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Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles

CHILE

by
Ral R. Vera
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FAO 2006
3

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 5
The country 5
Land area, arable and pastoral areas 6
The ruminant sector 6
Land tenure 7

2. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY 8

3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES 8


Climate and agro-ecological zones 8
Climate of the Mediterranean region 8
The Southern plains 10
Patagonia 10

4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 10

5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE 12


Mediterranean region 13
Mediterranean sown pastures 14
The Southern plains 15
Patagonian pastures 16

6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES 16

7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL 17

8. REFERENCES 18

9. CONTACTS 19

10. THE AUTHOR 20


Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 5

1. INTRODUCTION

The country
Chile, on the south-west, Pacific coast
of South America, is a narrow strip of
land extending North-South, with a max-
imum width of 420 km which covers
2006096km2, of which only 756626km2
are continental whereas the reminder is
the Chilean Antarctic (see Figure 1). The
Chilean Antarctic begins at 60 S. Chile
borders with Peru to the North, Bolivia
to the NE, Argentina to the East, and the
Pacific Ocean to the West. Its southern limit
is the South Pole. The Andean Mountains
which run North - South separate Chile from
Argentina and Bolivia. The highest elevation
is the Ojos del Salado at 6864m.
Most of the agriculturally useful land is
between sea level to a few hundred metres.
The majority of this land is in the depression
bordered by the Andes to the east, and the
much lower Coastal range that runs parallel Figure 1. Location of Chile
and close to the Pacific Ocean. These two
ranges create a central depression that runs North -South for much of continental Chile and gives rise
to fairly level valleys.
The human population in 2002 amounted to 15600000, including 67.6% mestizos, 29.5% Europeans
and 2.9% indigenous people (According to the World Factbook est. July 2006 population was 16134219
with a growth rate of 0.94%). This represents a density of 20.6persons/km2. In common with many other
Latin American countries, the population is highly urbanized (86% in 2000), and its rate of growth over
the last decade has averaged 1.1% annually. The gross national income in 2000 was US$5350 per capita
and the human development index for 1999 was estimated at 0.825 ranking Chile in thirty-ninth place
among the countries surveyed (UNDP, 2001).
Agricultural activities in Chile are relatively less important than those of its neighbours. In fact, over
the period 19962001, the agricultural gross domestic product has represented 4.0 to 4.2 of the total
GDP. The main contributors to agricultural GDP (199097 average) are fruit (29%), livestock (27%),
crops (17%), vegetables (14%) and forestry (13%). During the last decade there have been major chang-
es in the relative importance of these activities; notable changes (1998 relative to 1988) include increases
in vineyards (47%), flowers and horticultural crops (30%), fruit (21%), and improved pastures (i.e.,
fertilized native pastures that may have been sod-seeded with introduced species, 42%), and decreases in
annual crops (28%), and native unimproved grasslands (13%) among others. Improved pastures
are most common in the southern end of Chile where a temperate climate predominates. This is a mixed
group of pastures most of which were originally sown with introduced species and that have since been
colonized to various degrees by native and naturalized species; the group also includes pastures where
Trifolium repens or Lotus corniculatus were successfully sod-seeded.
Chile is a net exporter of poultry, pork and a small amount of lamb, whereas it is a net importer of
beef (US$218 100 000 in 2003) and powder milk (US$28 000 000). Nevertheless, small amounts of
beef began to be exported to Israel and Cuba in 2002, a trend that it is anticipated will continue for beef
and cow milk. Including imported beef and cow milk, the availability per capita of these two products
in 2000 was 22.3 and 128 kg respectively. The corresponding figure for sheep meat was 0.5kg/capita.
6 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

Land area, arable and pastoral areas


Administratively, Chile is divided into 12 regions, numbered I to XII in a N-S direction, plus the met-
ropolitan region of Santiago, its capital city (See Figure 2 for location of regions and their respective
capitals). From an agricultural point of view, regions IV to X are the most important, but there is also an
important grassland area in the XII, or Patagonian, region (see Figure 3).
Figure 2 shows the twelve administrative regions of Chile.
General land use classes and their sizes are shown in Table 1.
Given the desertic climate of Chiles extreme North and the cold, harsh climate of the South, the bulk
of the agricultural activities takes place in regions III to X. These activities, their relative importance and
temporal trends are shown in Table 2.

The ruminant sector


The ruminant sector of Chile makes a small- Table 1. Land use classes of Chile
er contribution to economic activities than Land use class rea (ha)
in most neighbouring countries, despite the Urban and industrial areas 60 362
fact that pastures constitute a major land Agricultural lands 3 814 363
use, and that the livestock sector is the Native pastures and shrublands 20 589 673
second largest contributor to agricultural Forests 15 636 505
GDP. Nevertheless, prospects for its growth Wetlands 4 498 061
should be excellent since the country has Note : Includes data for all XII regions; several other non agricultural
historically been free of foot-and-mouth classes excluded
(CONAF-CONAMA-BIRF, 1999)
disease and because of this, and of a number
of international treaties, it has potential Table 2. Percentage (%) of land area covered by
access to high value markets. different agricultural activities in regions III to X.
The production of ruminant products % of total land area of regions
III to X
over the period 19952005 is shown in
1989/90 1993/94 1997/98
Table 3. Intensive use
Chile has been a net importer of beef Annual crops 13.8 10.5 10.8
and milk. The imports of beef and veal Fruit crops and vineyards 3.5 3.7 4.2
amounted to 50120000 metric tonnes per Horticulture and flowers 1.0 1.2 1.3
year over the 19952003 period, and that of Sown pastures 5.6 6.4 5.9
dairy products ranged between 95000 and Fallow 3.1 2.2 2.2
Total intensive use 27.1 23.9 24.3
260000 metric tonnes per year.
Extensive use
The number of ruminant animals over Improved pastures 6.6 6.8 8.5
that period did not suffer major changes, Native pastures 48.6 48.2 43.1
except for a 10% increase in cattle and Total extensive pastures 55.1 55.0 51.6
a similar loss of sheep (although long Total intensive + extensive 60.7 61.4 57.5
pastures
term sheep numbers have declined steadily
Forests 17.8 21.1 24.1
from in excess of 6M in the early 1980s)
Pasture area, ha
and increases in goats, horses and pigs. Sown pastures 400 750 476 050 424 660
Livestock data for selected years 1990 to Improved pastures 467 940 505 870 614 804
2005 are shown in Table 4. Native pastures 3 466 940 3 586 930 3 108 978
The cattle stock is made up of European Total area of pastures 4 335 630 4 568 850 4 148 442
breeds, with Holstein dominating among (ODEPA, 1999)

Figure 2. Administrative regions of Chile


Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 7

Figure 3. The seven major economic regions of Chile and their main agricultural use

Table 3. Production of ruminant products in Chile, metric tons, 19952005


Product 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Beef & Veal (000) 257.8 259.5 262.1 256.3 226.4 226.4 217.6 200 191.8 208.3 222.0
Mutton & lamb 10 229 8 788 9 811 11 335 12 753 11 141 10 884 9 857 9 625 9 539 8 920
Cow Milk, Whole, Fresh
1 890.0 1 924.0 2 050.0 2 080.0 2 050.0 1 990.0 2 190.0 2 170.0 2 130.0 2 250.0 2 365.0
(,000)
Goat Meat 4 320 4 680 5 310 5 310 5 040 5 346 5 076 5 310 5 130 5 220 5 310
Goat Milk 10 000 10 000 10 000 10 000 10 050 10 200 9 450 9 900 9 600 9 750 9 900
Wool, Greasy 19 000 18 500 15 600 15 300 16 700 17 000 16 769 16 605 15 375 15 100 14 000
[Source: FAO databases, 2006]

Table 4. Livestock in Chile


Type of animal 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Cattle 3 336 200 3 814 242 4 068 000 3 980 000 3 927 000 3 932 000 3 989 000 4 500 000
Goats 600 000 600 000 740 000 705 000 735 000 715 000 725 000 735 000
Pigs 1 125 090 1 489 990 2 465 000 2 750 000 3 100 000 3 250 000 3 215 000 3 450 000
Sheep 4 887 230 4 625 323 4 144 000 4 000 000 4 090 000 3 750 000 3 680 000 3 400 000
Horses 520 000 550 000 620 000 650 000 660 000 650 000 660 000 670 000
[Source: FAO databases, 2006]

dairy cattle. The beef cattle are more heterogene- Table 5. Land tenure in Chile. Based on
ous and include Hereford, a number of continental 276000 farm units
breeds, Holstein male calves and steers and numerous Farm size, ha % of total farms % of total area
020 91.6 41.1
crossbreds. Common sheep breeds include Corriedale,
2140 4.0 15.0
Merino and numerous crosses with Blackfaces, but there 4780 3.3 25.9
are active ongoing programmes for the introduction of > 80 1.1 18.0
European milking and meat sheep breeds among others. Modified from Delahaye (1996)

Land tenure
Land tenure in Chile is less skewed than in most Latin American countries, as shown in Table 5.
8 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

2. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

Given the proximity of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, soil development throughout Chile has been
heavily influenced by geology, geomorphology and volcanic activity. These factors and the steep slopes
originating in the Andes which run towards the Pacific Ocean imply that soils have limited development
in depth and are relatively young. Soil variability reflects the ample range of geologic formations that
have originated them. The subject has been reviewed among others, by Honorato (1993) and soils in the
different agro-ecological regions are identified in the following section (Table 6). A soils map is avail-
able on the internet.
In the highlands of the Andes, above 3500m soils are generally superficial Inceptisols, which are
frequently stony, have low organic matter around 2% and pH6.88.8, and support scarce vegetation.
In the arid regions between latitudes 20 and 32S soils are generally considered fairly degraded due to
overgrazing and fuel wood extraction. These variable soils belong to the Aridisol, Alfisol and Entisol orders.
All along the Andes mountains, between regions III and IX, and at altitudes that tend to decrease
somewhat towards the southern end, Entisols predominate in the northern half of the area, whereas
Andisols (derived from volcanic ashes and rich in organic matter) dominate the southern half. These
soils frequently support summer ranges used for goat (in the north) and sheep (in the south) grazing.
Along parts of the Central and Southern coast of continental Chile, soils derived from metamorphic
and other rocks are common (Alfisols), and are intermixed with those derived from volcanic ashes
(Andisols, trumaos). The strip of land running N to S in Central and South Chile (regions III to X)
developed under the influence of glaciers and alluvial events, and includes a considerable range of differ-
ent soils that constitute the main basis of agricultural activities in the country. South of 42 S soils derived
from volcanic ash (trumaos) dominate the central area, where they alternate with poorly drained, more
superficial soils locally known as adi, while red clayey ultisols are typical of the Coastal areas. The
former are in gently rolling landscapes, tend to be deep (over 100cm), extremely rich in organic matter
(1215%), have high water retention capacity and drain very quickly. Soil pH is frequently less than 6,
and deficiencies of P, and to a lesser extent, K and S are very common The poorly drained soils are in
the lower portions of the landscape, have a depth that may vary between 20 and 150cm, and have an
underlying hardpan rich in Fe and Al.
The soils of the Patagonian region have been the subject of limited studies and reflect an extremely
complex geography and geomorphology. In general they have developed under the influence of glaciers,
and given the low year-round temperatures, their development has been scant. As indicated, glacier
materials have given rise to soils that rest on old Tertiary sands and clays. Their depth is variable but gen-
erally they are shallow, tend to accumulate organic matter of low activity and, possibly as consequence
of the low predominant temperatures, mineralisation is very low resulting in marked N deficiencies.

3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

Climate and agro-ecological zones


The ecology of Chile has been studied and characterized in depth. An abbreviated summary is shown
in Table 6.
A more detailed characterization of the climate of important agricultural regions of Chile follows.

Climate of the Mediterranean region


The major dominant climate of much of continental Chile is Mediterranean and extends over the range of
approximately 27 to 39 S. To the north of this region, up to the border with Per, the climate is desertic
(Atacama desert), and to the South, it is humid. The Atacama Desert is a strip of 1,600 km along the
coastal northern third of Chile (approximately 18 20 S to 27 20 S), and below 1500m.
This profile deals only with the Mediterranean region, the temperate humid area South of it between
latitudes 39 and 42 S, and the relatively small Patagonian region between 52 and 54 S since these are
Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 9

Table 6. Agro-ecological zones of Chile and their main characteristics


Domain Region Location Climatic Soils Dominant vegetation &
characteristics uses
Desert Coastal desert Narrow strip, N of Rainless; < 15 mm Red, saline, Some cacti, others
country fairly deep
Interior desert East of coast, up to Rainless, high Red, lacking in Prosopis tamarugo (Habit,
3000 meters; < 10 temperature variation organic matter 1985), cacti
mm rain
Tropical Tropical margin Between interior 911 months dry, Red and Shrubs, Tessaria sp.,
desert and Andean summer rains others, steep Baccharis sp. Cortaderia sp.
tropical 50100 mm, 3 cold slopes
months
Andean tropics Northern meseta 710 months dry; Regosols, Variable, depends on
910 months with litosols microtopography, Stipa spp.,
10C Festuca spp. Laretia sp.
Azorella sp.; limited grazing
use, transhumance
Mediterranean Per-arid III region 911 months dry, Red, desertic Thorny scrub and shrubs.
persistent fog soils Geoffroea decorticans,
Euphorbia spp., cacti
Arid Low lying parts of Extremely variable Brown-reddish, Sclerophitic shrubs, used for
IV region rainfall, 89 months calcareous goat grazing, degraded
dry, no cold months
Semi-arid Parts of V and 7 months dry, 12 Brown, Dry savanna with Acacia
Metropolitan semi arid, >300 mm calcareous caven, shrubs, palms.
regions rainfall moderate soils, variable Irrigation available for intensive
temperature variation according to agriculture
topography
Subhumid Parts of regions VI 56 months dry Brown, Intensive irrigated agriculture,
and VII calcareous orchards, vineyards, annual
soils, variable crops
according to
topography
Humid Centre of VIII 25 months dry, Volcanic soils From Acacia savanna in N to
region 10001300 mm (trumaos) & humid forest in S (Cryptocarya
brownish soils alba, Quillaja saponaria,
Nothofagus sp. etc); forestry,
annual crops, pastures
Per-humid Coast of VIII region, 12 months dry Lateritic, mixed Southern forest (Araucaria
N of IX with volcanic araucana, Nothofagus
dombeyi, Drimys sp.); annual
crops, pastures, pine trees
Oceanic Mediterranean Pacific coast of IX Year-round rain, Volcanic, Southern forest; forestry,
influence & X regions, south 2500-3000 mm lateritic and pastures, limited cropping
of 39 S, Chiloe but 3-4 subhumid podzols
Island months
Cold, Oceanic 4445 S Rainy year-round, Brownish; Humid, cold forest (Nothofagus
> 2 5007 000 mm, podsols; peats sp; forestry
cold winters
Subantarctic Islands, S of 44 S Rainy, cold Peats, gleys Tundra to humid forest
Trans-Andean Eastern slopes 5002000 mm Podzols, Steppe; heavy grazing use
of the Andes, XI rainfall, strong winds, prairie soils
region 510 months < 10 C
Continental Andean Western slopes XII Large diurnal Litosols Grass steppe and tundra;
region temperature varition, summer grazing
[di Castri, summarized by Hajek, 1991]

the regions where pastures are most important. Details of agroecozones and their use by grazing animals
in the arid northern Andes of Chile can be consulted in the Bolivia Profile, a country that shares these
areas with Chile.
In essence, the Mediterranean region in central Chile is a strip about 100km wide, comprising three
physiographic areas: Cordillera de la Costa, Valle Central and Andean Mountains. Given the length of
the Mediterranean region (over 1000km in length in the N-S direction; administrative regions IV to
VII), the climate is very variable. Annual rainfall ranges between 140mm in the N and 1300mm in the
south; correspondingly, the dry, warm season extends for 8 months in the north, and decreases to 45
months in the southern limit of the region. Inter-year variation in rainfall is extremely large, up to 300%
in many areas. Numerous indices of aridity and of the effective growth season are available (see refer-
ences in Ruiz, 1996). The cold season includes oneto three (North to South) months (generally June to
10 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

August) during which low average monthly temperatures (510C) seriously limit grass growth. A well-
recognized classification of Mediterranean sub-regions include the following in the N-S direction: per-
arid, arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, humid and per-humid. Still another differentiation commonly accepted
is between the interior Mediterranean areas between the two mountain ranges referred to above, and
the coastal areas between the Coastal range and the Pacific Ocean. This profile emphasizes the interior
area since it is the largest and most important of the two.

The Southern plains


This area extends south of the Mediterranean region up to approximately 42S, and includes an impor-
tant island, Chilo. Rainfall increases in the N-S direction from about 1 400 mm to over 2 000 mm,
with 70% of the rain concentrated in April-September (early autumn to early spring). Summer rainfall
represents about 10% of this total in the north, and over 17% in the south. Mean monthly temperatures
range between 5C in the winter months and 1215C in summer. This regime creates a short (3045
day) water deficit during peak summer in the northern tip of the region, which decreases and eventu-
ally disappears in the southern end of the plains. This ecoregion can be considered as part of the larger
(38 30 S to 55 3S) temperate rain forest of Chile that runs all the way into Tierra del Fuego, and that
includes the unique, and complex, deciduous Nothofagus forests.

Patagonia
The southern tip of continental Chile corresponds to the XII region, and extends over latitudes 48.4
and 56 S. The climate is heavily influenced by polar winds from the W and SW which following their
encounter with the Andes, discharge rainfall and snow. Climate varies a great deal over relatively short
distances, and is generally humid along the coast, and drier over the interior steppes. In generally the
same direction (W-E) rainfall declines from over 400mm along parts of the coast, to 200mm on the
drier portions of the steppe. Temperatures are low year-round, with yearly means of 4.8C in the steppe
and 6C on the more humid areas. Summer is very short and cold, with a mean temperature of 10C
and occasionally more. Winds are persistent year round and cause severe desiccation during the summer
season. Topography, rainfall, and variable distance from the Pacific coast and the Andes contribute to
extreme variability, to the extent that up to 15 agro-climatic regions or districts have been identified.

4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Production systems that include and/or are based on ruminants occupy nearly 40% of the Chilean terri-
tory, with over one half of that amount (23%) represented by rangeland-based systems (Thornton et al.,
2002) if naturalized pastures are included in the latter category. Mixed irrigated systems represent 89%,
and rainfed mixed systems occupy 45% of the continental territory.
In the northern-central part of Chile, close to the Santiago market, milk production systems are based
on mostly confined animals fed irrigated lucerne and maize. Lucerne is used for soiling, and only occa-
sionally for grazing during the growth period, and is also conserved as hay, whereas maize is made into
silage. Winter feeding is based on conserved forages, and occasionally use is made of oats, Vicia sp. and
other annual forages, in addition to the usual concentrates.
Temperate-type milk production systems tend to concentrate in the South of Chile (regions IX-X). These
systems utilize naturalized and sown pastures year-round, and forage or pasture hay and silage, and are largely
based on Holstein cattle, with a smaller proportion of European-type dual purpose breeds and crosses.
Country-wise annual milk production was very stable up until the mid nineteen-eighties, with a
total production (milk received in processing plants) of about 600 000 000 litres. Since then it grew
very rapidly at a rate of 8.1% per year, to 1640millionlitres, under the influence of a changed policy
scenario (Best, 2002). According to FAOSTAT total fresh cow milk production in 2004 was 2250mil-
lionlitres with an estimate for 2005 of 2365millionlitres. Data for 1987 show a total of 13500milk
producers, 82% of which were considered small (48litres/day) and 13% medium (587litres/day).
Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 11

Nevertheless, and in common with other countries in the region, the number of milk producers decreased
subsequently (22000 in 1980, 15600 in 1995 and 13500 in 1999), with the decrease affecting mostly
the small and medium farmers since there appears to be clear economies of scale (Best, 2002).
A small number of systems analyses have characterized these dairy systems, and in general, they
have found that low tech systems coexist with technologically sophisticated enterprises. A recent study
(Smith, Moreira and Latrille, 2002) surveyed 290 farms in the X region (approximately 41 S) that sold
fresh milk to two major industries of the area. It was found that 71% of the farms used little technology,
had a small area of sown pastures (29%) and produced only 1131kg milk/cow.year. Despite being small
(10ha allocated to the dairy herd), these farms made a relatively extensive use of land resources, and
directly grazed pastures were the only source of feed for the herd, so that the median stocking rate was
0.62 AU/ha. Farms in this group used unselected bulls and did not practice the usually recommended
milking and drying procedures to prevent mastitis. Although breeding appeared continuous throughout
the year, most calvings concentrated on spring. Farmers and workers had little if any training in currently
accepted management techniques.
A second group (13% of the farms) used a combination of grazing and stall feeding to supplement
concentrates; these farms had a median stocking rate of 0.72AU/ha over 91ha allocated to the season-
ally calving (spring and autumn) dairy herd, 34% of the area was sown to introduced pastures, and in
general milking procedures were better than in the previous case. It was further found that the staff of
these dairies was better qualified.
The third group, representing 12% of the sample, had a stocking rate of 1.16AU/ha over 83ha, and
included 33% of sown pastures. Although little to no concentrate feeding was used, milk production was
2776litres/cow.year due to improved feeding resources and management.
Lastly, the fourth group (4%) employed a stocking rate of 0.96AU/ha, had 197ha allocated to the
dairy, 45% of which were sown pastures, and concentrate supplementation was widely practiced. This
was the only group that included a significant number of specialized dairies, whereas the rest were mixed
systems that included a variety of agricultural activities. The study clearly shows the coexistence of
small, technically unsophisticated farms, within a sector that is much more entrepreneurial. The former
is typical of small, resource poor, highly diversified farming systems in parts of south Chile and notably,
in Chilo Island that, despite being poor, are well organized and socially coherent.
Beef production in Chile is largely based on crossbred animals with heavy influence of Holstein.
Breeds such as Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Shorthorn and Brown Swiss constitute a small%age of the
beef stock. Cow-calf and fattening systems across the Mediterranean region are influenced by climate,
and by the extent to which pasture irrigation is available (Klee, 1996). In the semi-arid Mediterranean
region, Hereford cow-calf systems typically have a stocking rate of 0.3cows/ha/yr., calves are weaned at
6 months of age with 180200kg liveweight, and winter supplementation of cows is generally required.
Replacement heifers may have access to Phalaris-subclover pastures (0.8head/ha), and may also require
winter supplementation. Depending on the particular combination of forage resources, weight gains per
ha range between 50 and 350kg, whereas in the central portion of the area well fertilized and irrigated
sown pastures may produce up to 1 200 kg weight gain/ha when used with young fattening steers.
Further South (regions VII to VIII) these yields are even more likely, but the trend in the irrigated parts
is to produce beef as a by-product of dairy systems. A great variety of systems and combinations of types
of animals and forage resources exist, but it is generally considered that stocking rates of 34calves/ha
on irrigated pastures are feasible.
Pastures on the Andean piedmont of these regions can produce up to 200 kg liveweight gain per
heactare, depending upon the specific location of the site.
Beef production in the southern plains have yields that range between 100kg/ha on pastures on red
Ultisols, to 300kg/ha on poorly drained soils derived from volcanic ashes (adis), to over 1800kg/ha
on the best locations and soils. Generally speaking, 5065% of these yields can originate from pasture
use, with the remaining contributed by hay and concentrate supplements.
Pastures in the extreme South of continental Chile (XI and XII regions), although more commonly
used for sheep production, may yield around 100kg/ha of weight gain in cow-calf systems.
Sheep production systems across the Mediterranean region are based on the Merino and Corriedale
breeds, frequently crossed to Suffolk when meat production is emphasized. These systems make exten-
12 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

sive use of unirrigated, unimproved native Table 7. Sheep production systems in the subhumid
grassland and therefore, their productivity Mediterranean region
is highly variable depending upon the cli- Native Native +
pasture 10% sown native +
Mixed: Sown
pastures
matic characteristics of the season. There pastures sown + (Phalaris-
cereal subclover)
exists a large range of possible systems, fallows
some of which are illustrated in Table 7. Ewes/ha 1.0 2.7 2.4 5.68.5
The continental part of the XII region, Weight gain, kg/ha 26.1 80.0 68.3 254330
corresponding to the Chilean Patagonia is Wool, kg/ha 28.2 28.2 6.5 21.125.0
[Modified from Crempien (1996); data assembled from numerous experiments]
between latitudes 4837 and 56 S and
longitude 66 and 754 W, equivalent to
132033km2. The traditional, and current, dominant farming system is extensive sheep production, most-
ly for wool and increasingly, fat lamb production. The latter is driven by the availability of an, as yet,
unsatisfied quota in the European Union. The region holds approximately one half of the national sheep
stock, produces 60% of the total wool, and houses 3% of the national beef herd. Farms are very exten-
sive, each of a few to several thousand ha, and make use of the native steppe-like grasslands (approxi-
mately 2500000ha) supplemented with a small area of improved (i.e., P and K fertilized native pas-
tures; 100000ha) and sown pastures (10000ha; the usual temperate species such as Trifolium repens,
Lolium spp., Lotus spp. and very occasionally, lucerne) in the better watered parts of the landscape. The
area of both sown and improved pastures has decreased by 60% during the last 20 years. These produc-
tion systems are in a state of flux, since their economic feasibility depends largely on wool prices, and
given the extremely harsh climatic conditions, fine and superfine wool production are unfeasible. An
active exploration of ways to increase fat lamb production is currently underway via introduction of new
sheep breeds, pasture improvement through fertilization and testing of new species, and limited, strategic
forage conservation. Similarly, sheep milk production is being experimented across all sheep production
regions in Chile, which as above, depends on the introduction of new breeds (Milchschaf, Lacha, Churra,
Manchega, etc.) and improved pastures and feeding strategies (Kusanovic, 1998).

5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE

The Chilean grasslands, with emphasis on sown and improved pastures, have been reviewed in detail by
Ruiz (1996), and what follows is largely based on chapters therein and in Gast and Gallardo (1995) and
Ahumada and Fandez (2002). It should be noted that pasture research has had a long and distinguished
trajectory in the country, although the sector has lost importance and financial resources during the last
20 years, coinciding with the emphasis placed on the production of high value crops for export such
as fruits, vineyards and horticultural crops. A detailed annotated list of references relating to pasture
research in Chile up to 1982 has been published (Paladines and Muoz, 1982).
This section therefore begins with a brief survey of the six major grassland types identified by
Ahumada and Fandez (2002) and Gast and Gallardo (1995), and it is then followed by a more detailed
description of pastures in the most important agro-ecozones.
The six grassland types are as follows:
1. Grasslands of the northern high Andes. The formation covers 3 500 000 ha mostly above
3 500 m. As indicated under Climate, the region is cold, frost may occur year-round and
vegetation is relatively sparse depending upon soil depth and drainage. The well drained, dry
areas are dominated by species of the Festuca, Stipa and Deyeuxia genera, and frequently include
shrubs of the Asteraceae family. Primary aboveground productivity ranges between 250 and
1,300 kg/ha/year. Areas with marked depressions, and hydromorphic soils support wetlands
(bofedales, similar to those found in equivalent areas of Bolivia). These grasslands support
the native camelid livestock and a rich fauna. The vegetation is composed of Juncaceae and
Cyperaceae (Oxychloe andina, Distichia muscoides, Carex incurva), Poaeceae (Festuca nardifolia,
Deyeuxia spp.) and Asteraceae (Werneria spp.)
Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 13

2. Steppic, xeromorphic grasslands. Located between latitudes 20 and 32 S, they cover


1400000ha. These are very heterogeneous grasslands, influenced by climate and soil variability.
Annual species of Poaceae tend to dominate, particularly those of the Avena, Vulpia and Bromus
genera, sometimes mixed with perennial species of the Nasella and Stipa genera. Dicotyledons
of the Plantago, Adesmia and Erodium genera make an important contribution to the sward. A
variable number of shrubs and low trees can also be found, including Bahia ambrosoides, Puya
chilensis, Oxalis gigantea, Fuchsialycioides lisoides, Heliotropium stenophyllum, Fluorensia
thurifera and others. These grasslands support a considerable stock of goats, important for
the local economy, and provide very variable yields of dry matter, ranging between 600 and
2300kg/ha/year
3. Andean summer ranges. Located between regions III and IX, they cover an estimated
2100000ha. Associated with the altitude, they are characterized by a dry atmosphere, high diur-
nal temperature variation, a relatively warm summer and a cold, frequently snow-covered, winter
period. Bunch grasses of the Stipa and Festuca genera (locally known as coirn) consitute the
herbaceous layer, with denuded soils among the plants. Biomass yields range between 250 and
1000kg DM/ha/year. Depending upon the topography, wetlands can also be found, composed of
species of the genera Juncus, Carex, Poa, Hordeum and Trifolium which constitute a very valuable
seasonal forage resource.
4. Mediterranean grasslands. Given their importance they are described in more detail below, but
they constitute the characteristic landscape of the central and central south part of the country.
These are savanna-like grasslands characterized by the presence of the Acacia caven shrub-low
tree (espino) and a variable and rich herbaceous layer described below. Primary aboveground pro-
ductivity ranges between 800 and 2500kg DM/ha/year.
5. Temperate humid and transitional grasslands. These are found in a variety of locations, includ-
ing the piedmont of the VIII regions, and large parts of the IX to XII regions. Described in more
detail below, they include a variety of naturalized species such as Dactylis glomerata, Holcus
lanatus, Lolium perenne, Trifolium spp., Lotus uliginosus and L. corniculatus, plus a variety of
dicotyledons, all of which respond to fertilizer inputs and thus provide variable yields. In the transi-
tion zone between the Mediterranean and humid areas, annual species of grasses and legumes are
found.
6. Steppic grasslands of western Patagonia. Also described in more detail below, they include
species of Festuca, Stipa, Poa and Rytidosperma among the dominant tussock grasses, and a low
lying layer (or cushion layer) of Poa, Festuca, Agrostis, Deschampsia and Phleum mixed with
numerous dicotyledons and occasionally Cyperaceae.

Mediterranean region
The Mediterranean region is between latitudes 30 and 37 South, or about 1000km in length. It encloses
considerable variation, associated with rainfall and soils. Six subregions are generally recognized, based
on rainfall and range from per-arid to per-humid environments. Nevertheless it is characteristically
dominated by annual grass species associated with the leguminous tree Acacia caven in stands of vari-
able density, thus giving rise to natural silvopastoral systems and an easily recognized landscape.
Most grass species are not native, but are of European and Asiatic origin, although some of these,
such as Avena barbata, Bromus mollis, Hordeum leporinum and Medicago polymorpha (e.g., Ovalle et
al., 1997, 2001) are native despite being found in other Mediterranean climates as well. The similarities
between the Chilean Mediterranean grasslands and those of California have been noted. The introduc-
tion of species such as Avena barbata, Bromus mollis, Aira caryophyllea, Lolium multiforum, Erodium
botrys and others was a consequence of the Spanish colonization in the XIV century, and followed the
conversion of the native grasslands to croplands, displacing species of the Stipa, Piptochaetium and
other genera.
The arid northern tip of the Mediterranean region is considered the most degraded portion. It has a
varied flora that includes 97 tree and shrub species, 95 grass and herbaceous species and 8 succulents
(e.g., cacti). Frequent herbaceous species include Erodium cicutarium and other sp., Adesmia tenella,
Adesmia barbata, Vulpia dertonensis, Plantago hispidula and others. There are 22 native Atriplex
14 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

Table 8. Estimated biomass yields and carrying capacities of grasslands in the subhumid
Mediterranean region
Type of use Typical species Biomass yield, Carrying capacity,
kg DM/ha.year AU/ha
Long term pastoral use A. caven, L. multiflorum, etc 3 5004 500 0.6
>over 20 years after cereals A. caven, V. dertonensis, B. maxima, etc 2 5003 500 0,5
57 years rotation with cereals V. dertonensis, Hordeum spp., Erodium spp. 1 5002500 0.3
36 years rotation with cereals Aira sp., V. dertonensi, Leontodon leysseri, etc 1 0001 500 0.2
Fallow after cereals Piptochaetium sp., Plantago sp., Baccharis sp. 2001 000 < 0.2
(Ovalle and Squella, 1996).

species in Chile, and Atriplex repanda is one of the best. Of the introduced Atriplex species, Atriplex
nummularia is best adapted to Chilean conditions and it was widely sown in the 1980s. Data on the
extent of plantings is not available, but extensive areas planted to various Atriplex species subsist to date,
although it is unclear if farmers continue to sow new areas. Persistence of these species depends very
much on management , and current recommendations (Meneses and Squella, 1996) consider them as a
valuable complementary forage resource if used strategically to supplement sheep.
The semi-arid to humid subregions share many characteristics in common. The vegetation is known
as espinal, for the characteristic presence of Acacia caven (espino) in the top horizon, and has been
likened to a tree savanna. In this region, native grasslands alternate with cereal crops and fallows, and
have been profoundly modified by human action. Whether the Acacia savanna is a climax vegetation or
resulted from anthropic intervention is a debatable issue. The herbaceous layer is complex and includes
in excess of 200 species of variable value for grazing ruminants. From this point of view, important and
desirable species include Lolium multiflorum and Lolium rigidum, Briza maxima, Medicago polymorpha
and Medicago arabica, Trifolium glomeratum and numerous Erodium sp. The relative importance of these
and numerous other species vary depending upon past use and history of the paddock. Similarly, forage
yields and estimated carrying capacities are variable. An example of this situation is given in Table 8.
In common with Mediterranean vegetation elsewhere, nutritive value is markedly influenced by the
season. During the active growth period of spring, crude protein on offer can be as high as 20%, and dry
matter digestibility reaches 66%, while during autumn these values fall to under 10% and 45% respec-
tively. Senescent material of course is of much lower nutritive value.
Numerous studies have addressed the interaction between the legume tree Acacia caven and the
underlying herbaceous layer. Partial or total clearing of the tree has been associated with decreased dry
matter yield of the herbaceous layer, and drastic, and worsening, changes in botanical composition.

Mediterranean sown pastures


The use of sown pastures in the Mediterranean region of Chile varies depending on the availability of
rainfall and, as expected, they are commoner in the south, better endowed, tip of the region. The com-
monest sown pastures are based on sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum) alone or associated with a
variety of annual, and in some cases perennial, grasses. Common grasses used for this purpose include
Lolium multiflorum and Phalaris tuberosa. Regardless of the association, Phosphorus fertilization is
generally required, and positive responses to this element applied both at sowing and as annual main-
tenance are found from the semiarid to the humid extremes of the region. For example, the response
to 300kg P2O5/ha in terms of dry matter yield during the second year was 63% over the control in the
semiarid subregion, versus 285% in the humid one. On the other hand, unfertilized sown pastures have
very limited persistence, and yields rapidly decrease during the first five years until they practically dis-
appear. These pastures are commonly used for direct grazing and occasionally, for haymaking. Common
hay yields range between 3 and 6tonnesDM/ha over 12 cuts per year. The bulk of biomass production
is generally concentrated over the months of October to December (spring); if unused, biomass rapidly
decreases in yield and quality over the summer period of late December to March. A large number of
grazing experiments have been conducted across the region, and Table 9 shows a summary of results
found with grazing ewes, stocked at 36head/ha. These results reflect well the extreme variability of
weather and management practices encountered in this ecosystem.
Large areas of the central portion of the Mediterranean region (approx. 3436 S), south of the capi-
tal Santiago are irrigated. High land values, fertile soils and proximity to the countrys largest market
Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 15

explain the presence of intensive dairying operations Table 9. Seasonal weight gains of ewes
based on irrigated lucerne (Medicago sativa) for grazing subclover pastures associated with
ryegrass and/or Phalaris in two locations
direct grazing and hay making, and irrigated maize
for silage (e.g. Jahn, Vidal and Soto, 2000) in an area Season Location Ewe liveweight
gains, g/head.
that has largely shifted to vineyards and orchards. day
Here the growth of lucerne extends over the months Fall Hidango, approx. 34 S, 60 to 115
semiarid to subhumid
of August to May, allowing 78 periods of utiliza- Winter 4 to 55
tion, 56 of which may be hayed. Directly grazed, Spring 80 to 188

unsupplemented lucerne allows the production of Summer 133 to 2


Fall Cauquenes, approx. 36 S, 167 to 144
1520 kg FCM/d [FCM = fat corrected milk] by Winter subhumid 20 to 86
Holstein cows during the November-March period Spring 52 to 279
(Jahn et al., 2002). Similarly, maize also provides Summer 107 to 37
high yields, in excess of 20 tonnes DM/ha. Winter Modified from Avendao (1996)
forages such as oats, annual ryegrass and others are
generally rotated with maize.
Further south shallower, acidic soils are encountered which to a large extent prevent the use of
lucerne. Pastures based on white clover and perennial ryegrass and/or tall fescue, and Lotus corniculatus
for poorly drained areas, are common. Since temperatures are lower than further North, the growing sea-
son is shorter, generally mid September to late April. Suggested associations and rotations for this region
include white clover-perennial ryegrass for direct grazing, red clover-annual ryegrass for conservation
and grazing, and maize silage for winter feeding or, alternatively, oats for direct grazing. Much more
detailed recommendations and rotations are available (Ruiz, 1996).
Parts of approximately the same region (3436 S) have alluvial and other soils with limited drain-
age, used for irrigated rice. These soils have typically in excess of 30% clay, pH below 6 and very low
P (<5ppm). Frequently, rice is rotated with subclover-based associations (including Wimmera ryegrass,
and/or Phalaris aquatica) or in longer irrigated rotations with white clover associated with perennial rye-
grass or tall fescue. These rotations resemble those found in the rice-growing region of Eastern Uruguay
and South Brazil. Well managed experimental pastures of this type, supplemented in winter with oilseed
by-products or hay have yielded in excess of 600kg/ha of steer weight gains.
The southern tip of the central region, extending between latitudes 37.4 and 39 S represents the tran-
sition to a humid climate, and is covered by a mosaic of soils most notably those derived from volcanic
ashes, and red Ultisols. Much of the area is characterized by a cold humid Mediterranean climate, with
mean annual temperature of 10C (warmest month is January with 21.5C, coldest is July, 2.3C) and
annual rainfall of up to 1400mm. Here native pastures include a large range of native and natural-
ized species, such as Trifolium repens, Rumex acetocella, Lolium perenne, Taraxacum officinale, Lotus
uliginosus, Bromus sp., Holcus sp. and many others. These pastures can be highly productive if irrigated
and fertilized. Thus, control pastures may yield 4tonnesDM/ha, whereas P-fertilized pastures may reach
67tonnesDM/ha. Sown pastures were traditionally based on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, but
Dactylis glomerata and to a lesser extent tall fescue replace ryegrass in the less favoured soils. As in
cases referred to above, numerous combinations of pastures for different seasons are available and used.

The Southern plains


This region is well endowed with grasslands made up of a mixture of native and naturalized spe-
cies. Depending upon management, and particularly the underlying soil and the fertilization regime
employed, the following species in variable%ages can be encountered in the better soils (trumaos see
under Soils): Trifolium repens, Lotus uliginosus, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Bromus cathar-
ticus, Bromus valdivianus, Arrhenaterum elatius ssp. Bulbosus, Paspalum dasyplerus, Agrostis tenuis,
Antoxanthum adoratum (Balocchi and Lpez, 2001; Teuber, 1996), and various broadleaf herbaceous
species. Given the soil nutrient deficiencies referred to above, responses to P fertilization are large. For
example, valuable species such as T. repens and D. glomerata may contribute less than 10% each in
unfertilized grasslands, and increase to 20% or more in well fertilized and managed natural pastures.
Sown pastures rely on some of the same naturalized species such as Trifolium repens and Dactylis
glomerata, but most frequently include Lolium perenne, and sometimes tall fescue. Depending upon the
16 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

topography of the paddocks, these pastures can be undersown to cereal crops, such as wheat. Wheat-
pastures rotations are advocated to reduce erosion and recuperate soil organic matter after cereal crops
(Rodrguez et al., 2000). Short rotation pastures based on annual ryegrass and red clover are also com-
mon. Sown pastures based on perennial species or short rotation species typically provide experimental
yields of 1218tonnesDM/ha/year (Teuber, 1996). In the view of some researchers (e.g., Balocchi and
Lpez, 2001) well managed naturalized pastures can provide similar yields, and equivalent nutritional
quality.
The poorly drained soils (adis) support mostly a large variety of native trees and shrubs, and their
main use is for forestry. Nevertheless, deforested areas are covered by pastures which include both native
and naturalized species, where Agrostis tenuis, Holcus lanatus and Hypochoeris radicata tend to domi-
nate. These are low yielding mixtures, seldom exceeding 5tonnesDM/ha, frequently used in cow-calf
systems. In controlled experiments, P and K-fertilized pastures in this production system have yielded
up to 280kg weight gain/ha/year.

Patagonian pastures
Patagonian native pastures (XII region) are an important forage resource, as they support 50% of the
national sheep stock. The sheep industry is the mainstay of the regional economy. This area of grasslands
covers an estimated 3500000ha over continental Chile and a number of large, important islands. The
grassland area is distributed as follows (Covacevich and Ruz, 1996): 32.7% of grasslands/shrublands
communities, 12% shrublands, 27% open grasslands, 5.5% sown pastures, 17% forests, and other minor
areas. Possibly the most characteristic tussock grass species is Festuca gracillima (coirn), frequently
associated with the equally characteristic dicot Chiliotrichum diffusum (mata verde). Other important
perennial grasses include: Stipa humilis, Stipa ibari, Stipa subplumosa, Festuca pallescens, Poa spp.,
Rytidosperma virescens, Agropyron magellanicum and others. These grasslands have a short period of
active growth, starting in September when temperatures rise, and decreasing rapidly in December as
soils dry out. Yields in this period range between 300 and 800kgDM/ha. A second brief regrowth is
observed towards the end of summer and early autumn, amounting to no more than 150kgDM/ha. In
this same region, small depressional areas accumulate water and organic matter (vegas or mallines),
and support much higher yields of up to 4500kgDM/ha/yr, despite being partially flooded part of the
year. In some ranches, efforts are made to control water levels and provide strategic irrigation to these
areas, to allow forage conservation. In regions better endowed with rainfall (above 350mm) a number
of naturalized species such as Trifolium repens form part of the sward, and provide correspondingly
higher biomass yields, that can be further increased by P and S fertilization (up to 7000kgDM/ha.year).
Sown pastures can be established, although conventional soil preparation has a narrow window of
opportunity. Traditional temperate species such as Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundi-
nacea, Phleum pratensis, and Trifolium repens can be established and maintained successfully in the
more favoured areas, if adequately fertilized and managed. Similarly, lucerne can, and is, used in some
areas. In all cases, current fertilization recommendations include 4060kg P2O5 and 2060 kg S.

6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER


RESOURCES

As implied in the above description of pasture resources, a considerable body of research regarding
pasture establishment, improvement, management and utilization is available in Chile, with particular
emphasis on the Mediterranean areas and the Southern plains. Although pasture research has declined in
the last 10 years, a considerable stock of knowledge is therefore available. As indicated above pasture
improvement in much of Chile is dependent upon P fertilization and good grazing management. Thus,
the constraints are generally more institution- and policy-related, than technological. Small to medium
livestock farmers across most of the country will have to produce ruminant products of higher value
than in the recent past if they are to survive as such. The incipient trend towards the production of sheep
Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 17

and goat milk and cheese, organic ruminant products and superfine wool may well demand improved
pastures and pasture management, as well as more and improved access to technical and economic
information.
Pasture improvement in the arid north and northern Andes, where indigenous populations abound is
difficult given the serious climatic constraints of the region, and the poverty of the small communities
that inhabit some of those areas.
Climatic constraints also limit pasture improvement in the extreme South of continental Chile (the
Patagonia), but the limited amount of research that has been carried out, and that probably needs updat-
ing, suggests that this is a feasible endeavour, particularly if the country is to increase its exports of high
quality lamb meat to the EU.
In 2001 the government established a programme to promote the export of beef (Plan de
Exportaciones de Carne Bovina) that aims to reach US$ 100 000 000 by 2005, and it is anticipated
that the programme should have its major impact in the Southern Plains of Chile, where pastures have
the largest potential. If this programme reaches its objective, it should lead also to major changes in the
grasslands of that region.

7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND


PERSONNEL

The national research institute, INIA (Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias) depends for part of its
financial resources on the Ministry of Agriculture. It was re-organized in 1964 as a private not-for-profit
corporation. It is organized around 9 regional research centres and 17 research stations that cover the
whole country, and in general it has highly qualified staff. It also includes a state of the art germplasm
conservation unit. Each regional centre has a directory composed of representatives of the private and
public sectors. INIA finances only 70% of its budget with its own fiscal resources (Bisang et al., 1999;
PROCISUR, 1999) and it therefore has to compete with other institutions for research grants.
Competitive research grants (for mechanisms, see Gill and Carney, 1999; PROCISUR, 1999) are
made available by several government departments (Funds). The situation with regards to funds is rela-
tively complex. Briefly, the Ministry of Economy (Herrera, 1999) allocates resources and provides over-
all coordination of two important funds, namely FONTEC (Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Tecnolgico
y Productivo; technological development and production), and the FDI (Fondo de Desarrollo e
Innovacin; development and innovation), and of a third fund (Fondo de Fomento al Desarrollo
Cientfico y Tecnolgico; development of science and technology) administered by the national research
council, CONICYT. All of these finance agricultural research and development projects, among many
others. The Ministry of Agriculture also offers competitive grants specifically for agricultural purposes,
via FIA (Fondo para la Innovacin Agraria; agricultural innovations). As can be inferred from the titles,
there is a degree of overlap among some of these funds. With the exception of those resources admin-
istered by CONICYT, the rest encourages joint research and development ventures between the public
and private sectors.
Several national and regional universities carry out forage and pasture research, through grants of the
above funds and others. Almost all of these universities have also highly qualified staff, and numerous
postgraduate courses (largely at the M.S. level).
Mechanisms of technology transfer have also been profoundly reorganized since the 1980s, a phe-
nomenon that applies to most other countries in the region and that has been critically reviewed by
Berdegu (2002). Agricultural extension in Chile is effectively privatized (Gonzlez, 2002) in terms of
the financial resources allocated directly by the central government. Farmers and farmers organizations
are provided with funds, on a competitive basis, to enter into contracts with private advisers and consult-
ants. Medium and large farmers are encouraged to join in small technology transfer groups (Grupos
de Transferencia de Tecnologa, GTT, created in 1976 and fashioned after the CETA groups of France
and the Argentinian CREA groups; Altmann, undated) which can apply for government grants to carry
18 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

out new initiatives, appoint consultants, travel to other countries to learn new techniques and procedures,
and various other alternatives. In the case of small farmers, funds are allocated through a government
institution, INDAP (Instituto de Desarollo Agropecuario; institute of agricultural development), to
smallholders as vouchers that can be freely used to demand the desired services. These institutions and
details of their operations have been discussed at length by numerous authors (e.g. de Janvry, Key and
Sadoulet, 1997), but in general they attempt to empower producers.
The National Agricultural Society (SNA, Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura), founded over 160 years
ago, created a not-for-profit corporation (CODESSER, Corporacin de Desarrollo Social del Sector
Rural) with the objective of training and promoting education of the rural sector, with emphasis on farm
labourers. As an example, in 1999 it trained over 19000 farm workers, equivalent to 4% of the overall
Chilean labour force. This corporation also manages some of the government-funded projects aimed at
the promotion of agriculture which include a strong component of technology transfer (e.g., FAT, Fondo
de Asistencia Tecnica; PROFOS, Proyectos de Fomento, and others).

8. REFERENCES
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9. CONTACTS

The national research institute, INIA, maintains an up-to-date web page that includes the addresses of
all its technical staff:: www.inia.cl
20 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile

Mediterraean pastures, improvement, utilization, germplasm:


Fernando Squella, Ph. D.
INIA
fsquella@platina.inia.cl

Mediterranean and arid pastures, and production systems:


Giorgio Castellaro, M.S.
Independent consultant
giolucas@ctcinternet.cl

Humid pastures, improvement, germplasm:


Nolberto Teuber, Ph.D.
INIA
nteuber@remehue.inia.cl

Humid pastures, utilization, production systems:


Ernesto Jahn, Ph.D.
INIA
ejahn@quilamapu.inia.cl

Patagonian pastures, sheep production systems:


Gustavo Cubillos, Ph.D.
Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile
gfcubill@puc.cl

10. THE AUTHOR

Dr. Raul R. Vera is a former Senior Scientist and Leader of the Tropical Pastures Program, International
Center of Tropical Agriculture, CIAT, based in Cali, Colombia. He is currently a private consultant and
part-time researcher of the Catholic University in Santiago, Chile.

Ral R. Vera
2 Norte 443 dpto. 52
Via del Mar, CHILE 2534194
Fax (Chile) 56-2-552 9435
E-mail: < raulvera@terra.cl >

[The profile was prepared in November/December 2002 and January 2003 and edited by J.M. Suttie and
S.G. Reynolds in January, 2003 and further modified by S.G. Reynolds in May 2006]