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Unit 9

Unit Exercise (page 159169)

19 a) i) Loss of electron(s)
ii) The ions are in fixed positions.
iii) The ions can move in a solution.
b)

20 Answers for the HKDSE question are not provided.

21 a) i)

ii) To melt ionic compounds, lots of the strong ionic bonds between the oppositely
charged ions have to be overcome. This takes a lot of heat.
b) i) The ions are free to move.
ii) Barium and calcium ions have different sizes.

22 Answers for the HKCEE question are not provided.

23 a) i) Carry out a flame test.


Soda gives a golden yellow flame.
ii) Strong attractive forces exist between the ions in sodium carbonate and the water
molecules.
These forces cause the ions to move away from the solid and go into water.
b) i) Calcium carbonate
ii) calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
c) i)

ii) The atoms in quartz are held together by strong covalent bonds.

24 a) Silicon carbide has a giant covalent structure.


To melt it, a lot of heat is needed to break the strong covalent bonds between the atoms.
b) Very hard

25 a) i) Graphene has a giant covalent structure.


It is hard to break the strong covalent bonds between the atoms.
ii) Each carbon atom uses three outermost shell electrons in forming covalent bonds.
The remaining outermost shell electron is delocalized.
These delocalized electrons can move throughout the structure.
b) The layers slide over each other easily.

26 a) i)

ii) Covalent bonding


b) Weak forces exist between the molecules. Little heat is needed to separate the molecules
during melting.

27 a) i) When a calcium atom loses two outermost shell electrons, a calcium ion forms.
ii) CaF2
b) To melt calcium fluoride, lots of the strong ionic bonds between the oppositely charged
ions have to be overcome. This takes a lot of heat.
c) Calcium
d) i)

ii) Weak van der Waals forces exist between the molecules. Little heat is needed to
separate the molecules during melting.

28 a) Carbon dioxide has a simple molecular structure.


Weak van der Waals forces hold the molecules together. Little heat is needed to separate
the molecules. Hence carbon dioxide has a low boiling point and it is a gas at room
conditions.
Silicon dioxide has a giant covalent structure.
A lot of heat is needed to overcome the covalent bonds between atoms during melting.
Hence silicon dioxide has a high melting point and it is a solid at room conditions.
b) i)

ii) Silicon has a high melting point.


In silicon, each atom is covalently bonded to four other atoms in a giant structure.
A lot of heat is needed to overcome these bonds during melting.
c)

29 a) Iodine simple molecular structure


Graphite giant covalent structure

b) In graphite, the carbon atoms are arranged in flat parallel layers.


Within each layer, each carbon atom is connected to three other atoms via covalent bonds.
Van der Waals forces exist between the layers.
To melt graphite, a lot of heat is needed to break the strong covalent bonds between the
atoms.
c) Weak van der Waals forces exist between the molecules. Little heat is needed to separate
the molecules.
d) Iodine does not contain mobile electrons or ions.

30 The attractive forces between water molecules are quite strong. The weak attractive forces
between iodine molecules and water molecules are not strong enough to overcome the
attractive forces between the water molecules. Hence iodine molecules and water molecules do
not mix easily.
The attractive forces between the iodine molecules and non-aqueous solvent molecules are
much the same as in the pure substances. Hence iodine molecules and non-aqueous solvent
molecules mix together easily.

31 a) Sodium metal conducts electricity because its delocalized electrons can move in both
solid and molten states.
Solid sodium chloride cannot conduct electricity because the ions in it are in fixed
positions.
Molten sodium chloride conducts electricity because the ions become mobile.
b) Covalent compounds consist of molecules. Weak van der Waals forces hold the separate
molecules together.
Ionic compounds consist of positive and negative ions. Strong ionic bonds hold the ions
together.
Hence the molecules in covalent compounds are further apart than the ions in ionic
compounds.

32 a) The delocalized electrons are mobile.


b) The layers of positively charged metallic ions slide over each other when the metal is
hammered.
New metallic bonds are re-formed.
33 a)

In lithium, a sea of delocalized electrons surrounds the regular three-dimensional


arrangement of positive metallic ions.
The boiling point of lithium is high because the attractive forces between the metallic ions
and the electrons are strong.
b) i)

ii) Weak van der Waals forces exist between fluorine molecules. Little heat is needed to
separate the molecules during melting.
c) i)

ii) Solid lithium fluoride cannot conduct electricity because the ions in it are in fixed
positions.
Molten lithium fluoride conducts electricity because the ions become mobile.

34
Chemical bond and / or attractive forces
existing in the substance
Diagram Substance
Covalent van der
ionic bond
bond Waals forces
(i) magnesium oxide
(ii) silicon dioxide
(iii) argon
(iv) sulphur dioxide