Flexible bellows 30
workability
CuZn20 CW503L C24000 Excellent cold Pressure gauges 30
workability
CuZn28 CW504L Excellent cold Bellows; musical
workability instrument parts
CuZn30 CW505L C26000 Excellent cold Connectors; radiator 30
workability trim
CuZn33 CW506L C26800 Excellent cold 30
workability
Multi-component copper- CuZn20Al2As CW702R C68700 Tubing condensers; 30
zinc alloys heat exchangers
CuZn28Sn1AS CW706R C44300 Heat exchanger tube 30
sheets

Table 23b: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group III: Copper-based materials with moderate to poor machining properties

54 | DKI Monograph i.18


Alloy group Material Machinability and Typical applications Machinability
processability rating
Designation Number Number
(EN) (UNS)
Copper casting alloys CuCr1-C CC140C Welding electrode
holders; contact
connectors
Copper-tin CuSn10-C CC480K C90700 Salt-water proof Valve and pump bod- 20
casting alloys ies; stators, rotors and
impellers for pumps
and water turbines
CuSn12-C CC483K C90800 Salt-water proof, Bearings for Cardan
wear resistant joints, couplers; ball-
screw nuts for heavy
loads; worm wheels
and helical gear
wheels
CuSn12Ni2-C CC484K C91700 Salt-water proof, Bearings for Cardan 20
Copper casting alloys

wear resistant joints, couplers; ball-


screw nuts for heavy
loads; worm wheels
and helical gear
wheels; bevel gear
wheels; worm wheel
rims
Copper-aluminium CuAl10Fe2-C CC331G C95200 Bevel gear wheels, syn- 20
casting alloys chronizer rings; gear
selector forks and gear
selector parts
CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C CC332G
CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C CC333G C95500 Good salt-water Heavy-duty crankshaft 50
resistance bearings and toggle
lever bearings; heavy-
duty worm and helical
gear wheels; marine
propeller components
Copper-nickel casting CuNi10Fe1Mn1-C CC380H C96200 10
alloys
CuNi30Fe1Mn1NbSi-C CC383H C96400 20

Table 23c: Machinability classification of standardized copper-based materials


Machinability group III: Copper-based materials with moderate to poor machining properties

DKI Monograph i.18 | 55


84
chungen sind die einzusetzenden Gren mit ihren Dimensionen angege-

12 Mathematical formula
chungen sind die einzusetzenden Gren mit ihren Dimensionen angege-
Beziehung zwischen Frei-, Keil- und Spanungswinkel: 84
chungen sind die einzusetzenden Gren mit ihren Dimensionen angege-
chungen sind die einzusetzenden Gren mit ihren Dimensionen angege-
84
Beziehung
o +zwischen
o + o = Frei-,
90 Keil- und Spanungswinkel:
(1)

Beziehung
o +zwischen Frei-,
o + o =Frei-, Keil- und Spanungswinkel:
90 Keil- (1)
uchung:
Beziehung zwischen
chungen sind und Spanungswinkel:
11die einzusetzenden
Anhang Gren mit ihren Dimensionen angege- 85
chungensind die
o + einzusetzenden
o +Equations o = 90 Gren mit(1)ihren Dimensionen angege- 14) Feed power:
uchung:12.1.
ho ch+7)C o +, Co =und
90
where:
(1) 11 Anhang
In numerical
> 1 T equations,
v k sind kennzeichnende
the dimen- T :(2) Gren
Tool life in minutesder Schnittbedingungen:
sions
Beziehung of the quantities
h zwischen Frei-,toKeil-
be entered
und Spanungswinkel: Pf = Ff vf (14)
uchung: h given. 11 Anhang
15)
vc Cutting  Netto-Antriebsleistung:
1 speed in metres per
uchung:are ch
Beziehung zwischen>1 Frei-, Keil- und Spanungswinkel:
C(2)T =C
minutek
 (7) 15) Net machine power:
h
uchung1)Geometrical
o + o + orelationship
= 90 between (1) 15) Netto-Antriebsleistung:
11 Anhang
the
h chclearance, wedge and rake angles f  Feed in mm per revolution F v
h
ohch+8) >Erweiterten
1 +  = 90 Taylor-Gleichungen: (2)
(1) P' = c c (15) (15)
uchung > 1
(tool-in-hando o reference system): (2)
60000
uchung: bhch ap Depth of cut in mm 15) Netto-Antriebsleistung: Fc  v c
>1 (3)
ob+ o + o = 90 (1) C =Net machine power in kW
PPe'  (15)
uchung:
uchung b T =k  1
(8) 60000
Gradient
ca Pec f
of the straight line in
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
uchung h ch  vc k plot 11 Anhang F v
ch >thickness
2) Chip > 11 compression: (2)the
a(3)
F
f tool-life
Schnittkraft in N
Fc Cutting force P' =in Nc c (15)
b
hbhch (k
Pe= tan )
c
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW 60000
> 1 (2)bedeuten:
b chch Darin T: (2) vc
Werkzeugstandzeit in 15)
minNetto-Antriebsleistung:
Schnittgeschwindigkeit vin
c  Cutting speed in metres
m/min60000 per
Konstante in N  m/kW 
hb >>11 (3) F
C1 Dimensioned,
(3) c Schnittkraft
empirically in N minute
ung
uchung b vc Schnittgeschwindigkeit Pe inNetto-Antriebsleistung
m/min in FkW
determined constant
vc (proSchnittgeschwindigkeit in m/min60000 Konstante in N  m/kW
3) Chip width compression: f Vorschub Umdrehung ) in mm c  vc
16) berschlagsformel
F fr
Schnittkraft in die
60000
N Netto-Antriebsleistung
Conversion
P ' = factor in (N m)/ (15)bei mehrs
uchung ap Schnitttiefe
Ca Dimensionless
c
in mm constant: (kW min) 60000
ung yb = m  x + n (4) nungswerkzeugen:
k Steigung der v
Geraden
16) berschlagsformel im Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Standzeitdiagramm (k in
=
fr die Netto-Antriebsleistung m/min60000
tan ) Konstante
bei mehrs in
(3) exponent of the
ch c depth of cut
> 1 (3)
b C1 dimensionsbehaftete, Pempirisch e 16) Approximate
ermittelte
Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW net machine power for
Konstante
ung
ung yb ch= m
: Logarithmische > 1 x +vnc-T-Abhngigkeit: Ca (4) nungswerkzeugen:
Cf Dimensionless
dimensionslose
(3) constant:
Konstante:
F Exponent
Schnittkraft multipoint
in der
N tools:
Schnitttiefe
V
4) b Equation of a straight line: Cf exponent of
16)feed
the
berschlagsformel
c
P ' = fr
w die Netto-Antriebsleistung
(16) b
dimensionslose Konstante: vc Exponent des
Schnittgeschwindigkeit Vorschubs
in m/min60000 Konstante in N  m/kW  mi
nungswerkzeugen: Vwp
y = mx + n (4) Vw
: Logarithmische
ylog = 9)
m  x + vnc -T-Abhngigkeit:
Schnittkraftformel
(4)
T = log C v + k  log v c nach Kienzle/Victor:
9) Cutting
(4)
(5) force formula (Kienzle/ P ' = (16) (16)
Victor): 16) berschlagsformel fr
Vwpdie Netto-Antriebsleistung bei mehrsch
ung 5) Equation of Taylor tool-life plot Pe Netto-Antriebsleistung
nungswerkzeugen:in kW Vw
: Logarithmische c-T-Abhngigkeit:
vC
log T = log
Logarithmische
(log-log v
plot v +
of  log
vckvs. T): v c
c-T-Abhngigkeit: Fc(5) = bV h (1mcZerspantes
)
k c1.1 (9) Werkstoffvolumen (9) Pe Net machine P' 3 =power (16)
ung w in cm /min Vwp in kW
y = mx + n (4) V Pe Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
(5) F Cutting Spezifisches
force in N Zerspanvolumen Vw Stockin cm
removal V33/min kW
w rate (volume of (16)
log T = log C v + k  log v c c (5)
V
wp
Zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen inP ' =
cm /min
n: log
y =T c= x log +C n v + k  log vinc N
Fm Schnittkraft (5) w
(4) workpieceVmaterial wp removed per
6) Taylor function:
Pe Netto-Antriebsleistung ininkW 3
cm3/min)
: Logarithmische b c-T-Abhngigkeit:
vSpanungsbreite in mm b Chip Vwp widthSpezifisches
17) Spezifisches
in mm Zerspanvolumen
Spanungsvolumen
unit in time cm
(spezifische
/min  kW
Spanungsleistung):
3
V Zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen in cm /min
n: k
w
P Netto-Antriebsleistung in kW
T =hC v  v cvSpanungsdicke
: Logarithmische (6)
c-T-Abhngigkeit:
in mm h Undeformed
(6) chip thickness
e
Vwp Vw Spezifisches
Vwp Specific stock removal 3
Zerspanvolumen 3in cm /min  kW
17) Spezifisches Spanungsvolumen rate (spezifische /min Spanungsleistung):
log 1-mT = clogdimensionsloser
C v + k  log v c Anstiegswert (5)in mm der spezifischen Zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen
Schnittkraft V A  v volume
A
in cm
 of workpiece
v ma-
1 and
n: where: k V wp V 2 wp =
Spezifisches w
= terial
Zerspanvolumen c removed
= in per
cm c3 unit time
/min =  kW (17)
n: T: StandzeitT =kTTool
log
T:
in
=v log
Cc1.1 min
v c Hauptwert
life in + k  logder
C vminutes v c spezifischen 1-m (6) Dimensionless
(5) Schnittkraft in N/mm
index reflecting Pc SpanungsvolumenF per
 v unit kofc power  A  v supplied k
c 17) Spezifisches V A  v c 3/(minA kW)
c c vc ) (spezifische
c 1c Spanungs
vc: Cutting speed in m/min
vc: Schnittgeschwindigkeit in m/min the increase of the specific = in cm
Vwp = w Spanungsvolumen = = Spanungsleistung):(17)
k 17) Spezifisches (spezifische
T: Steigung T = Cder
Standzeit v berschlgige
in vGeraden
min (6) cutting force Pc Fc  v c k c  A  v c k c
k: T = 10)
k:  C
Gradient
ck Gre der Vorschubkraft:
im Standzeitdiagramm
v  v c of the straight line in (6) 18)(kSpezifisches
= tan())
Spanungsvolumen 17) Specific Vw(Zahlenwertgleichung):
stockA removal
 v c rate:A  v c 1
n:Cvc:: Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Standzeit the Ttool-life
fr v plot
= 1 (k
in
=
m/min.m/min
tan()) k  Specific cutting force in N/mm 2 V = V A =  v A=  vc 1 =
v c c1.1 wp
T: Standzeit in min Vwp = P=c w c
F = v k = A  v(17) k c (17)
T:k: Standzeit
Steigung der in min Geraden im Standzeitdiagramm Ff  0,3 18)(k = tan())
FcSpezifisches Spanungsvolumen
(10) Pc (Zahlenwertgleichung):
Fc  v cc k cc  A  v cc k c c
n:vc: Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Cv: Tool life T for unit cutting in m/minspeed 10) Approximate magnitude of feed Vw 60000
ervCTaylor-Gleichung
cv: :Schnittgeschwindigkeit
Standzeit
T = (v
C T frk ergibt
c v= 1vm/min.)
vc = 1 sichm/min.
in m/min force:
(6) Vwp = = (18)
k: Steigung der Geraden c im Standzeitdiagramm (k = tan()) 18) Spezifisches
18) Spezifisches P 18) k
Spanungsvolumen
Numerical
Spanungsvolumen equation (Zahlenwertgleichung)
for specific
(Zahlenwertgleichung):
k: Steigung11) der 1 berschlgige
Geraden
k Gre von Vorschub-
im Standzeitdiagramm und Passivkraft: Vw
(k = tan()) c 60000 c
T =Taylor
The
Cv: Standzeit C vkTequation
vfr
c vc = can 1 be rearranged
m/min. Ff (6)0,3 Fc (10) Vwp 85 = stock
= removal rate: (18)
erCT: v = Tin min
Taylor-Gleichung
v:Standzeit
Standzeit C ergibt sich
tocyield: T frT vc = 1 m/min.
(6a) Pc kc
VwV 60000 3
vkennzeichnende
c: Standzeit
1
Schnittgeschwindigkeit inder
m/min F11)
P  FVf wp 0,3 spezifische
Approximate Fmagnitude
c
Spanungsleistung
of feed (11)
and V wp = =
in=w cm /min  Kw
60000 (18)
d T: in min Gren Schnittbedingungen: 85 V wp P =k 3 (18)
er Taylor-Gleichung
v = T k
 C ergibt
(6a) sich passive
(6a) V wforce: zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen cPin cm c /min
3 k
er vk: Steigungc
Taylor-Gleichung der Geraden
c: Schnittgeschwindigkeit
T
ergibt sich iminStandzeitdiagramm
m/min Vwp(k = tan())
spezifische Spanungsleistung inc cm /min c  Kw

ennzeichnende 12) 1
Wirkleistung:
1kT Gren
1 P Schnittleistung in kW
C 7) CT, Cvder
v c =CTTand
k:v:Steigung
Standzeit C k are
fr
Geraden = 1der
kvc quantities
Schnittbedingungen:
m/min.
im that
Standzeitdiagramm FP FfV
(6a) w0,3
c
(k =Fc tan())
(11)
zerspantes Vwp Werkstoffvolumen Vwp Specific
spezifische Spanungsleistung in2cm stock3 removal
in cm3/min rate
/min Kw in
characterize k = the 
T cutting conditions: (7) cm3/(min kW)
vc = T  CT (6a) c k
Pc cutting
spezifische
Vwp V spezifische
Schnittleistung
Schnittkraft in N/mm
Spanungsleistung
in3 kW Werkstoffvolumen
zerspantes in cm3in /min cm3/min  Kw
Cv: Standzeit T1 fr vc = 1 m/min. 12) Effective power: w
Pe = F60000 e  ve = Konstante
Pc + VwPf Pc in cm (12)
 N/mm 2
min 2kW rateinincm 3
inN/mm

lor-Gleichungen:
er Taylor-Gleichung
C T = C k  ergibt (7) sich (7) kc spezifische zerspantes
Schnittleistung
Schnittkraft Werkstoffvolumen
Vwin  Stock removal
kW cm3/min
/min
8) Extended Taylor
1 equation: P e = Fe ve = P c + P P
f c
(12) k c Schnittleistung
spezifische
3 in
Schnittkraft
2 kW in N/mm 2
er Taylor-Gleichung ergibt sich 60000 Konstante in cm  N/mm min  kW
Pc 3 Cutting power in kW2
-Gleichungen: v c =13) T k1 Schnittleistung:
 CCT1 (6a) 19) Theoretische
13) Cutting power: c k 60000 Rautiefe: cm  N/mm2  min
Konstante inSchnittkraft
spezifische in N/mm  kW
T = ck c f  k (8) (8)
kccm
Specific
3 cutting
2 force in N/mm2
v c = aT a  Cf T  vc (6a)19) Theoretische 60000 Konstante Rautiefe: in  N/mm  min  kW
PPcc = FFc c v cvc(13) 19) Theoretische
(13) Rautiefe:
C1 2 f2
T= c c
(8) R = r  r  (19)
T:  f f  vc k
aWerkzeugstandzeit
a
in min t , th
19) Theoretische Rautiefe: 42 2
vc 14)Monograph
Vorschubleistung:
56Schnittgeschwindigkeit
| DKI in m/min 2 f 2 f
i.18 R t ,th = r  R tr,th =r  r  (19)
(19)
f Vorschub (pro Umdrehung ) in mm 4 4
Werkzeugstandzeit in min
zifisches Spanungsvolumen (Zahlenwertgleichung):

Vw 60000
Vwp = = (18)
Pc kc

spezifische Spanungsleistung in cm3/min  Kw


zerspantes Werkstoffvolumen in cm3/min
Schnittleistung in kW
spezifische Schnittkraft in N/mm2
60000 Conversion factor in cm3 N/ nWT Number of parts machined in one where:
cm23  min
Konstante in(mm N/mm 2
min
kW) (= kW min))
N m/(kW tool life hz = Undeformed chip thickness per
tooth and revolution
19) Theoretically achievable peak-to- 24) Total cost of manufacturing one
oretische Rautiefe:
valley roughness: part: fz = Feed per tooth and revolution

K1 = th1 R + Kfix + KW1 = Kth1 + Kfix + KW1 (24) = Tool cutting edge angle
f2
2
g R t ,th = r  r  (19)
where:
(19) 87 s = Angle of cutter engagement
4
g 20) Approximate
2 expression for theo- K1 Total fabrication cost per unit 87hm = Average thickness of
retically f
achievable peak-to-valley product
g
oretische Tautiefe,
R t ,th  berschlglich: (20) in 87
undeformed chip
roughness:8  r2
f h1 t Machining time per part in ap = Depth of cut (feed)
ang R t ,th  (20)
minutes 87
8f 2r
etisch einzustellender
R t ,th  Vorschub
(20) bei vorgegebener Rautiefe
(20) und vorgegebe- a = Working engagement
8  r 2 Kfix Fixed costs in (independent of (radial depth of cut)
nradius: f cutting speed v )
etisch einzustellender
R t ,th  feed Vorschub bei vorgegebener Rautiefe (20) und vorgegebe-
c
21) Theoretical 8  r setting required for D = Diameter of milling cutter
nradius:
etisch a specified peak-to-valley
einzustellender Vorschubroughness Kth1 Machining
bei vorgegebener costs in
Rautiefe vorgegebe-
und
f  a 8given
and  r  Rnose
t , th radius: (21)
nradius: R  Cost rate for operator und
and vorgegebe-
eoretisch einzustellender Vorschub bei vorgegebener Rautiefe
f  8  r  R t ,th (21) machine
(21)(excluding tool costs)
ckenradius:
eugkosten je Standzeit: in /min
f Tool8costs
22)  r  R
pert , thtool life: (21)
11 Anhang 25) Cost-optimized tool life:
88
eugkosten je Standzeit:
f  K8Wa r  R t ,th (21)
eugkosten je K WT =
Standzeit: + K Ww (+ K Ws ) (22) (22)
n T 11 Anhang (k  1)  K WT 88
K Wa 11 Anhang ToK = (25) (25) 88
rkzeugkosten K =
je Standzeit: Ww
where:
WT + K ( + K Ws ) (22) R
KWT Tool K nWa
K WT = costs
T per tool life in
euten + K Ww (+ K Ws ) where:
(kk 11))K
TToK == ((22) KWTWT (25)
n T worin bedeuten oK R (25)
KWa PurchaseKprice of tool in ToK = Cost-optimized
R tool life in min
uten K
erkzeugkosten je Standzeit
= Wa
+
ToK =Ww K (+ K )
kostenoptimale (22)
Standzeit in min
nintool
WT Ws

uten nT  Number of T lives


k bedeuten per
=in  tool k = Gradient
Steigungswert der logarithmischen of straight line in vc-T-Funktion
schaffungskosten dessolid
(for
worin
Werkzeugs
worin
shank bedeuten
tools or brazed tool-life plot
rkzeugkosten je Standzeit in 
inserts: KoK
TTT=WTnumber
(beinWendeplatten = of regrinds;
== Werkzeugkosten
kostenoptimale je Standzeit
Standzeit nach Gleichung (22) in 
zahl der Standzeiten
edeuten
chaffungskosten des oK
Werkzeugs in 
Anzahl Standzeit in
der Schneidkanten)
kostenoptimale in min
min
for
rkzeugkosten je Standzeit indexable cutting
in  ==
Rverschlissenen inserts; K
Restkostensatz,
WT = Tool
d.h.costs per tool
Kostensatz life in
des asArbeitsplatzes ohne Werkzeugkosten in
sten fr das Wechseln n =
desk
number k of =
cutting
Steigungswert
edges
Werkzeugs
Steigungswert in der
der logarithmischen
definedlogarithmischen
in Eq. (22)
vvcc-T-Funktion
-T-Funktion
ahl der Standzeiten
chaffungskosten T
des (bei Wendeplatten
Werkzeugs Anzahl der Schneidkanten)
in  Werkzeugkosten
per insert)
K /min = je Standzeit
sten fr das
Werkzeugkosten
ten fr das
Nachschleifen
Wechselnje Standzeit
des
des
KWT
WT Werkzeugs
in=
verschlissenen
(entfllt bei
Werkzeugkosten
Werkzeugs in je Standzeit nach Gleichung (22)
Wendeplatten)
rate
in nach Gleichung (22) in
in 
ahl der Standzeiten (bei Wendeplatten Anzahl R
der = Cost
Schneidkanten) for operator and
Anschaffungskosten des R RWerkzeugs == Restkostensatz, d.h.
d.h. Kostensatz des Arbeitsplatzes
Arbeitsplatzes ohne
ohne Werkzeugkosten
Werkzeugkosten in
ten fr
fr das KWw Cost in
das Nachschleifen associated
des with inRestkostensatz,
Werkzeugs  (entfllt beimachine Kostensatz
(excludingin
Wendeplatten) des
tool costs) in
ten
eugkosten Wechseln
je Werkstck: des 26)
/min Spanungsdicke
verschlissenen beim
Werkzeugs Stirnfrsen:
in 
Anzahl der Standzeitenchanging(bei the worn
/min tool
Wendeplatten Anzahl der in /min
Schneidkanten)
ten fr das Nachschleifen des Werkzeugs (entfllt bei Wendeplatten) in 
Kosten fr das
eugkosten je Wechseln
Cost in fordes
KWsWerkstck:
 verschlissenen
regrinding the tool Werkzeugs
26) Undeformed in 
26) Spanungsdicke beim 114,6 chip thickness
Stirnfrsen: a e in face
Kosten fr das
K(not 26)
WT applicable
Nachschleifen
1 =Werkstck:
K W je Spanungsdicke
if indexable
des in-
Werkzeugs beim
h
milling=
(entflltStirnfrsen:
operations:
bei  f  sin
Wendeplatten) ( ) in  (26)
(23)
m z
eugkosten D
zserts are used) s
KTWT
K W 123)=Tool 114,6 (23) a
rkzeugkosten je Werkstck:
KzWT
costs for fabricating one part: hhm == 114,6ffz sin
sin())aee
( (26) (26)
(26)
euten KW 1 =
T 27) Spanungsdicke beim m Umfangfrsen:
s (23) z DD
s
zT
K WT 27) Undeformed chip thickness in
euten K = (23) 114milling (23)
,6 operations:
a
erkzeugkosten je Werkstck
W 1 27) inSpanungsdicke

zT 27) Spanungsdicke beim beim Umfangfrsen:
peripheral
hm = Umfangfrsen:
 fz  e (27)
euten s D
rkzeugkosten where:
je Werkstck in 
andmenge, d.Kh.  Menge der je Standzeit bearbeiteten Werkstcke114,6 a
edeuten W1 Tool costs in for fabricating one hhm == 114,6 ffz  aee (27) (27)
rkzeugkosten je Werkstck
part in 
Dabei bedeuten (27)
ndmenge, d. h. Menge der je Standzeit bearbeiteten Werkstcke
m s z DD
s
eitungskosten je Werkstck: hz
Werkzeugkosten je Werkstck in=  Spanungsdicke je Schneide und Umdrehung
ndmenge, d. h. Menge der je Standzeit bearbeiteten Werkstcke
eitungskosten je Werkstck: fz
Dabei =
bedeuten Vorschub je Schneide und Umdrehung
K1 = th1  R + Kfix Dabei
+ K bedeuten
W1 = Kth1 + Kfix + KW1
z der je==Standzeit
Einstellwinkel (24) DKI Monograph i.18 | 57
Standmenge, d. h. Menge hh = bearbeitetenje
Spanungsdicke
Spanungsdicke jeWerkstcke
Schneide
Schneide und
und Umdrehung
Umdrehung
eitungskosten je Werkstck: z
12.2 symbols and abbreviations

Symbol or
Unit Name/Description
abbreviation
ap mm Depth of cut

ae mm Working engagement (radial depth of cut)

A mm2 Area of uncut chip

ABS - Built-up edge

A5 % Elongation after fracture

b mm Undeformed chip width

bch mm Chip width

bf mm Width of chip breaker

Ca - Constant in the extended Taylor equation: exponent of the depth of cut

Cf min Constant in the extended Taylor equation: exponent of the feed

CT m/min Constant in the Taylor equation: vc when T = 1 min

Cv min Constant in the Taylor equation: T when vc = 1 m/min

C1 dimensioned Constant in the extended Taylor equation

d mm Diameter (of drill hole, drill, milling cutter etc.)

% Degree of deformation

E N/mm2 Modulus of eleasticity

f mm/U Feed per revolution

fh - Correction factor that accounts for the influence of the uncut chip thickness on the cutting force

fz mm/tooth Feed per tooth

F N Total cutting force

Fa N Active force

Fc N Cutting force

Fc,n N Perpendicular (normal) cutting force

Fe N Effective force

Fe,n N Perpendicular (normal) effective force

Ff N Feed force

Ff,n N Perpendicular (normal) feed force

Fn N Perpendicular (normal) force

Fp N Passive force

Ft N Tangential force

h mm Undeformed chip thickness

hch mm Chip thickness

hc,1 mm Normalized uncut chip thickness, hc,1 = 1mm

hf mm Depth of chip breaker

hm mm Average thickness of undeformed chip

hmin mm Minimum thickness of undeformed chip

hz mm/tooth Uncut chip thickness per tooth

HB - Brinell hardness

HM - Carbide

HM-PCD - Carbide with polycrystalline diamond coating

HSS - High-speed steel

58 | DKI Monograph i.18


Symbol or
Unit Name/Description
abbreviation
HV - Vickers hardness

HRC - Rockwell hardness

k - Gradient of straight line in Taylor tool-life plot

kc N/mm2 Specific cutting force

kc1.1 N/mm2 Principal value of the specific cutting force

K - Crater ratio

KB mm Crater width

KL mm Crater lip width

KM mm Distance of centre of crater from tool edge

KT mm Crater depth

Kfix Fixed costs (independent of cutting speed)

KM dimensioned Constant; dependent on type of drill, tool material and work material

Kth1 Machining time costs

KWa Purchase price of tool

KWs Tool regrinding costs

KWT Tool costs per tool life

KWw Costs associated with changing the worn tool

KW1 Tool costs per tool

K1 Total fabrication costs per unit product

L mm Hole depth, length of drilled hole

MD Nm Torque

n rev./min Spindle speed, rotational speed


Number of tool lives
nT -
(for a solid tool nT = 1; for an indexable cutting insert nT = number of cutting edges)
p bar Pressure

Pc kW Cutting power

Pe kW Effective cutting power

Pe kW Net machine power

Pf kW Feed power

re mm Nose radius of cutting tool

R /min Cost rate for operator and machine

Ra m Mean roughness depth

Re N/mm2 Yield point

Rm N/mm2 Tensile strength

Rp0,2 N/mm2 0.2 % yield strength

Rt m Maximum roughness depth

Rt,th m Theoretically achievable peak-to-valley roughness

SV mm Displacement of cutting edge

SV mm Flank-side displacement of cutting edge

SV mm Face-side displacement of cutting edge

t min Cutting time

th1 min Cutting time of tool per part

DKI Monograph i.18 | 59


Symbol or
Unit Name/Description
abbreviation
T min Tool life

ToK min Cost-optimized tool life

vc m/min Cutting speed

ve m/min Resultant cutting velocity

vf m/min Feed velocity

voK m/min Cost-optimized cutting speed

vot m/min Time-optimized cutting speed

V mm3 Wear volume

VB mm Width of flank wear land

Q cm3/min Material removal rate or stock removal rate (volume of work material removed per unit time)

VwP cm3/min kW Specific stock removal rate (material removal rate per unit of machine power)

Wc Nm Cutting energy

x mm Height offset, height mismatch

z - Number of teeth on milling cutter

nWT - Number of workpieces machined per tool life

degree Helix angle of straight line

o degree Orthogonal clearance (or relief) angle

f degree Chamfer clearance (or relief) angle

n degree Minor flank clearance (or relief) angle

x degree Side clearance (or relief) angle

o degree Orthogonal wedge angle

f degree Chamfer wedge angle

x degree Side wedge angle

o degree Orthogonal rake angle

f degree Chamfer rake angle

x degree Side rake angle

degree Tool included angle

o % Degree of deformation in the shear plane

r degree Cutting edge angle

n degree Minor cutting edge angle

degree Cutting edge inclination

degree Drill point angle

da N/mm2 Shear strength

degree Angle of feed motion

degree Angle of approach of milling cutter teeth

s degree Angle of cutter engagement

degree Chisel edge angle

1/s Angular velocity

60 | DKI Monograph i.18


13 References

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[Research into machining and cutting und Betriebslehre der RWTH Aachen Bd.1. Berlin, Gttingen,
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[9] Schallbroch, H.: Die Beurteilung der Krist, T.: Metallindustrie Zerspan-
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fr das Abspanen von Metallen [Evaluation of the machinability of Einstelldaten
[Calculations of cutting force data metals] [Metalindustry - Machining technique
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Darmstadt: 1993, 22. Auflage

DKI Monograph i.18 | 61


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Silva, J.: Turning of Brasses Using et al.: Machine and Process Develop-
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and Flooded Lubrican Conditions. Microstructures on Free-Form Surfaces
Materials and Manufacturing Processes, for Hybrid Optics.
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ISBN 978-3-940565-79-2
[26]
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gnstigsten Arbeitsbedingungen bei
der spanabhebenden Formung
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techniques]
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S. 521 ff

[27]
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[Optimizing of machining processes]
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[28]
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datenoptimierung an simultan
spanenden Werkzeug-Kollektiven
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bearbeitung, 1981

[29]
Spenrath, N. M.: Technologische
Aspekte zum Feinstdrehen von
Kupferspiegeln
[Technological aspects of micro-turning
of copper reflectors]
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[30]
Linke, B.: Wirkmechanismen beim
Abrichten von keramisch gebundenen
Schleifscheiben
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[31]
Riemer, O.: Trennmechanismen und
Oberflchenfeingestalt bei der
Mikrozerspanung kristalliner und
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Dissertation Universitt Bremen, 2001

62 | DKI Monograph i.18


14 Standards, regulations and guidelines

DIN 1414-1/2 DIN 6581 DIN 1837


Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Begriffe der Zerspantechnik; Bezugs- Werkzeug Anwendungsgruppe zum
Spiralbohrer aus Schnellarbeitsstahl systeme und Winkel am Schneidteil des Zerspanen, [Groups of tool application
Teil 1: Anforderungen. [Technical Werkzeuges, [Terminology of chip re- for chip removal.]
specifications for twist drills of high- moving; reference systems and angles Beuth Verlag, Berlin
speed steel - Part 1: Requirements.] on the cutting part of the tool.]
Beuth-Verlag, Berlin Beuth Verlag, Berlin ASTM E618
Standard Test
DIN 343 DIN 6583 Method for Evaluating Machining
Aufbohrer (Spiralsenker) mit Morse-ke- Begriffe der Zerspantechnik; Stand- Performance of Ferrous Metals Using
gelschaft. [Core drills with morse taper begriffe, [Terms of cutting procedures; an Automatic Screw/Bar Machine,
shank.] Beuth-Verlag, Berlin. tool life criteria.] Beuth Verlag, Berlin ASTM, 2007

DIN 344 DIN 6584 TrinkwV 2001


Aufbohrer (Spiralsenker) mit Zylinder- Begriffe der Zerspantechnik; Krfte, Verordnung ber die Qualitt
schaft, [Core drills with parallel shank.] Energie, Arbeit, Leistungen, [Terms von Wasser fr den menschlichen
Beuth-Verlag, Berlin. of cutting procedures; forces, energy, Gebrauch
work, power.] Beuth Verlag, Berlin
DIN 222 Directive 2002/95/EC
Aufsteck-Aufbohrer (Aufsteck-Senker), DIN ISO 513 of the European Parliament and of
[Shell drills.] Beuth-Verlag, Berlin. Klassifizierung und Anwendung von the Council of 27 January 2003 on
harten Schneidstoffen fr die Bezeich- the restriction of the use of certain
DIN 8022 nung der Hauptgruppen und Anwen- hazardous substances in electrical and
Aufsteck-Aufbohrer (Aufsteck-Senker) dungsgruppen Metallzerspanung mit electronic equipment. ROHS -Official
mit Schneidplatten aus Hartmetall. geometrisch bestimmten Schneiden Journal L 037 , 13/02/2003 P. 0019 0023
[Shell core drills with hard metal tips.] [Classification and application of hard
Beuth-Verlag, Berlin cutting materials for metal removal Directive 2000/53/EC
with defined cutting edges Designa- of the European Parliament and of the
DIN 8043 tion of the main groups and groups of Council of 18 September 2000 on end-
Aufbohrer mit Schneidplatten aus application] of life vehicles. ELV- Official Journal
Hartmetall. [Core drills with carbide L 269 , 21/10/2000 P. 0034 0043
tips.] Beuth-Verlag, Berlin. DIN EN ISO 4957
Werkzeugsthle, [Tool steels.] VDI Richtlinie 3321
CEN/TS 13388 Beuth Verlag, Berlin Blatt 1: Optimierung des Spanens
Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen ber- Grundlagen.
sicht ber Zusammensetzungen und DIN EN ISO 4287 VDI-Verlag GmbH Dsseldorf
Produkte, [Copper and copper alloys Geometrische Produktspezifikation
Compendium of compositions and (GPS) Oberflchenbeschaffenheit:
products.] Berlin: Beuth Verlag Tastschnittverfahren Benennungen,
Definitionen und Kenngren der
DIN EN 1982 Oberflchenbeschaffenheit, [Geo-
Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen - Block- metrical Product Specifications (GPS)
metalle und Gussstcke, [Copper and Surface texture: Profile method
copper alloys Ingots and castings.] Terms, defi-nitions and surface texture
Berlin: Beuth Verlag parameters.]
Beuth Verlag, Berlin
DIN 6580
Begriffe der Zerspantechnik; Bewegun-
gen und Geometrie des Zerspanvor-
ganges, [Terminology of chip removing;
movements and geometry of the chip
removing process.] Beuth Verlag, Berlin

DKI Monograph i.18 | 63


64 | DKI Monograph i.18
Auskunfts- und Beratungsstelle
fr die Verwendung von
Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen

Am Bonneshof 5
40474 Dsseldorf
Telefon: (0211) 4 79 63 00
Telefax: (0211) 4 79 63 10
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