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# ENERGY is the ability to do work or produce heat

2 forms

## Kinetic Energy Potential Energy energy due to the

energy of motion composition or position of an object.
(Chemical Potential Energy energy stored
in a substance because of its composition.
The potential energy results from the
arrangement of the atoms and the strength of
the bonds that join them. Stored energy is
released when bonds are broken.)
Converted into

## Work Heat symbol is q; energy in the process of

flowing from a warm object to a cooler one
units

metric SI
calorie (cal) joule (J)

kilocalorie
One calorie
called a Calorie with a capital C
equals 4.184
sometimes called nutritional calories
joules
1 Calorie = 1000 calories
Conversions:

## 1. A breakfast of cereal, juice, and milk contains 230 Calories.

How much energy in joules will this breakfast supply?

## 230 Calories 1000 calories 4.184 J

962320 J 962000 J
1 Calorie 1 calorie

## 2. A fruit and oatmeal bar contains 142 Calories. Convert this

energy to calories.

## 142 Calories 1000 calories

= 142 000 calories
1 Calorie

## 3. An exothermic reaction releases 86.5 kilojoules. (1 kilojoule

= 1000 joules) How many kilocalories of energy are
released?

## 86.5 KJ 1000 joules 1 cal 1 Kcal

= 20.7 kcal
1 KJ 4.184 J 1000 cal
4. An endothermic process absorbs 256 J, how many
kilocalories are absorbed?

## 256 J 1 cal 1 kcal

= 6.37 10-6 kcal
4.184 J 1000 cal
Thermochemistry the study of heat changes that
accompany chemical reactions and phase changes

Universe

## System: The specific part Surroundings:

of the universe that Everything in the universe
contains the reaction or other than the system.
process you wish to study.

## Enthalpy (H) is the heat content of a system.

REMEMBER this is not temperature!!
Chemical reactions and phase changes absorb or
release heat.
To find heat used in a phase change we use Hfus and
Hvap. There is no change in temperature during a
phase change.

q = m H
Enthalpy of fusion (Hf) the energy required to melt a
specific amount of substance at its melting point.

## 1. How much heat is required to melt 5.67 g of iron (II)

oxide (FeO) if its enthalpy of fusion is 32.2 kJ/g?

q = m Hf
q = (5.67 g FeO) (32.2 kJ/g) = 183 kJ
Enthalpy of vaporization (Hv) the energy required to
vaporize a specific amount of a substance at its boiling
point.

## 2. How much heat is required to vaporize 10.0 g of water

at its boiling point? Hv = 2260 J/g
q = m Hv
q = (10.0 g) (2260 J/g) = 22600 J or 2.26 kJ

Remember:

q = m Cp T

## If we have a change of state at the boiling or melting point,

we need to use:
q = m Hf or q = m Hv

## 1. How much energy is needed to melt 25.4 g of I2. The

Hf of I2 is 61.7 J/g.

q = m Hf
q = (25.4 g I2) (61.7 J/g) = 1567.18 J or 1.57 kJ

## 2. How much energy is needed to heat 10.0 g of ice from

10.0C to 0.00C? Cp of ice = 2.06 J/gC

q = m Cp T
q = (10.0 g)(2.06 J/gC)(10.0C) = 206 J or 0.206 kJ
3. How much energy is needed to melt 45.3 grams of iron
at the melting point if the Hf of iron is 42.3 kJ/mol?

q = m Hf Notice: Hf is in kJ/mol

## 45.3 g Fe 1 mole FeO

q=( ) (42.3 kJ/mole) = 41.2 kJ
55.8 g Fe

## Specific Heat the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.
Each substance has its own specific heat (Cp). For liquid water
Cp = 4.184 J/gC.

## The heat absorbed or released by a substance during a change in

temperature depends on the specific heat, the mass of the
substance, and the amount the temperature changes.

q = Cp m T
heat absorbed specific mass temperature
or released heat in grams change

Examples:
1. How much heat is absorbed when a 4.68 g piece of metal
experiences a temperature change of 182C? (Cp = .301
J/gC)

q = mCpT
= (4.68 g)(.301 J/gC)(182C)
= 256.37 J 256 J

## 2. The temperature of a sample of water increases from 20.0C

to 46.6C as it absorbs 5650 J of heat. What is the mass of
the sample?
T = 46.6C 20.0C = 26.6
C
q = mCpT
5650 J = m (4.184 J/gC)(26.6C)
5650 J = m (111.2944 J/g)
111.2944 J/g 111.2944 J/g
m = 50.766 g 50.8 g

Try:

## 1. How much heat is released to the surroundings

when 200 g of water at 96.0 C cools to 25.0
C?

Answer = 59 400 J