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Unit 8

Unit Exercise (pages 125-131)


16 a)

b)

c)

d)

17 a) i) Isotopes of chlorine exist.


ii) 2, 8, 7
b)

18 a) The bond is formed between two non-metals.


b)

19 a) The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the shared electrons and the two
nuclei of the hydrogen atoms.
b) i)

ii)

iii)

iv)
2
20 a) 1 H
b) 21.0 + 16.0 = 18.0
c) An atom of hydrogen-2 has a neutron while an atom of hydrogen-1 has none.

21 a) i) A covalent bond is the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the shared
electrons and the two positively charged nuclei of the bonded atoms.
ii)

b) i) 2, 8, 8

ii)

22 Type of bond: Dative covalent bond


Explanation: The lone pair on the oxygen atom provides both the electrons for bonding with
the H+ ion.

23 a) A dative covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the bond pair electrons are provided
by the same atom.

b)

24 a) Covalent compound
b) Ionic compound

c) Covalent compound

d) Covalent compound

25 a) Group VI
b) i) Covalent bond
ii)
26 a) Halogens
b) i) An atom of a Group VII element has 7 outermost shell electrons.
Each Group VII atom can obtain the stable electronic arrangement of an atom of a
noble gas by sharing one outermost shell electron with another Group VII atom.
ii) Any two of the following:
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
c)

d)

27 a) An atom of Y has 8 electrons in its outermost shell which is extremely stable.


b) i) Covalent compound
ii)

iii) WX3
c) i) Ionic compound
ii)

iii) ZX

28 a) i) formula mass of MO = 81.0


= relative atomic mass of metal M + 16.0
relative atomic mass of metal M = 65.0
ii) The name of metal M is zinc.
b) When an iron atom loses three electrons, an iron(III) ion forms.