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Senior Secondary Exploring Geography (Second Edition)

Part 4 Assessment for learning

Answers to Assessment for learning

Part 4

Answers to Multiple-choice questions (pp. 1105)

1 B 2 C 3 D 4 A 5 B
6 B 7 D 8 D 9 B 10 B
11 C 12 D 13 B 14 D 15 A
16 C 17 D 18 C 19 A 20 B
21 B 22 D 23 D 24 B 25 B
26 B 27 C 28 C 29 A 30 B

Answers to Data/Skill-based structured questions (pp. 1158)

1 a i poor/substandard housing 1
narrow streets/traffic congestion 1
overcrowding 1
lack of open space 1
noise pollution from the market on the ground level 1
hygiene problems 1
higher risk of fire 1
land use conflict 1
urban decay 1
(any 5)
ii high concentration of population in the inner city through urbanization
together with poor urban planning in the past 1
after a long period of time, various urban problems occur. Urban decay
takes place
the problem is worsened when wealthier people move out for better
environment elsewhere 1
the run-down areas are then taken up by the lower-income groups 1
succession/filtering occurs 1
these people have no money to maintain the housing condition. The
problems worsen 1
(any 4)
b Redevelopment 1
c i provides better housing by replacing old buildings with the new ones 1
provides more space to house population because the new buildings are

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Senior Secondary Exploring Geography (Second Edition)
Part 4 Assessment for learning

usually taller
helps solve the problem of overcrowding 1
large-scale redevelopment projects can improve urban environment too
such as widening roads/providing social facilities/increasing open space/
avoiding land use conflict (any 2) 2
increases the value of the area/revives the economic activities in the area
(any 5)
ii buildings with cultural or historical value may be pulled down 1
the social or historical value of the area or even the whole district will be
lost/may even lead to social conflict 1
affected residents may be resettled to different places 1
this breaks the long-established neigbourhood network of a community
may incur extra burden on transport costs to the low-income groups 1
if they are resettled to new towns far away from their workplaces in the
main urban areas
(any 3)
2 a
The 1960s Present
Mainly industrial land use/ Mainly residential land use 1+1
The building density was low The building density is high/There 1+1
are many tall buildings
(any 1 pair, 2 marks)
b in the past, Hung Hom was a good location for the shipbuilding industry in
Hong Kong as it is located along the coast
over past decades, there has been a rapid increase in population and various
economic activities
there is a great shortage of land for urban development 1
this results in scramble for land/keen land use competition 1
land rents in the urban areas increase rapidly 1
manufacturing industries, particularly those take up plenty of urban space,

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Senior Secondary Exploring Geography (Second Edition)
Part 4 Assessment for learning

have to be relocated to other parts of Hong Kong or even to South China

because the bidding power of industrial land use is lower than those of
commercial and residential land uses in Hong Kong 1
this is particularly true in the case of Hung Hom as it is near the city centre/is
part of the main urban areas
its accessibility is high 1
(any 4)
c Location advantages:
next to an existing new town (Sha Tin) 1
it is cheaper and easier to extend existing infrastructure (e.g. transport
networks, water pipeline system, electricity cables) from the new town than
building completely new ones
links up Sha Tin new town in the south and the Science Park in the north 1
integrates the services and facilities in Sha Tin new town and the Science
Park/maximizes the uses of existing services and facilities 1
Site advantages:
reclaiming land from the sea does not involve compensation for land
resumption/easy for land resumption 1
merging with the original site of the Sha Tin Sewage Treatment Works forms a
large piece of flat land for various urban uses 1
(any 3)
(maximum 2 marks for either location or site advantages only)
d reclamation work may harm the aquatic ecosystem in the Sha Tin Hoi 1
the entrance/opening of the Shing Mun River Channel will become narrower
this may make pollutants in channel more difficult to flow out to the sea/
worsen the water quality there 1
building high-rises there may block the sea breeze from the Tolo Harbour 1
this will increase air temperature/intensify the heat island effect in the town
centre of Sha Tin new town
air pollutants in the town centre will become more difficult to disperse. This
badly affects the air quality in the town centre
the high-rises may also spoil the ridgeline of the hills behind 1

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Senior Secondary Exploring Geography (Second Edition)
Part 4 Assessment for learning

which is the last natural sea view in the Sha Tin Hoi 1
(any 5)
e there is not enough flat land for development/it is hard to find suitable sites for
redevelopment or reclamation 1
it is expensive to create land by reclamation/to pay compensation to the
affected parties in a redevelopment project 1
urban development may involve the relocation of existing residents/facilities
(e.g. the dockyard and the sewage treatment works shown in the cases). It
is not easy to find other places to resettle the affected parties
and it may take a long time to make a deal with the affected parties 1
some development projects may face strong opposition from local
communities/society due to various concerns such as environmental and social
concerns (the case of Ma Liu Shui shows this point) 1
a large-scale development project at a particular site will greatly increase the
transport burden of a district. The government has to review or improve
the transport network of the whole district
(any 4, or any reasonable answers)
3 a i 529 metres (in 0467) 1
a ii

iii (370 m 100 m) (200 m 3.7) 1

= 270 m 740 m
= 1:2.7 1

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Part 4 Assessment for learning

Obtaining land Map evidence

By reclamation Straight coastline 1+1
By taking over farmland Presence of cultivated land at 1+1
024672 and 020666
(any 1 pair, 2 marks)
c For:
ease the housing problems in Hong Kong by providing more space for
housing 1
provide land for building more social facilities for the new town, such as
hospitals, schools or a town park 1
provide commercial land to meet the increased demand from tourists and
economic activities after the opening of the Hong KongZhuhaiMacao
Bridge 1
can make use of the existing infrastructure in Tung Chung new town nearby.
This lowers the construction costs
(any 2)
loss of green area 1
loss of natural scenic beauty 1
construction on the hill area will cause noise/air pollution to the residents
nearby 1
removal of the hill will cost a lot of money 1
(any 2)
Reason Map evidence
No development is allowed in the The area is a part of a country park 1+1
area/It is a protected area
The slope is very steep. It is The contours are closely spaced 1+1
expensive/difficult to develop the
4 a 8.26 km2 ( 0.25 km2) 2
b increase in population in the coming years 1
need more housing 1
need land for economic activities to ensure further economic development/not
enough land in the inner city for further expansion 1
ease the problem of land shortage 1
adequate land supply can help stabilize land rent/housing price 1

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Part 4 Assessment for learning

moving people from the main urban areas to the NDA can release more land
in the main urban areas
redevelopment projects can then be carried out in the main urban areas 1
this helps solve the problem of overcrowding in the main urban areas 1
and various urban problems such as transport problems/land use conflict/
pollution problems 1
maximize the use of the brown area in the main urban areas 1
(any 5)
c large pieces of flat land 1
with existing transport networks 1
e.g. railway (West Rail Line)/major roads 1
close to existing new towns (Tin Shui Wai and Tuen Mun) 1
cheaper and easier to extend various infrastructure from the existing new
towns than building completely new one 1
e.g. sewage treatment works, water pipeline system, electricity cables, etc. 1
close to Shenzhen/with a direct link connecting Shenzhen (the Hong
KongShenzhen Western Corridor) 1
favourable to develop logistics services 1
(any 5)
d most jobs in Hong Kong are in the main urban areas 1
a large number of people in the NDA will need to commute to the main urban
areas for work 1
concentrating population around the railway stations can encourage people to
make use of railway transport
which is more efficient as it can carry a lot of passengers in one go 1
the amount of energy used per passenger is thus low 1
railway is comparatively green as it does not emit air pollutants in operation
it also avoids extra pollutants during traffic congestion 1
concentrating population around the railway stations can reduce the transport
flow on feeder transport between the railway stations to other parts of the
NDA/reduce internal transport movement in the NDA
fewer private cars are used. Thus, less energy is consumed and less air
pollutants are emitted 1
(any 3)

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Part 4 Assessment for learning

e having different types of housing means attracting different income groups to

the NDA
this helps provide all types of working force to meet the needs of economic
development in the area
and creates a more balanced demand for services and facilities 1
all social classes can enjoy the better environment in the NDA/enjoy new
development in society 1
meets the housing needs of all social classes 1
this upholds the principle of social sustainability/social equity 1
otherwise, social conflict may break out 1
if only public housing is provided, the financial burden on the government to
develop the NDA will be very heavy as no revenue can be obtained from
selling land for private housing
(any 3)

Answers to Short essays (p. 113)

[Note to teachers: The introduction and conclusion suggested here only serve as an example.
Since different students may adopt different approaches when writing the essay, they should
write the introduction and conclusion in line with their argument.]

1 Introduction
The allocation of space for different land uses in a city can be made through market
forces or government planning
Describe how competition for space has determined land use in Central
District (7 marks)
in Central District, the land use pattern is chiefly the result of market
competition for space between different urban land uses
as the centre of the city, Central District is the most convenient and accessible
where many terminals of transport modes (e.g. ferries, trains, buses) are
for commercial activities, it is prestigious to have offices in Central District as
it is a symbol of status
besides, proximity to business partners can promote their business/
agglomeration of related services

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as a result, there is a keen competition for such location

the land rent of Central District has thus become very high
in general, only high-order commercial land uses such as bank headquarters,
professional services and five-star hotels can afford such a high rent
this results in a concentration of high-order commercial land use
transport, institutional and recreational land uses in Central District may be
the result of urban planning
residential and industrial land uses are outbid from Central District
Discuss how far land use competition is applicable to explain the land use
pattern in new towns in Hong Kong (5 marks)
new towns in Hong Kong have been developing in the New Territories since
the 1970s by the government
this helps alleviate land pressure in the main urban areas and provides a
pleasant living environment to residents
in a new town development project, the government usually has a careful
planning beforehand to determine the type of land uses in each part of the
in this way, land uses with low bidding power, such as public housing, schools
and open space, can also be provided
this helps balance the needs of various land uses in the city
even in rural areas next to the new towns, there are ordinances to restrict
unplanned changes in land use
therefore, the mechanism of land use competition, to a large extent, is not
applicable to explain the land use pattern in new towns in Hong Kong
Although governments planning also has some effects, the land use pattern in
Central District is mainly resulted from the market force of land use competition.
In contrast, land use in the new towns in Hong Kong is the work of the
2 Introduction
Since the 1970s, many people and economic activities have moved from the main
urban areas to the New Territories in Hong Kong. Suburbanization occurs.
Among various factors, government policy (urban planning) plays a major role in
fostering and shaping this process
Describe the process of suburbanization in Hong Kong (6 marks)
suburbanization in Hong Kong mainly started due to the government policy of
new town development in the 1970s
there are several stages of new town development in Hong Kong

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in the early 1970s, three new towns (Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun)
were developed to provide land for urban development
in the late 1970s, three more new towns were developed in the north and
north-west New Territories. They are Tai Po, FanlingSheung Shui and Yuen
in the 1980s and 1990s, Tin Shui Wai, Tseung Kwan O and Tung Chung have
also been developed as new towns
most of these new towns are still expanding, and there are plans to develop
NDAs in the New Territories , e.g. in Kwu Tung, Fanling North and
Hung Shui Kiu
to facilitate the move, the government has built expressways and railways to
link up these new towns and the main urban areas
at present, all the new towns are connected with the railway network
as a result, both the actual number and percentage share of population in the
New Territories (suburbs) keep on increasing. For example, the share of
population in the New Territories has increased from about 17% in the early
1970s to over 50% nowadays
nevertheless, many people living in the suburbs still need to commute to their
workplaces in the main urban areas because jobs in the new towns are
Explain how urban planning shapes the pattern of suburbanization in Hong
Kong (6
as mentioned above, the urban planning policy of new town development is
one of the main factors facilitating suburbanization in Hong Kong. To a
large extent, the direction of suburbanization in Hong Kong follows the
distribution of new towns, e.g. building public housing estates in the new towns
attracts low-income groups to move from the old urban areas to the new
towns, while the provision of private housing attracts middle- and high-income
in Hong Kong, there are land use regulations in the New Territories and strict
laws protecting the green areas, e.g. the Country Parks Ordinance.
Changing land use in the suburbs is strictly restricted
together with the compact urban form of development, the spatial extent of
suburbs in Hong Kong is under control when comparing with the cities in
western countries such as Australia and the USA
the problem of urban sprawl is not so serious in Hong Kong. Instead, about
two thirds of our land belongs to natural green. Hong Kong is one of the

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highest-ranking cities in the world in terms of the percentage share of

green space
transport planning also helps shape the pattern of suburbanization in Hong
Kong, particularly the large-scale expressway and railway development
in the past decade. Without the provision of an efficient transport network,
people may not be willing to move to remote areas such as Tung Chung
careful transport planning and the planning approach of compact urban form
make it possible to provide efficient public transport services at
affordable fare, e.g. bus and MTR services. This encourages low-income
groups to move to the suburbs
Suburbanization is the most significant process of urban development in Hong
Kong since the 1970s. Careful urban and transport planning shapes the pattern of
suburbanization in Hong Kong in several ways, including: restraining the
direction and extent of the process; forming a frequent commuting pattern between
main urban areas and suburbs; allowing the process radiating to remote areas
and participation of all social classes in the process
3 Introduction
Landfilling involves burying large amounts of waste material on a piece of land. It
is a major method of tackling solid waste in Hong Kong. Can this method
meet the concept of sustainable development, i.e. balancing economic development,
environmental conservation and social progress at the same time?
Sustainability of landfilling (7 marks)
~ compared with other waste treatment measures, landfilling is cheap and
convenient as little investment and effort is needed to treat the waste.
What we need to do is to find a place and dispose of the waste there
~ however, landfilling is actually economically unsustainable as large
pieces of land are used as landfill sites. This wastes plenty of valuable
land for other urban development
~ although a landfill site can be converted to a recreational site after it is
filled up, such as a park and a golf course, the land is no longer
suitable for other uses environmentally
~ landfilling cannot meet environmental sustainability too
~ the ecosystem and quality of the land will be greatly damaged and
degraded by landfilling
~ decomposition of waste in a landfill site produces methane, which is a
kind of greenhouse gases

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~ if a landfill site is not properly managed, waste water may leak into the
ground. This will pollute groundwater and rivers nearby
~ bad smell from landfill sites and garbage trucks adversely affects the
living quality and health of residents nearby
~ e.g. residents in Tseung Kwan O new town have complained the bad
smell from the SENT Landfill for years
~ less land is available to provide housing and other social facilities
~ therefore, it is unsustainable in terms of social progress
since landfilling cannot meet the three principles of sustainability, expanding
landfills is not a sustainable way to tackle the solid waste problem
Other measures to solve the problem of solid waste (5 marks)
it is important and long-lasting if we can reduce the amount of solid waste at
we can achieve this by encouraging people to consume less, e.g. not to buy
food more than necessary
by collecting tax through producer responsibility schemes (PRS), e.g. the
proposed glass beverage bottles charging; and through direct user charges, e.g.
the proposed municipal solid waste charging
by waste recycling, e.g. recycle metals, glass and food waste
by reuse, e.g. trade and exchange used clothing, electronic products
we can supplement the sustainable ways above by building advanced
incinerators that would not discharge harmful gases
Landfilling is an unsustainable way of tackling solid waste by all means. Although
this way can solve the solid waste problem for the time being, it cannot last long as
we cannot extend the landfill sites and sacrifice our environment and health
without limit. Other sustainable measures should be adopted in the long run

Guide to writing short essays

Question 2

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Part 4 Assessment for learning

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