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Distinguish between cultural and political nationalism [15]

Nationalism is focused around the idea of the nation being the natural and proper unit of
government. However, it can refer more broadly to movements and ideas that acknowledge
the central importance to political life of the nation. For example, the idea of citizenship is
based on the assumption that humankind naturally divides self into a set of nations and so
therefore the nation is the most appropriate and legitimate unit of political rule.

Cultural nationalism is a form of nationalism that places primary emphasis on the the idea
of the nation becoming a distinctive civilisation rather than a self-governing nation. Through
this perspective the state is viewed as a peripheral, if not as an alien, entity. For example,
the English, Welsh and Germans have an identity rooted in common culture heritage and
language. The Welsh do so by continuing to promote and defend their language. Johann
Herder, who is often notes as the architect of cultural nationalism highlighted the
superiority and uniqueness of German contrast. Another thinker, Herder, also sated that
each nation possess a Volksgeist, which is the spirit of the people: an identity that is
reflected in there culture and language. These ideas therefore strengthen this idea that
nationalism develops awareness and appreciation of national traditions and collective
memories rather than to provide a basis for an overtly political quest for statehood.

Political nationalism takes the form of regarding the nation as a natural political community,
usually expressed through the idea of national self-determination. For example, the British,
Americans and South Africans are often regarded as political nations that are bound
together by shared citizenship and may encompass significant cultural and ethnic
divisions. Self-determination is often cited as being a result of Rosseaus general will, this
idea of popular sovereignty. Which in itself is also thought of as the seed from which
nationalist doctrines sprang. This theme states that the nation is not merely a natural
community but a natural political community in which nationhood and statehood are deeply
linked. It is also regarded as some kind of litmus-test for national identity. Through a
sovereign political association within which citizenship and nationally overlap, one nation
would be within a single state, thus creating a nation-state, which is otherwise known as
the goal of nationalism itself. This nation-state would be an autonomous political
community. As Mazzini put it, every nation a state, only one state for the entire nation.