Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 53

This safety booklet is intended to be a

personal guide to HSE subjects, issued


to everyone who works directly or
indirectly in order to help to prevent
accidents, improve occupational health
care an awareness of the environment.
HSE is line responsibility. Managers
and supervisors have in that respect a
special and personal duty to actively
work for a continuous HSE
improvement within part of the Bonace
Engineers Pvt. Ltd. organization.
Line responsibility also means that
each of you has a distinct and personal
responsibility for carrying out work in
accordance with our safety regulations
and practices.
HSE is not separate subject-it is a
part of doing the job well and has a
direct connection to efficiency and
economy.

(1)
This booklet might not address all your
HSE issues. However, it provides a
basis for good and safe working
practices. For further details refer to
the Construction HSE Plan/s or to
you superior or Safety representative.

SOMETIMES YOU DONT GET A SECOND


CHANCE

(2)
SAFE WORK PRACTICES

Regardless of your job, there are some


basic safe work practices that should be
observed by everyone working on the job
site.

The objective of the Principal Contractor


safety program is to prevent injuries and
to allow you to do your job efficiently
and safely. It takes an effort on your
part to support the safety program but,
after all, that's what it's all about.

(3)
HOT WEATHER

DO NOT STAY TOO LONG EXPOSED


TO THE HOT SUN
DRINK PLENTY OF WATER
DO NOT DRINK ALCOHOL
OR YOU WILL BECOME
DE HYDRATED & ILL
TAKE SHELTER REGULARLY
DO NOT CARRY OUT HEAVY TASKS
ALONE, SEEK ASSISTANCE

(4)
1.0 Review
All persons must follow safe practices
giving every possible aid to enable safe
operations and be a part of the Safety
program by reporting all unsafe
conditions or practices to your
supervisor or Safety Rep. The vast
majority of work related injuries are the
result of unsafe acts of workers. That
means, when you take shortcuts, you
violate safety regulations or simply don't
take safety seriously, injuries are more
likely to occur. The Principal Contractor
has a responsibility and obligation to
make sure that all employees and
contractors observe and obey all
applicable rules, procedures or other
instructions as is necessary to ensure
the safe conduct of the work and must
take such action as necessary to obtain
compliance.

Only Acceptable attitude towards


Safety is 100% support.
(5)
2.0 Violations

If you violate the Principal


BEPL safety rules or you work in an
unsafe manner, you will be provided with
a written safety warning. This warning
will explain what the unsafe behaviour
was and how to correct it.
If it's a minor violation, then the warning
will serve as a reminder for the proper
procedure. If it's a serious violation, or
you continue to exhibit unsafe behaviour,
disciplinary action may be taken.
The purpose of safety rule enforcement is
the protection of all employees. One
employee's unsafe behaviour can affect
the safety of other employees/workers
and safety is too important and shall not
allow unsafe behaviour or unsafe
conditions.
IF AN ACCIDENT OCCURS
NOT ONLY THE VICTIM IS
HURT
THINK ABOUT THOSE WHO
DEPEND ON YOU!

(6)
3.0 Safety Training
In the construction industry, and more
specifically our Project, frequent
accident prevention Toolbox talks or
training is provided regularly on an
ongoing basis.

However, it is the responsibility of each


employee and contractor to work and act
safely every day on every job.

Training is simply making you more aware


of safety and safety rules and it's your
job to work safe and act safely every
day.

(7)
4.0 Alcohol & Drugs
Anyone known to be under the influence
of drugs or intoxicating substances that
impair his / her ability to safely perform
the assigned duties shall not be allowed
on the job while in that condition.

If you are taking medication prescribed


by a physician or taking over-the-counter
medication, tell your HSE Engineer
before you begin work.

Some medications may impair your ability


to work or operate equipment safely.

No one shall knowingly be permitted or


required to work while his / her ability
or alertness is so impaired by fatigue,
illness, or other causes that they might
unnecessarily expose the employee or
others to injury.

(8)
5.0 Horseplay
Weve discussed unsafe behaviour and
how it leads to injuries on the job.

Unsafe behaviour includes horseplay,


practical jokes and other acts, which
tend to have an adverse influence on the
safety or well being of other employees.

6.0 Pressure Testing


Air hoses shall not be disconnected at
compressors until the hose line has been
bled and is free of any air pressure.

7.0 Planning & Supervision


Work shall be planned and supervised to
prevent injuries when handling materials
and when working with equipment.

8.0 Confined Spaces


Employees shall not enter manholes,
underground chambers, tanks, or other
similar places that receive little or no

(9)
ventilation unless it has been determined
that it is safe to enter and the person(s)
entering do so under the conditions laid
down in a Permit to Work.

Confined spaces can be hazardous due to


build up of toxic fumes, gas, lack of
oxygen, ingress of unwanted process
material and other hazards that can
gather in the spaces creating an
extremely dangerous hazard.

9.0 Machine Guarding


Machine guards and other protective
devices must be in their proper place
before machinery and equipment is used
and employees must report any
deficiencies or hazards to their
supervisor or Safety Representative
when they are detected.
If the equipment is unsafe to operate,
do not operate the equipment until it has
been replaced or repaired.

(10)
10.0 Utilities
Employees or Contractors must not
handle or tamper with any electrical
equipment, machinery, or air or water
lines in a manner outside of the scope of
their duties unless they have received
instructions and authorisation from their
supervisor.

11.0 Incident Reporting

If you are injured on the job, report the


injury immediately. ,
report the injury when it occurs, even if
you believe that medical treatment is not
(11)
necessary. If medical treatment is
required, it will be provided.
Remember We all believe in the
NO BLAME culture to enable the root
causes to be identified and prevention of
a recurrence

12.0 Manual Handling


When lifting anything, use the power of
your legs and not your back. If you keep
your back in its natural curvature by
bending your legs, it's difficult to suffer
a back injury.

13.0 PPE
Inappropriate footwear or shoes must
not be worn. Wear proper Footwear,
Hardhat/Helmet, Hi Visibility clothing
and Safety glasses on the job.

(12)
14.0 Dropped Objects
Materials, tools, and other objects shall
not be thrown from structures until
proper precautions are taken to protect
others from the falling objects.

15.0 Safe Systems of Work


In line with the BEPL Project
Directorate Health and Safe Policy, all
employees are expected to work in a
safe manner at all times. All tasks will be
carried out in line with the following:
1. The task must be assessed and the
activity thoroughly planned.
2. The workforce must be organized and
sure of their roles.
3. The planned procedures must be
adhered to during the work.
4. Any changes to the work scope will be
identified to the workforce and
thoroughly explained.

(13)
5. If the activity is to be suspended for
any time e.g. meal breaks etc. the
workplace is to be left in a safe
manner.
6. All tasks to be completed to the
highest standards.

Permit to Work
These are often required by customers
for two main reasons; firstly to maintain
control of work being carried out on
their worksite and secondly to ensure
that all necessary safety precautions are
carried out. It should be noted that a
work permit does not guarantee safety;
an accident can occur at any time and
safety rules must always be adhered to.
Work Permits are issued for the
following types of work:
Hot Works Radiography
Confined Spaces Excavation
Electrical Works Energizing / Isolation

(14)
It identifies conditions and limits
potentially harmful effects on the
person carrying out the work by
specifying safety precautions to be
adhered to during of the work carried
out. It gives a comprehensive and
detailed record of all ongoing work,
control of the work situation and avoids
conflicting or incompatible work being
carried out simultaneously.

16.0 Radioactive Equipment


By law all work carried out using
radioactive equipment must be
supervised by an authorized person.
Training given to authorized persons
contains all necessary rules and
regulations and should be fully
understood and adhered at all times.

(15)
17.0 Housekeeping
Housekeeping is
important to everyone's
safety so take time to
keep your work area
clean. If you see a
hazard, correct it. If
you can't correct the
hazard yourself, report
it to either your
supervisor or your
Safety Representative
so that it can be
corrected.

18.0 Chemical Handling


When handling chemicals
or hazardous substances
be sure to use personal
protective equipment as
necessary and follow the
instructions provided on
the chemical label / MSDS.

(16)
19.0 Ladders & Scaffolds
Using the proper ladder on the job is
equally important. Never stand on the
top two steps of a ladder, and when using

Straight ladders make sure the ladder


extends at least 1.0 metre above the
landing, or where the ladder is positioned
on the structure.
Any damage to scaffolds, false work, or
other supporting structures shall be
immediately reported to your supervisor
and repair before use.

20.0 Working at Heights


In some areas it is not always practicable
to provide safe access when working at
height (over 2 metres)
In these cases you will be provided
with a safety harness and Lanyard.
Check to ensure you are wearing the
harness correctly; Check the Harness

(17)
inspection tag to see that it has been
inspected in the last 6 months.

Check for any signs of wear and tear.


Locate a sound anchor point once at the
workface to clip the lanyard onto if
none - stop the task and inform your
Supervisor

21.0 Vehicles and Traffic


Safety belts fitted in company vehicles
must be used by the driver and
passengers. It is the drivers
Responsibility to ensure that this rule is
adhered to.
The driver of the company vehicle is
entrusted with the responsibility for its
proper use.
Vehicle accidents must be reported
promptly.

(18)
22.0 Defensive Driving
The definition of defensive driving is:
Driving to prevent collisions in spite of
the incorrect actions of others and
adverse conditions
It is the drivers responsibility to
anticipate and avoid at all times those
situations, which are dangerous to him,
and to the companys equipment in
charge. To do this requires that he
drives and operates the equipment in a
safe manner; that he inspects the
vehicle and auxiliary equipment to assure
it will operate safely; that he keep alert
in all situations whereby he might be
unduly exposed to personal injury from
any cause.
The basic responsibilities for safe
driving : Everyone who drives a company
vehicle must become thoroughly familiar
with all government traffic regulations.
Tail-gating is prohibited. Cars do not
follow closer than a two second gap.

(19)
23.0 Ignition sources
No source of ignition shall be applied to
any enclosed tank or vessel,
even if there are some openings, until it
has been first determined that no
possibility of explosion exists.

A Permit to Work for the work is to be


obtained from your Supervisor.

Persons using welding equipment must


always be concerned with the potential
for starting fires from the sparks or
flash.
Never weld around combustible or
flammable material and, if necessary,
have someone standing by with a fire
extinguisher during welding operations.

(20)
24.0 Tools & Equipment
When using tools and equipment, maintain
these tools and equipment in good
serviceable condition. Damaged tools or
equipment must be removed from service
and tagged "defective."

Only appropriate tools shall be used for


a specific job. (A screwdriver should not
be used in place of a chisel.)

Portable electric tools shall not be lifted


or loaded by means of the power cable.
Use ropes, not the power cables for
lifting or lowering electrical tools.

Before electrical tools are used, they


must be inspected to make sure the
power cable and plugs are in good
condition. Damaged or frayed power
cables must be replaced before use.

(21)
25.0 Lifting Operations
Know the weight of
the load to be lifted and
ensure that it does not exceed the safe
working load (SWL) of the tackle and
crane.
Use only authorised tackle, which is
marked with the SWL. Unmarked tackle
should report to the supervisor.
Inspect all tackle before use. Report
damaged tackle have it scrapped.
Never tie knots in slings or shorten
by wrapping them around crane hooks or
by using a nut or bolt.
Never use rusty wire ropes, or fibre
ropes, which have been in contact with
acids or alkalis.
Rings and shackles must ride freely
on the crane hook. Never lift with the
point of the hook.

(22)
Never puts sharp ends in wire ropes.
Always protect slings from sharp
corners.
Check that all parts of the load are
safely slung. Keep hands away before
lifting and stand clear while the load is
being lowered.
Never stand under suspended load.
Do not trap slings under loads. Use
dunnage to give clearance for sling
removal.
Us only the correct signals and make
sure that they are clearly understood by
the crane driver.
Never store lifting tackle in your own
locker. It must be freely available for
regular inspection.
Never store lifting tackle on the
floor.

(23)
Cranes
Only authorised personnel are allowed
to operate a mobile crane.
Never drag a load with the crane.
Never carry load over people.
Only respond to signals from one
authorised slinger unless it is the
Emergency Stop signal, which can be
given by anyone.

26.0 Overhead Power Lines


Most incidents involve high-voltage lines
supported on wooden poles, but the
dangers of other power lines such as
those supported on steel towers or steel
poles and concrete structures must not
be ignored.

By taking adequate measures we can


prevent this danger of death
All areas where contact is possible
should be adequately marked, with
marker poles and max. heights shown

(24)
Be aware of line heights:
275 or 400 kV : Minimum clearance 7 m
132 kV : Minimum clearance 6.7 m
33 kV 11 kV Low voltage
Vehicle mounted cranes can reach up to 6 m

However, always check with your local


Electricity Authority for confirmation

Use of machinery
Accidents can be prevented if the following
operations are not carried out within a
horizontal distance of at least 9m from
power lines on wooden poles or at least 15 m
from lines on metal towers. These distances
should be measured from the line of the
nearest conductor to the work, projected
vertically downwards onto the floor, and
perpendicular to the route of the line.

(25)
Risks can be reduced by:
taking care not to damage poles
making sure machinery can operate
safely near any overhead lines;
fitting shorter radio aerials or
repositioning existing ones on high
machines so they cannot cause danger;
not storing pipes or other materials
and equipment near or under power lines
and their supports;
designating safe areas for high-risk
operations, e.g. boom folding, telescopic
handler use, tipping trailers.

Training
Everybody who works near overhead
power lines with a machine or equipment
needs to know what the dangers of
overhead lines are, the precautions to
follow and what to do if they do contact
a power line.

(26)
27.0 Rotating / Moving Equipment
Only those persons who are trained and
authorised may operate machinery or
equipment.
Loose or frayed clothing, long hair,
dangling ties, finger rings, necklaces, and
other potentially hazardous items may
not be worn around moving machinery or
other areas where they become
entangled.

Machinery shall not be serviced, repaired


or adjusted while in operation, or shall
oiling of moving parts be attempted,
except when equipment that is designed
or fitted with safeguards to protect the
person performing the work.

(27)
28.0 Isolations
Where appropriate, physical isolation
procedures must be used.
If you see a piece of equipment or a
machine that is locked off and tagged,
do not attempt to operate this
equipment.

A lock and tag or just a tag means that


someone is working on that machine and
could possibly be injured if the
equipment were to be inadvertently
started.
29.0 Trapping
Employees shall not work under vehicles
or other equipment supported by jacks
or chain hoists without protective
blocking that will prevent injury if jacks
or hoists should fail.

(28)
30.0 Excavations
All excavations must be visually
inspected before backfilling to ensure it
is safe to backfill.
Excavating equipment must not be
operated near tops of cuts, banks or
cliffs if employees are working below.

Tractors, bulldozers, and back hoes must


not operate where there is a possibility
of overturning in dangerous areas, such
as edges of deep fills, cut banks and
steep slopes.

(29)
EXCAVATIONS
Prevent collapse of trenches, Batter back
about 45 degrees Or provide strong
shoring
ACCESS EGRESS
Provide access ladders or steps at
regular intervals
INSPECT DAILY
Before entry As the trench progresses
And for water induced collapse

31.0 Site Traffic


Obey all warning signs and signals !!!!
Watch out for moving vehicles and
Equipment on the job site.

Often this equipment is noisy and the


operator may not be able to hear or see
you, You have the responsibility for
watch out for moving equipment.
When using ladders, inspect the ladder
before using it to make sure it is in
good condition and will carry the load.

(30)
32.0 Environment

Environmental Management during the


construction of the Project will be
managed in accordance with the following
Environmental Management Plans:

Environmental Management and


Monitoring (EMM)
Pollution Prevention
Waste Management
Traffic Management
Cultural Heritage Management
Reinstatement
Oil Spill Response

(31)
32.1 EMM

- Do not disturb the local communities


or the environment.

- Comply with all project environmental


policies and principles.

- Do not make any statements or


information disclosure to the media
without necessary permission of
PROJECT MANAGEMENT.

- Be careful about dangerous animals


that may be present in the project
area, especially at night.

- The hunting of animals by Project


Personnel or their Contractors is
strictly forbidden. Firearms are also
prohibited

- Inform the site manager if an


unauthorized person observed in
project area.

(32)
32.2 Pollution Prevention

Keep your spill


cleanup kits ready
at all times.
Do not cause
concrete spills onto the ground
Do not cause concrete spills onto the
roads.
Take excess concrete back to the
batching Plant or use for an approved
purpose elsewhere.

Clear spilled concrete immediately.

(33)
32.3 Waste Management

Avoid the unnecessary


usage of equipment,
vehicles and machines.

Pay attention so as not


to cause any harm to
the watercourses and
sea.
32.4 Traffic Management

Comply with the


traffic signs used for
the access roads.
Pay attention and
report damaged or
missing traffic signs.
Be careful while using vehicles
during hours that children are
travelling to and from schools.
Do not exceed the speed limit of
30km/hr or towing 20km/hr.
(34)
Emergency Service Parking Area
and access roads will not be
occupied by other vehicles.

Do not park on footways with


construction vehicles on public
highways in the vicinity of the
working width.

(35)
32.5 Cultural Heritage Management

Inform the site


manager as soon
as possible if any
archaeological
finding are found
or seen.
Do not take any action (excavation,
record etc.) on archaeological finding
without permission from required
authorities.

(36)
32.6 Reinstatement

Avoid as much as
you can pulling
out the trees
that are longer
than 0.5 meters
long.

Do not enter any construction area


surrounded by fences.

Do not enter
the fenced
areas without
permission.

Do not enter with


construction
Do not use the machines and the vehicles
vehicles into
out of the the
construction corridor.
area of
archaeological
sites.
(37)
32.7 Oil Spill Response

- If you observe any spill or leakage,


immediately inform your manager.
- Remove leaking or empty oil drums
from the site immediately.
- Be careful about filling and re-fuelling
activities, which together with any
storage tanks, shall be confined to a
location remote from any
environmentally sensitive receptors.

- Do not forget
that topsoil and
subsoil should
be kept
separately and
apart.

- Segregate all wastes (clinical wastes,


paper and cards, plastics, metals, etc.)
and keep them in the containers, which
are clearly marked according to their
contents.
(38)
33.0 Definitions and Acronyms
ACCIDENT :- An Incident which has
resulted in actual Injury and/or Damage
(Loss) to Assets, the Environment, Social
programs, Reputation or to 3rd Parties

ALARP :- As Low As Reasonably


Practicable
(Acronym for as low as reasonably
practicable ALARP is a demonstration that
the risk of a favorite option, are acceptable
and/or comparable to other similar
developments. It requires consideration of
all the hard and soft issues related to the
range of options and a judgment decision
with the full knowledge of all the option and
their associated risks and costs. Represents
the level or risk reduction at which the time,
trouble, difficulty and cost of further
reduction measures become unreasonable
disproportionate to the additional risk
reduction to be obtained.

(39)
ASSESSMENT:- The process of
analyzing and evaluating hazards, and involves
causal and consequence analysis, and requires
determination of likelihood and risk.

Competent person:- A person who,


because of qualifications and experience, has
the skills necessary to perform the stated
duties (In the case of excavation this is to
be a civil engineer with a minimum of 2 years
practical experience in assessing ground
conditions).

COSHH:- Control of Substances


Hazardous to Health

CPR:- Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation

Db(A):- Decibels weighted on the A scale

EAP:- Emergency Action Plan

EL : - Project Exposure Limit

ELCB:- Earth leakage contact breaker

EMS:- Environmental Management System

ESD:- Emergency Shut Down

(40)
EXPOSURE HOUR:- Exposure hours are
the total number of hours worked including
overtime and training but excluding leaves,
sickness and other absences.

EXPOSURE INCIDENT (BLOOD BORNE


PATHOGENS):- is defined as a specific eye,
mouth, or other mucous membrane, non-
intact skin, or parental contact with blood, or
other potentially infectious materials, that
results from an employees duties.
FATALITY (FAT):- This is a death
resulting from a Work Injury, Occupational
or Illness, regardless of the time intervening
between injury and death.

FATAL ACCIDENT RATE [FAR]


The Rate is the number of work-related
Fatalities per 100 million exposure hours.

FIRST AID CASE (FAC) :-


A one-time treatment and subsequent
observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns,
splinters, and so forth, which do not
ordinarily require medical care. Such
treatment and observation is considered
(41)
first aid even though provided by a physician,
or registered professional personnel.
GFCI:- Ground fault circuit interrupter

HAZID :- Hazard Identification

HEAT STRESS:- A potentially serious


condition resulting from strain on the
temperature regulating capacity of the body,
caused by prolonged exposure to high
temperatures or other confounding
environmental factors.

HSE:- Health, Safety and Environment

HSE-MS:- HSE Management System

HAZARD:- Hazard is the potential to


cause harm, including ill health and injury,
damage to property, products or the
environment, production losses or increased
liabilities.

HWP:- Hazardous Work Permit


IH:- Industrial Hygiene

(42)
INCIDENT :- An Incident is an unplanned
event or chain of events, which has, or could
have caused injury or illness and/or damage
[loss] to people, assets, the environment or
reputation.
INJURY :- Any injury such as a cut,
fracture, sprain, amputation etc., which
results from a single instantaneous exposure.
ISO 9001:- International Standard for
Quality Systems
ISO 14001:- International Standard for
Environmental Management Systems
JHA:- Job Hazard Analysis
[Job Hazard Analysis is a systematic process
to evaluate a major phase. Examples are
steel erection, pipe fabrication or
installation) A team composed of
contract/subcontract individuals
knowledgeable with the work scope and lead
by a competent facilitator performs the
review in advance the activity]

(43)
JSA:- Job Safety Analysis
[Job Safety Analysis is a systematic process
to evaluate a specific work activity.
(Examples would be erecting the structural
steel for a fin fan, or fabricating or installing
the cooling tower pipe spools) A team
composed of contract workers and supported
by the supervisor conducts the in review in
advance of the work activity]

L EL : - Lower Explosive Limit

LTIs:- Lost Time Injuries (LTIs) are the


sum of Fatalities, Permanent Total
Disabilities and Lost Workday Cases but
excluding Restricted Work Cases.

LTIF:- The Lost Time Injury Frequency


(LTIF) is the number of Lost Time Injuries
per 200.000 (according to OSHA) exposure
hours or per one million exposure hours.

LWC:- Lost Workday Case


A Lost Workday Case is any work-related
Injury, which in the opinion of a project
appointed Medical practitioner, renders the
injured person temporarily unable to perform

(44)
any Regular Job or Restricted Work on any
day after the day on which the injury was
received. In this case any day includes rest
days, weekend day, scheduled holiday, public
holiday or subsequent day after ceasing
employment. This definition deviates from
OSHA guidance, which considers restricted
work as a lost workday case. A single incident
can give rise to several Lost Workday Cases,
depending on the number of people injured as
a result of that incident.

MEDICAL TREATMENT CASE (MTC)


A Medical Treatment Case is any work-
related Injury that involves neither Lost
Workdays nor Restricted Workdays but
which requires treatment by, or under the
specific order of, a physician or could be
considered as being in the province of a
physician. Medical Treatment does not
include First Aid even if this is provided by a
physician or registered professional
personnel.

(45)
MSDS:- Material Safety Data Sheets

NEAR MISS
An unplanned event which potentially could
have caused Injury or Occupational Illness
and/or damage [loss] to people, assets, the
environment or reputation,has not caused
injury and or damage to assets, to a third
party, or to the environment but had the
potential to do so but which did not.
OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS
An Occupational Illness is any work-related
abnormal condition or disorder, other than an
Injury, which is mainly caused by exposure to
environmental factors associated with the
employment. It includes acute and chronic
illness or disease, which may be caused by
inhalation, absorption, ingestion or direct
contact.

PERMANENT PARTIAL DISABILITY (PPD)


Any Work Injury, which results in complete
loss, or permanent loss of use, of a member
or part of the body or any permanent
impairment of functions of parts of the
body.

(46)
PERMANENT TOTAL DISABILITY (PTD)
Permanent Total Disability is any work-
related injury, which permanently
incapacitates an employee and results in
termination of employment.

PPE:- Personal Protective Equipment

PPM:- Particle Per Million

PTW:- Permit to Work


RAM:- Risk Assessment Matrix

RESTRICTED WORK CASE (RWC)


A Restricted Work Case is an injury that
results in a work assignment after the day
the incident occurred that does not include
all the normal duties of the persons Regular
Job. The restricted work assignment must
be meaningful and pre-established or a
substantial part of a Regular Job.

RISK:- Risk represents the probability that


an undesirable event will occur, combined
with consideration given to the severity of
the consequences of the event.

(47)
RISK CLASSIFICATION
Risk classification is a rating system used to
represent the relative risk associated with a
particular hazard.

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT


An Incident that has involved a vehicle and
which has resulted in Injury, Illness and/or
damage [loss] to people, assets, the
environment or the OWNERs reputation.

SCAFFOLDING:- Scaffolding is defined


as a temporary structure which provides
access, or from which persons work, or which
is used to support materials, plant or
equipment. It can be divided into two types:
Unit formwork, Kwickstage, All Round or
other types of purpose made frames or units.
Tube & Fittings: Individual tubes, of
varying lengths, held together by individual
couplers.

SCAFFOLDING TAG:- A white


plastic holder, marked in red, with the
international prohibitive sign and the words
Scaffolding tag, Do not use Scaffold, with
(48)
an insert card, green on one side and yellow
on the other (or equivalent system
acceptable for Contractor and OWNER).

SCBA:- Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

SD:- Sustainable Development


[Development that meets present needs
without compromising the ability to meet
future needs. (Paraphrased definition of
Brundtland Commission,1987)]

STEL:- Short Term Exposure Limit

THREATS:- Threat(s) are defined as


having the potential to cause harm, including
ill health and injury, damage to property,
products or the environment, production
losses or increased liabilities.

TLV:- Threshold Limit Value

TRC:- Total Reportable Cases (TRC)


are the sum of Fatalities, Permanent Total
Disabilities, Permanent Partial Disabilities,
Lost workday Cases, Restricted Work Cases
and Medical Treatment Cases.

(49)
TRCF:- Total Reportable Case Frequency
(The Total Reportable Case Frequency is the
number of Total Reportable Cases per million
Exposure Hours).

Trench:- A narrow excavation in which


the depth is greater than the width,
although the width is not greater than 15
feet (4.5 m).

UEL:- Upper Explosive Limit

(50)
34.0 Summary
There are many more safe practices and
rules that could have been listed
but,safety is simply using common sense
and good judgment.

If something appears to have the


potential for injury or harm, then thats
the time to take steps to make sure the
injury or harm doesnt occur.

Safety is very simple ABC

A Always, B Be, C Careful

(51)
Teamworkeveryones co-operation
and a special effort can result in a
safe and helpful work environment.
If you take safety seriously, youll
have a much better attitude about
yourself and your job.

Take time for safety, because


safety really does make a
difference.

(52)