Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32




Prepared By
5. TUHIN BOSE 08521





3G i.e. The third generation of Mobile communication is the Dawn of a

new era of Mobile Communication. It is the newest big thing in the world
of mobile telecommunications. The first generation included analog
mobile phones [e.g.Total Access Communications Systems (TACS),
Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)], and the second generation (2G)
included digital mobile phones [e.g. global system for mobile
communications (GSM)]. 

But there is some new features on 3G like video call, live T.V., streaming
video, wireless broadband(speed upto 2Mbps) and much more.

Most 3G networks is based on the wideband CDMA (WCDMA) air

interface. The 3G will bring digital multimedia handsets with high data
transmission rates, capable of providing much more than basic voice
calls. So with 3G, your mobile will not just be only a mobile.


We would like to thank our departmental H.O.D., Mr. A. K. Mukherjee for

supporting us throughout the making of this technical report and allowing
us to freely consult the departmental Library.

We will remain indebted to our departmental professor Mr. Abhijit

Banerjee for agreeing to be our technical guide and directing us
throughout the project.

Any note of acknowledgement would be incomplete without mentioning

the guidance we have received from the Humanities departmental
faculty members through out this technical project.

Thanking you,



TUHIN BOSE (08521)


3G is the third generation wireless mobile communication system for

high speed data access.

It satisfies explosive growth of the internet which is increasing at the

tremendous speed in the demand of wireless multimedia services.

It has Greater subscriber capacity at larger bandwidth and fast packet-

based data service and internet acsess at broadband speed.

So without 3G your life is non-happening.


1  Inrtoduction  7 

2  What is 3G?  8 

3  Necessary of 3G  9 

4  Road to 3G  10 

5  3G  18 

6  Differences between W-CDMA & 20 


7  IMT-2000 Frequencies  21 

8  Advantages of 3G  22 

9  Disadvantages of 3G  24 

10  Beyond 3G  25 

11  Fourth Generation  26 

12  The expected growth of 3G In India  27 

13  Service provider of 3G in India  28 

14  3G enable handsets in India  28 

15  Growth of 3G in world wide  29 

16  Conclusion  30 

17  Abbreviation  31 

18  References  32 



1 Simplex communication using Walkie- 10


2 Duplex communication. 10

3 Road to 3G. 16

4 Frequency VS time plot of 18


5 CDMA,TDMA,FDMA spectrum. 21

6 3G & future wireless vs bandwidth 24

7 Generation changing of mobile 25


8 Growth rate of 3G subscribers in India 27

compared to fixed broadband

9 3G enable handsets 28

10 Growth rate of 3G subscribers in all 29

over the world


Recent activities of research and designs have invented a new

innovations and it brought forth the development of the future generation
of wireless systems. The third generation (3G) of mobile telephony
promises to provide significant features, in higher data rates, up to about
2Mbits/second, teleconferencing with video transmission, web browsing,
etc. With IMT-2000 standardization, 3G mobile systems provide full
roaming feature, allowing integration with GSM systems.

The 3G wireless communication primary objectives is to provide high

speed data connectivity to cellular phone users. It was a technology that
has been conceived from the day of internet boom when it was thought
that there was a need to establish a feature to provide the cellular phone
users the facility to access data and multimedia services at a suitable
rate. In many countries in the world, the required spectrum was
auctioned to the different Mobile service providers for fees ranging in
millions of dollars. IMT-2000 defines 3G as a wireless communication
system, which provides data rates from 144kbps to greater than 2Mbps,
which depend on the speed of the cell phone. The definition has been
created by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is referred
to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000).

What is 3G?
3G is the third generation wireless mobile communication system for
high speed data access.

3G provides more advanced services like wide-area wireless voice

Telephone, fax and internet, video calls, broadband wireless data,
anytime and any where with seamless global roaming and also it
provides advanced multimedia access.

Third generation(3G) mobile devices and services will transform wireless

communications in to on-line, real-time connectivity.


Necessary of 3G
The explosive growth of the Internet is expected to produce a
tremendous increase in the demand for wireless multimedia services.
The rapid and efficient deployment of new wireless data and Internet
services has emerged as a critical priority for communications equipment
First and second generation wireless networks have proven capable of
providing voice and low-rate data services; however, their current air
interfaces are inadequate for satisfying the higher data rates.That’s why
3G is introduced for specially high spped broadband mobile internet


Road to 3G
Start of wireless communication - At the beginning of wireless
communication people used walkie-talkie radios to communicate, only
one person can talk at a time (the person doing the talking has to press
a button). This is because walkie-talkie radios only use one
communication frequency - this form of communication known as

Fig. 1: Simplex Communication using Walkie-talkie.

Of course, this is not how mobile phones work. Mobile phones allow
simultaneous two-way transfer of data - a situation known as duplex. (if
more than two data streams can be transmitted, it is called multiplex)

Fig. 2- Duplex Communication.

In this type of system the communication channel from the base station
to the mobile device is called the downlink, and the communication from
the mobile device back to the base station is called the uplink.

First generation(1G) of wireless communication
The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on
analog signaling. Analog systems, implemented in North America, were
known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), while systems
implemented in Europe and the rest of the world were typically identified
as a variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). Analog
systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and
designed for voice, not data. Through 1G, a voice call gets modulated to
a higher frequency of about 150MHz and up as it is transmitted between
radio towers. This is done using a technique called Frequency-Division
Multiple Access (FDMA).

Drawbacks of 1G
1)1G compares unfavorably to its successors.

2) It has low capacity, unreliable handoff, poor voice links, and no

security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers, making
these calls susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping by third partie.

Second generation(2G) of wireless communication
The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based
on low-band digital data signalling. The most popular 2G wireless
technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications
(GSM). GSM systems, first implemented in 1991, are now operating in
about 140 countries and territories around the world. An estimated 248
million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a
combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time
Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz
frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. FDMA is used to divide the
available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200kHz
each. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight
timeslots. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception
simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Today, GSM systems
operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the
exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band.
While GSM technology was developed in Europe, Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America.
CDMA uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small,
digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. CDMA
systems have been implemented
worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million
While GSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant
2G wireless technologies.

Advantages of 2G
1)It is based on low band digital data signaling.

2)It also offers additional services such as voice mail, SMS and e-mail
with the speed of 10kbps.

3)clear voice quality with less background noise.

4)fewer dropped calls.

5)enhanced security.

6)greater network capacity.

7)the low power radio signals requires less battery power so phones last
much longer between charges and batteries can be smaller.

Drawbacks of 2G
1) In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient
to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G
systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on
2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. National regulations differ
greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed.

2) Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This
can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions,
digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will
experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions
worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping calls or
being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a
call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through.

3) While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noice,

the lossy compension used by the codecs takes a toll; the range of
sound that they convey is reduced. You'll hear less of the tonality of
someone's voice talking on a digital cellphone, but you will hear it more

2.5 Generation

2.5G, which stands for "second and a half generation," is a cellular

wireless technology developed in between its predecessor, 2G, and its
successor, 3G. "2.5G" is an informal term, invented solely for marketing
purposes, unlike "2G" or "3G" which are officially defined standards
based on those defined by the International Telecommunication (ITU).
The term "2.5G" usually describes a 2G cellular system combined with
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS), or other services not generally
found in 2G or 1G networks. It is the enhancement for GSM core
networks that introduces packet data transmission,it uses radio spectrum
.It provides always connectivity and greater bandwidth with speed upto
54 kbps-144 kbps and world wide roaming.

2.75 Generation
2.75 G is a term occasionally used to refer to EDGE(Enhanced data for
global evolution).It Is a radio based high speed mobile data service and
it is also called as Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution.It give speed
upto 384 kbps.It has followling advantages like Multiledia e-mailing,web

Drawback of 2.5G & 2.75G

Due to large demand of internet connectivity on the move or wireless
internet connectivity for e-mailing, live TV, music, the speed of 2.5G and
2.75G are not quite enough in these days. So we need to look beyond
2.75G with more speed, features and reliability.

Third generation(3G) of wireless communication
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in
Japan branded FOMA, in May 2001 on a pre-release of W-CDMA
technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT
DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001, although it was initially somewhat
limited in scope; broader availability was delayed by apparent concerns
over reliability. The second network to go commercially live was by SK
Telecom in South Korea on the 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002.
By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-
DO and thus the Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G

The first European pre-commercial network was at the Isle of Man by

Manx Telecom, the operator then owned by British Telecom, and the first
commercial network in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in
December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying
customers. These were both on the W-CDMA technology.

The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile

Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology.

The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern

hemisphere was built in Adelaide, South Australia by m.Net Corporation
in February 2002 using UMTS on 2100 MHz.

The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison

Telecommunications branded as Three in March 2003.

In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and

154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the
Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). In Asia, Europe, Canada
and the USA, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology
with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile

In Europe, commercial 3G services were introduced starting in March

2003 by 3 (Part of Hutchison Whampoa) in the UK and Italy. The

European Union Council suggested that the 3G operators should cover
80% of the European national populations by the end of 2005.

India entered into 3G Mobile arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile
services by Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). MTNL is the
first Mobile operator in India to launch 3G services. Government owned
BSNL has already been provided with a 3G license and has been
operating its services in many cities. Nation wide auction of 3G wireless
spectrum in April 2010 has been announced, and 3G services by private
service providers are expected by the end of 2010.

In west Bengal the first 3G launch was in Durgapur & Haldia by Bsnl on
27th February 2009 .

And now 3G is spreading more rapidly in the world as well as in India.

Fig 3-The road to 3G

Comparison between 2G,2.5G,3G

Access Technologies (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA)
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is the most
common analog system. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided
up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one
subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel
therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished,
or until it is handed-off to a different channel. A “full-duplex” FDMA
transmission requires two channels, one for transmitting and the other
for receiving. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems.

TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) improves spectrum

capacity by splitting each frequency into time slots. TDMA allows each
user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of
a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time
slots. The base station continually switches from user to user on the
channel. TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation
mobile cellular networks.

CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access is based on “spread”

spectrum technology. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it
has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum
capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time.
Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or
data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls
carried over the same spectrum. CDMA allows for a “ soft hand-off” ,
which means that terminals can communicate with several base stations
at the same time. The dominant radio interface for third-generation
mobile, will be a wideband version of CDMA with three modes (IMT-DS,

Fig. 4‐Frequency VS time plot of FDMA,TDMA,CDMA.

Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) is the 3G standard that has been agreed
for Europe and Japan, it falls under the broader standard of UMTS.
UMTS is the European vision of 3G, and has been sold as the successor
to the ultra-successful GSM. It includes both terrestrial and satellite radio
access components. The terrestrial part of UMTS is known as UTRA
(UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access). The FDD component of UTRA is
based on the W-CDMA standard (a.k.a. UTRA FDD). This offers very
high data rates up to 2Mbit/sec. The TDD component of UTRA is called
(or UTRA TDD). The standardisation work for UMTS is being carried-out
under the supervision of the Third Generation Partnership Project

It is a hybrid 2.5 G/3G Technology of mobile telecommunication
standards that use CDMA, a multiple access scheme for digital radio. To
send voice , data and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone
number) between mobile phones & cell sites. CDMA2000 is considered
a 2.5 G technology in 1x RTT and 3G technology in EV-DO. CDMA2000
is also known as IS2000.

Even through “W-CDMA “ and “CDMA2000” both have CDMA in their

names, they are completely different systems using different
technologies. However it is hoped that mobile devices using the two
systems will be able to talk to each other.

Evolution –data optimized or evolution-data only abbreviated as EV-DO

or EVDO and often EV, is a telecommunications standard for the
wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for
broadband internet access. It uses CDMA as well as TDMA to maximize
both individual users throughput and the overall system throughput. It is
standardize by 3G partnership project 2 (3GPP2) as a part of the 3G
CDMA family and has been adopted by many mobile phone service
providers around the world.

Differences between W-CDMA
& CDMA-2000
(1) W-CDMA using the speed of 3.84Mcps, which is 3 times that of
CDMA2000 1x. This difference makes the WCDMA handle the routing,
transmission in a more efficient
(2) W-CDMA can provide a better connection in an indoor environment.
(3) W-CDMA is more suitable for mixing of voice and data
transmission, in terms of flexibility.
(4) WCDMA using the rate of 1.5 kHz for transmission power control,
which is double the rate of CDMA2000. This can provide better quality
and support more user.
(5) For some services, such as roaming usage calculation,
there is a need for services provider to install extra equipment for
(6) Most of the service providers in the world are using GSM (85% of the
world networks, over 1.2 Billion users) the natural evolution path for
these operators is towards W-CDMA.
The evolution path from 2G to 3G is depicted in Figure 4 below.
(7) According to Visiongain report “US 3G and wireless data services
market analysis and forecast: 2005-2010” twelve of the major network
operators (such as AT&T Wireless, Cingular Wireless, Cellular One, T-
Mobile USA and others. 78 million total subscriber base) had deployed
EDGE as an interim solution till the FCC issues new spectrum
frequencies for W-CDMA in 2007. Cingular solved its spectrum problem
buy taking over AT&T Wireless infrastructure and started its WCDMA
rollout that will cover the entire USA by 2006.

IMT-2000 Frequencies
According to "WARC-92 frequencies for IMT-2000" resolution: "The
bands 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz are intended for use, on a
worldwide basis, by administrations wishing to implement International
Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT- 2000). Such use does not
preclude the use of these bands by other services to which they are
allocated. Here is the summary of UMTS frequencies: 1920-1980 and
2110-2170 MHz Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, WCDMA) Paired
uplink and downlink, channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. An
Operator needs 3 – 4 channels (2x15 MHz or 2x20 MHz) to be able to
build a high-speed, highcapacity network. 1900-1920 and 2010-2025
MHz Time Division Duplex (TDD, TD/CDMA) Unpaired, channel spacing
is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. Tx and Rx are not separated in
frequency. 1980-2010 and 2170-2200 MHz Satellite uplink and downlink.

                   Fig 5‐  CDMA,TDMA,FDMA spectrum. 

Advantages of 3G
• Improved digital voice communications .

• Larger Bandwidth – Higher Data rate.

• Greater subscriber capacity .

• Up to 2 Mbps fixed applications like office use.

• 384 ps-pedestrains standing or moving slowly over small areas.

• Symmetrical/asymmetrical data transmission rates.

• Fast packet-based data services like e-mail, short message

service (SMS), and Internet access at broadband speeds.

• Most carriers also expect consumers to want :-

i) location services .

ii) interactive gaming.

iii) streaming video .

iv) home monitoring and control.

The 3G Performance Advantage

Time to download a 1 MByte file

• Fixed line modem : 3 minutes

• GSM cell phone : 15 minutes
• Enhanced GSM phone : 1 - 5 minutes
• 3G phone (outdoor) : 21 seconds
• 3G phone (indoor) : 4 seconds

Disadvantages of 3G
• Lower bit rates than 3.5G and 4G ( less than20 Mbps ).

• Lower spectral efficiency and higher Cost per bit than 4G.

• Lower frequency band than 4G.

• RF channel bandwidth is lower.

• Expensive input fees for the 3G service licenses.

• Numerous differences in the licensing terms.

• Large amount of debt currently sustained by many

telecommunication companies, which makes it a challenge to build
the necessary infrastructure for 3G.

• Lack of member state support for financially troubled operators.

• Expense of 3G phones.

                              Fig 6‐ 3G & future wireless vs bandwidth 

Beyond 3G
ƒ 3.5 G

– Evolved radio Interface

– IP based core network

ƒ 4G

– New Air Interface

– Very high bit rate services

– Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds

Fig. 7 - Generation changing of mobile communication.


Fourth Generation
The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G
wireless communication standard:

• High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell.

• A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves
at high speeds relative to the station.
• A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the
• Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple
• High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real
time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc).
• Interoperability with existing wireless standards, and In summary,
the 4G system should dynamically share and utilize network
resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled

• Lack of coverage, because it is still a new service.
• High prices of 4G mobile services in some countries,
including Internet access.
• Current lack of user need for 3G voice and data services in a
hand-held device.
• High power usage.

India is seeing an unprecedented increase in the mobile users.
According of one of the latest TRAI reports released in November 2008,
the total number of mobile users in India has reached 325 million. In
October 2008 alone, 10.42 million new subscribers added. These figures
are bound to shoot up with the launch of 3G network.

Fig 8 - Growth rate of 3G subscribers in India compared to fixed


With the Government issuing guidelines for 3G, high speed mobile
downloads and live television on mobile will finally become a reality by
middle of 2009. But customers in Delhi or Mumbai may not have much to
look forward to. Due to spectrum constraints, there are merely three
Global System for Mobile (GSM) operators that can offer 3G services.
With one slot already reserved for MTNL and the other two open for
global bids, customers in Delhi and Mumbai may end up missing the 3G
bus if they don’t switch operators.

Some of the major mobile players in India are BSNL mobile, Airtel
mobile, Reliance mobile and Tata mobile. At one time Aircel mobile was
leading the market; however, it has now lost the market share to BSNL
mobile, Airtel mobile and other leadinding mobile players.


Here are some 3G phones available in India

1) Nokia E 71 2) Apple iphone 3G 3) Samsung Pixon 4) Nokia N85

5)Blackberry Bold 6) Blackberry Storm with Vodafone connection
7) LG Secret 8) INQ 1 9) Sony Ericsson C905 10) Samsung Omnia
11) HTC touch.And many more.

    Fig 9 - 3G enable handsets 

Growth rate of 3G in World Wide

               Fig. 10 ‐ Growth rate of 3G subscribers in all over the world.  

From the launch of 3G network, the demand of 3G service has been

rapidly increased in the whole world. In the initial stage in the year of
2001 it was around 27 million, and at the end of December 2004 it was
48 million. But from the beginning of 2005 there was a tremendous
increase in the number of subscriber and at the end of 2009 it was a
massive 475 million user world wide and still growing.


3G is for high speed networks for variety of data intensive applications.

3G provides more advanced services like wide-area wireless voice
Telephone, video calls and broadband wireless data and also it provides
advanced multimedia access and global roaming.

3G mobile is a major opportunity for Telecommunication business,

commerce and consumers. It brings together the two fastest growing
market sectors - Mobile and Internet.

Market, services and standards evolving from 2G to 3G and there is a

Significant opportunities for value added content(like mobile TV, wireless
broadband etc) and service providers.
And now 3G is giving way to new generation wireless networks i.e. 4G
and now also to 5G.


1) 1G - First Generation.
2) 2.5G - Second and a half generation.
3) 2G - Second Generation.
4) 3G - Third Generation.
5) 3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project.
6) 3GPP2 - 3rd Generation Partnership Project.
7) 4G - Fourth Generation.
8) AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone Service.
9) BSC - Base Station Controller.
10) BSNL- Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
11) CDG - CDMA Development Group.
12) CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access.
13) CDMA2000 - Code Division Multiple Access.
14) EDGE - Enhanced Data for Global Evolution.
15) ETDMA - Extended Time Division Multiple Access.
16) FDD - Frequency Division Duplex.
17) FDM - Frequency Division Multiplexing.
18) FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access.
19) FSK - Frequency Shift Keying.
20) GPRS - General Packet Radio Service.
21) GPS - Global Positioning System.
22) GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication.
23) ITU - International Telecommunication Union.
24) IMT-2000 - International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
25) SIM - Subscriber Identity Module.
26) SMS - Short Message Service.
27) TACS - Total Access Communications System.
28) TD-SCDMA - Time Division Synchronous Cod…
29) TDD - Time Division Duplex.
30) TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access.
31) UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System.
32) WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.
33) EV-DO:-Evolution –data optimized.
34) MTNL:-Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited.

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3G
2) http://www.scribd.com/doc/24206075/3G
3) http://www.scribd.com/doc/13286195/3g
4) http://www.scribd.com/doc/19687302/3G
5) http://www.studenyogi.com/mobile_communication/3g/report
6) http://www.pcmag.com/3g_webpages/3g_technology.html
8) http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~homerj/coms7000/
9) http://www.cellular.co.za/technologies/3g/3g.htm
10) http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/June2002/3636.htm
12) http://blog.studentyogi.com/?s=3G+mobile+communication

1) “3G MOBILE OVERVIEW” by John Burns; Aegis Systems Ltd; Fifth


Tse and Pramod Biswanathan; Cambridge University Press; 2005


LEE; 2nd Edition; McGraw-Hill.

4) “COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS” by Simon Haykin; Fourth Edition;

Wiley India.