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Chapter 1 The Universe

Chapter 2 Soil

Chapter 3 Air

Chapter 4 Transformation of Substances

Chapter 5 Structure of Atom

Chapter 6 Metals and Non-Metals

Chapter 7 Carbon

Chapter 8 Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 9 Microorganism

Chapter 10 Refraction of Light

Chapter 11 Electricity and Magnetism

Chapter 12 Sources of Energy

Chapter 13 Common Diseases

Chapter 14 Food Production and Management

- Basic Practices

The Universe

I n earlier classes you have studied

about the earth. You are aware of
the special conditions that exist on
twinkling in the sky. Some are very
bright while some others are hardly
visible to us. In ancient times, when
the earth, which are not yet known no clocks or watches were available,
to exist on other planets. These the position of stars guided our
special conditions are presence of air, ancestors in keeping time and also
water, soil and minerals on the earth in determining their position. The
and the availability of energy from the knowledge about the position of stars
sun, which keeps its temperature was particularly important for
neither too high nor too low. The travellers in determining directions
origin of life and its sustenance on for navigation. These days, we seldom
the earth have been possible mainly use stars for this purpose but it is
due to these special conditions. still important to study about them.
You also know that the earth is Study of stars helps us to know how
the only planet known to have life on different celestial bodies were formed
it. The earth is a planet, which and how the universe came into
revolves around the sun along with being. You shall study this in higher
eight other planets. In this chapter, classes.
you will learn about these planets. In this chapter, you will also learn
You will also know about some other about some groups of stars, which
celestial bodies that move around the appear to form definite patterns in
sun. the night sky. Many such patterns
On a clear night, when the moon of stars have been given specific
is not visible, we see numerous stars names based on their appearance.

You might have heard of zodiac signs, dark after the sunset, the sky
which are some of the star patterns appears dotted with thousands of
that have been given specific names. bright twinkling stars. One of the
In Hindi, we use the term Rashi for a characteristics of the stars is that
zodiac sign. However, you will study they appear to twinkle when viewed
about zodiac signs in higher classes. from the earth (Fig 1.1). On a clear
You know that the moon is a night, especially after rains, you can
natural satellite of the earth, which see about 3000 stars with naked eye.
revolves around it. These days many Many more stars can be seen with
artificial satellites too revolve around the help of a good telescope.
the earth, which have many Moon is another prominent
applications. For example, television object visible to us at night. You can
transmission, sending messages also see some star-like objects at
through telephones and internet to night, which do not appear to
any part of the world have become twinkle. These are planets like our
possible due to artificial satellites. In earth that revolve around the sun.
this chapter, you will get some basic At night, if you look at the sky for a
ideas about them. long time, you may be able to see a
few shooting stars as well. If you
1.1 THE NIGHT SKY happen to see a bright line (streak)
You know that during the day, the of light that appears for a very short
sun is the only object visible in the duration in the background of
sky. However, as soon as it becomes stars, it is likely that you have
observed a shooting star. You will
learn about the planets and
shooting stars in the next section.
The stars, the sun, the moon,
planets and shooting stars are some
of the celestial bodies that are a
part of our universe. Let us know
more about each one of them.
The Stars
Stars are celestial bodies that
continuously emit light and heat.
Thus, the sun is also a star. It
appears large as compared to other
stars because it is nearer to the earth.
Fig. 1.1 Stars in the night sky
Stars appear to us like points

because they are very far away from any changes in distance between
us, though many of them are much them do not become perceptible in a
larger than the sun. Some of you may few years or even during ones
think that the stars appear in the sky lifetime.
only at night. It is not so. The stars The stars appear to move from
are not visible during the day east to west. This is so, because the
because of the glare of bright earth rotates from west to east about
sunlight. an imaginary axis that passes
Most of the stars are so far away through its centre. However, there is
that even light from them takes one star, which appears stationary
millions of years to reach the earth. to us. This star is situated in the
The distances of stars are, therefore, north direction and is known as
expressed in terms of light year. Polaris or Pole Star or Dhruv Tara.
One light year is the distance The Pole Star had been one of the
travelled by light in one year at the most familiar stars to travellers in
speed of light which is about earlier times to find directions at
300 000 kilometres per second. Light night (Fig.1.2).
year is a unit of distance and is equal
to 3 00 000 365 24 60 60 km,
which is equal to 9 460 000 000 000 km
or 9.46 10 12 kilometres. The Pole Star
approximate distance of the sun
from the earth is 150 000 000 km,
which means that light takes
about 8 minutes 20 seconds
(8.3 min) to reach the earth from
the sun. The star nearest to the
earth after the sun is Alpha
Centuari, which is at a distance of
about 4.3 light years.
All stars including the sun move
around some celestial body or a
Fig. 1.2 The Pole Star lies close to the axis
group of bodies with high speeds.
of rotation of the earth
However, when viewed from the earth
the distance between any two stars
does not seem to change in spite of
their great speeds. This is so, because Many a time, a group of stars, as seen
the stars are so far away from us that from the earth, appears to form some


kind of a pattern. Our ancestors The Big Dipper is a group of many

imagined some known shapes formed stars of which seven are
by many groups of stars and gave comparatively brighter and are easily
them specific names. Such a group visible. It appears like a big ladle or
of stars is known as a constellation. a question mark (Fig. 1.3). The two
You can easily identify some stars at the top of the ladle are called
constellations even with naked eyes. pointers as the line joining them
However, you should know how a points to the direction of the Pole
particular constellation looks like Star. However, it is difficult to observe
and where to look for it in the night all the stars of the constellation Ursa
Major, which is also known as Great
Pole Star Bear. The constellation Ursa Minor
or Small Dipper (Laghu Saptarshi)
also has seven prominent stars in it
(Fig. 1.3). The Pole Star forms the
handle tip of the Ursa Minor. These
constellations are usually visible
Ursa Minor during springs from our part of the
Orion or Mriga is another
constellation that can be seen during
the winter. Orion is one of the most
Ursa Major

Fig. 1.3 Relative position of stars in Ursa

Major and Ursa Minor
sky. Some easily identifiable
constellations are Ursa Major or
Vrihat Saptarshi, Ursa Minor or
Laghu Saptarshi and Orion or Mriga.
The most prominent group of
stars that form a part of the Rigel
constellation Ursa Major or Vrihat
Saptarshi is known as Big Dipper. Fig. 1.4 Relative position of stars in Orion


magnificent constellations in the sky.

It also has seven bright stars of which
four appear to be arranged in the
form of a quadrilateral. One of the
largest stars, known as Betelgeuse,
is situated on one corner of this
quadrilateral while another bright
star called Rigel is located on the
opposite corner. Other three
prominent stars of Orion constellation Fig. 1.5 Different phases of moon
appear to be on a straight line in the
We, therefore, see only that part of
middle of it (Fig. 1.4). Try to locate
the moon, which is lighted by the sun
these constellations in the night sky.
and is towards us. The moon, as you
The Moon know, revolves around the earth and
also around the sun along with the
The moon appears to be the brightest
earth. As a result, the relative
of all other celestial objects except the
positions of the earth and the moon
sun. On a full-moon day, you can see
keep on changing everyday. Fig. 1.6
the whole disc of the moon.
shows different positions of the moon
Thereafter, every day the shape of the
in its orbit around the earth. On a
bright part of the moon appears to
full-moon day, the earth lies in
change gradually in size. On the
between the moon and the sun. On
fifteenth day, the moon is not visible
this day, therefore, the full face of the
to us, which is known as the new
moon day. The next day, only a
crescent of the moon appears in the
sky. Then again the shape of its
bright portion gradually becomes Earth
Full New
bigger and bigger every day till, on Moon
Moon Rays
the fifteenth day once again, we get of
a full view of the moon. These are Sun
known as the phases of moon
(Fig. 1.5). Have you ever wondered Crescent
why the phases of moon occur? Moon
You know that the moon does not
emit light like the sun and other stars.
We see the moon because sunlight Fig. 1.6 Phases of moon occur due to its
relative position with respect to the
falling on it gets reflected towards us. earth and the sun


moon is visible to us. On a new moon brighter and bigger than the stars. If
day, sunlight falls on that face of the you look carefully, you will observe
moon, which is on the other side of that they do not twinkle like the
the earth and, so, we cannot see it. stars. Our ancestors noticed that
Nearly one-half of the moon is always they appear to change their positions
illuminated by the sunlight. But, on with respect to the stars. They called
the day following the new moon day, them planets, which means
the illuminated part of the moon that wanderers. In Hindi, planets are
is visible from the earth is crescent in called Grah. Planets are celestial
shape. The size of the illuminated part bodies that revolve around the sun.
of the moon visible from the earth goes They do not emit light like the sun or
on increasing until its full face the stars. They appear bright like the
becomes visible on the full moon day. stars to us because they reflect the
The moon completes one sunlight that falls on them. The
revolution around the earth in 27.3 planets do not appear to twinkle like
days. But, in the meanwhile the earth the stars. You will understand why
moves ahead in its orbit. Thus, from the planets do not appear to twinkle
the earth, the moon appears to when you study refraction of light in
complete one revolution between one higher classes.
new moon day and the next, in 29 Some of the planets are known
days. Lunar calendars are prepared from ancient times. The ancient
on this basis. You have already learnt astronomers named these planets as
in the previous class that a lunar Mercury (Budh), Venus (Shukra),
eclipse may occur on some full moon Earth (Prithvi), Mars (Mangal), Jupiter
days. (Brihaspati) and Saturn (Shani). They
could identify these planets because
they can be seen with the naked eyes.
Answer These Three more planets could be
1. Name any three celestial bodies. discovered only after the telescopes
2. What is the difference between a star became available to observe the night
and a constellation? sky. These three planets are Uranus,
3. Name the star, which appears Neptune and Pluto. Each one of the
stationary from the earth.
nine planets revolves around the sun
4. Why do we classify the sun as a star?
along a definite path, which is known
as its orbit.
1.2 PLANETS Some planets are known to have
There are a few bright objects visible satellites. A satellite is a celestial
at night, which look like stars. Some body that revolves around another
of them appear to be somewhat celestial body. The earth has only one

natural satellite, the moon. Some called an evening or a morning star.

planets, like the Jupiter, Saturn and It is one of the most familiar celestial
Neptune, have more than one natural bodies that our elders could identify
satellites or moons. Let us study easily. Venus occasionally appears as
more about the planets. an evening star just above the
western horizon and it also appears
Mercury (Budh) in the eastern sky as morning star.
The planet nearest to the sun is called However, it is not visible throughout
Mercury or Budh. It is nearly of the the year as it is closer to the sun than
same size as the moon and is much the earth. Venus appears the
smaller compared to the earth. As brightest of all celestial bodies,
Mercury is very close to the sun, it is including all planets, the moon and
hidden in the suns glare most of the stars. This is so, in spite of the fact
time. However, Mercury is that Venus is farther away from the
occasionally visible just before the sun than Mercury. The bright
sunrise or immediately after the appearance of Venus is due to its
sunset. It appears like a very bright cloudy atmosphere, which reflects
star and is often known as morning almost three-fourth of the sunlight
or evening star. Mercury usually that falls on it. The mass of Venus is
becomes visible in September and nearly 4/5 times that of the earth
October just before sunrise in the while both are nearly same in size.
eastern sky as a morning star. It is Venus has no moon or satellite of
also seen in the western region of the its own.
sky immediately after sunset in
The Earth (Prithvi)
March and April as an evening star.
Though Mercury is not a star, it is Earth is the third planet in terms of
known as morning or evening star due distance from the sun. You are
to its brightness. Many features of familiar with its shape, size,
Mercury have close resemblance with structure and the atmosphere. It has
those of the moon. Both are nearly one natural satellite, the moon. The
similar in size and mass. Like the earth is the only planet known to
moon, Mercury too has no have life on it. You are aware of the
atmosphere and its surface is rocky special conditions existing on the
and mountainous too. earth that resulted in the evolution
and sustenance of life on it.
Venus (Shukra)
You know that the earth rotates
Venus or Shukra is the second planet about an imaginary axis that passes
in terms of its distance from the sun. through its North and South Poles.
It is a planet, which our elders often The axis of rotation of the earth is


slightly tilted with respect to the plane southern hemispheres of the earth
of its orbit. The day and the night on towards the sun keeps changing
the earth occur due to this rotation. throughout the year. When the
It also revolves around the sun in its northern hemisphere is tilted
orbit. The earth completes its journey towards the sun, we experience
around the sun in 365.25 days, which summer, while it is winter season in
we call a year. In fact, all planets the southern hemisphere. Autumn
rotate and also revolve around the sun and spring occur when the earth is
just like the earth. However, the time in between these two extreme
taken to complete one rotation and positions in its orbit.
one revolution by each planet is Note that on June 21, the earth
different. is farther away from the sun than on
The change in seasons on the December 22. On this day, we have
earth takes place due to the tilting of the longest day in the northern
its axis of rotation and the change in hemisphere while it is the shortest
its position with respect to the sun. in the southern hemisphere. On
Fig. 1.7 shows the position of the December 22, the length of the day
earth in its orbit at four different is the shortest in the northern
times of the year. Note that the tilting hemisphere and the longest in the
of the axis of rotation of the earth is southern hemisphere. On September
always in the same direction. As a 23 and March 21, the duration of day
result, the tilting of the northern and and night is equal in both the

Fig. 1.7 Change in seasons occurs due to the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun
and the tilting of its axis of rotation


hemispheres. You will study more some form. However, so far, no

about the earth in higher classes. evidence of water or life has been
found on it although possibility of
Mars (Mangal) their existence is still being
The next planet in terms of distance investigated. Mars has two natural
from the sun is Mars or Mangal. It satellites or moons named Phobos
appears reddish and therefore it is and Deimos.
also called the red planet (Fig. 1.8).
Jupiter (Brihaspati)
Jupiter is the largest of all the
planets. Its mass is more than the
combined mass of all other planets.
The distance of Jupiter from the sun
is more than the sum of distances of
each of the four planets that are
closer to the sun. So, it receives much
less light and heat of the sun
compared to earth and Mars. Yet, it
appears the brightest of all the
planets in the sky except Venus and
occasionally Mars (Fig 1.9). Jupiters
Fig. 1.8 A view of Mars from the earth bright appearance is due to its thick
Mars is visible from the earth for most
part of the year. However, it is best
situated for observation when it is
opposite the suns position in the sky
with respect to the earth. On these
days, it is closer to the earth as well.
The diameter of Mars is slightly more
than half of that of the earth but its
mass is only one-tenth of that of the
earth. It has a thin atmosphere that
makes it easier to view its surface
from the earth. Astronomers have
noticed certain changes on the
surface of Mars that gave them an
idea that water may also be present Fig. 1.9 A photograph of Jupiter and some
on the planet and it may have life in of its satellites


atmosphere that reflects most of the fascinating experience. Saturn is

sunlight falling on it. It is believed known to have 30 satellites or moons,
that Jupiter mainly consists of largest amongst all the planets.
hydrogen and helium in gaseous
form. Its cloud like outer regions Uranus
consist of methane in gaseous form Uranus was the first planet to be
while ammonia is present in discovered with the help of a telescope.
crystalline form. Until 2002, Jupiter William Herschel discovered the planet
was known to have as many as 28 in 1781. When observed through a
satellites or moons. It also has faint telescope, Uranus appears as a small
rings around it. disc although its diameter is almost
four times that of the earth. Hydrogen
Saturn (Shani)
and methane have been detected in the
Saturn is the most distant planet atmosphere of Uranus. Its distance
known to the early astronomers. Its from the sun is almost two times that
distance from the sun is almost two of Saturn. So far, 21 satellites or
times that of Jupiter. It is similar in moons of Uranus have been
size, mass and composition to discovered.
Jupiter. It is, however, cooler than
Jupiter. The most distinguishing Neptune
feature of Saturn is its beautiful rings Neptune is the eighth planet in
that encircle the planet. There are terms of its distance from the sun.
three distinct rings that surround the This is the second planet that was
planet. These rings are not visible discovered with the help of a
with the naked eyes and can be
observed only with the help of a You may be surprised to know that
telescope (Fig. 1.10). Looking at different astronomers have observed
Saturn through a telescope is a Uranus 20 times in hundred years
before it was discovered. Each one
of these astronomers has precisely
recorded its location in the sky but
failed to recognise it as a planet. All
of them thought that it was a star
until Herschel discovered it. Such
events often happen in scientific
discoveries and inventions. But, the
scientific community always
recognises the contributions made
Fig. 1.10 Saturn appears the most beautiful by those who otherwise could not get
amongst all planets due to its rings credit for their discoveries.


telescope. In fact, U.J. Leverrier Pluto

predicted the existence of the T.W. Tombaugh discovered the
planet beyond Uranus in 1846 in
farthest of the nine planets in 1930
France. His predictions were based
that has been named as Pluto. You
on the changes observed in the
can have an idea about how far away
path of Uranus from its orbit. The
Pluto is from the sun from the fact
mathematical calculations of
that it takes light a little over 32
Leverrier were so accurate that he
hours to reach the planet. There is a
not only predicted correctly about
noticeable feature about the orbit of
the mass and size of the new planet
but also where to look for it in the Pluto. It is the only planet whose orbit
sky. The astronomers searched cuts through that of the other planet,
with a telescope in the assigned the Neptune. In fact, due to this
direction and found the new reason, Pluto is closer to the earth
planet, that is, Neptune. Would you as compared to Neptune at present.
like to know the law, which formed Pluto is the smallest of all planets. It
the basis of calculations in is believed that Pluto might have been
discovering Neptune? It was none a satellite of Neptune in the past.
other than the Law of Gravitation Only one satellite of Pluto has been
given by the famous scientist Sir discovered so far.
Isaac Newton almost 180 years Table 1.1 gives some interesting
before it. Neptune has 8 satellites information about the nine planets.
revolving around it. The planets along with their moons

Table 1.1 : Some Interesting Information on the Planets of the Solar System

Name Radius Distance from Mass Time taken Time taken

the sun (in (compared for one to go once
terms of to the rotation around the
earth-sun earth) around its sun
distance) axis
Mercury 2400 km 0.387 0.05 1407 h 88 days
Venus 6150 km 0.72 0.8 5832 h 224.7 days
Earth 6400 km 1.0 1.0 24 h 365.25 days
Mars 3400 km 1.5 0.1 24.6 h 687 days
Jupiter 71500 km 5.2 318 9.9 h 4331 days
Saturn 60250 km 9.5 95 10.7 h 10747 days
Uranus 25500 km 19.18 15 17.2 h 30589 days
Neptune 2500 km 30.0 17 16.1 h 59800 days
Pluto 1200 km 40.0 0.002 153.3 h 90588 days


revolve around the sun. They are a Where from do the sun and other
part of the solar system. Let us study stars get such a huge amount of
the solar system. energy? You will learn that in higher
classes. But, remember that the sun
Answer These is the only source of heat and light
1. What is a natural satellite? to all the planets that revolve
2. Which planet of the solar system is around it.
(a) the largest and (b) the smallest in
You have learnt that the nine
3. Name the planets that were known to planets along with their satellites
ancient astronomers. revolve around the sun in definite
4. Name the planet that was predicted orbits. The planets and satellites
before it was actually observed. are said to be the members of the
solar family or the solar system.
1.3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Fig 1.11 shows a schematic view
You are aware that the sun is the of the solar system. Since there
nearest star to us. It is believed that are wide variations between
the sun was born about 5 billion or distances of planets from the sun,
500 crore years ago. Since that time, it is not possible to show them to
it is continuously emitting huge the scale in a single diagram. The
amount of heat and light, and it is motion of planets in their orbits
expected to glow in a similar manner is due to the force of gravitation
for the next 5 billion years or so. of the sun on them. You will study

Fig. 1.11 A schematic view of the planets in the solar system (Note that the orbits
are elliptic in shape.)


the law of gravitation in higher

There are some other types of
celestial bodies whose motion is also
due to the gravitational force of the
sun. They are, therefore, also
considered to be members of the solar
system. Let us learn about some of
There is a large gap in between the
Fig. 1.12 A Comet
orbits of the Mars and Jupiter. This
gap is occupied by a large number of grows in size as it approaches the
small bodies that revolve around the sun. The tail disappears again when
sun. These are called asteroids the comet moves away from the
(meaning starlike) or minor planets. sun. However, the tail of a comet is
Each asteroid has its own orbit and always directed away from the sun
the orbits of all of them are spread (Fig 1.12). Many comets are known
over a large distance forming a band. to appear again and again after a
The size of asteroids varies from definite period of time. One such
barely a kilometre to a few hundred comet is known as Halleys comet,
kilometres. Most of the asteroids can which appears after nearly 76
only be seen through a telescope. It years. Halleys comet was last seen
is believed that asteroids are the in 1986.
pieces of matter that somehow could
Meteors and Meteorites
not get assembled in the form of a
planet. Meteors are very small stone-like
objects that are revolving around
Comets the sun. Their existence becomes
Comets are very small-sized known only when some of them
celestial bodies that revolve around enter by chance into the earths
the sun in highly elliptical orbits. atmosphere. When a meteor enters
They become visible from the earth the atmosphere of the earth, it gets
only when they come close to the heated due to friction of air. The
sun. They are characterised with a heat produced is so high that the
small head followed with a long tail. meteor begins to glow and
The length of the tail of a comet evaporates within a short time. The


path of the meteor, therefore, The artificial satellites too revolve

appears as a streak of light in the around the earth like its natural
night sky. The meteors are satellite, the moon. However, they
commonly known as shooting stars are much closer to the earth than
although they are not stars. the moon. The scientists have
Some meteors are so large that a developed the technology for
part of them reaches the surface of designing and fabricating artificial
the earth before they get evaporated satellites in the last forty years or
completely. These are known as so. They have also developed very
meteorites. Meteorites help powerful launch vehicles or
scientists to study the nature of the rockets capable of carrying the
material of celestial bodies which are satellites into the space and
part of the solar system. launch them as an artificial
satellite of the earth. At present
Answer These only six countries in the world
1. What is the estimated age of the sun? have the technology for developing
2. Name different types of celestial artificial satellites and launching
bodies that are members of the solar them into earths orbit. India is
one of these six countries.
3. Which force keeps the members of the
solar system bound to the sun? Artificial satellites have many
4. What is the difference between a practical applications that affect
meteor and a meteorite? our lives in many ways. Long
distance transmission of television
1.4 ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES programmes, communication through
telephones and Internet could be
You might have heard the names possible because of them. Artificial
of satellites like INSAT 3B or satellites are also used for research,
Kalpana Chawla I while viewing defence and remote sensing. Remote
television programmes. You now sensing means collecting information
know that the celestial bodies from a distance. This technology is
revolving around a planet are used to collect information about
called satellites. The moon is a weather, agriculture, land and ocean
natural satellite of the earth. You features including movement of fish
might wonder in what way the in oceans. Some artificial satellites are
artificial satellites are different also used to gather information about
from the moon. movements of materials concerning
The satellites like INSAT 3B or defence activities. You will learn about
Kalpana Chawla I are examples of these technologies in higher classes.
man-made or artificial satellites. However, you can have a general idea

Fig. 1.13 A schematic diagram to explain long distance transmission through artificial

of the steps involved in long distance signals are then converted into
transmission through artificial special types of waves and
satellites. transmitted in air from a
Fig. 1.13 shows a schematic transmitting antenna so as to reach
diagram to explain how does the long the artificial satellites. The artificial
distance transmission of television satellites have special instruments
programmes become possible with installed in them, which receive the
the help of artificial satellites. The signals transmitted by the earth
speed of artificial satellites to station. The signals so received are
be used for long distance then amplified and retransmitted by
communication is so adjusted that the instruments fitted on the
they complete one revolution satellite. Since the satellite is located
around the earth in 24 hours. As a at great height, the signals
result, the satellite appears to be transmitted by it can reach over a
stationary with respect to the wide range of area on the earth.
transmitting station on the ground. Antennas fixed in a number of
The picture and sound to be stations on the earth including those
transmitted are first converted into of cable operators receive the signals
electrical signals. These electrical transmitted from the satellite and


retransmit them. The television sets Answer These

in our homes receive the signals 1. Name any two artificial satellites.
through the earth stations or the 2. What is the difference between natural
network of cable operators. Finally, and artificial satellites? Mention any
the television sets convert the two differences.
signals in the form of image and 3. The artificial satellites are used for
_______, _______, ______ and _______.

Key Words
Artificial satellites, Asteroids, Celestial bodies, Comets, Communication
satellites, Constellations, Light year, Meteorites, Meteors, Natural satellites,
Orbit, Phases of Moon, Planets, Pole Star, Remote sensing, Shooting stars,


 Stars are celestial bodies that emit their own light and heat. Sun is a
 Stars are so far away from us that even light from them takes many
years to reach the earth. Distances of stars are expressed in terms of
light years.
 The Pole Star appears to be stationary from the earth. All celestial
bodies including the stars are moving continuously in space.
 Constellations are groups of stars that appear to form a pattern.
 The celestial bodies revolving around a star, like the sun, are called
 The celestial bodies revolving around a planet are called satellites or moons.
 The solar system comprises nine planets, asteroids, comets, meteors
and meteorites.
 There are nine planets that are revolving around the sun in their definite
orbits. Six of these planets were known from the ancient times as they
could be seen with the naked eyes.
 Moon is the natural satellite of the earth. Some planets also have their
natural satellites.


 The phases of moon occur due to the relative position of the moon,
earth and the sun.
 Change in seasons on the earth occurs due to earths motion around
the sun and tilting of its axis of rotation.
 Artificial satellites revolve around the earth in orbits that are much
smaller than that of the moon.
 Artificial satellites are used for long distance communication, research,
remote sensing and defence.
 India is one of the six nations in the world that have the technology to
design and develop artificial satellites and launch them into space.


Choose the correct answer in Q. No. 1- 4.

1. Which of the following is a star?
(i) Alpha Centuari
(ii) Deimos
(iii) Orion
(iv) Phobos
2. Ursa Major is
(i) a star.
(ii) seen only with a telescope.
(iii) a constellation.
(iv) a natural satellite of Mars.
3. Phases of moon are observed because
(i) the moon does not reflect sunlight.
(ii) the relative position of the sun, earth and the moon changes.
(iii) the shadow of earth falls on the moon.
(iv) only some parts of the moon can emit light.
4. Which of the following is NOT a member of the solar system?
(i) Asteroids
(ii) Morning star
(iii) Satellites
(iv) Constellations


5. A group of stars that appears to form a pattern in the sky is known

as _________.
6. A celestial body that revolves around a planet is known as a _________.
7. The stone-like objects entering the earths atmosphere appear as
_________ of _________ at night and these are called _________.
8. A celestial body that revolves around a star is called a _________.
9. Transmission of television programmes over distant places is made
possible with the help of _________.
10. Asteroids are found between the orbits of _________ and _________.
11. Show the relative positions of prominent stars in (i) Ursa Major and
(ii) Orion in a diagram.
12. Name the planet that is known to have the largest number of natural
13. Name all the planets of the solar system in the order of their distance
from the Sun.
14. Draw a labelled diagram to show the position of the earth in its orbit
when the length of the day is the longest in the northern hemisphere.
15. Name the planets that were discovered only after the invention of
16. Explain how artificial satellites help in the transmission of television
programmes over large areas.



Y ou know that soil forms the

uppermost layer of land on the
earth. Its thickness on the earths
formation is as interesting as the
evolution of living things on the
earth. There is a hard surface of the
surface ranges from a few millimetres rocks just below the layer of the soil.
to 3-4 metres. Generally, it contains In the past, these rocks were broken
fine particles of rocks, humus, air and into smaller pieces due to many
water. Soil is essential for the survival natural events like violent
of life on the earth. Plants need soil to earthquakes. As a result of these
grow. Soil is the main source of events, large rocks were broken
nutrients and water for plants. down into smaller pieces. Thus, the
You have learnt about the earth soil formation begins with the
and life on it in the previous classes. breakdown of rocks and other
In this chapter, you will study the materials into small pieces at the
formation and composition of soil, surface of the earth. This process
soil profile and importance of soil for of breaking down is carried further
humans, animals and the plants. by weathering due to rain, snow,
Some information about the causes winds, glaciers and running water.
of soil erosion and its pollution, as It takes thousands of years to
well as methods of preventing them weather rocks into fine grain
will be given in this chapter. particles that make the soil
(Fig. 2.1). The roots of the plants
2.1 FORMATION OF SOIL also help to break the rocks by
Can you guess the process by which penetrating into the crevices of the
soil has formed? The story of its rocks.

Roots penetrate and

enlarge cracks
and joints in rock



(a) (b)

Fig. 2.1 (a) Weathering of rocks (b) Breaking down of rocks by penetrating roots

The smaller particles of rocks protozoans and earthworms. Thus,

undergo various stages of corrosion the formation of soil is influenced by
or decomposition by a variety of climate, vegetation, parent materials,
processes in nature, such as and time factors to a great extent.
oxidation, reduction, hydration,
hydrolysis and carbonation. Some Activity 1
minerals dissolve in water and
percolate downwards along with rain Importance of soil as a medium for
water. Lichens and other plants live growing plants can be understood
on rocks and produce acids, which with the help of an activity. Take a
accelerate the process of soil few small pieces of stones and crush
formation. Many microorganisms them into a fine powder. You can
also help in this process. also use pieces of earthen pots
The addition of organic matter instead of stones. Take half of this
(humus) from dead and decomposed powder in a pot. To the other half,
plants and animals is the last stage add some kitchen waste (peelings
in the formation of soil. Thus, the soil of vegetables and fruits) and cow-
contains stored energy in the form of dung in another pot. Mix them
organic matter (starch, sugars, properly by adding some water.
cellulose, fats and proteins) besides Keep the pot as such for a few days.
water, air and minerals. It becomes Sow some seeds in this mixture and
the habitat for many living also in the pot containing the other
organisms, like bacteria, fungi, half of the powdered stone. Water


both the pots for two to three days. trench, we can see the inner layers
In which of the two pots the plants of the soil too. Such a view enables
begin to grow after the germination us to observe the soil profile at that
of seeds? You will observe that the place. Soil profile can also be viewed
stone powder mixed with vegetable while digging of a well or laying
waste and cow-dung provides a foundation of a building or sides of a
better medium for the growth of road on a hill or a steep river bank.
plants. You will find that at such sites,
the soil is arranged in two or more
2.2 SOIL PROFILE layers or horizons. The uppermost
The nature of soil depends upon the horizon is generally dark in colour as
rocks from which it has been formed it is rich in minerals and humus. The
and the type of vegetation that grows humus makes the soil fertile and
upon it. A section through different provides nutrients to growing plants.
layers of the soil constitutes the soil This layer is soft, porous and can retain
profile(Fig. 2.2). Each layer differs in more water. It is called the top soil or
texture, colour, depth and chemical the A-horizon. This provides shelter
composition. These layers are for many living organisms, such as
referred to as horizons and can be worms, rodents, beetles and moles.
further divided. The next layer has lesser amount
We usually see the surface of the of humus or organic matter, iron
soil and not the inner layerings. If oxides and more minerals. This layer
we look at the sides of a ditch or a is generally harder and more
compact and is called the B-horizon
or the middle layer.
The lowest layer is the C-horizon,
which is made up of small lumps of
rocks with cracks and crevices. Below
B-Horizon this layer is bedrock, which is difficult
to dig with a spade.

C-Horizon Activity 2
Observe the soil profile in places
where earth is being dug up for
laying the foundation of a
building, or a well, side of the
road on hilly regions or a steep
Fig. 2.2 A soil profile river bank. Record the colour of

different horizons, the texture of capacity and presence of soil

soil and the approximate size of organisms. The chemical properties,
the particles in them. You can like acidity and alkalinity of the soil,
also take note of the thickness of have a relation with the type of
different layers in the soil profiles. vegetation and crops grown on it.
Record your data in Table 2.1. Temperature may affect biological,
physical and chemical composition
Table 2.1 : Observations on Soil of the soil. In humid regions, the soil
becomes acidic due to leaching of
Location of Colour of Thickness Texture
Soil Profile Top Soil of Horizons ofHorizons soluble basic salts, like calcium
A, B and A, B and carbonate. Saline soils are mostly
C C alkaline.
of building
Digging of Activity 3
Take some dry soil. Keep it in a
Side of road metal container (katori) and heat
on a hilly it on a flame or over a candle.
Cover it with a lid. You will
Steep river observe drops of water on the
bank inner side of the lid. For a better
result, a metal tumbler or a heat
Answer These resistant glass test tube can be
1. What are the main constituents of used. You may conclude from
soil? this activity that even apparently
2. Draw a labelled diagram of the soil dry soil also contains some
profile observed by you.
3. Which horizon of soil profile contains
The soil texture describes the
size of its particles. The soil with
2.3 COMPOSITION OF SOIL particle size greater than 2 mm in
The soil is made up of mineral diameter is gravel; that with particle
particles, organic matter, solution of size varying from 0.05 to 2.0 mm is
various inorganic salts in water, air sand, that containing particle of size
and living organisms. Thus, the soil from 0.005 to 0.05 mm is known as
has physical as well as chemical silt and the particle of less than
properties. The physical properties of 0.005 mm size are called clay. The
soil include its texture, structure, clay particles exhibit properties of
colour, porosity, water holding particles in colloidal state. This


includes water retaining capacity as of its transportation by gravity,

well. The texture of the soil depends flowing water, winds and glaciers is
upon the relative proportions of called transported soil. The third
particles of different sizes. category of the soil is the
Thus, the soil can be classified mountainous soil, usually found in
as sandy, loamy and clayey depressions and valley basins or on
depending upon the amount of sand, gently inclined slopes.
silt, clay and humus in it. A loamy The residual soil may be red or
soil is most suitable for plant growth black or even laterite. The red soil is
as it contains some large particles to highly mature, ancient and found in
keep the soil porous and smaller the Indian peninsula (Fig. 2.3). It is
particles for increasing its water poor in lime, magnesium,
holding capacity. phosphorus, nitrogen and humus
but is rich in potash. The black soil
is also known as the black cotton soil.
Activity 4
It is formed from basalt (basic ferro-
Dig some soil from your garden magnesium lavas + ash bed). Black
or field. Put it in a glass tumbler soil is clayey and contains a high
or a wide mouth bottle filled with amount of iron, calcium, magnesium
water. Observe the evolution of and aluminium but a less amount of
air bubbles. You can repeat this phosphorus and nitrogen. The
activity by taking soils from laterite or lateritic soils are red in
different areas, like near a pond colour and formed from laterite. It is
or near the drains. Make a composed largely of hydrated oxides
comparison in the number of air of aluminium and iron with quartz
bubbles evolved by taking same grains. This type of soil is acidic and
amount of soil from different generally infertile with little or no
places. This activity gives an idea humus.
that soil contains air. Transported soils are further
classified into various types depending
2.4 TYPES OF SOIL upon their mode of transportation.
As mentioned, the soil can be The soil transported due to gravity,
classified as sandy, loamy and clayey as in landslides and mudflows in
or black, red and laterite (surface mountainous regions, is known as
deposits formed by subaerial colluvial type. The soil transported
alterations of rocks). The soil, which by flowing water is classified as
remains at the place of its formation alluvial type. This type of soil is well
is called residual soil, whereas the stratified (layered) and composed of
soil settled at other places as a result round and smooth particles. The


Mountain soil
Alluvial soil
Red soil
Black soil
Laterite soil
Desert soil

Fig. 2.3 Major types of soil in India

alluvial deposits show strata of finely The soils are also classified as
grounded silt, clay and sand, acidic, alkaline or neutral depending
depending upon the movement of on their chemical nature. Extremely
water. Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils are acidic or alkaline soil is not good for
loamy and rich in organic matter with plants. Most fertile farm lands consist
a high amount of moisture. The soil of neutral soil.
transported by wind consist mainly
of sand and is called sandy soil. 2.5 IMPORTANCE OF SOIL
Xerophytic plants that grow on this Soil is almost continuous over the
soil serve as wind breakers and also land surface. It may be deep in some
help in binding the soil. Soil places, like Indo-Gangetic plain, and
transported by glaciers is found in the shallow at other like in hilly slopes
glacial regions, such as the and tops. It is the habitat for many
Himalayas. living things and plays a major role
The mountainous soil consists of in the sustenance of life on the earth.
sandstones, clay, shales and Due to these reasons, the soil has
limestones. The lower part of the soil acquired a sacred status in our
is calcareous whereas the upper part culture, and even in religions. The
is sandy and clayey. significance of the mother earth to

our life and our survival has also soil, making it infertile and
been described in ancient literatures. unproductive.
You know that plants need soil The erosion of soil is a natural
to grow, and animals including us process, which is as old as the earth
need plants for their survival. Soil is itself. Erosion involves the movement
also the habitat for thousands of of soil from one place to another. It
microorganisms, which decompose may be due to flowing water (flood)
dead and decayed plants and or wind. Nowadays, the rate of soil
animals. Soil also provides shelter for erosion is very high due to increase
many other organisms, like insects, in activities of humans. As a result,
earthworms, snakes and rodents. the rate of soil erosion has exceeded
the rate of its formation in nature.
Activity 5 Soil erosion is a matter of global
concern as it is destroying our
Collect a few samples of soil from resource base very rapidly.
a lawn or a garden, paddy field, Loss of top soil in relation to total
marshy land, pond and drains. land area is high in our country. The
Dissolve each one of them in rate of this loss is higher in regions
water in separate containers. Mix with high population density, mainly
the soil properly and allow it to due to increase in the agricultural
settle down. Take note of plants activities. Continuous cultivation of
and organisms or their body land by only one type of crop further
parts present in each container. adds to the loss of soil fertility. Once
If possible, count their number the of top soil (about 20 cm thick) is
and record their types. lost, the sub-soil becomes a part of the
2.6 SOIL POLLUTION AND EROSION layer for cultivation. This layer has less
nutrient retention power, organic
The soil is one of the major resources matter and aeration. The soil, as a
for the sustenance of life on the earth. living organic system, gets disturbed
However, it is often being abused by due to this, which in turn has a
the humans. The cutting down of negative impact on the soil fertility and
forests whether for agriculture, crop productivity. Deforestation, floods
construction of buildings, roads and and overgrazing are some other main
dams often leads to soil erosion. The causes for the erosion of soil. You know
excessive use of chemical fertilisers that chemical fertilisers contain
and disposal of waste materials elements, like nitrogen, phosphorus,
pollutes the soil. The floods and potassium, zinc and magnesium. The
overgrazing by animals also result in excess of these elements in the soil
erosion of nutrient materials from the changes its composition.

The forest fires and even deep The soil erosion does more harm,
ploughing of land for crops also lead besides the loss of fertile soil. For
to soil erosion. You know that the water example, formation of gullies by
and wind take away the top layer of flowing water damages roads and
the soil where there is no vegetation buildings. The soil taken away by
or poor vegetation. The trees, grasses wind or flood often gets deposited in
and hedges hold the soil in place. ponds, lakes and rivers. This causes
the water to become muddy and
reduces the depth of ponds, lakes and
Activity 6
rivers. It also raises their bed due to
Take two trays or baskets. Fill silting, which has an adverse impact
them with garden soil. Grow grass on aquatic life. Moreover, these areas
or some cereal in one of them and become more prone to frequent floods,
water it properly for a few days. which may ultimately change the local
Now keep both the trays in a climate and the ecosystem.
slightly inclined position by Soil erosion can be prevented to a
placing a brick below their one great extent by controlling the causal
side. Let the water fall on both the factors. Planting of trees and protecting
trays. You will find that the water forests is one such measure, which
that flows from the tray with has been a part of our culture.
vegetation contains less amount Government has also many
of soil particles in it. This is due programmes for the conservation of
to the fact that the roots of plants soil and to prevent its erosion. The
bind the soil and do not allow it wasteland development, control and
to flow with water (Fig. 2.4). reclamation of ravines are some of the
steps taken to prevent soil erosion.

Answer These
Grass 1. Name different types of particles
present in the soil.
Soil 2. Describe various types of soil and the
basis of their classification.
3. Write a note on soil erosion.
Fig. 2.4 Plants prevent erosion of soil

Key Words
Humus, Rock material, Soil pollution, Erosion, Soil profile, Earthquake,
Weathering, Formation of soil, Top soil, Horizon, Sand, Clay, Silt, Transported
soil, Residual soil, Black soil, Red soil, Lateritic soil, Alluvial soil, Soil texture



 The soil is the uppermost layer of the land surface.

 The rocks break into smaller pieces through many natural processes
by water, snow and wind. Fine particles of rocks which later on get
mixed with dead and decayed organic matter (humus) to form soil.
 Soil provides shelter to many living organisms, like bacteria, fungi,
protozoa and earthworms.
 The soil profile is a section through different layers of soil, generally
referred as horizon.
 Soil is generally made up of minute particles, organic matter, air, living
organisms, water and solution of various salts.
 Gravel, sand, silt and clay are the various types of particles present in
the soil.
 The soils are classified as sandy, loamy and clayey on the basis of
particle size and categorised as black, red or laterite on the basis of
the types of mineral present in it.
 Soil is important for the sustenance of life on the earth.
 Deforestation, construction of roads, dams and buildings and disposal
of waste materials cause soil pollution and its erosion.
 Soil erosion can be prevented by growing trees and reclamation of


1. Describe the various steps involved in the formation of soil.

2. The soil at a place has particles of size more than 2 mm. What type
of soil is it?
3. Which type of soil is classified as residual soil?
4. The soil at a given place was found to consist of sandstones, clay,
shales and limestone. What is the type of the soil and how it might
have formed?
5. Write an essay on the importance of soil.
6. Mention the name of various particles and their size found in soil.
7. What are the main causes for the erosion of soil?
8. How will you demonstrate that the vegetation prevents erosion of



Y ou are familiar with air. Air is a

mixture of several gases. It is
present everywhere on the earth. You
of gases. It contains mainly nitrogen
and oxygen; and smaller amounts of
argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour
have seen balloons inflated with air. and traces of helium, neon, krypton
Bicycles, scooters, cars and trucks and xenon. Human, animal
move on wheels, which have tyres (including aquatic) and plant life
inflated with air. We are living in a would not be possible without the
thick envelop of air called presence of oxygen in the
atmosphere. All the living beings atmosphere. The gases present in the
need air in one form or the other. It atmospheric air can be separated for
plays an important role in many different purposes. Gases, like
processes in nature, like the recycling nitrogen and oxygen, which are the
of water. In this chapter, we will main constituents, are used in
study the role of air and atmosphere several industrial and scientific
in our daily life. We will also study applications. Argon and neon are
the atmospheric pressure and its filled in electric bulbs and helium is
measurement. You will also learn filled in balloons and helium lamps.
why it is necessary to monitor the
quality of air around us.
It has been established that air is made
3.1 AIR IS A MIXTURE up of nearly 78% nitrogen, 21%
You already know that air, which oxygen, 0.9% argon, up to 0.04% water
makes up the atmosphere vapour, 0.03% carbon dioxide; the
surrounding the earth, is a mixture remaining 0.03% is a mixture of neon,

Other gases; largest percentage of the total mass

carbon dioxide
(0.03%) and water
of the atmosphere. The temperature
vapour (0.04%) of atmospheric air close to the earth
Oxygen (21%)
is nearly the same as that of its
surface. However, the temperature in
this layer decreases as we move up
in the atmosphere. In the
troposphere, on an average,
Nitrogen (78%) temperature drops by 6 degrees
celsius for every one kilometre height.
Similarly, the water vapour content
in the troposphere also decreases
Fig. 3.1 Composition of Air rapidly with height or altitude.
The stratosphere is the second
helium, krypton, xenon and some
major layer of air in the atmosphere.
other trace components (Fig. 3.1).
It lies between 10 and 50 km above
The atmosphere reaches a height
the earths surface. The air
of up to more than 120 km. However,
temperature in the stratosphere
the composition of air, its temperature
remains almost constant up to a
and other conditions keep on
height of about 25 km.
changing with height in the
The mesosphere extends from 50
atmosphere. To facilitate the study of
to 80 km. In the mesosphere, the
atmosphere, it has been divided into
temperature is lower than that of the
four major layers. The troposphere,
troposphere or stratosphere. The
the stratosphere, the mesosphere and
thermosphere is located above the
the thermosphere (Fig.3.2).
mesosphere. The temperature in the
The troposphere is the
thermosphere generally increases
atmospheric layer closest to the
with altitude. This happens due to
surface of the earth. It contains the
the absorption of intense solar
radiation by the limited amount of
oxygen in this layer of the
Study of atmosphere is very
important for us. Atmosphere plays an
important role in the formation of
clouds, occurrence of rain and
formation of snow. It prevents certain
harmful radiations from reaching the
Fig. 3.2 The structure of the atmosphere
surface of the earth. It also helps in

the formation of winds. The studies on properties of gases that affect the
atmosphere also help in making behaviour of our atmosphere are as
weather forecasts. The weather follows:
forecasts help us in taking necessary (i) The gases in the atmosphere are
measures to prevent loss of human life, constantly mixing and diffusing
cattle and crops due to torrential rains, into each other.
cloud bursts, cyclones and dry spells. (ii) Heat from the sun warms the
They also facilitate in taking gases in the atmosphere, causing
appropriate measures against drought changes in temperature, pressure
and floods. In a way, weather forecasts and the density of air present in
help us in disaster management. it. This results in the formation
of wind.
Answer These
(iii) The air can be compressed.
1. Name the gases, which are present in (iv) The atmosphere exerts pressure
air. Which one of them is the most
on its surroundings. We call it
2. What constitutes the atmosphere? atmospheric pressure. It
Name the four different layers of changes from place to place
atmosphere. depending among other factors
3. What is the importance of weather on the height of the place.
forecasts in our daily life?
4. Which layer of the atmosphere is The air pressure arises due to the
closest to the earth? constant collision of the tiny molecules
of the gases present in air with the walls
3.3 THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE of the vessel or the container in which
You have already studied pressure it is kept. We can also feel air pressure
in the previous classes. The pressure exerted on us. Sometimes, our ears pop
due to atmospheric air or simply out, especially at higher altitudes, to
atmospheric pressure is the most balance the air pressure on our ear
important for life on earth. You know drums. Let us do a simple activity.
that the atmosphere is composed
entirely of a mixture of gases. Activity 1
Therefore, in order to understand the
pattern of behaviour of the Take a bicycle-pump and a
atmosphere, we must be aware of the football pump. Inflate a balloon
behaviour of gases as a whole. and a bicycle tube by using the
Almost all the gases exhibit certain bicycle-pump. Similarly, pump
properties. Each of these properties is some air into a football with the
useful in describing the behaviour of help of a football pump. You can
the air in our atmosphere. Some of the observe that all the three, namely


the balloon, the bicycle tube and and the table top is expelled. Can
the football are inflated. How does you lift the paper by pressing the
it happen? The tiny molecules of free end of the rule? No. The air
the gases present in air strike the pressure on the paper is so large
walls of the balloon, the bicycle that the force applied on the rule
tube and the football and exert is not sufficient to raise the paper.
pressure. The air pressure exerted
on their wall inflates them.
The air pressure exerted on the
surface of earth is caused by the
weight of the air on a unit area. The
force of gravity gives weight to the air.
This pressure is also known as the
Fig. 3.3 Demonstration of atmospheric
atmospheric pressure. You know that pressure
each layer of air has another layer of
air over it. As a result of this, the air You have seen the use of
closest to the surface of the earth is suction cups in shops and your
compressed by the weight of the air homes. They work on the same
above it and has the highest pressure. principle. They are fixed on walls,
The changes in the atmospheric doors and windows to hold
pressure occur with change in altitude objects of large weights.
or height. The differences in the air You have studied in an earlier
pressure in different parts of the earth class that in the SI unit of pressure
create wind. is pascal. A pascal (Pa) is defined as
You have already studied in Class the pressure exerted by a force of one
VI, how our body withstands the newton (N) acting over an area of one
tremendous pressure exerted on it by square metre. Since pascal is a very
the atmosphere. Let us perform an small unit of pressure, we normally
activity to understand this. express pressure in kilopascal (kPa)
i.e. 1kPa = 103 Pa.
Activity 2
Answer These
Take a foolscap size of paper and
spread it on a flat table. Insert a 1. What is meant by atmospheric
foot rule near the edge inside the 2. Give two examples to show that air
paper, as shown in Fig. 3.3. Now exerts pressure.
smoothly flatten the paper so that 3. What is the importance of
the entire air between the paper atmospheric pressure for us?


3.4 M EASUREMENT OF Graduated

Mercury closed at one
The atmospheric pressure is end
measured by an instrument called a
barometer. There are two types of
barometer the mercury barometer
and the aneroid barometer.
As already stated, atmospheric
pressure is measured in terms of the Fig. 3.4 A mercury barometer
force exerted on a surface of unit area
in a trough full of mercury. The level
due to the weight of the atmosphere.
of the mercury falls to a height of
It is measured by observing the
about 760 mm above its level in the
height of a column of a liquid, such
trough. There is almost complete
as mercury, that by its pressure
vacuum at the top of the tube.
exactly balances the pressure of the
Variations in atmospheric pressure
atmosphere. Liquid mercury , whose
cause the mercury in the tube to rise
density is 13.6 g/cm3, is the most
or fall by small amounts, rarely below
suitable substance to be used in a
737 mm or above 775 mm at the sea-
barometer. The column of mercury
level. The mercury level in a mercury
sustained by the normal atmospheric
barometer is read with a special form
pressure (i.e. atmospheric pressure
of graduated scale, attached to it.
at sea level) is only 760 mm in height.
Mercury is ideal for a liquid
Normal or standard, atmospheric
barometer, since its high density
pressure is usually defined at 760
permits a short column. Moreover, it
torrs, that is, 760 mm of mercury
does not stick to the walls of the
column, which is equivalent to 101.3
container. The mercury barometer is
used in schools, laboratories and in
The Mercury Barometer weather stations.
Now, let us see how we can measure The Aneroid Barometer
this atmospheric pressure. For
A more convenient form of barometer,
measuring atmospheric pressure, we
that is almost as accurate as the
generally use mercury barometer. An
mercury barometer, is the aneroid
ordinary mercury barometer consists
barometer (Fig. 3.5). No mercury is
of a glass tube of about 840 mm
used in aneroid barometer. It
height, closed at the one end and open
consists of a partially evacuated
at the other (Fig. 3.4). This tube is
drum that has a elastic cover on it.
filled with mercury and then inverted
The drum has a spring with a pointer

Answer These
1. What is the value of normal
atmospheric pressure? What is the
unit of atmospheric pressure?
2. Name the device used for measuring
the atmospheric pressure.


You have learnt that air is a mixture
of gases. It contains nitrogen and
Fig. 3.5 Aneroid barometer
oxygen, apart from other gases.
attached to it. The pointer moves Oxygen is required for breathing
when there is an increase or decrease whereas nitrogen is used for many
in the atmospheric pressure. The purposes, such as in making
aneroid barometer can be easily fertilisers. To use oxygen and
converted into a barograph, or a nitrogen in these and many other
recording barometer, by attaching a ways, the gases from the atmosphere
pen to its pointer. The ink in the pen must first be separated. For this
describes the graph, called purpose, air is first liquefied. Liquid
barogram, which can be plotted on air is then subjected to fractional
the paper wrapped around a rotating distillation to get different fraction of
cylinder. An aneroid barometer is air. During fractional distillation,
checked regularly against a mercury fraction of different boiling points are
barometer for accuracy. separated (Table 3.1).

Table 3.1 : The Boiling Points of the Gases in Air

Gas Boiling Point ( oC) Proportion in mixture (%)

Carbon dioxide (Sublimes)* 32 0.03

Xenon 108
Krypton 153
Oxygen 183 20.99
Argon 186 0.93
Nitrogen 196 78.03
Neon 246
Helium 249
* The direct change of state from solid to gas or gas to solid is called sublimation. The
liquid state is by-passed. Some simple molecules can do this at the atmospheric
pressure (for example, CO2 and iodine).
Indicates presence in traces.


The gases collected as different

fractions from distillation have Activity 3
important uses.
Arrange the apparatus as shown
Answer These
in Fig. 3.6.
1. What is fractional distillation? How will permanganate
you separate different components of Cotton plug

air by using this method?
2. Which property of liquids is used for
separating nitrogen from oxygen?

All of us are aware of the importance
of oxygen in our daily life. Oxygen Fig. 3.6 Laboratory preparation of
occurs in the atmosphere around us oxygen
as diatomic molecules (O2). Our life
Take about 0.5 g of KMnO4 in a
on the earth depends on oxygen.
hard glass test tube or boiling
Many of you are familiar with ozone.
tube. Heat it over the flame of a
It consists of three oxygen atoms (O3)
burner. Collect the evolved gas
bonded together. Ozone is formed
in gas jars inverted over water
in stratosphere or the upper
taken in a trough by the
atmosphere. It prevents harmful
downward displacement of water.
ultraviolet radiations from reaching
(It is possible to collect oxygen
the earth. For industrial purposes,
gas by this method as it is very
oxygen is obtained by the fractional
slightly soluble in water.)
distillation of liquid air.
You can detect the presence
Let us study the preparation,
of oxygen in one of the gas jars
properties and uses of oxygen.
by introducing a glowing splinter
Laboratory Preparation of Oxygen into it. Note your observation.
The splinter bursts into a flame.
Many substances, whose molecules
contain the element oxygen, can be Precaution: While preparing
decomposed by heating to give pure oxygen from potassium permanganate,
oxygen. it is desirable to put a cotton plug
In the laboratory, oxygen can be near the mouth of the boiling tube
prepared by heating either potassium (Fig. 3.7). This prevents the spillage
permanganate (KMnO4) or potassium of KMnO4 into the gas jar in which
chlorate (KClO3). the gas is being collected.


Oxygen is obtained from liquid

air when required in large
quantities. It is also obtained by
the electrolysis of water. Water
decomposes on electrolysis,
Cotton plug which you have studied in earlier
classes, according to the
following equation:
2H2O 2H2 + O2
Fig. 3.7 A cotton plug is placed near the Water Hydrogen Oxygen
mouth of the boiling tube
The oxygen so obtained is
On heating, potassium pumped into thick-walled steel
permanganate releases oxygen cylinders for storage and
according to the following chemical transportation.
2 KMnO4 K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2
Physical Properties
Potassium Potassium Manga- Oxygen
permanganate manganate nese
Oxygen is a colourless and odourless
dioxide gas. It is slightly heavier than air.
Oxygen is slightly soluble in water.
Aquatic plants and animals can live
Activity 4 in water because of this property of
Oxygen can also be obtained oxygen.
easily by heating potassium Chemical Properties
chlorate in presence of a pinch of Chemical properties of oxygen are
manganese dioxide (MnO2), which very interesting. Let us study some
acts as a catalyst. (A catalyst is a important properties of oxygen.
substance, which accelerates the Many substances burn in oxygen
rate of reaction without taking forming the corresponding oxides.
part in the reaction.)
On heating potassium chlorate,
Activity 5
oxygen and potassium chloride
are formed according to the (i) Hold a piece of magnesium
following chemical equation: wire with a pair of tongs and
burn it. Allow it to burn for
2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2
Potassium Potassium Oxygen some time. Observe what
chlorate chloride happens: Magnesium burns


in air with a sparkle, forming the sulphur melts and just

a white powder. This white begins to burn. Observe the
powder is magnesium oxide. flame of burning sulphur
(Fig. 3.8). Introduce the
2Mg + O2 2MgO
Magnesium Oxygen Magnesium deflagrating spoon into a gas
oxide jar containing oxygen.
A large amount of heat is
generated in this reaction.
(ii) Take a few pieces of charcoal
in a deflagrating or combustion
spoon. Heat the charcoal until
it becomes red hot. Introduce
it in a gas jar containing
oxygen. Is any flame visible?
Add 10 mL of freshly prepared
limewater to the gas jar. What
do you observe? The limewater Fig. 3.8 Burning sulphur in a gas jar
turns milky. containing oxygen
The following chemical reaction
takes place : Sulphur, like charcoal, burns more
vigorously in oxygen than in air.
C + O2 CO2
Carbon Oxygen Carbon dioxide
An oxide of sulphur, i.e. sulphur
dioxide gas, is formed. Sulphur
The carbon dioxide formed in this dioxide gas has a pungent smell.
reaction turns limewater milky. The following chemical
As you know, the carbon dioxide reaction takes place :
reacts with calcium hydroxide
present in limewater and forms S + O2
calcium carbonate. Calcium Sulphur Oxygen Sulphur dioxide
carbonate appears in the form of A large amount of heat is
a white precipitate. liberated during the burning of
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O
Calcium Carbon Calcium Water
(iv) Take a little red phosphorus
hydroxide dioxide carbonate in a deflagrating spoon. Heat
it over the flame of a
(iii) Place a little sulphur in a
burner till it catches fire.
deflagrating spoon. Hold it
How does it burn in air?
over the flame of a burner till
Introduce the deflagrating


spoon containing burning such as magnesium, carbon and

phosphorus into a gas phosphorus are examples of oxidation
jar of oxygen. What do you reactions.
observe? How does the You already know that oxygen
phosphorus burn now? also reacts with compounds and
forms oxides.
Phosphorus burns in oxygen
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
according to the following
Methane Oxygen Carbon Water
chemical equation : dioxide

4P + 5O2 2P2O5 This reaction is also an example

Phosphorus Oxygen Phosphorus of an oxidation reaction. A large
pentoxide amount of heat is evolved in this
(v) Steel also burns in oxygen reaction. In a later chapter in this
without a flame, throwing out book, you will learn that it is more
glittering sparks in all appropriate to use the term
directions. For conducting combustion for such reactions.
this experiment, steel wire or The ability to oxidise various
steel wool is used. substances is the most important
property of oxygen. Therefore, oxygen
The following chemical reaction
is known as an oxidiser or oxidising
takes place:
agent. Evolution of heat, as in the
4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3 case of burning of methane in
Iron Oxygen Iron oxide
oxygen, and sometimes light, as in
From these activities, we can the case of burning of magnesium in
conclude that air, occurs during oxidation.
(i) burning of substances is Burning of substances in air is
more vigorous in oxygen than an example of oxidation reaction. All
in air, and oxygen is a very burning processes are examples of
reactive substance. oxidation reactions.
(ii) an important chemical Rusting of iron is a very common
property of oxygen is its phenomena. You might have seen
ability to combine with other that objects made of iron, such as
substances to form oxides. grills, doors, windows, fixtures and
fittings get rusted. Rusting, which is
Oxidation Reactions also an example of oxidation, is a
A reaction in which oxygen is added slow process. Rust is a red-brown
to an element or a compound is called powder of one of the oxides of iron.
oxidation. Reactions in which oxygen You will study more about such
combines with simple substances, reactions in Chapter 4.


(i) One major use of oxygen is for Nitrogen is the most abundant gas
breathing. It is also used as a (78%) present in air. It is present all
breathing aid in various situations. around us. As mentioned, nitrogen
It is carried in convenient cylinders is obtained industrially by the
by mountaineers, deep-sea divers fractional distillation of liquid air. It
and astronauts. Aeroplanes also has a large number of uses. Some of
have their own oxygen supply for the important uses of nitrogen are
emergency use. In hospitals, as follows :
oxygen masks are used for
(i) Nitrogen is used in the
patients having breathing
production of nitric acid and
difficulties, such as heart patients,
ammonia. Ammonia is used for
asthmatics and young babies.
manufacturing fertilisers.
(ii) Oxygen is important to all the
(ii) Liquid nitrogen is used as a
living organisms as it is needed
refrigerant for freezing food.
for respiration.
(iii) Liquid nitrogen is also used to
(iii) Oxygen has uses in industry and
store living cells and important
in the workplace. Molten iron is
tissues. A wide range of animal
purified by blowing oxygen into
cells, from sperm to skin cells,
it. Other metals and carbon are
can be preserved at very low
then added to make steel.
temperatures using liquid
(iv) A mixture of oxygen and
nitrogen. The cells can be revived
acetylene gases burns producing
when required and they function
a large amount of heat. It is
known as the oxy-acetylene
(iv) Liquid nitrogen is used during
flame. The heat produced in this
skin grafting in burn victims and
process is used for welding iron
for in vitro fertilisation (test tube
and steel, and other metals.
Answer These (v) You are aware that all of us are
1. What is the importance of oxygen in breathing in and breathing out
daily life? nitrogen with air every moment
2. How will you obtain oxygen from without any chemical change.
(a) potassium permanganate and Therefore, nitrogen gas is used to
(b) potassium chlorate? Write the provide an unreactive environment
chemical equations of the in a large number of potentially
reactions involved.
hazardous industrial processes.
3. State any three important uses of
(vi) Nitrogen gas is nowadays being
extensively used in food


packaging to keep food fresh. For the soil, by a series of interlinked

example, packets containing chemical changes (Fig. 3.9).
various snacks, such as potato It is clearly seen from Fig. 3.9 that
chips, pre-cooked and pre- animals feed on plants and other
roasted ready-to-eat food items animals for their requirement of
have nitrogen gas filled inside nitrogen for making proteins. Most
them. plants obtain the nitrogen they
require from the soil. In soil, nitrogen
The Nitrogen Cycle is present as nitrates, which are
You already know that nitrogen is soluble salts of nitric acid. The
essential for all the living things. solubility of nitrates is of great
Proteins and nucleic acids, which importance. Plants absorb nitrates
are essential for growth and good from aqueous solutions through their
health, contain nitrogen. Like roots. Nitrates come to the soil from
carbon, there is a global cycle for the atmosphere with rainwater. In the
nitrogen, which is known as the atmosphere, at the time of lightning,
nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen atoms are nitrogen and oxygen combine to form
cycled between various forms of life, oxides of nitrogen, which, in turn,
and between the atmosphere and forms nitrates. Nitrates also enter the

Fig. 3.9 The main stages in the nitrogen cycle



Fritz Haber was born on December 9, 1868 in Breslau, Germany. He had his earlier
education at the St. Elizabeth Classical School at Breslau. He did many chemical
experiments while he was at school. After completing his university studies, he
voluntarily worked for some time in his fathers chemical business.
In 1898, Haber published his textbook on Electrochemistry, which was based
on the lectures that he had delivered earlier. Haber undertook the work on the
fixation of nitrogen from the air for which he was given the Nobel Prize for Chemistry
in 1918 (awarded in 1919). Fritz Haber died in 1935.

soil from the decay of dead plants and Ammonia is the chief source for
animals. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are producing nitrogenous fertilisers. It
found in the soil, which can convert is produced by the reaction between
(fix) the nitrogen in the air directly nitrogen and hydrogen :
into nitrates. Some plants are also
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
capable of fixing atmospheric
Nitrogen Hydrogen Ammonia
nitrogen because their roots have
such nodules that contain nitrogen- This reaction was described by
fixing bacteria. These plants are Fritz Haber in 1908, who was looking
leguminous, known as legumes. for a way out to do away with the
Beans plant is an example of a artificial fixation of nitrogen in the
leguminous plant. soil.
When soil is used in crop Synthesis of ammonia as
production, it becomes nitrogen- proposed by Haber can be
deficient. This deficiency is made up represented by the following flow
by adding nitrogenous fertilisers to chart. These days, hydrogen is
the soil. One of the most commonly obtained from natural gas (by its
used fertilisers is ammonium nitrate, catalytic decomposition). Nitrogen is
which is made from ammonia gas obtained from atmosphere through
and nitric acid. liquefaction of air.



Converter : 200

atmospheres, Ammonia
450 C, iron catalyst

Hydrogen (obtained
mainly from
natural gas) 85% unreacted recycled

Answer These is caused by gases, such as sulphur

dioxide, carbon monoxide and
1. Which is the most abundant gas nitrogen oxides, being released into
present in the air? How is it obtained
the atmosphere by the burning of
for industrial use?
fossil fuels, exhausts from
2. What are the uses of nitrogen in our
daily life? automobiles and a variety of
3. Show the various stages of nitrogen
industries. Sometimes, the harmful
cycle with the help of a labelled constituents present in air are also
diagram. referred to as contaminants.
4. How do the plants get nitrates? The moment we step out of our
5. How is biological fixation of nitrogen homes and go to a busy road, we can
different from its atmospheric notice the air getting polluted. A thick
fixation? cloud of smoke from the exhaust of
6. Name the chief source for producing a bus, car, autorickshaw, or a
nitrogenous fertilisers. scooter, smoke coming out from a
7. What is the role of nodules in the factory chimney, fly ash generated by
biological fixation of nitrogen?
the thermal power plants and
speeding cars and trucks causing
3.8 AIR POLLUTION dust to rise from the roads are a
The presence of harmful and common sight. Natural phenomenon,
undesirable constituents in the such as the eruption of a volcano,
environment resulting from human and someone smoking a bidi or a
activities is called pollution. The cigarette also cause air pollution.
pollution may be of air, water and Air pollution is aggravated
soil. The air or atmospheric pollution because of mainly three types of


activity: increasing traffic, growing Carbon dioxide (CO2)

cities and industrialisation. It is the main greenhouse gas. It is
The presence of one or more emitted as a result of human
contaminants in the atmosphere in activities, such as the burning of
such quantities and for such time as wood, coal, oil and natural gas.
is injurious, or tends to be injurious,
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)
to human health or welfare, animal
It consists of solid particles in the air
or plant life is also known as air
in the form of smoke, dust and
pollution. The contamination of air
vapour. It can remain suspended in
is caused by the discharge of harmful
the air for long periods. It is the main
substances into it. Air pollution can
source of haze, which reduces
cause health problems and it can
visibility, especially during winters in
also damage the environment and the metropolitan cities, where the
property. Air pollution has caused number of vehicles is very large. The
thinning of the protective ozone layer presence of SPM is also visible in
of the atmosphere, which saves us such areas where factories are
from the harmful effects of ultraviolet located.
radiations from the sun. This has led The presence of SPM in the air
to adverse climatic changes. The may cause difficulty in breathing.
following industries and activities are The finer particles present as SPM,
among those that emit a significant may enter our lungs with the air we
amount of pollutants into the air: breathe in and stay there for long
cement, steel, refineries, periods. Their presence may cause
petrochemicals, thermal power damage to lungs and respiratory
plants, mining (for coal and minerals) diseases.
and quarrying (for stones and
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Most of you are familiar with CFCs.
Causes of Air Pollution They are used for air-conditioning
The major air pollutants and their and refrigeration systems. They are
generally unreactive but they can
sources are as follows :
diffuse into the stratosphere, where
Carbon monoxide (CO) they break down under the
It is a colourless, odourless gas that influence of ultraviolet rays. The
is produced by the incomplete products of this process then react
burning of fuels, such as petrol, with ozone, damaging the protective
diesel, coal and wood. It lowers the layer. The ozone layer protects the
amount of oxygen that enters our earth from the harmful ultraviolet
blood. It can slow our reflexes. rays from the sun.


Nitrogen oxides cities. It is present in petrol, diesel,

Presence of nitrogen oxides (also lead batteries, hair dye products and
known as NOx) in air causes smog paints. Lead is very harmful for the
(smoke + fog) and acid rain. They are children. It can cause damage to our
emitted from burning fuels, including nervous system and digestive
petrol, diesel and coal. Nitrogen irregularities. It may sometimes
oxides can cause respiratory diseases cause cancer.
in children, particularly in winters. However, nowadays lead-free
petrol is being used in many cities in
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
our country for running automobiles.
It is formed during burning coal in This has curbed the air pollution due
the thermal power plants. Some to lead to a great extent.
industrial processes, such as
production of paper and smelting of Fly ash
metals, also produce sulphur Thermal power generation through
dioxide. It is a major contributor to the combustion of coal produces
smog and acid rain. Sulphur dioxide minute particles of ash that causes
may cause lung diseases. serious environmental problems.
Commonly known as fly ash, these
Ozone (O3)
particles consist of silica, alumina,
It might be surprising to you to know oxides of iron, calcium and
that ozone, when at the ground level, magnesium. It also contains toxic
is a pollutant. It makes our eyes itch, heavy metals, like lead, arsenic,
burn and water. Ozone occurs copper and cobalt.
naturally in the upper layers of the Safe disposal of airborne fly ash
atmosphere. It shields the earth from is essential. Otherwise, it may
the harmful ultraviolet rays from the contaminate groundwater and soil as
sun. It lowers our resistance to cold it may leach into the sub-soil. It may
and pneumonia. It is produced by cause siltage and clogging of the
automobiles and in several industrial natural drainage system.
processes. It is also produced during Being very minute, fly ash
arc welding. particles tend to remain airborne for
The presence of CFCs in the a long period leading to serious
atmosphere is responsible for the health problems. The airborne fly ash
depletion of ozone layer, producing particles can enter the body, and
a hole in it. cause irritation to eyes, skin, nose,
Lead throat and the respiratory tract.
Until a few years back, lead was a Continued breathing in air with fly
very potential air pollutant in our ash dust containing crystalline silica


can cause bronchitis and lung

Most of us are ignorant about the
presence of indoor air pollution. It may
be caused by the use of paints,
aerosols, acids for cleaning toilets,
sprays and deodorants, carpet
cleaners (chemicals used for cleaning
carpets), objects made from recycled
plastics, smoking tobacco, and many
Fig. 3.10 A polluting industrial unit
more things. Therefore, we should
also be very careful about the causes The vehicles should be subjected
and prevention of indoor air pollution. to stringent air pollution checks.
Prevention of Air Pollution Similarly, we should be vigilant
about the polluting industrial
We all know that we need a healthy units (Fig. 3.10).
and clean air for breathing. The task (iii) Some of the steps you can take
of cleaning up air and improving as an individual or a group of
upon the quality and monitoring are individuals to improve upon the
not very difficult. For doing so, we air quality around you are as
have to take some steps that are follows :
necessary and observe some (a) Do not use bags made from
restraints. Some such steps and plastics. Use only cloth and jute
restraints are as follows : bags. Dont burn dried leaves,
(i) Shift to using the less polluting branches of trees, paper and
forms of power generation, such garbage in the open. Instead,
as solar energy, wind energy, tidal find ways and means for their
and geothermal energy. Use of safe disposal. For example,
other forms of renewable energy recycle the used paper.
may also be explored. The use of (b) Save electricity. In the long run,
fossil fuels should be reduced to it will amount to burning less
minimum. Smoke precipitators fossil fuels.
should be installed in all (c) Reduce the use of aerosols
chimneys in factories and mills. (they are particles of solid or
(ii) As far as possible, lead-free fuel, liquid matter that can remain
such as Compressed Natural Gas suspended in air from a few
(CNG), should be used for minutes to many months
running cars, buses and trucks. depending on the particle size


and their weight), such as nitrogen oxides. You already know

perfumes, deodorant sprays, that these acidic oxides arise from
cosmetics and other similar the emissions released during the
sprays in your homes. burning of fossil fuels. These gases
(d) Grow more trees. They are the can also be emitted from natural
natures lungs. Look after the resources, like volcanoes. Acid rain
trees in your neighbourhood. contains mainly nitric and sulphuric
(e) Advise your parents, acids that are formed by the
neighbours and friends to use dissolution of nitrogen oxides and
only unleaded petrol or CNG sulphur dioxide in air.
(Fig. 3.11) in their vehicles. Acid rain can corrode buildings
and statues, especially those made
with marble and stone. The Taj
Mahal, situated at Agra in our
country, which is a heritage building,
was corroded by the fumes emitted
from the chimneys of a nearby located
oil refinery. However, timely steps and
efforts of the Archaeological Survey of
India (ASI) have resulted in restoring
Fig. 3.11 A CNG filling station its past glory. The sources of acid rain
are difficult to control. The ill-effects
(f) Do not smoke; be discreet of the acid rain on the environment
towards those who are in your can be very serious. It damages plants
immediate neighbourhood. by destroying their leaves (they first
Thus, all of us must take become yellow and then die). Acid rain
appropriate steps and observe causes extensive harm to soil, water
restraints to contribute in keeping resources, forests and the human
the air around us clean and healthy. health. Lakes and streams may get
We should remember that we share contaminated with acid rain. This
the air around us three hundred sixty may cause disappearance of some
five days in a year. species of fish and extensive damage
to forests, the wild life and other forms
Acid Rain of life.
Acid rain is the rain, which has been
made more acidic than normal by the The Greenhouse Effect
presence of dissolved pollutants, The greenhouse effect is also referred
such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and to as the global warming. It is caused


due to increase in the absorption of that absorb, scatter and reflect the
solar energy due to build up of carbon radiation back into the space. Clouds
dioxide in the atmosphere. You of dust raised by blowing wind and
already know that carbon dioxide is particles from eruption of volcanoes
produced when fuels are burned. are examples of natural aerosols.
Plants use carbon dioxide for Have you ever wondered why we
synthesising their food. In this call it the greenhouse effect. In 1827,
process, they release oxygen. But, the a French mathematician and
amount of carbon dioxide emitted due physicist, Jean Baptiste Joseph
to human activities is higher than all Fourier, while studying the conduction
the plants in the world can process. of heat through different materials,
The situation is worsening day by day compared the atmosphere to a closed
because many of the forests on the glass vessel. Some of you might have
earth are depleted, and plant life is observed similar greenhouses for
being damaged by the acid rain. housing plants. He recognised that the
Thus, greenhouse effect is the air around our planet, the earth, lets
progressive gradual warming of the in sunlight, much like a glass roof.
earths atmosphere. The greenhouse At present, efforts are being
effect disturbs the way earths climate made worldwide to control the
is maintained. The main causes of the concentration of greenhouse gases.
greenhouse effect are the greenhouse This will greatly help in monitoring
gases, namely CO2, water vapour, the global warming. One significant
methane, nitrous oxide and the measure to achieve this goal would
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC organic be to minimise burning of fossil
compounds containing carbon, fuels, such as coal, oil and the
chlorine and fluorine) whose natural gas.
percentage has proportionally
increased in the atmosphere. It is Answer These
surprising that nitrogen (78%) and 1. Name the chief air polluting gases.
oxygen (21%) do not play any role in 2. What steps do you suggest for
the greenhouse effect. Increase in the minimising the air pollution around you?
concentrations of CO 2, methane, 3. What are the factors that deplete the
nitrous oxide and CFCs in air is ozone layer in the atmosphere? What
caused due to burning of the fossil are the harmful effects of this
depletion on us?
Aerosols also cause the 4. What is the chemical nature of acid rain?
What are the harmful effects of acid rain?
greenhouse effect. As you already
5. What is greenhouse effect? State its
know, aerosols, also known as significance for us.
particulates, are airborne particles

Key Words
Air, Atmosphere, Pollution, Atmospheric pressure, Troposphere, Stratosphere,
Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Barometer, Sublimation, Ultraviolet radiations,
Fractional distillation, Oxidation reaction, Liquid air, Liquid nitrogen, Nitrogen
cycle, Nitrates, Nitrogen fixation, Suspended particulate matter,
Chlorofluorocarbons, Ozone, Fly ash, Emission, Acid rain, Greenhouse effect,


 Air is present all around us.

 Air is a mixture of several gases. It contains 78% nitrogen and 21%
oxygen and other gases in small amounts.
 There is an atmosphere around us, which exerts pressure, known as
atmospheric pressure.
 Air pressure is measured by using a device called barometer.
 Oxygen is separated from liquid air by fractional distillation.
 Oxygen can be prepared in the laboratory and tested for its properties.
 Oxygen is required for breathing and many other industrial uses.
 Addition of oxygen to a substance is known as oxidation.
 Nitrogen is used for producing ammonia, which is required for
manufacturing fertilisers.
 Liquid nitrogen is a very useful substance. It is used as a non-reactive
medium for storing many things.
 Nitrogen cycle is very important for nitrogen fixation both atmospheric
and biological.
 Air pollution is a global phenomenon. It is caused due to indiscriminate
human activities, especially burning of fossil fuels.
 Air pollution is caused by the presence of a variety of substances in it,
such as carbon monoxide, CFCs, suspended particulate matter(SPM),
nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and fly ash.


 Efforts should be made to keep the level of air pollution to the minimum.
 Acid rain is very harmful to plants, animals and stone/marble
buildings, as it contains nitric and sulphuric acids.
 The greenhouse effect is very important to us. Carbon dioxide, methane,
water vapour and CFCs are known as greenhouse gases.


1. Draw a pie diagram showing the composition of air.

2. Name different layers of atmosphere.
3. Why is the study of atmosphere important to us?
4. What is the cause of air pressure?
5. What is meant by atmospheric pressure? State its units. Draw a
neat-labelled diagram of the mercury and aneroid barometers and
describe their working briefly.
6. What are the boiling points of oxygen and nitrogen, respectively?
How will you separate oxygen from air?
7. Draw a neat-labelled diagram to show the laboratory set up for the
preparation of oxygen from potassium permanganate. Write the
chemical equation for the decomposition reaction of potassium
8. Why is it possible to collect oxygen by the downward displacement
of water?
9. Identify the oxidiser and the substance oxidised in the following
chemical reactions :
(i) CH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2H2O
(ii) S + O2
(iii) C + O2
(iv) 2H2 + O2
10. State any five uses of oxygen.
11. Write any three uses of nitrogen.


12. Describe the nitrogen cycle with the help of a neat-labelled diagram.
13. How does soil become nitrogen-deficient? What is the remedy for
this type of soil?
14. Mention the various causes of air pollution. What can be our
contribution to curb the air pollution?
15. Which of the following substances, when present in air, cause air
Water vapour, carbon monoxide, lead, CO2, SO2, CFCs, nitrogen,
16. What is acid rain? Why is it harmful to us?
17. Name the greenhouse gases. Why the ozone layer, which is present
in the atmosphere, needs to be protected?


of Substances

W e see a variety of substances

around us. They do not forever
remain as they are. They get mixed
substances undergo change when
they come in contact with other
substances. You know that when
up with other substances and household acid (hydrochloric acid)
become impure. In nature, we get comes in contact with stone tiles (of
most of the substances in impure calcium carbonate) there is a reaction
forms. Impurities need to be removed with the escape of gaseous bubbles.
before we can use them. Different Many interesting reactions take place
purification techniques are used when different chemicals are brought
depending on the nature of impurity together under different conditions.
and the level of purity required. You In this chapter, you will study various
will learn about some of these types of chemical reactions and their
techniques in this chapter. You will characteristics.
also learn how the characteristics like You have learnt in Class VI that
melting or boiling points of some of the chemical changes are
substances enable us to determine useful while some are harmful. For
if a given sample is pure or not. example, conversion of milk into curd
Substances around us undergo is useful but rusting of iron is
change due to weathering. You know harmful. We must learn to speed up
that iron objects rust due to moisture the desirable changes and curb the
and oxygen in air. Silver objects get undesirable changes. To achieve this
blackened due to the effect of objective it is necessary that we
hydrogen sulphide produced by the properly understand the mechanism
combustion of fossil fuels. Very often, of transformation of substances. Let

us begin with the purification of We use petroleum products, like

substances. kerosene, diesel, petrol, LPG (Liquefied
Petroleum Gas), and CNG (Compressed
4.1 PURIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES Natural Gas) in our daily life. In nature,
Most of the substances that we get petroleum or crude oil is found in the form
of a mixture of a number of substances
in nature are mixed with some other called hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon is a
substances. We need to remove class of compounds made up of carbon
unwanted components from such and hydrogen only. These hydrocarbons
mixtures. For example, the water are separated using an elaborate
that we get from different sources separation method, called fractional
has many dissolved as well as Petroleum gases
undissolved components. It may also Gasoline
contain harmful germs to make it Diesel oil
potable, we remove the undissolved
particles from it and kill harmful
germs. However, if a sample of water

vapours Residue

Fig. 4.2 Fractionating Tower

distillation. Different components of crude
oil have different boiling points. Using this
difference in the boiling points of various
hydrocarbons these components are
separated from each other.
Fractional distillation of crude oil is
carried out in a big fractionating tower
(Fig. 4.2). The components of the crude
oil are boiled off in the tower. The vapour
thus obtained is condensed separately
as different fractions. Each fraction is
Fig. 4.1 Distillation of water still a mixture of hydrocarbons.
However, the hydrocarbons in each
is to be used for injection purposes, fraction are much alike. Therefore, they
it needs to be absolutely pure. In can be used as a group for some specific
that case, even the dissolved purposes. For example, Petroleum gas
components and bodies of dead is a mixture of ethane, propane and
butane. It is used as a bottled gas for
germs need to be removed. To obtain
household cooking and also as valuable
absolutely pure water, the technique starting material for chemical industry.
of distillation is used. It involves

heating of impure water and melting or boiling point. Melting

condensation of the water vapour point is the temperature at which
(Fig. 4.1). Pure water, thus obtained, a solid gets converted into liquid.
is called distilled water. The reverse process, that is, the
conversion of a liquid into a solid also
takes place at the same temperature.
You know that the common salt that we The temperature at which a liquid
use in our daily meal is obtained from starts boiling is called its boiling
seawater. The salt that we get in salt point. We can obtain pure
panes has many impurities including substances using purification
soil particles, magnesium chloride and techniques and determine their
other chemicals mixed with sodium melting as well as boiling points.
chloride. In order to purify the salt, it is Table 4.1 gives the melting and
dissolved in water and the undissolved boiling points of some common
particles are removed by filtration. The substances in degree celsius (C).
salt in the solution is then allowed to
crystallise. In this process, other
unwanted dissolved compounds that Table 4.1 : Melting and Boiling
Points of Some Common
are present in small amounts remain in
the solution itself. We, thus, get white
crystals of common salt, which is mainly Name of Melting point Boiling point
sodium chloride. substance

Water 0 C 100 C

Camphor 176 C 209 C

Answer These (sublimes)
1. What do you understand by distilled Aluminium 660 C 2300 C
2. What is the main component of Magnesium 651 C 1120 C
common salt?

If we want to know whether a
SUBSTANCES given sample of a substance is pure,
It is not possible to tell whether a we need to determine its melting or
substance is pure simply by looking boiling point and compare it with the
at it. The purity of a substance can value given in the standard tables in
be ascertained by determining its books.


difficult to attain this temperature.

Activity 1 However, addition of a little amount
of the white powder brings down the
Take a small capillary tube and melting temperature to a great
seal it. Fill it with naphthalene extent. As a result, a goldsmith can
powder. Attach the capillary melt gold using a kerosene lamp.
to the bulb of a thermometer The freezing mixture lowers the
and put the assembly into temperature for making ice-creams.
water bath (Fig. 4.3). Heat the You know that ice melts at 0C.
water slowly and note down Addition of potassium nitrate to the
the temperature at which ice brings down its temperature
naphthalene melts. Compare it to 3C. Ammonium nitrate can bring
with the value given in Table 4.1. down the melting point as low as 9C.
Can you guess if the given Ice-creams solidify quickly if kept in
sample is pure? the freezing mixtures. In many
countries where the winter
Capillary tube Thermometer
temperature goes below zero, a lot of
filled with
naphthalene snow gets deposited on roads and
powder pavements. Removal of this snow is a
water big task. Bulldozers are used to take
away the snow on roads. To remove
snow from the pavements, a simple
technique is often used. Common salt
is spread over the layer of the snow.
As the common salt gets mixed with
the snow, its melting point decreases.
Fig. 4.3 Determination of melting The snow now cannot remain in the
point of naphthalene
solid form as the temperature of the
surrounding air is above that
A pure substance melts at a fixed temperature. This results into the
temperature. If the substance is melting of snow, cleaning the
impure, the substance usually melts pavements.
at a temperature lower than its
standard melting point. This fact is Answer These
made use of to melt the solids at 1. What is the melting point of pure
lower temperatures. You might have aluminium ?
2. What do you understand by the term
seen goldsmiths mixing a white
boiling point ?
powder with gold before melting. The 3. How common salt helps to clear
melting point of gold is 1063 C. It is pavements covered with snow ?



You know that when we heat sugar, Take a pinch of sodium carbonate
it changes into water and carbon (washing soda) in a test tube
particles. This is known as charring (15 mL). Add to it a little amount
of sugar. In the previous classes, of dilute hydrochloric acid. You
you have studied that such changes will notice that as the two
where new substances are formed substances mix with each other,
are called chemical changes. The effervescence starts. It is due to
process that leads to a chemical the production of a gas during the
change is called a chemical reaction. Sodium carbonate and
reaction. The substances that take hydrochloric acid produce carbon
part in a chemical reaction are dioxide gas, which tries to escape
called reactants while the from the test tube. This chemical
substances produced in the reaction is, thus, characterised by
reaction are called products. In a the evolution of a gas.
chemical reaction, the reactants are
transformed into products. Let us
try to understand these terms with
Activity 3
respect to charring of sugar and Take a few crystals of potassium
formation of rust. permanganate in a test tube. Add
a little water to it and shake the
Carbon + Water test tube until the crystals get
dissolved. You will get a purple
Here, sugar is the reactant while
solution. Now, using a dropper,
carbon and water are the products.
add lemon juice to the purple
Iron + Oxygen
Iron oxide solution of potassium
permanganate drop by drop. You
Here, iron and oxygen are the will notice that with the addition
reactants while iron oxide is the of each drop of lemon juice, which
product. contains citric acid, the colour of
In a chemical reaction, solution goes on fading. A stage
reactants are transformed into soon comes when the purple
products. This transformation is colour of the permanganate
often accompanied by various other completely disappears. This
features. Let us now study some of chemical reaction is, thus,
the characteristics of chemical characterised by a change
reactions. of colour.


Activity 4
Take 5 mL dilute solution of
barium chloride in a test tube
(15 mL). Now add about 5 mL of
dilute sulphuric acid to the
solution. You will notice that the
mixture becomes turbid. Soon a
white coloured precipitate settles
down at the bottom of the test
tube. This chemical reaction is Fig. 4.4 Burning of a candle
thus characterised by the the inner surface of the funnel.
formation of a precipitate. In this reaction, solid wax has
In Class VI (Chapter 4) you have been converted into liquid water
studied the reaction between lime and gaseous carbon dioxide. This
and water to produce slaked lime. reaction is, thus, characterised
You might recall that a lot of heat is by a change of state.
produced in this reaction. Similarly, We have seen that chemical
when we burn coal we get heat. It is reactions are characterised by
this heat that is used in thermal evolution of a gas, change of colour,
power stations to generate electricity. formation of a precipitate, change of
Reactions like conversion of lime to energy and change of state. We can
slaked lime, combustion of coal, etc. see that a chemical reaction can
are characterised by the production display more than one characteristic.
of energy. For example, burning of a candle is
characterised by the production of
Activity 5 energy, evolution of gas and change
of state.
Take a candle and light it. Hold
a funnel (with a tube) over the Answer These
flame as shown in Fig. 4.4. Pass 1. State the characteristics of a chemical
the gas through limewater. You reaction.
will notice that limewater turns 2. Explain the terms reactants and
milky indicating the presence of products with examples.
3. Combustion of LPG is a chemical
carbon dioxide. Extinguish the
reaction. State as many characteristics
candle and observe the funnel. as possible associated with this
You will notice water droplets on reaction.



Ammonia (NH 3) is obtained by
We have studied the characteristics combination of nitrogen and hydrogen.
of chemical changes. Let us now look It is an important industrial chemical
into different types of chemical used in the preparation of fertilisers
reactions. Based on the changes that and explosives. A laboratory method
occur in chemical reactions they can for the preparation of ammonia was
developed by Fritz Haber, a German
be conveniently categorised as chemist, in 1909. Later, Carl Bosch,
combination, decomposition, developed the industrial process for
precipitation, neutralisation and obtaining ammonia on a large scale.
redox reactions. Let us consider Combination of nitrogen and
some examples of each of these hydrogen takes place at high
pressure and high temperature in the
presence of a catalyst. This process
Combination Reactions is known as Haber-Bosch process.
Haber and Bosch were awarded
Nobel Prize for this important work.
Activity 6
Take a little mercury in a hard glass hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form
test tube. It has a silvery shining ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is yet
colour. Heat the test tube slowly. another example of combination
You will notice that mercury reaction.
changes into reddish powder. It is Combination reactions are used
because of the combination of to synthesise chemicals from their
mercury with oxygen from air. constituent elements. For example,
Mercury and oxygen together form sulphuric acid, an important
oxide of mercury. industrial chemical, is manufactured
using three combination reactions
2Hg + 2HgO
Mercury Oxygen Mercury oxide
sequentially. In the first reaction,
sulphur is burnt allowing the
In this reaction, two reactants combination between sulphur and
have combined to form one oxygen forming sulphur dioxide
product. Such reactions are called (SO 2 ). Sulphur dioxide is then
combination reactions. You have allowed to combine with additional
already studied in the previous class oxygen in the presence of a catalyst
that iron and sulphur come together to form sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ).
to form iron sulphide. It is also an Sulphur trioxide is then mixed
example of combination reaction. with water to form sulphuric
Combination of ammonia (NH3) with acid (H2SO4).


Decomposition Reactions the mouth. You will hear a pop

sound indicating the presence of
hydrogen. In this reaction, zinc
Activity 7
replaces hydrogen from the
Take about 5 mL of hydrogen hydrogen chloride (HCl). The
peroxide (H 2O 2) in a test tube replaced hydrogen gets released
(15 mL). Add to it a little amount in the form of a gas and zinc
of manganese dioxide. You will chloride (ZnCl2) formed in the
notice that the bubbles start reaction gets dissolved in water.
coming out from the mixture. Take
Zn + 2 HCl
ZnCl2 + H2
a burning incense stick near the
mouth of the test tube. The stick In this reaction one substance
glows indicating the presence of (Zn) has replaced the other substance
oxygen. In the presence of (hydrogen) in a compound. Such
manganese dioxide, hydrogen reactions are called displacement
peroxide decomposes into water reactions. You will study more
and oxygen as shown in the examples of this reaction in the
following equation. chapter on metals and non-metals.
2H2O + O2
Neutralisation Reactions
In the above reaction, the reactant
decomposes into two products. Such
Activity 9
reactions where two or more products
are obtained from a single reactant Take 25 mL of dilute solution of
are called decomposition reactions. sodium hydroxide in a conical
Electrolysis of water and breaking of flask (250 mL) and add to it a
limestone into lime and carbon drop of phenolphthalein
dioxide are some other examples of indicator. The solution will
decomposition reactions. acquire pinkish colour. Fill the
Displacement Reactions burette with dilute hydrochloric
acid and pour it drop by drop into
the flask. As the two solutions get
Activity 8 mixed, the pink colour gets
Take a few zinc granules in a test fainter and fainter. Soon, the
tube (15 mL) and add to it about pink colour disappears. Test this
5 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid. mixture using red and blue
Bubbles of a gas will start coming litmus papers. You will notice
out. Take a burning candle near that both red and blue litmus


retain their colours. It means the NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

solution is now neutral. Alkali + Acid
Salt + Water
You know that hydrochloric Salts are used for a variety of
acid belongs to the category of acids purposes. They are usually made by
while sodium hydroxide belongs to using neutralisation reactions. You
the category of bases. Thus, this can choose a particular alkali and a
chemical reaction is an acid-base particular acid to get the salt that
reaction. Acid and base, when you desire. Suppose you want to
mixed in appropriate proportions, prepare calcium sulphate. Then you
form a neutral solution. Such would take calcium hydroxide and
reactions are called neutralisation sulphuric acid. Instead of taking
reactions. In such reactions, the calcium hydroxide, you can even
products are invariably salt and take calcium oxide. Metal oxides also
water. react with acids to give salt and
Acid is an essential chemical involved
Redox Reactions
in the process of digestion. It is
produced in the stomach and is used Oxygen is a highly reactive element.
in the digestion of proteins. Whenever It forms compounds on reacting with
there is an extra acid in the stomach, a variety of other elements. Whenever
we feel a burning sensation in the an element combines with oxygen we
chest. Sometimes, acidity leads to
vomiting too. Uncontrolled acidity for
say that it is oxidised. For example,
a long time can affect the lining of the when sulphur burns to form sulphur
stomach leading to the formation of dioxide, sulphur is said to be
ulcer. It is, therefore, necessary that oxidised. This reaction can be shown
the amount of acid in the stomach be by a simple chemical equation as
kept under control. The principle of
neutralisation that we have learnt is
also used in controlling the acidity. S + O2
In order to neutralise the acid
secreted in the stomach, a patient is You have learnt in Chapter 3 that
asked to chew a tablet containing addition of oxygen is called
some base or alkali. It is usually oxidation. You know that iron rusts
made of magnesium hydroxide, often
when it combines with oxygen.
called milk of magnesia. Magnesium
hydroxide reacts with the Rusting of iron is, therefore, an
hydrochloric acid produced in the oxidation reaction. Similarly,
stomach and neutralises it. This conversion of carbon monoxide into
relieves the patient from the ill effects carbon dioxide is also an example of
of extra acid.
oxidation reaction.


Addition or gain of oxygen is is reduced. This can be illustrated

termed as oxidation. On the by a reaction between red lead and
contrary, loss of oxygen is termed carbon as discussed in the following
as reduction. For example, on activity.
heating mercury oxide we get
mercury and oxygen.
Activity 10
2Hg + O2
Take a piece of coal and prepare
In this reaction, mercury oxide a small pit into it. Put a little
is said to be reduced as it loses red lead into the pit and blow
Oxidation and reduction
reactions are also defined in terms
of loss or gain of hydrogen. Loss of
hydrogen is called oxidation while
gain of hydrogen is called
reduction . N o w , c o n s i d e r t h e
cracking (thermal breaking) of
methane as shown by the following
C + 2H2 Fig. 4.5 Reduction of red lead

In this reaction, carbon in the flame towards the powder

methane has lost hydrogen. Hence, as shown in Fig. 4.5. You will
carbon is oxidised. Now, consider notice that the colour of the
the combination of hydrogen and powder changes from red to
chlorine to form hydrogen chloride, yellow. As you continue to blow
as shown by the following the flame, you will find a
equation. greyish liquid in the pit, which
H2 + Cl2
2HCl on cooling becomes solid. It is
lead. The reaction can be
In this reaction, chlorine has shown by the following
gained hydrogen. Hence, chlorine is equation.
It must be remembered that Pb3O4 + 2C
3Pb + 2CO2
oxidation and reduction reactions
take place simultaneously. When In this reaction, lead has lost
one substance is oxidised, another oxygen. Hence, it is reduced. At the


same time, carbon has gained Answer These

oxygen. Hence, it is oxidised. Such
Fill in the blanks with appropriate
reactions are called redox (where red
examples. An illustrative example is given
is for reduction and ox for oxidation) in each category.
1. Combination reactions: Burning of
Redox reactions play an important magnesium wire, _____, _____, _____.
role in metal extraction. Most of the
metal ores occur in the form of oxides. 2. Decomposition reactions: Electrolysis
of water, _____, _____, _____.
These oxides are reduced to get the
required metal. Reduction of iron oxide 3. Displacement reactions: Reaction
to get iron is one such example. Iron between iron nails and copper
sulphate solution, _____, _____, _____.
oxide (Fe2O3) is heated with coke at
high temperature in a furnace. In this 4. Neutralisation reactions: Mixing of soap
process, iron oxide gets reduced to solution and tartaric acid, _____, _____,
produce iron, as shown in the following _____.
reaction : 5. Redox reactions: Combustion of
Fe2O3 + 3CO
methane, _____, _____, _____.
2Fe + 3CO2

Key Words
Distillation, Capillary, Water bath, Precipitate, Reactants, Products,
Combination, Decomposition, Displacement, Neutralisation, Redox reaction


 Removal of unwanted components leads to the purification of the

 Purity of a given sample of a substance can be tested by determining
its melting point or boiling point or both.
 Chemical reactions are characterised by the evolution of a gas, change
of colour, formation of precipitate, change of energy or change of state.
 Chemical reactions are of different types. They can be categorised as
combination, decomposition, displacement, neutralisation and redox
 Different chemical reactions are used to get required chemicals.



1. Explain the terms: distilled water, melting point, boiling point,

freezing mixture, chemical reaction.
2. Give reasons for the following:
(i) Common salt obtained from salt panes is purified further.
(ii) Salt is spread on pavement snow during winter in cold
(iii) A person having acidity disorder is given milk of magnesia.
(iv) Neutralisation reaction is used to get salts.
3. Describe a method to verify whether a given sample is pure or not.
4. Describe the procedure to determine the melting point of a substance
taking naphthalene as example.
5. What are the characteristics of chemical reactions?
6. What are the types of chemical reactions?
7. Calcium carbonate when heated gives rise to calcium oxide and
carbon dioxide (CaCO3 CaO + CO2). What type of reaction is
this? What are the reactants and what are the products?
8. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) Melting point is a characteristic property of a substance.
(ii) Naphthalene boils at 400 C.
(iii) An impure substance melts at a higher temperature than a
pure substance.
(iv) Oxidation and reduction reactions take place simultaneously.
9. Write short notes on: distilled water, manufacture of sulphuric acid,
redox reactions.
10. Give two examples each of combination, decomposition,
displacement, and neutralisation reactions.
11. Give two examples each of reactions characterised by the formation
of a precipitate, evolution of energy, change of colour, change of
12. How will you prepare the following salts: ammonium chloride,
potassium nitrate and copper sulphate?


Structure of Atom

Y ou have already studied in the

previous classes that the matter
is made of tiny particles. As one goes

on breaking particles, one reaches to You are aware that all matter in the
a stage where no further breaking is nature is made from only a few
possible. At that stage we get an elements. These elements are
unbreakable particle called an atom. composed of atoms or molecules.
Now, there are many questions Molecules are, in fact, made up of
which come to our mind. How would atoms. Therefore, atoms are ultimate
an atom look like ? What is the atom particles of matter and thus serve as
made up of ? Is it possible to divide building blocks. The smallest
the atom further ? These questions particle of an element that displays
haunted the scientists of nineteenth properties of that element is called
and twentieth centuries. After an atom.
performing a variety of experiments, Two or more than two atoms come
scientists could know what is inside together in definite proportions to form
an atom. Understanding of the a molecule. If the atoms are of the same
structure of an atom enabled them type, then we get a molecule of an
to resolve many mysteries concerning element. For example, two atoms of
nature and behaviour of matter. This hydrogen form a hydrogen molecule
chapter takes a short journey (H2). If the atoms are dissimilar, that
through the history of structure of is of different elements, then we get the
atom and deals how this structure is molecule of a compound. For example,
related to the properties of matter. one atom of hydrogen (H) and one atom

of chlorine (Cl) form a molecule of principally of Greek philosphers like

hydrogen chloride (HCl). The smallest Leucippus, Democratis and Epicurus
particle of an element or of a (sixth century B C ) believed that
compound that has independent subdivision of these particles would
existence is called a molecule. A yield atoms (derived from Greek word
molecule of an element displays atomos, meaning uncut or indivisible).
chemical properties of that element Maharshi Kanada (sixth century BC),
and a molecule of a compound as you are already aware, proposed
displays chemical properties of that that matter consists of tiny particles.
compound. Indian thinkers and philosophers have
Atoms are very small entities. named these particles as parmanu.
They are so tiny that they cannot be The ancient theories, proposed by
seen by naked eyes. Even the head Kanada, Greek philosophers and
of a pin can hold millions of atoms. others, were based on abstract
The radius of a hydrogen atom is of thinking and not on experimentation.
the order of one angstrom (One For about 2000 years, the atomic
angstrom, =108cm). Study of atoms theory remained a mere speculation.
by scientists has shown that on the It was John Dalton, an English school
whole atoms are electrically neutral. teacher, who propounded his theory
of atoms based on chemical laws of
Answer These combination known at that time
1. What do you understand by the term (1803-1808). Ideas about atom and
atom ? its properties held today are results
2. What do you understand by the term of many modifications to the idea of
molecule ? Dalton. The main points of Daltons
3. Why are atoms called building blocks atomic theory can be spelt out as
of matter ?
4. In which unit is the size of an atom
expressed ? (i) An element is composed of
extremely tiny indivisible
5.2 M ODEL OF AN ATOM particles called atoms.
Credit for the first atomic theory is (ii) Atoms cannot be created,
usually given to the ancient Greeks. destroyed, subdivided or converted
However, this concept must have had to that of another element.
its origin even in earlier civilisations. (iii) All atoms of a particular element
Aristotle (fourth century BC) held that are identical in mass and
matter was continuous and hence properties. Atoms of different
could be divided into smaller and elements have different masses
smaller particles. The atomistic school, and properties.


(iv) Atoms combine in simple whole- a fixed or definite proportion by

number ratios. mass. For example, when hydrogen
(v) A chemical change involves the and oxygen combine to form water,
combination, separation or they always combine in the ratio
rearrangement of atoms. of 1:8 by mass.
Dalton conceived an atom as Daltons atomic theory was an
something that cannot be divided attempt to explain the facts
further. However, this idea of non- outlined in the laws of chemical
divisibility was proved wrong in later combinations. He began by
years when subatomic particles were assuming that all elements are
discovered. Nevertheless, the composed of minute indivisible
acceptance of Daltons atomic theory particles, called atoms. Dalton went
during nineteenth century allowed further to state that all atoms of the
chemists to explain the laws of same element have the same set of
chemical combination known at that properties and each one of them has
time. the same mass, but that they differ
In order to appreciate Daltons from atoms of all other elements in
theory, it is necessary that we these respects.
understand the law of conservation In chemical changes, the atoms
of mass and law of constant could combine to form small units
proportions that were formulated by of compounds. When atoms enter
Lavoisier in 1789. into chemical combination, the
In the seventeenth and mass of each individual atom does
eighteenth centuries, a few chemists not change and hence the total
investigated chemical changes mass is conserved.
quantitatively. By conducting To explain the Law of Definite
reactions in closed containers, they Proportions, Dalton stated that
showed that the products of a chemical compounds are formed by
chemical change had the same mass the union of two or more elemental
as the reactants. Thus, during the atoms. When one element combines
chemical reaction there is no change with another, the combination
in mass. In other words, the mass of always takes place between definite
the matter is conserved. This was number of atoms of each kind. To
known as the Law of Conservation explain the law of multiple
of Mass. proportions, he stated that
The Law of D efinite combination always takes place in
Proportions states that when two the simplest possible ratio, for
or more than two elements example, one atom of A may combine
combine, they always combine in with one, two or three atoms of B.

provide a neutral character to an

Answer These
atom it must have an equal amount
1. Name the philosophers who have of positive charge to compensate for
attempted to give model of an atom.
the negative charge of electrons.
2. What did Dalton propose about the E. Goldstein, in fact, found positively
properties and mass of atoms of the
charged particles in the cathode ray
same element?
tube travelling in the direction
3. What did Dalton propose about the opposite to that of the cathode rays.
chemical changes based on the
existence of atoms?
Wilhelm Wein in 1897, proved that
the lightest of the positively charged
particles were observed when
5.3 C OMPOSITION OF ATOM hydrogen gas was present in the
About 100 years after Daltons model cathode ray tube. This positively
was proposed, evidence began charged particle was later on given
accumulating that atoms have an the name proton. Since the proton
internal structure consisting of represents the lightest unit of mass
subatomic particles. Sir J.J. with a unit positive charge, it was
Thomson, while working with a established as yet another
cathode ray tube found that the fundamental particle of an atom.
cathode (a negatively charged Based on these studies, J.J.
electrode) emitted a beam of rays Thomson proposed a model for an
consisting of negatively charged atom in 1903. According to this
particles. Interesting feature of these model, an atom is a solid sphere with
particles was that they got deflected negatively and positively charged
by a magnet. Change of metal used particles uniformly distributed in it.
as a cathode resulted in You can imagine it like raisins
similar observations. He, therefore, embedded in a cake or seeds
concluded that the negatively embedded in a watermelon (Fig. 5.1).
charged particles are the essential Shortly after the discovery of
components of all elements. These protons, several investigators began
particles were named as electrons.
Further studies proved that an
electron has a mass of 9.11028 g or
about 1/1837 of the mass of a
hydrogen atom, which is the lightest
of all the atoms.
It has been known that all atoms
are electrically neutral. In order to Fig. 5.1 Thomson model



J.J. Thomson was born on 18 December, 1856 in England. After getting his B.A.
degree, he started working at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. Later, he
became the Head of this laboratory. His most important contribution to science is
his recognition of electron as an essential constituent of all matter. In 1906, he
was awarded Nobel Prize for Physics for his work in electrical conductivity of gases.
As the head of the Cavendish Laboratory, Thomson contributed to the growth
of the laboratory. He had gathered a group of intelligent scientists around him
from all around the world. In addition to research, he used to lecture regularly. He
had wide range of interests outside science, like politics, drama, sports, etc. He
enjoyed long walks in the countryside to collect rare specimen of plants for his
garden. In 1918, he was made master of Trinity College. He remained in this position
until his death (30 August, 1940).

attempting to describe the structure

of an atom. One of the experiments
involved the bombardment of a gold
foil with a type of particles known as
alpha () particles. Alpha particles are
emitted from some radioactive
substances and possess positive
charge. A British physicist, Ernest
Rutherford, allowed fast moving
alpha particles to fall on a very thin
gold foil. Most of these particles
travelled in their straight-line path, Fig. 5.2 Rutherfords alpha scattering
while some others had their paths experiment
altered. There were also a few
particles that got deflected back from Ernest Rutherford explained the
the foil. The observations of the alpha experimental observations by
scattering experiment are shown suggesting that the entire mass and
schematically in Fig. 5.2. positive charge of an atom (of the


metal in the foil) are confined to a

small volume at its centre. This Ernest Rutherford was born on
central part of the atom is called the 30 August, 1871 at Spring Grove in
nucleus. Protons, which are New Zealand. After his M.A. in
physics and mathematics, he started
positively charged, are located within
working with J.J. Thomson at
the nucleus. Nucleus is surrounded Cambridge in 1895. After three
by negatively charged electrons. In years, he moved to McGill University
the experiment, most of the alpha in Montreal, Canada. In 1907, he
particles could pass through the returned to England at the University
atoms in the foil because of large of Manchester. He succeeded
empty space between their nucleus J.J. Thomson as Cavendish Professor
and electrons that surround them. in 1919.
A few alpha particles that passed Rutherfords research areas
close to the nucleus were deflected. span from radioactivity to structure
This observation was due to the fact of atom. He was awarded Nobel Prize
that both the nucleus and the alpha for Chemistry for his work on
disintegration of elements. In 1911,
particle have positive charges.
he made his greatest contribution to
Those alpha particles that directly science with his nuclear model
hit the nucleus came back. Based of atom.
on his observations Rutherford Rutherford died in Cambridge on
suggested a different model of an 19 October, 1937 following a short
atom as shown in Fig. 5.3. illness.

proton but no charge. This neutral

fundamental particle was named as
The nucleus, which accounts for
practically entire mass of the atom,
is composed of protons and neutrons.
In size, its diameter is approximately
Fig. 5.3 Rutherfords model of an atom
1/100000 (or 105) that of the atom.
For several years, electrons and All the protons and neutrons of an
proton were the only two known atom are present in this small
subatomic particles. In 1932, volume. If we assume the size of an
James Chadwick (a student of atom to be equivalent to a cricket
Ernest Rutherford) discovered a ground, then the nucleus would
new subatomic particle that has be equivalent to a cricket ball.
mass nearly equal to that of a Hydrogen atom has only one proton,


carbon atom has 6 protons and 6

neutrons whereas uranium has 92
protons and 143 neutrons crowded
together in a small nucleus.
The Rutherford model of an atom
was modified by Neils Bohr. He
proposed that the mass and positive
charge of an atom is confined to its
Fig. 5.4 Bohrs models of H atom
nucleus. He further proposed that
electrons revolve around the nucleus
in definite circular orbits. Each orbit element is called the atomic
can accommodate not more than a number of that element. It is
fixed number of electrons. Fig. 5.4 designated by the symbol Z. Since the
shows Bohrs model for atoms of number of protons equals the
hydrogen and oxygen. number of electrons in a neutral
atom, the atomic number also gives
the number of electrons in that atom.
Answer These
The atomic number is considered
Fill in the blanks quite important as it distinguishes
1. The three fundamental particles of the one element from another. Hydrogen
atom are _____________, _____________ with atomic number 1 has one proton
and _____________.
in the nucleus and one electron
2. The nature of charge on proton and outside the nucleus. Similarly,
electron are __________________ and
helium, with atomic number 2 has
_________________ respectively while
neutron has _____________ charge. two protons inside the nucleus and
3. The electron was discovered by
two electrons outside. Oxygen, with
_____________ while the neutron was atomic number 8 has eight protons
discovered by _____________. and eight electrons. Note that a
4. That the atom has a heavy and change in atomic number results in
positively charged nucleus was an entirely different element with
suggested by _____________. different set of properties. Neon with
5. Nucleus of an atom is composed of an atomic number 10 (10 electrons
_____________ and _____________. and 10 protons) is a noble
(unreactive) gas whereas sodium with
atomic number 11 (11 protons and
5.4 A TOMIC N UMBER A N D M ASS 11 electrons) is a highly active metal.
NUMBER Mass number of an atom is
The number of protons in the defined as the sum of number of
nucleus of an atom of a given protons and neutrons present in


the nucleus of an atom. It is number 82 and mass number 208.

designated by symbol A. Since the The number of protons in the nucleus
mass of an electron is negligible, the of lead atom is 82 and the number of
mass of the total number of neutrons neutrons is 126 (= 208 82). By
and protons (n+p) is a measure of the this, we can conclude that number
approximate mass of an atom. Note of protons is equal to number of
that protons in the nucleus give an electrons but may not equal to
element its identity (atomic number) number of neutrons.
and also contribute to its mass.
Neutrons, however, contribute only Answer These
to atoms mass. Table 5.1 gives the 1. What do you understand by the terms
atomic and mass numbers of some atomic number and mass number of
of the common elements. an element?
2. Atomic number of a given element
Table 5.1: Atomic Number and Mass
is 8. What can you say about the
Number of Some Common
element from this information?
3. The atomic number of a given element
Name of the Atomic Mass is 92 and the mass number is 238.
element number (Z) number (A=n+p) Calculate the number of neutrons in
its atom.
Hydrogen 1 1
Helium 2 4
Oxygen 8 16 5.5 ISOTOPES
Sodium 11 23 Dalton considered that all atoms of
Chlorine 17 36 an element were identical. However,
Iron 26 56 experiments made by later
Silver 47 108 scientists did not find it to be true.
Iodine 53 127 It was found that all atoms of an
Gold 79 197 element have same atomic number
Lead 82 208 (number of protons) but may not
have the same mass number (n+p).
Atomic number of an element In some of the atoms, although
tells us about the total number of number of protons remains identical
protons and electrons in that atom. to other atoms but number of
Along with atomic number, if you neutrons in their nuclei is not
know the mass number, you can identical to others. Such atoms of
calculate the number of neutrons in an element are called isotopes.
the atom. As an example, let us take Atoms of an element that have the
the case of lead (Pb) with atomic same atomic number (Z) but


different mass number (A) are that produces carbohydrates (starch)

called isotopes. in plants.
Naturally occurring hydrogen is
a mixture of three different isotopes: Answer These
hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 1. What do you understand by the term
(deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). isotope?
2. Name the three isotopes of hydrogen.
These isotopes have one proton but
3. Explain with examples that carbon
different number of neutrons in their displays isotopic property.
nuclei. Protium, deuterium and
tritium have 0, 1 and 2 neutrons in
their nuclei respectively. Protium,
deuterium and tritium are denoted An atom is composed of a
by H, D and T respectively. In all the positively charged nucleus and
isotopes, there is only one electron negatively charged electrons
and one proton. All the isotopes are moving around it. Nucleus has as
expected to display the same many protons as there are
chemical properties as in each case electrons in the atom. Charge of
there is only one electron. The most an electron is equal but opposite
abundant isotope is hydrogen-1 that to that of a proton. Hence an atom
constitutes 99.985% of naturally is electrically neutral. However, if
occurring hydrogen. Deuterium an electron is added to this
constitutes 0.015% while tritium electrically neutral atom, it will
occurs only in traces. Tritium is
radioactive. Deuterium is used in
making heavy water found useful in
atomic reactors.
Similarly, carbon has three
common isotopes: carbon-12, carbon-
13 and carbon-14. Each of these has Na atom Na ion
six protons and six electrons. Like
hydrogen, the difference in them is in
the number of neutrons. C-12, C-13
and C-14 have 6, 7 and 8 neutrons in
their nuclei respectively. C-14 is
radioactive. It is used in carbon dating
to determine the age of very old
Cl atom Cl ion
materials or geological specimen. It is
also used in studying many reactions Fig. 5.5 Formation of sodium and
including photosynthesis, the process chloride ions


have one excess electron. This will negatively charged chloride ions.
make the atom negatively charged. Numbers of sodium ions and
On the other hand, if an electron chloride ions are equal and therefore
is removed, the number of sodium chloride crystal is electrically
electrons will decrease by one. neutral. In these compounds, ions
This will make one proton surplus are held firmly by forces between
in the atom and therefore atom will positively and negatively charged
be positively charged. Thus, ions. Ionic compounds are, therefore,
removal of electron from an atom solid at room temperature. However,
or addition of electron to the atom when these substances are dissolved
leads to the formation of a charged in water, ions get separated. A
particle, called an ion. For example, solution of sodium chloride in water
sodium atom has 11 protons and would, thus, contain sodium and
11 electrons and is electrically chloride ions. Similarly, a solution
neutral. Loss of one electron would of potassium bromide will have
lead to the formation of a positively potassium and bromide ions.
charged sodium ion. On the other
hand, chlorine has 17 protons and Answer These
17 electrons. Gain of one electron State whether the following statements
by chlorine atom would lead to the are true or false:
1. Removal or addition of electrons into
formation of a negatively charged
the atom leads to the formation of
chloride ion. This can be depicted ions.
as follows : 2. Loss of electron in an atom gives rise
to negative ions.
Sodium atom 1 e Sodium ion 3. Negative and positive ions combine to
(11 e - 1e = 10 e) form ionic compounds.
or Na0 - 1e Na+ 4. Gain of electron gives rise to the
formation of negative ion.
(Na0 depicts a neutral sodium atom
and e an electron)
Chlorine atom + 1e Chloride ion
You know that atoms combine to
(17 e + 1e = 18e)
form molecules. An atom of each
Cl0 + 1e Cl element has a definite combining
(Cl0 depicts a neutral chlorine atom) capacity called its valence. Valence
Compounds, which are formed of hydrogen is taken as 1 and
by the combination of ions are called valences of other elements are
ionic compounds. For example, determined directly or indirectly with
sodium chloride is made up of respect to hydrogen. One atom of
positively charged sodium ions and hydrogen combines with one atom


of chlorine to form one molecule of atoms of potassium combine with

hydrogen chloride. Hence, the one atom of oxygen. Hence, the
valence of chlorine is 1. Two atoms valence of potassium atom is 1.
of hydrogen combine with one atom Atoms of some elements exhibit
of oxygen to form a molecule of more than one valence. For example,
water. Hence, the valence of oxygen nitrogen, sulphur, phophorus and
is 2. Similarly, three atoms of iron. You will study in higher classes
hydrogen combine with one atom of why their valence changes. Table 5.2
nitrogen to form a molecule of gives the valence of some of common
ammonia. Hence, the valence of elements.
nitrogen is 3. On many occasions, a group of
Hydrogen rarely combines with atoms acts as a unit. These clusters
metallic elements. Hence, the are called radicals. For example,
valences of metals are determined carbonate radical (CO32), a cluster
using valence of oxygen. One atom of carbon and oxygen, acts as a unit
of magnesium combines with one in chemical reactions. Similarly,
atom of oxygen. Hence, the valence sulphate (SO42), phosphate (PO43),
of magnesium is 2. Similarly, two nitrate (NO 3 ) and ammonium
(NH4+), are examples of some other
Table 5.2 : Valence of Some Common radicals. Each radical carries a fixed
Elements charge on it. These charges over the
Name of element Symbol Valence clusters indicate their combining
Hydrogen H 1 capacities or valences, as shown
Carbon C 4
in Table 5.3.
Oxygen O 2 Table 5.3 : Valence of Some Common
Sodium Na 1 Radicals
Magnesium Mg 2
Name of Symbolic Valence
Aluminium Al 3
the radical representation
Phosphorus P 3, 5
Sulphur S 2, 4, 6
Carbonate CO32 2
Chlorine Cl 1
Sulphate SO42 2
Iron Fe 2, 3
Nitrate NO3 1
Copper Cu 2
Silver Ag 1 Phosphate PO43 3
Iodine I 1 Ammonium NH4+ 1
Mercury Hg 2 Bicarbonate HCO3 1


5.8 FORMULAE OF COMPOUNDS combining capacities of calcium and

Similar to the use of chemical oxygen are the same.
symbols to represent elements, we Whenever two elements with
use chemical formulae to represent different valences combine together,
a molecule of a compound. The there is a useful hint to get the
chemical formula for a compound formulae. Write the symbols of the
consists of chemical symbols of elements, their combining capacities
elements present in the compound below them. Then indicate the
in definite proportion. Thus, formula valence of one element as a subscript
of a compound also indicates the to another element and vice-versa.
number of atoms of each element For example, consider the case of
present in its molecules. For aluminium oxide. The valence of
example, the formula of sodium aluminium (which is 3) comes as a
carbonate is Na2CO3, which tells us subscript to oxygen while the
that it is made of the elements valence of oxygen (which is 2) goes
sodium (Na), carbon (C) and oxygen as subscript to aluminium. Thus,
(O). It also tells us that each the formula for aluminium oxide is
molecule of sodium carbonate has written as Al2O3 (Fig. 5.6).
two atoms of sodium, one atom of
carbon and three atoms of oxygen
in it.
We can write the formula of a
compound if we know its
constituents and their combining
capacities. If the combining
capacities of the elements are the
same, then the formula can be Fig. 5.6 Formula of aluminium oxide
obtained by placing the symbols of
the atoms one after the other. There A radical is also treated as a unit
is a convention that the symbol of in writing the formula for a
metal be placed first followed by the compound. Let us take the example
non-metal. Thus, the formula for of potassium sulphate. Valence of
sodium chloride would be NaCl, as potassium is 1 while that of sulphate
Na and Cl have the same combining radical is 2. Two potassium atoms
capacities. Similarly, the formula for will have to be taken to balance the
calcium oxide will be CaO, as the valence of sulphate radical. Hence


Table 5.4 : Formulae of Some Common Compounds

Name of the compound Common name Constituents Formula
Potassium nitrate Chile salt petre Potassium, nitrogen KNO3
and oxygen
Sodium chloride Table salt Sodium and chlorine NaCl
Lead oxide Red lead Lead and oxygen Pb3O4
Acetic acid Vinegar Carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen CH3COOH
Calcium carbonate Limestone Calcium, carbon and oxygen CaCO3
Sodium bicarbonate Baking soda Sodium, hydrogen, NaHCO3
carbon and oxygen

the formula will be K2SO4. Formulae are changed into new substances,
of some of the compounds with known as products. Every
their common names are given in combination of compounds or
Table 5.4. elements does not give rise to a
chemical reaction. It depends on the
Answer These chemical reactivity of a substance
1. What information do you get from the whether a chemical reaction takes
formula, CH3COOH? place or not. For example, sodium
2. Phosphorus and oxygen combine to is a reactive metal. When it is kept
form phosphorus pentoxide. Derive in open air, it combines with oxygen
the formula for this compound if the to form sodium oxide. Gold, on the
valence of phosphorus is 5 and that other hand, behaves as an inert
of oxygen is 2. metal and does not react with air. It
3. What can you say about the continues to remain as it is for a very
combining capacities of iron and long time. Sometimes special
oxygen in Fe2O3?
conditions are required for the
4. Hydrogen and carbon form methane chemical reaction to start. For
with the formula, CH4. Can you guess example, both hydrogen and oxygen
the combining capacity of carbon from
this information?
are chemically active. But nothing
happens when these gases are kept
in a vessel for hours together. An
electric spark, however, initiates the
EQUATIONS combination process to form water
A chemical reaction is a change molecules.
in which substance(s) taken in the A chemical reaction is
beginning, known as reactants, represented by a chemical equation.

It is, in fact, a short hand description The state of reactants and

of the reaction using chemical products are represented by symbols
symbols and formulae. In a chemical g, l and s for showing gaseous, liquid
equation, reactants are written on and solid states. For example,
the left and the products on the decomposition of calcium carbonate
right. A single arrow symbolises is shown as follows :
conversion of reactants into
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
products. Special conditions, such
as heat or electrical current, needed Thus a chemical equation gives
to bring about a reaction are shown us useful information about a
above or below the arrow. chemical reaction.
Electrolysis of water is, thus, Answer These
represented as 1. Describe the following reactions with
H2 O H2 + O2
the help of balanced equations :
(a) Mercury, when heated in air,
Since, atoms can be neither
produces mercury oxide.
created, nor destroyed, it is (b) Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid
necessary that the number of atoms solution produces hydrogen and
of the elements in the reactant(s), chlorine gases.
written on the left hand side of the (c) Mixing of quicklime (CaO) and
equation, is the same as in the water produces slaked lime,
[Ca(OH)2] with evolution of heat.
product(s), written on the right hand
(d) Reaction between sulphuric acid
side. When the number of atoms for and sodium carbonate produces
all the elements involved in a sodium sulphate, water and
chemical reaction is the same on carbon dioxide.
both sides, the equation is called a 2. Identify the reactants and products
balanced chemical equation. Thus, in the chemical reactions represented
by the following equations?
the balanced equation for the
electrolysis of water would be as (a) CO2+ H2O H2CO3
follows : (b) Mg + 2 HCl MgCl2 + H2
(c) 2Hg + O2 2HgO
2H2O 2H2 + O2 (d) NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + H2O

Key Words
Atoms, Molecules, Constituents of atom, Fundamental particles, Electron,
Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic mass, Isotopes, Ions,
Valence, Radicals, Formula of a compound, Chemical reactions, Chemical
equation, Balanced chemical equation



 Atoms are the building blocks of matter.

 Various scientists have contributed towards the development of model
of an atom.
 Dalton proposed the model of an atom to explain experimental results.
He assumed atoms to be a tiny indivisible particles.
 Atom is composed of subatomic particles: electron, proton and neutron.
 Mass of the entire atom is concentrated in its centre known as nucleus.
 Loss or gain of electron from or to an atom leads to the formation of ions.
 Atomic number is the characteristic property of an element. It gives
the number of protons, which is also equal to the number of electrons
in the neutral atom (i.e. Z = p).
 The number of protons together with the number of neutrons give us
the mass number of that atom, i.e. mass number, A = n + p.
 Atoms of an element having the same atomic number but different
mass number are called isotopes.
 Each element has a specific combining capacity, called its valence.
 Formula of a compound can be obtained using the valence of combining
 Chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction.


1. Define the following terms :

(a) atom (b) molecule (c) isotope (d) atomic number (e) mass number
of an atom (f) reactants (g) products.
2. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) Atom is an indivisible particle.
(ii) Neutron has a positive charge.
(iii) Nucleus of an atom contains the mass of the atom.
(iv) Loss of electrons by an atom gives rise to a positively charged ion.
(v) All the atoms of hydrogen have same atomic number and same
mass number.
(vi) Combining capacity of iron is 3.


3. What are the salient features of Daltons atomic theory?

4. Describe the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson and Rutherford.
5. Describe, in brief, Rutherfords alpha scattering experiment. What
conclusions did he draw from this experiment?
6. Nitrogen forms three different compounds with oxygen: N2O, NO,
NO2. Taking the valence of oxygen as 2, derive the valence of nitrogen
in these compounds.
7. Using the combining capacities of the constituents involved, derive
chemical formulae for the following compounds.
(a) Silver chloride (b) Sodium sulphate (c) Magnesium nitrate
(d) Ammonium bicarbonate (e) Hydrogen sulphide
8. Write balanced chemical equations for the following chemical
(i) Burning of magnesium wire in carbon dioxide produces
magnesium oxide and carbon particles.
(ii) Pouring of dilute hydrochloric acid on iron nails produces
hydrogen gas and iron chloride.
(iii) Passing of carbon dioxide through limewater produces a
precipitate of calcium carbonate.
(iv) Strong heating of ferrous sulphate produces ferric oxide,
sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide.
(v) Reaction between ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and sulphuric
acid produces ammonium sulphate and water.
9. Write short notes on the following:
(i) Constituents of atom
(ii) Nucleus of an atom
(iii) Isotopes of hydrogen
(iv) Formation of ions
(v) Combining capacity of elements
(vi) Chemical equations.
10. What information do you get from the following chemical equations?
(i) CaCO3 + 2HCl
CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
(ii) 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
(iii) NH4OH + HNO3 NH4NO3 + H2O


Metals and

Y ou are aware that each element

displays a definite set of properties.
Yet, there are differences as well as
find that all these elements have
many common properties. Bromine
is a liquid while sulphur and iodine
similarities in the properties of these are soft solids; they melt at low
elements. We can classify elements in temperatures, break easily when
many ways depending on similarities hammered and are bad conductors
and differences in their properties.One of heat and electricity. They do not
of the most useful classifications is to produce any ringing sound when
categorise elements as metals and struck on a hard surface. You must
non-metals. A group of metals shares have noticed that the properties
a set of properties. Non-metals, on the which these substances display, are
other hand, display many properties opposite to those of the metals.
opposite to those of metals. Elements
from both of these categories are used
Activity 1
in our daily life. They fulfil our needs
and requirements. In this chapter, we Collect samples of iron, copper,
shall study general characteristics of sulphur, aluminium, iodine, zinc,
metals and non-metals and their and bromine. Observe their
manifold uses. characteristic properties. Iron,
copper, aluminium and zinc have
6.1 C HARACTERISTICS OF METALS many properties in common.
AND NON- METALS They are all hard to cut, melt at
Let us now consider the properties high temperatures, can be beaten
into thin sheets, drawn into wires
of sulphur, iodine and bromine. We

and are good conductors of heat occur as oxides. Another common

and electricity. They create form in which metal compounds
ringing sounds when struck on occur in nature is sulphide (i.e.
a hard surface. compound of metal and sulphur).
Elements, like iron, copper, Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, nickel
aluminium and zinc are categorised and cadmium occur in the form of
as metals. Out of the 92 naturally sulphides. Silicate minerals are also
occurring elements, about 70 are abundant in nature. However, the
metals. Some other examples of extraction of metals from silicates is
metals are gold, silver, sodium, difficult and the cost of such
tungsten, cadmium, nickel, uranium processes is very high.
and mercury. From ancient times, human
Elements, like sulphur, iodine beings have evolved technology to get
and bromine are categorised as non- metals from their ores. An ore is a
metals. Out of the 92 naturally naturally occurring mineral from
occurring elements, about 20 are which one or more metals can be
non-metals. Some other examples of profitably extracted. A sequence of
non-metals are chlorine, helium, processes is to be carried out to
oxygen, carbon and fluorine. obtain a metal from its ores.
Metallurgy is the science of
Answer These
extracting metals from their ores
Fill in the blanks using suitable words : and purifying them. Metallurgical
(a) The number of metals is much _______
than non-metals.
processes may be conveniently
(b) _______ are the good conductors of divided into three main operations.
heat and electricity. Concentration of ore : It is the
(c) Some examples of metals are ______, preliminary treatment of the ore in
______, and ______. which impurities are removed. The
(d) Some examples of non-metals are
ore gets concentrated in this process.
_______, _______, and _____.
Reduction : The metal compound is
reduced to get free metal.
6.2 OCCURRENCE Refining of metal : The metal is
Only a few metals occur in nature in purified. After refining, some
a free state. For example, metals like substances are added to give the
gold and platinum occur in their desired properties to the final product.
elemental forms. Most of the other Some of the non-metals occur in
metals occur in nature in the form of a free state. Noble gases like helium,
compounds, mostly as their oxides. neon, argon, krypton and xenon are
A large number of metals, like non-metals and occur in an
aluminium, iron and manganese elemental form in air. They are,

The contributions of ancient Indians form of compounds. Similarly,

in metallurgy are quite outstanding. sulphur occurs both in a free state
Studies of excavated iron objects as well as in the form of compounds.
indicate that iron technology was All other non-metals occur in
known to Indians as early as 1400 combination with other metals or
BC The iron pillar in Delhi was non-metals.
constructed some time between 370- Like metals, non-metals are also
375 AD. It stands unaffected for the
obtained from their sources for
last so many centuries. Indian Wootz
specific purposes. You know that
steel was exported to various
countries for making swords. By nitrogen and oxygen gases are
1500 A D , it became a coveted obtained by fractional distillation of
commodity in the international trade. liquefied air. Chlorine gas is extracted
The early Indus Valley people from common salt obtained from
were familiar with copper, its mining, seawater. Sulphur is obtained from
refining and its uses. Archaeological sulphur mines where it occurs in a
studies have revealed a number of free state or from sulphide ores where
copper mining and smelting sites in it exist in a combined form with one
Rajastan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. In or more metals. Extraction of non-
1864, a big Buddha statue (2.25 metre metals is very important as it finally
high) dating back to fifth century AD
leads to the production of many useful
was discovered near Sultanganj. It is
chemicals. For example, sulphur is
now housed in the museum and art
gallery of Birmingham, UK. used in the manufacture of iron
A difficult technology of zinc sulphide and sulphuric acid, which is
extraction was mastered by the an important industrial chemical.
Indians before the fourth century BC.
Archaeological investigations in Answer These
Zowar in Rajastan led to the 1. Name the metals that occur in a free
discovery of distillation equipment for state.
industrial scale production of pure 2. Name the non-metals that occur in a
zinc. In addition, archaeological free state.
findings at different sites in India 3. Explain the term metallurgy.
have proved beyond doubt that 4. State general steps involved in
Indians in the medieval period knew metallurgy of a metal.
metallurgical techniques to extract
gold, silver, tin and lead.
however, found in very small M ETALS AND NON- METALS
amounts. Nitrogen and oxygen too
are found in air in their elemental Metals as well as non-metals display
forms. They are also found in the their characteristic properties.


Comparison between the properties of Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are

elements in these groups is presented colourless.
Physical State
Non-metals are not malleable. We
All metals except mercury exist in the cannot get sheets from non-metallic
solid form at room temperature. They, substances.
therefore, retain their shapes in
normal conditions. Metals generally
have high melting points. For example Activity 2
the melting point of copper is 1083 C, Take a small sheet each of iron,
whereas the melting point of iron is copper, zinc and aluminium.
1535 C. Apart from these, metals also Put each of these, one by one,
display a few peculiar properties, on a block of iron and beat
some of which are discussed later. them with a hammer. You will
Non-metals may occur as solids, notice that the metal pieces
liquids or gases at room temperature. become slightly larger. Thus
For example, sulphur, carbon and metals on being hammered can
iodine are solids; bromine is a liquid be beaten into thinner sheets.
while nitrogen, oxygen and helium are The property of beating a metal
gases at the room temperature. As into sheets is called
compared to metals, non-metals have malleability.
low melting and boiling points. For
example, sulphur melts at 119 C while Ductility
iodine melts at 113 C. Majority of non-
Another important property of metals
metals are gases at room temperature.
is their ductility. The property that
Lustre allows the metals to be drawn into
If you observe freshly cut surfaces of wires is called ductility. You must
metals, you will notice that they have have seen wires made of copper,
a shiny appearance. This is called aluminium and iron. Copper wires are
metallic lustre. The shiny used in electrical fittings in our
appearance makes the metals useful houses. Electric bulbs that we use in
for jewellery and decorations. our homes have filament made of
Except iodine, non-metals have tungsten. Iron wires are used in
very dull lustre. There is a wide variety preparing wire gauzes.
of colour in non-metals. For example, Non-metals are not ductile in
sulphur is yellow, chlorine is yellowish nature. We cannot get wires from
green, and phosphorus is red or white. non-metals.


Conductivity hardest substance known to human

If you hold one end of a metal rod in for centuries. Graphite, a non-metal
hot water, you will notice that other (another form of carbon) is a good
end gets heated soon. It is because conductor of electricity.
metals are good conductor of heat. An element can be easily identified
They quickly transmit heat from one as being metal or non-metal by
end to the other. Metals are also good comparing its properties with the
conductors of electricity. Gold is the general properties of metals and non-
best conductor followed by silver, metals. In doing so, we find that some
copper and aluminium. of the elements neither fit with metals
Non-metals are generally bad nor with non-metals. They are
conductors of heat and electricity. categorised as semi-metals or
Many of them are, in fact, insulators. metalloids. Silicon, germanium and
They do not allow electricity to pass a few more elements are examples of
through them. metalloids. You will learn more about
metalloids in higher classes.
Metals are usually hard. It is Answer These
therefore difficult to cut them. They Choose the appropriate word from the
are quite strong and can bear a heavy bracket and complete the statements.
load over them. This property of 1. Metals are (softer/harder) than non-
metals is being used in the metals.
construction of buildings, bridges, 2. Most non-metals are (bad/good)
and heavy machines. conductors of heat.
Non-metals, on the other hand, 3. The property that allows the metals
are brittle (when hammered, they to be hammered into thin sheets is
called (ductility/malleability).
break into small pieces). Hence, if you
4. Melting points of most non-metals are
beat the non-metals like sulphur or (higher/lower) than metals.
iodine with a hammer, they will get 5. (Metals/Non-metals) show lustre.
converted into fine powder.
There are also some exceptions
amongst both metals and non-metals.
For example, gallium (a metal) has
such a low melting point that it melts Like physical properties, metals and
on our palm. Sodium and potassium non-metals display contrasting
are the examples of metals that are chemical properties. Let us study
so soft that they can be easily cut with the chemical behaviour of metals
a knife, whereas diamond (a form of and non-metals by doing some
carbon which is a non-metal) is the activities.


Reaction with Oxygen sulphur starts burning,

The formation of magnesium hydroxide introduce the spoon into a glass
Mg(OH)2, which is an alkali, changes tumbler. Cover the tumbler with
red litmus into blue. In general, metals a lid to ensure that the gas
form oxides on combining with oxygen. produced does not escape.
Water solutions of these oxides are Remove the spoon after some
alkaline or basic in nature. time and quickly replace the lid
after adding a small quantity of
water. Shake the tumbler
Activity 3 containing water. The chemical
Hold a clean magnesium ribbon reactions can be represented by
with a pair of tongs and heat it over the following equations.
the flame of a burner. What do you S + O2 SO2
observe? Magnesium burns with SO2 + H2O
brilliant light and gets converted Now, introduce a piece each
into a white solid residue. Collect of red and blue litmus papers
the solid residue left after burning into the solution. You will notice
of magnesium wire in a beaker or that red litmus paper remains
a glass tumbler. Add a little water unaffected but the blue litmus
to it and stir the mixture. The paper changes to red. This
following chemical reactions occur.
change indicates that the
2Mg + O2
2MgO solution in the tumbler is acidic
MgO + H2O
Mg(OH)2 in nature.
Now introduce a strip, each Sulphur, a non-metal, forms an
of red and blue litmus papers into acidic oxide (SO2). It gets changed
the solution. You will notice that into sulphurous acid (H2SO3) after
blue litmus remains unaffected reacting with water. The sulphurous
while the red litmus changes into acid changes blue litmus into red.
blue indicating that the solution By carrying out similar
is alkaline. experiments with other metals and
non-metals, it has been found that
Activity 4 on burning, metals combine with
oxygen to form metallic oxides that
Take a small amount of are basic in nature. Non-metals too
powdered sulphur in a combine with oxygen to form oxides.
deflagrating spoon and heat it. However, such oxides are acidic in
The sulphur first melts and then nature. This difference in property
begins to burn. As soon as the can also be used to identify whether

Three of the five major types of primary air pollutants are non-metal oxides. They
are carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur. Carbon monoxide
(CO) is released in the atmosphere during many natural processes, such as forest
fires and volcanic eruptions, but 90 per cent of carbon monoxide is generated by
burning fossil fuels. The internal combustion engines produce large quantities of
carbon monoxide. People near the busy streets experience concentration of these
gases far in excess of their average atmospheric concentrations. Carbon monoxide
is poisonous to humans. It binds to haemoglobin and inhibits the transport of
oxygen from lungs to all parts of the body. Excessive inhalation of CO may
sometimes result in death.
Oxides of nitrogen-especially nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are also
produced during the combustion of fossil fuels in the internal combustion engines.
Man- made sources compose 99 per cent of the total nitrogen oxides found in the
atmosphere. These gases are irritating to eyes, throat and lungs as they form nitric
acid with moisture.
Oxides of sulphur are produced during the combustion of petroleum products
containing sulphur compounds. Only two per cent of sulphur oxides found in the
atmosphere are from the natural sources. These oxides are the major constituents
of several killer fogs that have occurred in urban areas having a large number of
coal burning industrial units. The oxides of sulphur cause severe respiratory
complications and form sulphurous and sulphuric acids on contact with rain water.

a given element is a metal or a non- reaction between sodium and

metal. water produces hydrogen. A lot of
Reaction with Water heat is also liberated in this
reaction. As a result, hydrogen and
Different metals behave differently in
the metal catch fire. The reaction
their reaction with water. Sodium
between sodium and water can be
reacts violently with water as can be
expressed by the following
seen from the following activity.
2Na + 2H2O
2NaOH + H2 (g)
Activity 5
Magnesium reacts mildly with
Fill a glass trough with water. Now, cold water but vigorously with hot
carefully cut a small piece of water or steam producing
sodium metal, dry it using a filter magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen.
paper and place it in the trough.
Mg + 2H2O
Mg(OH)2 + H2
You will observe that the metal
piece starts moving in water with Zinc and iron react very mildly
a hissing sound. Soon the metal with steam whereas copper, silver
piece catches fire. The chemical and nickel do not react with water.


Non-metals do not react with water. acid even on heating. But it reacts with
In fact, some of the reactive non-metals sulphuric acid and nitric acid. You will
are kept in water to protect them from study about these reactions in more
the influence of air. For example, detail in higher classes.
phosphorus is a very reactive element. Majority of the non-metals do not
If kept open in the air, it catches fire react with acids. Sulphur, however,
and combines with oxygen from air. In reacts with hot concentrated nitric
order to protect the contact of acid to produce sulphur dioxide,
phosphorus with atmospheric oxygen, nitrogen dioxide and water as shown
it is stored in water. in the following chemical equation.
Reaction with Acids S + 4HNO3
SO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O
Reactions of metals with acids
Activity 6 that we have studied in this section
have important implications in our
Collect a few small pieces of daily life. We use metallic utensils in
aluminium, copper and iron. Put our houses. When certain foodstuffs
a piece of each metal in a separate with acids in them, especially pickles,
test tube and add to it about curd and citrus fruits are kept in these
10 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid. utensils, there is a reaction between
If no reaction occurs, warm the the acids in the foodstuffs and the
test tube gently, pointing its metal. Sometimes, these reactions
mouth away from your face. result into the production of toxic
Observe the reaction carefully. compounds. Iron, aluminium and
Test the gas being evolved in each copper containers are prone to such
case by bringing a glowing incense attacks by acids. Hence, it is advised
stick near the mouth of the test that foodstuffs having acid
tube. You will find that in all components should not be stored in
cases, except copper, it burns the utensils made of these metals.
with a pop sound indicating that Answer These
the evolved gas is hydrogen. The Name the products formed in the
reactions of hydrochloric acid with following reactions :
(a) Dissolution of magnesium oxide in
aluminium and iron are shown in
the following chemical equations. (b) Burning of sulphur in air.
2Al + 6 HCl
2AlCl3 + 3H2 (c) Reaction between sodium and water.
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 (d) Reaction between aluminium and
hydrochloric acid.
You must have noticed that copper (e) Reaction between sulphur and hot
does not react with dilute hydrochloric concentrated nitric acid.


6.5 METAL REPLACES METAL (magnesium or zinc). It means

that, like iron, magnesium and
In Chapter 4, we have studied about
zinc also replaces copper from
displacement reactions. We have
copper sulphate solution. Iron,
seen that metals displace hydrogen
magnesium and zinc are thus
from acids. Metals can also displace
more reactive than copper.
another metal as can be seen from
the following activity. Mg + CuSO4
MgSO4 + Cu
Zn + CuSO4
ZnSO4 + Cu
Thus, a more reactive metal
Activity 7
displaces a less reactive metal from
Take about 50 mL of water in a its compound in aqueous solution.
100 mL beaker and dissolve 5 g Based on such experiments, we can
of copper sulphate in it. Add a list metals in the order of their
few clean iron nails to the decreasing reactivity as follows :
solution and keep the beaker Potassium, sodium, magnesium,
undisturbed for some time. You aluminium, zinc, iron, lead,
will observe that the blue colour copper, silver and gold. This
of the solution starts fading sequence is called activity series
gradually. At the same time, iron of metals.
nails get a shiny coating of red From this list, we can see that gold
brown copper metal on their is the least reactive metal while
surfaces. This change takes place potassium is the most reactive metal.
as iron displaces copper from Potassium is, therefore, kept in
copper sulphate. Copper kerosene, while gold is allowed to
separated from its compound remain in open, as it is unaffected.
forms a coating on the iron nail. The more reactive the metal, the
The chemical reaction of this greater is its tendency to form
displacement process can be compounds. Hence, reactive metals
shown as follows. are mostly found in compound forms.
Fe + CuSO4
FeSO4 + Cu Answer These
A similar reaction will be 1. Arrange the following metals in the order
observed if you repeat this of their decreasing chemical activity:
experiment with strips of magnesium, potassium, iron, gold.
2. What would you observe when a strip
magnesium and zinc. In each
of zinc is dipped in the solution of
case, you will find that a red- copper sulphate?
brown coating of copper forms 3. Can copper displace iron from iron
on the strips of metals sulphate solution? Give reasons.


6.6 NOBLE METALS metals. A special feature of the noble

metals is that they maintain their
You now know that gold is the least
metallic lustre for a long time.
reactive metal. It remains unaffected
Gold is widely used for making
by air, water and also by acidic or
jewellery. It has become a precious
alkaline substances. Therefore,
metal because of its importance and
chances of finding gold in pure state
cost. In the pure form, it is soft,
are very high. In fact, big nuggets of
extremely ductile and malleable. It can
gold have been found in the earths
be drawn into extremely fine threads
crust. Similar properties are
and can be beaten into leaves as thin
displayed by silver and platinum.
as 0.00002 mm. Although it is resistant
Gold and platinum are called noble
to common chemical and reagents, it
Metals like silver and copper are mixed is affected by chlorine gas. It dissolves
with gold to make it hard for making in aqua regia (a mixture of concentrated
jewellery. The cost of the ornament nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the
depends on the amount of gold in it. ratio of 1:3 by volume).
The gold content is expressed in terms Platinum is yet another member of
of carat or karat. It indicates part by the family of noble metals. It is used
weight of gold in 24 parts by weight of mainly in jewellery as it does not tarnish
the alloy. Pure gold, thus, has a carat and can be worked upon easily. It is
value of 24. The carat value decreases sometimes used in electrical gadgets
as the amount of mixed metal in the where excellent conductivity is required.
gold increases.
It is a very costly metal. The international
Silver is a bright lustrous metal,
which is soft and very malleable. It can
standards of weight and measures are
be easily worked into complex shapes. made of platinum-iridium alloys.
Therefore, it is used for jewellery and Platinum plugs are used in automobiles.
tableware. It is extensively used for
providing an outer coating of silver on Answer These
other cheap metals. Silver has a great Choose appropriate words from the
ability to reflect light. This property is bracket and complete the sentence.
used in making high quality mirrors. It (a) (Platinum/iron) is the member of the
is not corroded by atmospheric gases family of noble metals.
but sulphur compounds tarnish it (b) Pure gold is (24/100) carats.
(c) International standards of weights are
badly, forming black silver sulphide on
made of (gold-silver/platinum-
its surface. While making jewellery
iridium) alloy.
and tableware, a little copper is also (d) Gold dissolves in (aqua regia/an
added to silver to make the soft silver aqueous solution of silver nitrate).
hard. Sterling silver has 7.5 per cent (e) Silver tarnishes due to (nitrogen oxides/
of copper mixed with silver. hydrogen sulphide) present in air.


6.7 U SES OF COMMON METALS AND Metals were among the most valuable
NON- METALS substances the ancient people had.
Also, metals were not perishable and
Metals are used in everyday life for a
small pieces of metals were easy to
variety of purposes. They are strong,
carry. So people began to use metals
hard and rigid. So they are used in as money. At first they used plain
making machinery. The automobiles, metal nuggets. Each was worth just
the aeroplanes, the trains, satellites, what the metal was worth. A big
industrial gadgets all use metals in nugget was worth more than a small
large amounts. Iron is the most nugget. Availability of different
commonly used metal. It is used for metals determined their value at that
making an object as small as a pin or time. A gold nugget was worth more
a nail. On the other hand, it is used in than a copper nugget.
making big gadgets and in reinforced About 3500 years ago the
concrete in conjunction with cement Egyptians started a new trend. They
to construct big buildings. Aluminium stamped the mass to indicate the
is another metal that is widely used. It value of each nugget on the nugget
finds use in making household items. itself. The nugget thus became a coin.
Aluminium is also used in making At first, anyone could make coins.
aeroplanes, as its density is low as But soon the governments took over.
The first official coins were made
compared to other metals.
about 3000 years ago in the Middle
Metals are good conductors of East. It was the first step towards
heat. Hence, they are used in making the complex rules of modern finance.
cooking utensils and water boilers.
Metals like iron, copper and Metals are still used for making
coins. Sterling silver was used to
aluminium are used for this purpose.
make coins until the beginning of the
The most important use of copper is last century in England. Copper,
in electrical gadgets. It is also used nickel, zinc etc. are used in the
for household wiring. Nowadays making of modern coins. They are
aluminium wire is used for making therefore termed as coinage metals.
electrical cables because it is much Nowaday coins are made not only of
cheaper than copper. Gold and silver one metal but also of alloys made by
are used to provide fine electrical the suitable combination of metals.
contacts in computers and solar cells.
Gold and silver are widely used hand have dull appearance and
for making jewellery. Highly reflecting generally are not good reflectors of
mirrors are made of silver since it light.
reflects about 90 per cent of the light Most metals are malleable. Gold
falling on it. Non-metals on the other and silver are the most malleable


metals and can be hammered into fertilisers contain nitrogen

very thin sheets. You might have seen compounds for use by plants.
thin silver foils (commonly known as Chlorine has the ability to kill germs.
warkh) used in decorating sweets. Hence, it is used in water
Aluminium can also be converted purification. Sulphur finds its major
into thin sheets. Aluminium foils are use in making sulphuric acid, which
widely used for wrapping of food
Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray was a
items, medicines, chocolates and synthetic chemist, especially of
many other materials. inorganic compounds. He and his
In a combined form, we use students prepared many new
metals in every aspect of life. Sodium compounds and examined their
is one of the constituents of common properties. Prafulla Chandra was born
salt that we use everyday. Apart from on 2 August, 1861 at Raruli-Katipara
offering taste to our food, sodium (now in Bangladesh). He studied
chloride acts as a major raw material physics and chemistry at a college in
for many useful chemicals for the Calcutta (Kolkata). He was awarded
Gilchrist Scholarship for further studies
industry. Cement and glass are the
in England. After obtaining D.Sc. from
two widely used materials. The main Edinburgh University, he returned to
constituents of cement are calcium India in 1889 and started his career
oxide, silicon dioxide and aluminium as chemistry teacher in Presidency
oxide. A very small quantity of iron College, Kolkata. In 1916, he moved
oxide is also present in cement. When to Science College of the Calcutta
mixed with water, these react slowly University as the first Palit Professor
to form the mixture of calcium and of Chemistry. He was the head of the
aluminium silicates called concrete. college for about 15 years (1921 -
Common non-metals are oxygen, 1936). He died on 26 June, 1944.
Prof. P.C. Ray is considered as the
nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur and
pioneer of modern chemistry in India.
iodine. Oxygen is essential for life. He had established Indian School of
Oxygen is used by plants and Chemistry and the Indian Chemical
animals for their survival. Oxygen Society. He had also founded Bengal
also supports combustion reactions Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Works
in factories, homes, aeroplanes and to manufacture useful chemicals like
missiles. Nitrogen is not widely used sulphuric and nitric acids within the
in its natural form. However, in its country. He had tremendous interest
compound form, nitrogen provides in ancient Indian chemistry. He made
nutrients to plants. In order to extensive studies in this field and
enhance the growth of plants, wrote a treatise entitled History of
fertilisers are added artificially. These Hindu Chemistry .


is an important industrial chemical. alloy is a homogeneous mixture of

You must have used or seen tincture a metal with another metal(s) or
iodine being applied on wounds. non-metal (s).
Tincture iodine is a solution of iodine Commercially, the most important
in alcohol that has antiseptic alloys are those of iron. Addition of a
properties. little amount of carbon to iron gives
Like metals, non-metals are also us steel. It is used in making railway
useful in their compound forms. tracks and bridges. Stainless steel is
Sulphur is used in large scale in the used in our homes in the form of
manufacture of sulphuric acid. kitchen utensils. It is made of iron
Sulphuric acid is an important (80.6%), chromium (18%), nickel (1%)
industrial chemical as it can be used and carbon (0.4%). Manganese steels
to obtain sulphate salts of a variety containing about 13% manganese can
of metals. Similarly, nitric acid is be made incredibly tough by heating
used to prepare nitrate salts. to 1000 C and then quenching
(cooling quickly) in water. Good quality
Nitrates of silver find use in
magnets are made from an alloy that
contains aluminium, nickel and cobalt
in steel. This alloy is popularly known
Answer These as Alnico.
Copper is another important
1. List different uses of metals that you
metal that is commonly used to make
come across in everyday life.
2. Why is tincture iodine applied on useful alloys. Bronze is an alloy of
wounds? copper with 7 parts of copper and 1
3. Explain the use of chlorine in water part of tin in it. Bronze can be cast
purification plants. easily and is much harder than
4. Why is aluminium used in making copper. Yet another important alloy
There is enough evidence to conclude
that people first learnt to produce
6.8 COMMON ALLOYS copper followed by copper-tin
It is almost impossible to get 100 per mixture, called bronze. That was the
cent pure metal. Many times a metal beginning of Bronze Age. Man made
in its pure form does not find a variety of things using bronze. He
applications in day-to-day life. then learnt to extract iron. The Iron
Addition of appropriate amount of Age was thus dawned. We still
continue to use iron on a large scale
other metals or non-metals gives
to fulfil our daily and industrial
desirable properties to the metal. needs.
Such a mixture is called an alloy. An


of copper is German silver, which is 6.9 CORROSION

used to make household utensils. It
You must have observed that iron
has a composition of 60% copper,
nails, screws, pipes and railings get
25% zinc and 15% nickel.
rusted after some time if exposed to
During the last three decades,
atmosphere. The layer of rust is
there has been an ever-increasing
loosely attached to the metal surface.
use of aluminium alloys. They are
Hence, the layer easily gets separated
light, strong and corrosion resistant.
from the main body of the object.
They have been used for making
This wasting away of metals, layer
kitchen utensils and aircrafts. Their
by layer due to the formation of
resistance to sea water has led to
metal compounds on the surface,
their use in ships. Table 6.1 gives the
is called corrosion. Corrosion in
composition of some common alloys
case of iron is called rusting. Damage
used in our daily life.
of metals by corrosion causes heavy
Answer These loss to the nations economy. Iron is
1. Name the components of stainless a widely used metal. It corrodes faster
steel. when exposed to moist air. It is,
2. What are the constituents of bronze? therefore, important that we
3. Define the term alloy. understand the causes of corrosion
and try to prevent it.
Table 6.1: Composition of Some Common Alloys
Alloy Constituents Uses

Steel Iron and carbon Construction of ships, tanks,

railway tracks, bridges, vehicles,
machinery, etc.
Stainless steel Iron, chromium and nickel Manufacture of cooking utensils,
cutlery, surgical instruments, etc.
Bronze Copper and tin Making of statues, coins, bells,
medals, ornaments, etc.
Brass Copper and zinc Making of utensils, screws,
nut/bolts, ornamental objects,
musical instruments, etc.
Alnico Iron, aluminium, Making of magnets.
nickel and cobalt
Duralumin Aluminium, copper, Manufacture of aircraft parts,
manganese and pressure cookers, etc.


protect iron from rusting. Corrosion

Activity 8 of iron can be prevented by keeping
it out of the reach of moist air. There
Take three test tubes with one are several ways of doing this.
fresh iron nail in each. Place a Painting: The most common
small amount of anhydrous method of preventing corrosion is to
calcium chloride in the first test coat the metal surface with paint.
tube to dry the air. Fill the second That is why we see steel furniture, iron
test tube completely with boiled bridges, rail coaches, bodies of buses
water from which dissolved oxygen and trucks coated with paint. In our
has been completely removed. Add homes, most of the objects made from
a small amount of water in the iron and steel are coated with paints
third test tube. Close the mouths to protect them against rusting.
of all the three test tubes using Greasing : A coat of oil or grease
rubber stoppers. Keep them also protects metals from corrosion by
undisturbed for 3-4 days. Observe shutting out air and moisture. You
the nails in the test tubes. You will might have seen that brand new tools,
notice that the nails from the first scissors and knives are smeared with
and second test tubes are free from grease to prevent them from rusting.
rust while the nail in the third test Greasing of bicycle chains is a very
tube has rusted. common sight to prevent their rusting.
Galvanisation : Another common
method of protecting iron from rusting
is to coat its surface with a thin layer
of a non-corrosive metal like zinc. This
process is called galvanisation. This
is done by first cleaning the iron object
and then dipping it into molten zinc.
Iron sheets used to make rooftops,
buckets, iron pipes used for water
Anhydrous Water supply and drums are galvanised to
CaCl2 prevent their corrosion.
Electroplating: Iron and steel are
Fig. 6.1 Rusting of iron
protected from corrosion by coating
them with a layer of tin or chromium
The above experiment shows that metals which are resistant to corrosion.
the presence of both air (oxygen) and This can be done by electroplating. A
water is essential for rusting. This thin layer of tin deposited on the inner
gives us some clue as to how to surface of iron containers makes them


safe for storing food. Chromium plating steel. It is resistant to corrosion and
protects steel furniture, taps and bicycle does not rust at all. You are already
handles from corrosion. Coating of familiar with various uses of stainless
chromium not only gives longer life to steel.
the coated objects but also gives a good
shining appearance to them. Answer These
Alloying: Some metals when 1. What do you understand by the term
alloyed with other metals become corrosion?
2. How does electroplating prevent
more resistant to corrosion. For
metals from rusting?
example, iron when alloyed with 3. Describe the process of galvanisation.
chromium and nickel forms stainless

Key Words
Ore, Metallurgy, Metallic lustre, Malleability, Ductility, Hardness, Conductivity,
Acidic oxides, Basic oxides, Activity series, Noble metals, Aqua regia, Carat,
Alloys, Corrosion, Galvanisation, Electroplating


 Chemical elements can be classified as metals and non-metals.

 Some metals as well as non-metals occur in a free state.
 Most of the metals are obtained from their naturally occurring ores.
 Metals display properties like metallic lustre, ductility, hardness,
conductivity, etc.
 Non-metals display properties that are mostly opposite to metals.
 Metals on combustion produce basic oxides.
 Non-metals on combustion produce acidic oxides.
 Some active metals like sodium react with water.
 Metals like aluminium, magnesium react with acids.
 Non-metals like sulphur react with concentrated acids.
 A metal higher in the activity series replaces metals that are lower in
the activity series.


 Gold, silver, platinum are noble metals. They are not affected by air,
water or acids.
 Metals and non-metals find use in everyday life.
 Alloys are the homogeneous mixtures of metal(s) and non-metal(s).
 We use a variety of alloys in our daily life.
 Metals, such as iron, corrode. Different methods are used to prevent


1. Compare the properties of metals and non-metals with respect to

malleability, ductility and conductivity.
2. Taking the examples of magnesium and sulphur, explain how metals
and non-metals produce oxides with different characteristics.
3. How will you show that rusting of iron needs both moisture and oxygen?
4. Choose appropriate words from the bracket and complete the
(i) Noble gases are found in (a free state/compound forms).
(ii) Non-metals are generally (malleable/brittle).
(iii) Potassium will form (acidic oxide/basic oxide) on combustion.
(iv) (Iodine/bromine) has antiseptic properties.
(v) German silver has (copper/silver) as major constituent.
5. State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) Sodium is more reactive than magnesium.
(ii) Magnesium reacts with cold water.
(iii) All metals exist in solid form at room temperature.
(iv) Gallium has a low melting point.
(v) Gold is alloyed with copper to make it hard.
6. What happens when
(i) Hydrochloric acid is poured on aluminium foils?
(ii) Hot concentrated nitric acid is poured on powdered sulphur?
(iii) Sodium is placed in water?
(iv) Zinc granules are kept in copper sulphate solution?
(v) Sulphur dioxide is dissolved in water?
Write the chemical equations of the reactions involved.


7. Give reasons for the following :

(i) Silver is used in making mirrors.
(ii) Aluminium is used to make electrical wires.
(iii) Foodstuffs with acid components should not be stored in
aluminium utensils.
(iv) Iron is used in constructing bridges and houses.
(v) Graphite is used as an electrode in the dry cell.
(vi) Iron sheets are galvanised before use.
8. Write short notes on :
(i) Prevention of corrosion
(ii) Metallurgical processes
(iii) Uses of common metals and non-metals
(iv) Alloys of iron
(v) Noble metals.
9. Take a map of India and show places where mines of gold, iron,
manganese and copper are found.
10. Collect items made up of metals and alloys seen in your surroundings
and find out their constituents.



C arbon is a unique element. It

occurs in nature in both pure
form and in combination with other
Carbon is a non-metallic element,
represented by the symbol, C. The
name carbon is derived from the latin
elements in the form of compounds. word Carbo, which means charcoal,
All living things contain carbon. Also, a material that is composed primarily
all the things that support life, such of carbon.
as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and The element carbon plays an
vitamins contain carbon. Most of you exceedingly vital role in our life.
are familiar with diamond, graphite,
petrol, diesel and kerosene. You also 7.1 OCCURRENCE OF CARBON
know about chalk, limestone and Carbon is found in the atmosphere,
marble which occur naturally. All of in the earths crust, and in all living
these substances contain carbon. organisms. Though it constitutes
Carbon is used in photo- only 0.03% of the earths crust, still
synthesis, respiration and it is one of the most important
combustion in one or the other form. chemical elements. The bodies of all
Carbon in the form of soot and organisms plants and animals
charcoal was known even to contain this element. All foods
prehistoric races. In the ancient contain carbon in the form of its
times, like today, charcoal was made compounds. Carbon is present in
by heating wood in a chamber covered coal and petroleum occurring in
with clay to exclude the air. nature; it is also present in all fuels,
Lampblack (kajal) was often mixed such as wood, coke, charcoal, saw
with olive oil, which was used as ink. dust, kerosene, alcohol, petrol,

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), essential for the existence of the

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and complex molecules of life, for
Gobar Gas (biogas). Carbon is example, carbohydrates, fats,
present in the form of calcium proteins, vitamins and nucleic acids.
carbonate (CaCO3) in minerals like It is extremely important that carbon
chalk, marble and limestone. atoms transfer from the living to the
A small amount of carbon occurs non-living forms and vice-versa. This
as the native element in the earths is not only linked to transfer of energy
crust. It occurs there in two forms but also to basic processes by which
diamond and graphite. A third form life survives on the Earth. The
of carbon, fullerenes, has been exchange of carbon between the
detected to be present in the living and the non-living things
interstellar (space between stars) centres around two processes,
clouds. Carbon also occurs in the namely respiration (similar to
form of carbon dioxide (0.03%, by combustion) and photosynthesis,
volume) in the atmosphere. and one compound, carbon dioxide
There are more compounds of (CO2). You are already familiar with
carbon, than of all the other elements these processes, which are a part of
taken together except hydrogen. This the global cycle, called the carbon
wide variety of carbon compounds is cycle (Fig. 7.1).

Fig. 7.1 Main stages of the carbon cycle


Carbon is present in a wide

variety of substances, such as wood,
sugar, cotton and wool. Let us do the
following activity :

Activity 1
Take four identical dry hard
glass test tubes. Put a small Fig. 7.3 Passing the evolved gas
amount of wood chips/shavings through limewater
or sawdust, cotton, sugar and
wool in each of the test tubes, freshly prepared limewater
respectively (Fig. 7.2). Keep a taken in another test tube.
delivery tube, fitted to a one- Observe the changes in the
limewater and also the residue
holed rubber stopper, tightly
in each test tube.
fitting the mouth of the test
tubes, ready for testing any It is seen that a black residue is
evolved gas (Fig. 7.3). obtained in each test tube. It
consists of carbon. Also, on strong
heating, carbon dioxide gas is
evolved in each test tube, which
turns the limewater milky. Water
vapour is also formed in each test
tube, which can be seen near the
mouths of the test tubes on cooling.
The process of heating wood or coal
in the absence of air is known as
destructive distillation.
Thus, carbon is present in all
such substances, which are known
Fig. 7.2 Destructive distillation as organic compounds. Carbon has
Heat each test tube carefully a unique property of forming a large
one by one and observe the black number of compounds. There are
residue, if any, in each test tube, millions of carbon compounds that
or note any other changes. are today known to us. More and
Now, separately heat each more carbon compounds are being
test tube more strongly. Allow discovered and synthesised every
the evolved gas to pass into day. Therefore, compounds of carbon


are studied under a separate branch different physical properties.

of chemistry, called organic However, allotropes of the same
chemistry. Originally, scientists used element possess the same chemical
the term organic compounds for the properties.
materials that could be obtained from Carbon is not the only element
living or dead organisms. Today, that shows allotropy. Phosphorus,
chemists consider any compound sulphur, iron and tin all exhibit
that contains carbon to be organic, allotropy in their solid state; sulphur
whether they obtain it from also shows allotropy in the liquid
organisms or synthesise it in a state. Oxygen exists as allotrope in
laboratory or manufacture it in the gaseous state in the Earths
factories. Compounds that do not atmosphere, as the diatomic
contain carbon are called inorganic molecule, O2, and as ozone, O3.
compounds. However, a few
compounds such as carbon dioxide, Answer These
carbon monoxide and carbonates 1. What is allotropy? Name two
and carbides (calcium carbide is used allotropes of oxygen.
for lighting lamps) are considered as 2. Name four elements that show
inorganic compounds and they are, allotropy.
therefore, studied under inorganic
Carbon exists mainly in two
Answer These allotropic forms :
1. Draw a neat-labelled diagram to show (i) Crystalline form
the carbon cycle in nature. (ii) Non-crystalline or amorphous
2. What are the various forms of carbon
that are present around us?
In the crystalline form, the atoms
7.2 ALLOTROPY of carbon are arranged in an ordered
Atoms of the element carbon can link fashion. In the non-crystalline or the
together in several ways to form amorphous form of carbon, the
substances with very different atoms are arranged haphazardly.
properties. When an element can Diamond and graphite are the two
exist in more than one structural crystalline forms of carbon, whereas
form in the same physical state, this lampblack, charcoal and the coal-
is called allotropy. The different derived fuel, called coke, are the
forms of the same element are known amorphous forms of carbon. In
as allotropes. Because of their diamond, the atoms form a three-
different structures, allotropes have dimensional network that extends


How can we say that diamond,

graphite and lampblack, which are
allotropic forms of carbon, are made
up of carbon atoms? It is very simple
to verify. If an equal amount of each
of these substances is completely
burnt in oxygen, it is found that the
same quantity of carbon dioxide gas
is formed in each case. No other
substance is produced. The following
Fig. 7.4 Arrangement of carbon atoms in chemical reaction takes place :
C + O2
throughout a crystal and makes Carbon Oxygen Carbon dioxide
diamond the hardest naturally
occurring substance (Fig. 7.4). 7.4 GRAPHITE AND DIAMOND
Graphite is made up of layers of carbon Graphite
that can slide over each other easily, All of us are familiar with a lead
making graphite one of the softest pencil. The lead is not actually the
known materials (Fig. 7.5). Although metal lead but graphite mixed with
the bonding or the linkage between the some clay. Rubbing off carbon in
carbon atoms, i.e., the arrangement of graphite is easy; you do it many times
carbon atoms in different forms of when you write with a lead pencil.
carbon, is different in both diamond Graphite is black and slippery.
and graphite. They are said to have In graphite, the atoms of carbon are
giant molecular structures. arranged in such a way that they
form planar or flat layers. Each layer
is made up of rings containing six
carbon atoms. These rings are linked
to each other in a structure that
resembles the hexagonal (a hexagon
is made of six sides) chicken wire
mesh (Fig. 7.6). Bonds or linkages
between the atoms within a layer of
graphite are strong, but the forces
between the layers are weak. Because
the layers can slip past each other,
Fig. 7.5 Arrangement of carbon atoms in graphite is soft. Graphite conducts
graphite electricity. The density of graphite


industrial processes, especially in

cells (Fig. 7.7), electric furnaces and

Fig. 7.6 Arrangement of carbon atoms in a

layer of graphite

ranges from 1.9 to 2.3 gram per cubic

centimetre (g/cm3).
In India, graphite is found in
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and
Kashmir, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Fig. 7.7 Cut-away view of a dry cell showing
the use of graphite
Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
Properties of Graphite Graphite is used to make the
Graphite is made up of shiny lead in pencils. Graphite crucibles
hexagonal crystals. Graphite is dark (small containers) are used for
grey in colour. It is soft and slippery melting some metals. The dark grey
to touch. The melting point of colour of graphite makes it suitable
graphite is fairly high (3730C). for making black paint and printers
Graphite forms carbon dioxide on ink. Since graphite fibres are strong,
heating with oxygen at 700C. they are used to reinforce plastic.
Graphite and plastic form a strong,
C + O2
lightweight composite material that
Graphite Carbon dioxide
is used to make fishing rods, bicycle
The uses of any substance arise frames, spacecraft parts, dish
from its structure and properties. antennas and tennis rackets.
This is true for graphite also. Its fairly Diamond makers can transform
high melting point and slippery layers graphite into diamond by applying
make it suitable for use as a solid extremely high pressure (more than
lubricant in machines, which get 100 000 times the atmospheric
heated up due to continuous use. pressure at the sea-level) and
Graphite is used for making temperature (about 3700C). High
electrodes in a large number of temperature and pressure make the


carbon atoms in graphite rearrange Wajrakarur in Andhra Pradesh. The

themselves into a diamond structure. production of diamonds from mines
About 90 per cent of diamonds used in Golkunda (Karnataka) is negligible
in making tools are made from now. The largest producer of
graphite. diamonds in the world is South
Africa. However, the diamonds found
in the mines are in a raw form. They
Most of you may be familiar with are cut and polished to make them
diamond. Many of you know it as a produce their sparkle and brilliance.
gemstone. In diamond, each carbon The weight of diamond is expressed
atom is attached to four other carbon in carats (one carat is equal to
atoms by strong forces. This results 200 mg). There are many places in
in a three-dimensional rigid structure our country, such as Surat and
(Fig. 7.8). Jaipur, where raw diamonds are cut
and polished. Diamond cutting and
polishing is a very flourishing
industry in our country.
Some of the famous diamonds in
the world are the Kohinoor, the Pitt
and the Hope.
Properties of Diamonds
Pure diamond is crystalline. It is
Fig. 7.8 Arrangement of carbon atoms in made up of a rigid structure in which
diamond each carbon atom is attached to four
This structure is so rigid and stable other carbon atoms. In fact, both
that it makes diamond the hardest diamond and graphite are considered
naturally occurring substance. The to be giant molecular crystals.
density of diamond is 3.5 gram per However, these structures are brittle.
cubic centimetre (g/cm3). That is why both diamond and
The ancient Hindu scriptures, graphite are brittle. Diamond does
like the Vedas, the Ramayana and not conduct electricity.
the Mahabharata make frequent Diamond, like graphite, forms
mention of diamonds. Diamonds are only carbon dioxide gas on heating it
found in South Africa, Brazil, Congo, to redness :
Angola, Tanzania and the USA. In
India, diamonds are found in Panna C + O2
mines in Madhya Pradesh and Diamond Carbon dioxide


Table 7.1 : A Comparison of the Properties and Uses of Graphite and Diamond

Graphite Diamond

Property Use Property Use

Appearance dark, grey - colourless, in jewellery,

shiny solid transparent crowns and
crystals, which ornamental objects
sparkle in light
Hardness soft, the solid has in pencils, as the hardest in glass cutters,
a slippery feel a lubricant natural drill bits and
in machines substance diamond saws
Electrical conducts as electrodes, does not conduct
conductivity electricity in dry cells, electricity -
and for
brushes in
electric motors
Thermal moderate - very high -
Density 1.9 to 2.3 g/cm3 - 3.5 g/cm3 -

Diamond is hard, clear and drilling hard rocks. Surgeons use

translucent and has its own diamond knives for performing
brilliance. It sublimes at about delicate operations.
3500 o C. Presence of impurities A comparison of the properties
impart colour to diamonds. and uses of graphite and diamond is
shown in Table 7.1.
Uses of Diamond
You now know that diamond and
The brilliance of diamonds makes graphite are different allotropes, or
them treasured gemstones. The skill forms, of the element carbon. These
of a gem-cutter lies in angling the allotropes form at different depths,
different facets of the raw diamond and, therefore, at different
in such a manner that each light ray temperatures and pressures within
entering it is reflected many times the earth. Natural diamonds are
before it emerges again. Coloured found in deposits that are believed to
flashes of light occur in a fiery be the remains of ancient volcanic
diamond when light is separated into pipes, long tube like passages of rocky
colours. As diamond is one of the material formed by volcanoes. Some
hardest known materials, it is used meteorites also contain diamonds that
for making tools for cutting glass and are so small that they can be seen only


through a microscope. Very small

diamonds are found in the coalmines
in our country. Both these
substances, viz., diamond and
graphite, have very different crystal
structures and physical properties.
However, chemical properties of
diamond and graphite are the same.
Answer These
1. Name the allotropes of carbon. Fig. 7.9 Spherical C 60 molecule of
2. Why is diamond hard? Explain with buckminsterfullerene : All the
the help of its structure. spherical balls represent carbon
3. Why is graphite used as a solid atoms
lubricant? Explain with the help of its
structure. provide rigid structures with a three-
4. What makes graphite suitable for use
dimensional geometry.
as electrode?
5. Why does diamond produce a sparkle You already know that unlike
in light? diamond and graphite, which have
6. Which of the two is more dense an unending giant crystal structure,
diamond or graphite? the original fullerene form molecules
7. Name the product formed when containing 60 carbon atoms. These
red-hot diamond and graphite,
respectively, react with oxygen.
molecules are shaped like tiny soccer
8. State any two uses of diamond. balls (called buckyballs), with an
atom of carbon at each point where
Fullerenes the lines on a soccer ball would
normally meet (Fig. 7.10).
It is now known that carbon is far
After the discovery of fullerenes
more versatile in the solid state than
in laboratory, geologists have
was thought. In 1985, chemists
synthesised a new allotrope of carbon
by heating graphite to extremely high
temperatures. It has spherical
molecules in which 60 carbon atoms
are joined together (Fig. 7.9).
Chemists named this perfect sphere
buckminsterfullerene, after the
American architect Buckminster
Fuller, who designed such domes Fig. 7.10 Arrangement of carbon atoms in
that had hexagons and pentagons to a C60 buckyball


discovered fullerenes in nature in the Answer These

meteorite, which created crater in 1. Why the name fullerene has been
Germany and in ancient rocks in New given to the allotrope containing 60
Zealand. Fullerenes have also been carbon atoms joined together in its
found to occur naturally in some molecules?
2. State some possible uses of fullerenes
rocks in Russia.
in future.
3. How fullerenes can be produced in a
Fullerenes laboratory?
Fullerenes having C70, C90 and C120
also have now been discovered. 7.5 AMORPHOUS CARBON
Many scientists have been able to In the amorphous form of carbon,
prepare different compounds of unlike its crystalline forms, such as
fullerenes. Excited by the properties diamond and graphite, carbon atoms
of these recently discovered are not arranged in an orderly way.
materials, which contain fullerenes, Packing of atoms in amorphous
scientists are trying to find ways to solids is not as regular as in other
use them. When cooled, some solids. Charcoal, animal charcoal
fullerene-based compounds, which (bone charcoal), sugar charcoal
include other non-carbon atoms, and lampblack are man-made
such as helium, neon, argon, amorphous forms of carbon. It has
krypton and xenon (all noble gases), been found that amorphous carbons
and nitrogen atoms, as well as He2 are made up from very small crystals
and Ne 2 (neon molecules) are of graphite.
superconductors, that is, they can Amorphous carbon has physical
conduct electricity with no and chemical properties that may
resistance. vary depending on its method of
It is hoped that, some day, manufacture and conditions to
materials containing fullerenes and which it is later subjected.
their compounds may prove Amorphous carbon burns relatively
of great use as superconductors, easily in air.
semiconductors, lubricants, Charcoal
catalysts, electrical wires or as
Most of you are familiar with charcoal.
fibres to reinforce plastic.
It is used as a fuel. It is made from
Researches are now going on to find
wood by heating it in the absence of
if some compounds based on C60
air (destructive distillation). Low
can help in inhibiting the activity
boiling point liquids and gases escape
of AIDS-causing virus.
during the destructive distillation of


wood, leaving behind charcoal, which filtrate and notice its colour. Is it
is solid. less intense than the colour of the
Wood charcoal, commonly ink? If yes, why?
known as charcoal, can be obtained The sugar charcoal, which is
in the laboratory by heating wood obtained from sugar, is a pure form
splinters or wood shavings in the of carbon. It is obtained by the
absence of air. Let us do the following destructive distillation of sugar.
activity to obtain wood charcoal: During this process, sugar crystals
lose water and pure carbon is left
Activity 2 behind. Charcoal from sugar can also
be made by the action of concentrated
Observe the residue obtained in sulphuric acid on sugar (Fig. 7.11).
Activity 1 carefully. It is charcoal.
You will find that it crumbles
easily. Can you write with it on a
piece of paper?
Charcoal, especially wood
charcoal, is a black porous solid.
It can absorb gases. It is used in
gas masks. It is used as a fuel,
and also for filtration of water.
Bone charcoal (animal
charcoal) is obtained from the
bones of animals. It absorbs
coloured impurities mixed with
(a) (b)
water, and some other liquids,
such as cane sugar syrup. Fig. 7.11 Concentrated sulphuric acid
Charcoal is extensively used in removes oxygen and hydrogen
from sugar in the form of water :
the manufacturing of sugar to
(a) shows the start of the reaction
produce the white crystals. (b) shows the formation of
The absorption properties of charcoal (pure carbon)
charcoal can be shown by mixing The following chemical reaction
50 cm3 of charcoal taken in a takes place in this process :
500 mL beaker containing 5 mL
ink in 200 mL of water. Allow the
Sugar Carbon
charcoal to remain in water for
some time, say 15 minutes. Now The charcoal obtained from
filter the solution. Collect the sugar, being a very pure form of


carbon, is used for obtaining metals side of the slide which was
from their oxides. For example : facing the flame. A deep black
ZnO + C Zn + CO
powdery substance gets
Zinc Carbon Zinc Carbon deposited on it. It is lampblack.
oxide monoxide

Activity 3
You can easily obtain sugar
charcoal at home by heating
sugar crystals strongly in a pan.
Allow the black residue to dry up.
It is sugar charcoal.

Lampblack Fig. 7.12 Preparation of lampblack

Carbon rich substances, such as
mustard oil, turpentine oil,
The most important uses of
petroleum and its several products
lampblack are as stabilising filler for
form lampblack, also known as
rubber in making tyres and plastics.
carbon black, on burning in the
Lampblack is also used as a black
absence or insufficient supply of
pigment in inks and paints.
oxygen. It has been found that
lampblack consists of extremely Coke
small crystals of graphite. Many of you may be aware of coke. It
You can perform the following is made by the destructive distillation
activity to make lampblack at home, of coal. During the heating of coal,
like sugar charcoal. gases and other substances present
in it are given off, leaving behind
Activity 4 coke. It is in the form of a black
Fill some mustard oil in a lamp You are aware that carbon burns
(diya). Put a cotton wick in the in oxygen producing a large amount
lamp and allow it to soak in the of heat. Such reactions are known
oil. Light the wick. A sooty as exothermic reactions. For every
flame is produced. Put a clean 12 g of carbon, which burns to form
dry glass slide over the flame carbon dioxide (CO2), 400 kilojoules
at some distance (Fig. 7.12). of heat are produced. Therefore,
After some time, observe that carbon in the form of coke is a very


important industrial fuel. Another details. You will study more about
important advantage of using coke carbon monoxide in higher classes.
is that it burns with a smokeless Carbon dioxide is utilised during
flame. Coke is extensively used for the photosynthesis by plants. It is also
the extraction of metals from their released during respiration in animals.
oxide and sulphide ores. It is released along with carbon
monoxide from the exhausts of
Answer These automobiles. It is also formed on
1. How is the structure of amorphous burning fossil fuels or during the decay
forms of carbon different from those of organic matters. The gas that is
of crystalline forms of carbon? produced as a fizz on opening a bottle
2. Write the names of various
of soft drink is also carbon dioxide.
amorphous forms of carbon.
3. State the uses of The earths atmosphere contains
(a) charcoal 0.03 per cent of carbon dioxide by
(b) bone charcoal volume. The entire carbon cycle,
(c) coke. which you studied earlier in this
4. How will you prepare sugar charcoal
at home? Why is it considered a very
chapter, centres on this apparently
pure form of carbon? insignificant amount. It is this gas,
5. State the method(s) of preparation of CO 2 , which constitutes the raw
(a) charcoal material of life, although it is thirty
(b) lampblack times less abundant than argon in
(c) coke.
6. An organic substance is completely the atmosphere.
burnt in the absence of air. Which one Continuous removal of CO2 from
of the following substances is likely the atmosphere is necessary to
to be formed? maintain the balance, especially that
(a) graphite
of oxygen, in nature. This is done by
(b) amorphous carbon
7. How will you show that lampblack several processes photosynthesis
forms only CO2 on burning? by plants being one of them.
Carbon dioxide is formed by
combustion of carbon when there is
a sufficient supply of air (oxygen). For
Carbon forms two very important
compounds by combining with oxygen C + O2 CO2
carbon (from air)
carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon
(from coal)
monoxide (CO). Most of you might be
familiar with them. Here, we will study Carbon dioxide is formed when
about carbon dioxide in some more we burn natural gas or liquefied


petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel : CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Calcium Hydrochloric Calcium Water Carbon
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
Methane (from air) carbonate acid chloride dioxide
(from natural
Activity 5
LPG + Oxygen
CO2 + Water
Set up the apparatus as shown
The intense heat produced
in Fig. 7.13.
during these processes is used for
heating, cooking, and for various
other purposes.
Preparation of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide can be prepared by
several methods. Some of them are
as follows :
(i) By burning carbon or carbon- Fig. 7.13 Laboratory preparation of CO2
containing compounds in air.
Carbon dioxide gas is evolved
C + O2
CO2 on adding dilute hydrochloric acid
Carbon Oxygen Carbon dioxide
to marble chips. It can be collected
CH4 + 2O2
CO2 + 2H2O by the downward displacement of
Methane Carbon water or by upward displacement
dioxide of air because it is denser than
(ii) By strongly heating some air.
carbonates and bicarbonates.
Properties of Carbon Dioxide
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Calcium Calcium oxide Physical Properties
carbonate Carbon dioxide is a colourless and
2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 odourless gas. It is heavier (denser)
Sodium Sodium Water than air. It is slightly soluble in water.
bicarbonate carbonate Therefore, it is collected in the
This process is called thermal laboratory over slightly warm water.
decomposition. The solubility of CO 2 in water
(iii) Carbon dioxide can be prepared increases with increase in pressure.
in the laboratory by reacting Aerated soft drinks contain dissolved
marble chips (a form of calcium carbon dioxide, which produces a fizz
carbonate, CaCO3) with dilute on opening the bottle. Solidified
hydrochloric acid : carbon dioxide looks like ice.


Therefore, it is called dry ice. It (iv) Carbon dioxide gas, on bubbling

sublimes to form its vapour, without through freshly prepared lime
forming the liquid, unlike ice. water, forms insoluble carbonate,
which gives a milky appearance
Chemical Properties
to the solution.
(i) On dissolving carbon dioxide in
water, some of the gas reacts to This reaction is used as a test
produce carbonic acid (H2CO3). for the presence of CO2.
This solution is slightly acidic. It Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O
Calcium Carbon Calcium Water
turns blue litmus red. hydroxide dioxide carbonate
Unpolluted rainwater, and
distilled water that has stood in
Activity 7
the laboratory for some time,
contain dissolved CO2 from air. Prepare fresh limewater by
Carbonated soft drinks have more dissolving some calcium oxide (a
CO2 in solution because the gas is white solid) in some water and
dissolved under pressure. then filter the solution.
Pour 5 mL of limewater into
a gas jar containing carbon
Activity 6
dioxide. It turns milky due to the
Take 5 mL each of rain water, formation of calcium carbonate.
distilled water and any soft drink In the chemical reaction that
in three different clean test tubes. takes place between limewater
Introduce a strip of blue litmus (calcium hydroxide) and CO 2,
paper in each one of them. calcium carbonate is formed as
Observe the colour of the litmus a precipitate (a solid suspension
paper in the test tubes after some which gradually settles down at
time. What do you observe? the bottom of the reaction vessel).
However, if we continue to
(ii) Carbon dioxide neither burns nor
bubble carbon dioxide through
supports combustion. This property
this suspension, then the
is used in constructing CO2 type fire
precipitate dissolves in solution
extinguishers for fire fighting.
forming a clear liquid. This
(iii) Carbon dioxide, being an acidic
happens due to the formation of
oxide, reacts with bases, forming
calcium hydrogencarbonate
salts and water.
CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O
Carbon Sodium Sodium (v) CO 2 a n d w a t e r c o m b i n e
dioxide hydroxide carbonate to synthesise glucose in


photosynthesis, which is an Answer These

essential process for life on the
1. 24 g carbon is allowed to burn in
earth. It takes place in the sufficient oxygen. How much CO2 will
green leaves of plants in which be formed? (Given C = 12, O =16)
energy from the sunlight is 2. Write the chemical equation for the
utilised. It is a photochemical reaction between carbon and oxygen.
reaction. 3. State the use of CO2 based on the fact
that it is heavier than air.
Carbon dioxide + water 4. What is dry ice? State its use.
glucose + water 5. Why does limewater become milky
when CO2 gas is bubbled through it?
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
6. Write the chemical equation for the
Uses of Carbon dioxide reaction between CO2 and H2O.
7. Name the gas that causes
Some of the many important uses of effervescence when a bottle of soft
carbon dioxide are as follows : drink is opened.
8. Name any three substances from
(i) Soft drinks are aerated with CO2 which CO2 can be prepared.
to give them a tangy taste.
(ii) As dry ice, it is used as a refrigerant.
(iii) It is used in the manufacture of 7.7 C OMPOUNDS OF CARBON AND
sodium carbonate and sodium HYDROGEN
bicarbonate. Carbon atoms can form strong bonds
(iv) It is used by green plants to with each other, unlike the atoms of
synthesise their food by most other elements. Because of this
photosynthesis. possibility of forming strong C-C
(v) Carbon dioxide is used as a fire bonds or linkages, carbon can form
extinguisher because it does not molecules composed of long chains
support combustion. The fact (C-C-C-C) of carbon atoms. There
that it is heavier than air means are many millions of compounds
that a layer of carbon dioxide containing only carbon and hydrogen.
covers the fire. It does not allow You already know that they are called
oxygen to reach the burning hydrocarbons. The first and the
material. This stops the fire. simplest hydrocarbon is methane. It
(vi) Carbon dioxide dissolves in contains only one carbon atom.
water, forming carbonic acid Ethane, propane and butane are other
(H 2CO 3). Carbonic acid forms examples of hydrocarbons, which
salts, such as carbonates, contain 2, 3 and 4 carbon atoms,
which occur as important respectively. All of them exist in a
minerals. gaseous state at room temperature.


They are known as alkanes. The

molecular formula of methane is CH4. Activity 8
In a molecule of methane, four
hydrogen atoms are attached to the Set up the apparatus as shown
carbon atom (Fig. 7.14). in Fig. 7.15.

Fig. 7.15 Preparation of methane

Fig. 7.14 A molecule of methane
On heating, the following chemical
Occurrence of Methane reaction takes place :
Methane gas is formed naturally under CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3
varying circumstances. Anaerobic Sodium Sodium Methane Sodium
bacteria present inside the earths acetate hydroxide carbonate
crust help in decomposing the organic
matter under geological conditions to Methane, being insoluble in
produce natural gas. Natural gas water, is collected in the gas jar by
contains mainly methane. Methane is the downward displacement of water.
also present in marshy lands.
Physical Properties
Therefore, it is also called marsh gas.
Methane accumulates in coal mines, Methane is a colourless gas. It is non-
where it can cause explosions and fire. poisonous. It is lighter than air. It is
For the safety of miners, Sir Humphrey insoluble in water. It causes the
Davy designed a safety lamp for Greenhouse Effect. Compressed
illumination inside the mines. It is Natural Gas (CNG), which contains
known as Davys Safety Lamp. chiefly methane, can be stored in
cylinders for transportation and
Preparation of Methane
Methane is prepared in laboratory by
heating anhydrous sodium acetate Chemical Properties
(CH 3COONa) with soda lime (i) Methane readily burns in air with
[a mixture of sodium hydroxide (caustic a blue flame. In this process, it
soda) and calcium oxide (lime)]. produces 55,000 kilojoules of



Davy was born in Penzance in 1778. He was apprenticed to a surgeon, and at the
age of 19 went to Bristol to study science. There he investigated gases. He prepared
and inhaled nitrous oxide (laughing gas), also giving it to his friends, including
Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
In 1800, he published the results of his work in Researches, Chemical and
Philosophical. This made his reputation and the following year he was hired as an assistant
lecturer in Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in
1803 and was awarded its prestigious Copley Medal in 1805.
During his prestigious career, Davy discovered a number of chemical elements
including sodium and potassium in 1807 and investigated chlorine and its oxides.
Knighted in 1812, he received special dispensation from Napoleon to travel across
France from 1813 to 1815, during which he discovered element X, later called
In 1815, he received a letter from Newcastle miners, who told of the dangers
they faced from methane gas. The gas often filled the mines, and could be sparked off
by the candles the miners had in their helmets to light their work. The resulting fires
and explosions caused many deaths. The miners requested Davy to find a solution
for the problems faced by them. An Irishman named Clanney had produced a
complicated lamp a few years earlier, and George Stephenson, the railway engineer,
had invented one quite independently at the same time. Davy separated the flame
from the gas, and his lamp later became widely used, and known as Davys Safety
In 1818, Davy was made a baronet, and in 1820 he became President of the
Royal Society. He died in 1829.

heat per kilogram. In addition to CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O + Energy
heat, light is also produced in this (heat + light)
reaction. Carbon dioxide and (ii) Methane is not a very reactive gas.
water are the products formed in However, it reacts with chlorine
this reaction: gas in the presence of sunlight.


One, two, three or all the four (iii) Many of you might be aware of
hydrogen atoms may get displaced CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)
from methane by chlorine atoms. filled cylinders fitted to
CH4 + Cl2 automobiles. These cylinders are
Methane Chlorine easily refilled. Use of CNG has
greatly helped in controlling the
CH3Cl + HCl
Chloromethane Hydrogen air pollution by reducing the
chloride percentage of carbon dioxide, lead
and unburnt carbon particles, the
If this chemical reaction is oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in
allowed to continue, we get carbon air in large cities.
tetrachloride (CCl4), a very useful
(iv) It is used for making carbon
solvent in industry. You may note
black. You are already aware of
that in CCl4, all the four hydrogen
the uses of carbon black.
atoms of methane have been
(v) Methane is used for the
displaced by chlorine atoms.
preparation of a large number of
(iii) Like other hydrocarbons,
organic compounds, which are
methane forms carbon black, a
extensively used for domestic and
very pure form of carbon, on
heating in the absence of oxygen industrial purposes.
at about 1000oC. In this process, (vi) Hydrogen produced by the action
methane is decomposed into of steam on methane is used for
carbon and hydrogen. manufacturing ammonia in the
Haber process.
CH4 C + 2H2
Methane Carbon Hydrogen Answer These
(carbon black)
1. Why is methane also called marsh
Uses of Methane gas?
2. State the molecular formula of methane.
(i) Methane is used as a clean fuel
3. Write the chemical formula of the
for heating at home as well as in compound that will be formed by
industries. substituting two atoms of hydrogen
(ii) Nowadays, it is being used with chlorine in a molecule of
extensively for running methane.
automobiles, especially buses, 4. Write the chemical equation of the
cars and autorickshaws. reaction that takes place when
methane is burnt in oxygen.
Methane obtained from the
5. How will you obtain carbon black from
biogas plants is used for heating, methane?
lighting and cooking. The residue 6. State the uses of methane.
is used as an organic fertiliser.


Key Words
Marsh gas, Graphite, Diamond, Fullerenes, Lubricant, Buckyball, CNG,
Natural gas, Allotropes, Allotropy, Crystalline, Amorphous, Thermal
conductivity, Carbon cycle, Coke, Lampblack (carbon black), Destructive


 Carbon is a non-metallic element, represented by the symbol C.

 Carbon exhibits allotropy.
 Carbon exists in both crystalline and amorphous forms.
 Diamond and graphite are crystalline forms of carbon.
 Carbon black, charcoal, animal charcoal, sugar charcoal and coke are
amorphous forms of carbon.
 All the allotropes of carbon are very useful substances.
 Diamond has a rigid structure. In graphite, the carbon atoms are
arranged in layers. These layers are loosely joined to each other, i.e.
the layer of carbon atoms in graphite can slip over each other.
 Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance whereas graphite
is very soft.
 Fullerenes are one of the allotropic forms of carbon. They may have
60, 70, 90 or 120 carbon atoms in their molecules. Fullerenes are the
materials of the future.
 Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas. It is useful for us in
many ways.
 Carbon dioxide turns freshly prepared limewater milky.
 Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon in which each carbon atom is
attached to four hydrogen atoms.
 Methane is found inside coalmines and in marshy lands.
 Methane is a very useful gas. It is used as a clean fuel for heating.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) consists mainly of methane. It is
nowadays being used for running automobiles. It is an important
domestic and industrial fuel.



1. Name five inorganic and five organic substances, which contain

2. Give the structures of diamond and graphite. Explain why graphite
is a soft substance whereas diamond is the hardest.
3. Fill in the blanks:
In graphite, each carbon atom is attached to __________ carbon atoms,
whereas in diamond, each carbon atom is attached to__________
carbon atoms.
4. Write the important uses of diamond and graphite.
5. Draw a neat labelled diagram to show the set up of an experiment to
demonstrate that charcoal forms carbon dioxide on burning.
6. What are fullerenes? State their possible uses in future.
7. What is allotropy? Make a table to compare the properties and uses
of diamond and graphite.
8. Give two examples each of crystalline and amorphous forms of
9. Write the names of hydrocarbons containing one, two, three and
four carbon atoms, respectively.
10. Which is the purest form of charcoal? Write any two uses of animal
(bone) charcoal.
11. Draw a neat labelled diagram to show different stages of the carbon
12. Complete the following chemical equations :
C + O2


C + O2


CaCO3 +
CO2 + Ca (OH)2


13. For each one of the following questions, give one or two words answer:
(i) Which element is present in all living things?
(ii) Which gas is present in both the natural gas and the biogas?
(iii) Which substance, other than CO2, do the hydrocarbons form
on burning in air?
(iv) What is the name given to any fuel formed from organisms
buried inside the earth?
(v) What is the name of the substance containing 60 carbon atoms?
14. Draw a neat labelled diagram of the apparatus, which can be used
for preparing methane gas in the laboratory. Write the molecular
formula of methane. State its two uses.
15. How will you obtain CO2 from a carbonate and a bicarbonate? Give
one example of each. Write the chemical equations of the reactions
16. Write the chemical formula of the first hydrocarbon. State its physical
state. Where does it occur in nature?
17. Which gas is present in both the natural gas and the biogas? State
any three uses of methane.
18. Match the items given in column A with those given in column B:
Column A Column B
Present in natural gas Graphite
Present in chalk, marble and limestone Diamond
Fullerenes CO2
Diamond and graphite CH4
Used as dry ice Obtained by heating sodium
Carbon dioxide gas Allotropes of carbon
Hardest naturally occurring substance Made up of 60 carbon atoms
Used as a solid lubricant Carbon and oxygen


Cell Structure and


Y ou have
organisms in earlier classes. You know
In spite of great variation in
structures of various organs, all
organisms have basic similarities
that living organisms take and digest among them. In fact, each one of
food, respire and excrete waste them is made up of cells. In
products. They reproduce their own Class VII, you have learnt about
kind. These functions are carried out organisation in the living world. The
by different organs of the organisms. hierarchy of organisation has
Observe a small flowering plant and a different levels. Cells represent lower
huge tree. What do you find? Both have level, called cellular level.
parts like leaves, stem (called trunk in In this chapter, we will study more
a tree) and roots, which remain about the cells in living organisms.
underground. You also observe animals In order to understand the structure
like cow, buffalo, elephant, insect and and functioning of an organism, it is
bird. They have body parts like head, necessary to know about cell, its
limbs, eyes, wings, etc. These body structure and functions of its parts.
parts both in plants and animals are
called organs. They perform different
functions. For example, leaves help in O RGANISMS
synthesis of food, roots in anchoring Look at Fig. 8.1. Observe the
the plants. Mouth in animals helps in organisms shown. Can you identify
taking food. Other organs help in its the organisms? Try to identify the
digestion. Lungs help in respiration. organisms and parts of each

organism. Each organism represents

an individual of that kind. Each one
looks different from the other. Even
the body parts in these organisms
have different shapes and sizes. But
all these parts, in spite of variation
in shape and size, carry out same
functions like intake of food,
respiration and reproduction. Thus,
there is a similarity in their structure
as well as functions. Mouth with (a) (b)
variety of shape and size is involved
Fig. 8.2 (a) Building blocks of a wall and
in intake of food while leaves (b) an onion peel
irrespective of the shape and size help
in synthesis of food. from one another, organisms also
differ from one another. Both have
basic units. Cells are there in living
organisms since the origin of life.
These were not studied or observed
for thousands of years. The main
reason was their size. Majority of
the cells are too small to be visible
to the unaided eye. However, some
cells like hens egg are visible to eye
without any aid. The word cell was
coined in seventeenth century by
Robert Hooke while observing
a slice of cork (plant cells) under
the microscope (Fig. 8.3). His

Fig. 8.1 Organisms vary in shape and size

Cells in the living organisms are

complex structures unlike bricks in
a building. Remember that cells,
like bricks of a building, are basic
structural units of living organisms Fig. 8.3 Cork as observed by Robert Hooke
(Fig. 8.2). Buildings usually differ with his microscope


Robert Hooke was a scientist who

stained with dyes to identify the
had a special interest in lenses and different components of a cell.
their uses. He got an opportunity to
demonstrate some experiments to Activity 1
scientists in Royal Society of London
during his assignment as a curator Take a magnifying glass and
of experiments. He wanted to show observe your skin with it. You can
something new. He fabricated his see pores more clearly as
simple microscope to demonstrate compared to what you see
magnifying property of lenses. He without a magnifiying glass.
observed a piece of cork in his
microscope. Details of cork could not
be seen since it was thick. He made Answer These
thin slices of cork and observed them
with his microscope. Cork is formed 1. Why cells could not be observed before
from the bark of trees. He was seventeenth century?
2. Why Hooke had to take thin slices of
excited to see small spaces bound by
firm walls. He observed that spaces 3. Where did Hooke examine cork slice?
in a cork slice appeared like
honeycomb. He called these
compartments as cells.
microscope, in fact, was primitive.
Earlier, lenses were used directly as Cells found in the living organisms
an aid to see the smaller things/ show variety in number, shape and
objects. Later on, these lenses were size. Let us study these variations.
put in a device called microscope An individual organism can either
to magnify the objects. With have one cell where all the functions
passage of time, microscopes, in the are carried out by a single cell or have
last four centuries have been many cells which together perform
improved by increasing their various functions. Single-celled
magnifying ability. Nowadays, a organisms like Amoeba, Paramoecium
microscope can enable to observe and bacteria are called unicellular
the objects as small as o n e organisms. On the other hand,
thousandth of a millimetre (106 m). organisms which have large number
This has helped the scientists to of cells are termed as multicellular
study the minute details of cells. organisms (most of plants and
Sometimes, the materials to be animals). A multicellular organism,
observed with microscopes are in fact, has millions of cells.


Fig. 8.4 Cells have different shapes spherical, columnar, cubiodal and nerve cell, which
has branches
Cells in the multicellular plants long (Fig. 8.4). You are quite familiar
and animals have variety of shapes. with hens egg. In the egg, central
Cells are generally round or spherical yellow part called yolk is surrounded
in shape. However, there is a lot of by white albumen. Yellow yolk
variation in shape of cells (Fig. 8.4). represents single cell. You can observe
These can be cuboidal or columnar. it in a boiled egg. Ostrich egg with 170
Some of animal cells are long and mm diameter represents largest cell
branched as in nerve cell. observable with unaided eye. Table
Most of the cells are very small in 8.1 provides information about
size and not visible to unaided eye. different sizes of cells.
Even long cells running into few
centimetres can be seen only with Answer These
microscope. Smallest cell of size 1. Single-celled organisms are also called
0.1micron(m) i.e. ten thousandth unicellular organisms (true/false).
part of a milimetre has been observed 2. Name the cells having branched
in bacteria Mycoplasmas. Muscle structure.
3. Which cell is observable with unaided
cells in animals and fibres in plants eye?
like jute, hemp are few centimetres

Table 8.1 : Average Size of Different Cells in the Living Organisms

S.No. Type of Cell Size
1. Living red blood cell 9 m (9 106m)
2. Nerve cell more than a metre long
3. Green algae Chara 10 cm
4. Ostrich egg 170 mm in diameter


8.3 C ELL STRUCTURE There are several smaller

components of cell present in the
By now, you have an idea of variety
protoplasm. Each one is known as
in number, shape and size of cells.
organelle. Each cell organelle is bound
Irrespective of these variations each
by a membrane. In the middle of a cell
cell has a definite structure or further
lies a denser round region called
smaller parts. These parts are called
nucleus (nucleus : kernel) (Fig. 8.5).
cell organelles. Some of these
organelles are common to all cells. We
will study the structure of a typical
cell. Later on, we will study differences
between plant and animal cells.
All cells are bound by a
membrane called plasma membrane
or cell membrane. It encloses a
liquid substance known as
protoplasm (proto : first; plasma :
liquid). The membrane regulates the
flow of substances both into the cell
and out of it. There is an outer layer Fig. 8.5 Structure of a typical cell
called cell wall in plant cells. This
surrounds the plasma membrane in In majority of the cells, nucleus
them. Cell wall is a rigid layer. Both lies in the centre. However, it may
plasma membrane and cell wall give also be in the periphery of the cell as
shape to the cells. in the case of plant cells. The liquid
Ninety nine per cent of protoplasm in the nucleus is called
protoplasm by its weight is made up nucleoplasm, which is bound by a
of compounds of four elements, membrane called nuclear
namely carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen membrane. Nucleus controls the
and oxygen. It also contains activities of the cells. It contains a
compounds of other elements. network of fibrous material called
Elements in different combinations chromatin. The condensed
form compounds. You are familiar chromatin is in the form of fibre like
with some of these compounds such structures called chromosomes,
as water, carbohydrates, proteins, which help in inheritance or transfer
fats, nucleic acids and mineral salts. of characters from the parents to next
These elements and compounds in generation.
unique combination provide living The protoplasm between the
nature to the protoplasm. nucleus and the plasma membrane


is known as cytoplasm (kytos : other cell organelles which you may

hollow; plasma : liquid). The other study later in higher classes. We have
organelles present in the cytoplasm also not gone into details of each
appear as particles. Largest among organelle described under the
the organelles in the cell are plastids structure of cell. Each one has
found in plant cells. These contain further complex composition as well
pigments. The green plastids in the as functions. Again, you will study
plants are called chloroplasts. They more details in higher classes.
help in the synthesis of food by the Structure of a typical cell given
green plants. The red colour in above may help you to understand
tomato is due to the plastids with red that all cells have some common
pigment. organelles. Fundamentally, cells are
There are rod-shaped or spherical similar in structure, still the cells
organelles called mitochondria. Each attain different look in different body
mitochondrion is separated from the parts and the organs. Look at Fig. 8.6,
cytoplasm by a membrane. They which would give you an idea of how
provide energy for the activities of the cells appear different in a leaf, a stem,
cell. In the cytoplasm there are droplets a root, stomach, liver and kidney.
of substances dissolved in water. Differences in shape, size and
Under the microscope, these droplets combination of cells help in
appear as empty spaces and are performing different functions. For
termed as vacuoles. In Amoeba, the this, the cells join to form a tissue.
vacuoles contain food particles and are
known as food vacuoles. Most of the
plant cells have larger vacuoles as
compared to animal cells.
Sometimes, cells have projections
over the surfaces outside the cell
membrane. These are called cilia and
flagella. Cilia are found in (a) (b)
Paramoecium. The flagella (sing. -
flagellum) are common in some
animals (Euglena). Both cilia and
flagella help in the movement of the
cells or the organisms.
We have discussed only a few (c) (d)

important organelles of cells. These Fig. 8.6 Section of (a) root, (b) stem, (c) stomach
are common to a majority of the cells and (d) liver showing how cells are
organised in them
in plants and animals. There are

The tissues join to form organs, the slide and see. The stain may
which together form the systems. make the nucleus region clear as
Systems are nothing but the group shown in Figure 8.7.
of organs working together for
performing a special function, e.g.
digestive organs in digestive system.

Answer These
1. Name the outermost layer of an
animal cell.
2. Mention the layer outside the plasma
membrane of a plant cell. Onion peel A single cell
3. Which four basic elements constitute
90% of protoplasm? Fig. 8.7 Plant cell
4. Green plastids are also called________
5. What do mitochondria do in the cell?


Cells, as described earlier, have some You can also see an animal cell.
organelles common to all the cells. Take a tooth pick (or a cotton
They do perform similar functions. For bud). Gently scrape with it inside
example, nucleus in all cells controls your mouth. Put it on a slide, add
the activities of cell. However, detailed a drop of water and observe
studies of plant and animal cells show
that there are some differences as
well. Some organelles are found only
in plant cells. Let us have a comparative
look at the plant and animal cells. You
can list some of the differences from
the earlier section on cell structure.
You can also observe plant and Epithelial cells

animal cells under the microscope.

Epithelial cells
Activity 2
Put a drop of water on a glass
slide. Take an onion peel and
place it in water on the slide. See
it under the microscope. You may A
add little red stain (safranin) to Fig. 8.8 Animal cell


under the microscope. Again, (ii) cells carry out all body functions
you can use red stain. The of an organism. We can say that
cells would appear as shown in cells are functional units of
Fig. 8.8. organisms
Observe Fig. 8.7 and 8.8 and try (iii) all cells have cell organelles
to list the differences between the two (iv) functioning of organisms is based
types of cells. You may start from the on functioning of cells.
outermost layer. You can also recall What happens when cells die?
the description given earlier. Table 8.2 It may affect the functioning of an
gives you the comparison. Can you organ, system and ultimately the
make out the differences? individual. It has been found that
Table 8.2 shows that both plant cells continuously increase in their
and animal cells have plasma number and size. This results in
membrane, nucleus, mitochondria growth of organism. At the same
and vacuoles. Cell wall and plastids time older cells die. We find a child
are absent in animal cells. grows into adult. Seed grows into a
Other than structure and huge tree. You should not be
functions, there are some interesting surprised to know that all organisms
aspects of cells. Before we discuss start with a single cell. This cell
that you should be in a position to multiplies and organism becomes
generalise the points as follows : multicellular and grows in size. Cell,
(i) cells are basic structural units of therefore, has important role in the
all living organisms living world.

Table 8.2 : Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells

S.No. Component/Organelle Plant Cell Animal Cell

1. Cell wall Present Absent

2. Plasma membrane Present Present

3. Plastids Present Absent

4. Vacuoles Large size Small size

5. Nucleus Present Present

6. Mitochondria Present Present


Key Words
Cell, Unicellular, Multicellular, Yolk, Albumen, Cell organelles, Plasma
membrane, Protoplasm, Cell wall, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Nucleoplasm, Nuclear
membrane, Plastids, Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, Vacuole


 The structure of plants and animals is different, they perform basic

functions of life.
 In spite of variations in structure, shape and the size, all organisms
are made up of basic units called cells. These were first observed by
Robert Hooke.
 The smallest cell observed is that of a bacteria. Ostrich egg represents
the largest cell visible to unaided eye.
 Each cell has smaller components called cell organelles. These are
common to all cells. Each organelle performs a specific function.
 There are some differences between plant and animal cells.


1. The term cell was coined by _____________.

2. Basic structural unit of living organism is known as _____________.
3. Cell wall is present in _____________ only.
4. The largest cell is that of _____________.
5. Describe the variations in shape and size of cells.
6. Which organism has the smallest cell?
7. Write short notes on
(i) Protoplasm
(ii) Nucleus
8. How do you differentiate protoplasm from cytoplasm?
9. Name the four elements, which form major part of protoplasm.
10. Draw a typical cell. Label important organelles in it.
11. Give three differences between a plant and an animal cell.



Y ou know that there are many

living organisms around us,
present in soil, water and air. Some
You have learnt characteristics of
microorganisms in earlier classes. In
this chapter, you will study the
of them are so small that we cannot vast diversity that exists in
see them with our unaided eyes. microorganisms and their significance
They are called microorganisms. To both as useful and harmful to us.
see them we require a special device
called microscope. You will learn
about microscope in Chapter 10. The discovery and growth of our
Microorganisms have a high degree knowledge about microorganisms is
of adaptability and can survive in closely related with the advancement
almost all kinds of environments, of microscope (Fig. 9.1). Many
like hot springs, ice-cold water, improvements that have been made
saline water, desert soil or even in in the construction of compound
marshy land. Microorganisms are microscopes enabled scientists to
also present in our body and in dead observe and study microorganisms
and decomposed organic matter. in detail.
Some of them may be parasite on Development of electron
other living beings including us. microscope has further increased the
Generally, their cells are covered scope of these studies. Table 9.1 gives
with a hard outer coating and are some important discoveries related to
called cyst. Microorganisms are the study of microorganisms. With
placed under bacteria , fungi, these discoveries, the perception that
protozoa, algae and viruses. all microorganisms are harmful and

Table 9.1 : History of Microbiology (a science of microorganisms)

Name of the Scientist Year Contribution

Robert Hooke 1665 Observed cork cells, spermatozoa and
bacteria with the help of a simple
microscope, and called them as tiny
Louis Pasteur 1857 Fermentation is a biochemical process.
1859 Microbes are produced only from
preexisting microbes of the same species.
Robert Koch 1872 Tubercle bacillus is the main cause of
tuberculosis. Germ Theory of disease.
Shikabasaburo Kitasate 1889 Tetanus disease is due to Tetanus bacillus.
Alexander Fleming 1929 Antibiotic penicillin from Penicillium
notatum (a fungus)

Microorganisms exist in all types of
habitats. Generally, they are single-
celled, sometimes occur in chain or
group of cells (colony). They can be
easily collected from air and water.
Sample of fresh air and water from deep
wells and hand pumps comparatively
Fig. 9.1 Earlier microscopes has less number of microorganisms
present in them whereas samples taken
disease causing came to an end. It from ponds and lakes may have fairly
was realised that only a handful of high population of microorganisms.
microorganisms are harmful while They are also present at the bottom of
most of them are beneficial. Some soil sea. The number of species of
bacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen, microorganisms is very high and only
which is useful for plants. Other a fraction of them has been identified
beneficial effects of microorganisms and recorded. There are more than
are utilised in the preparation of 20,000 species known in protozoans
wines, pickles, vinegar, cheese, curds, only.
aroma in tobacco, production of The surface of animals,
antibiotics and in sewage disposal. including human, harbours many


microorganisms or microbes. The fungi (Fig. 9.2). Some harmful

nose, throat, mouth and digestive microorganisms are also found in
tracts of not only human beings but the soil.
other animals also are inhabited by
a large number of microorganisms.
Activity 1
They constitute a normal flora and
are an essential part of the Collect water from different
individuals life. Some pathogenic sources, like lake, pond, canal,
microorganisms may enter the body drain, wells and rivers, in clean
and can cause diseases. Faecal glass bottles or test tubes. Allow
materials of a sick person contain each sample to settle down.
many pathogenic microorganisms. Observe carefully, first with
Many insects also harbour unaided eyes and then with a
microorganisms. Such insects magnifying glass. If possible, you
contaminate our food materials can also observe a drop of water
when they sit on it to feed. from each source under a
Thus, microorganisms are found microscope. Record the number
practically everywhere. They are and type of organisms observed
present in soil, water, water bodies, in different sources of water.
outer space, on the surface
and inside the body of animals
Answer These
including human. Cultivated soils
contain enormous number of 1. Microorganisms are placed under
microorganisms. Larger the content ,,, algae and viruses.
of organic matter in the soil, higher 2. List out any two important landmarks
is the number of microorganisms in the study of microorganisms.
present in it. The soil usually 3. State any one useful effect of
microorganisms in our life.
includes bacteria, protozoans and
4. Name three habitats of microorganisms.


The microorganisms are grown on
media suitable for their growth to
study their various aspects. The
factors, like acidity, alkalinity, oxygen
and temperature, besides the quality
of media, have an impact on their
Fig. 9.2 Some common microorganisms growth.


A culture medium potato measuring upto 15 m in length and

dextrose agar (PDA) can be 1.5 m in diameter.
prepared in the classroom or Structure
laboratory. Take 200 g of healthy
potato tubers and wash them Bacteria have a primitive type of cell
properly. Cut them into pieces and structure. They do not have
boil the pieces in water till they membranebound organelles or a
become soft. Crush them and allow well organised nucleus. Their cell
the paste to cool. Add 500 mL wall is rigid and its composition is
distilled water and 20 g glucose to different from the other cells. The
the crushed potatoes. Now, take 20 g cytoplasm is granular, viscous and
of plain agar gel and boil it in lies between nuclear material and
another beaker containing 500 mL plasma membrane. It is colloidal in
of water and mix it with the potato nature with 70-85% moisture
glucose solution prepared earlier. content.
Store the mixture so obtained in the Some bacteria secrete a slimy or
suitable container. The PDA gummy material on their surface.
medium is now ready and can be When the material is in compact form
used to culture microorganisms in around the cell surface, it forms a
petri dishes or test-tubes. Another capsule. But when the material is
commonly used medium for the diffused, it forms a slime layer.
culture is yeast extract, which can Types
be prepared easily with yeasts and
On the basis of their shape, the
carbohydrates. bacteria are divided into three types
9.4 BACTERIA (Fig. 9.3). (i) Bacillus or rod-
shaped: Lactobacillus, Bacillus and
In 1675, Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Pseudomonas are some of the
observed bacteria with the help of a
examples of this type; (ii) Coccus or
microscope developed by him. Since
spherical: Streptococcus, Sarcina and
then, thousands of species of
Micrococcus are some of the
bacteria have been identified. You
examples of spherical shaped
know that bacteria are present
bacteria and (iii) Spirillum or spiral.
almost everywhere and are smaller
The body of these bacteria are
in size. The average size of a
comma-shaped or like a spiral rod.
bacterium is 1.25 m ( ) Vibrio, Treponema and Campylobacter
in diameter. The smallest is rod- are some common examples of this
shaped bacteria measuring 0.15 m. category. They may have one or more
The largest is a spiral-shaped flagella on their body.


due to a difference in structure

and composition of cell walls of
bacteria. Staphylococcus and
Streptococcus retain the stain and
are Gram-negative bacteria
whereas Escherichia coli ,
Salmonella and Spirillum do not
retain the stain and are called
Gram-positive. This staining
technique was developed by the
scientist, named Gram.
Fig. 9.3 Bacteria of different shapes
Bacteria can also be divided into
two groups (Gram-positive and Gram There are two nutritional groups in
negative) on the basis of their bacteria: (i) autotrophs, which can
reaction to Gram stain. Some retain synthesise their own food, like green
stain while others do not. plants and (ii) heterotrophs, which utilise
food synthesised by other organisms.
Autotrophs can further be divided into
Activity 2 (i) phototrophs which utilise energy from
Take out some leguminous plants sunlight, and (ii) chemotrophs which
(gram, pea or bean) from the soil utilise energy of inorganic compounds.
with roots. Collect some nodules Heterotrophic bacteria may be
present on the roots. Crush them saprophytic or parasitic.
to prepare a smear of bacterial Reproduction
cells on a glass slide. Stain it with
crystal violet. You will see that all The rate of multiplication of bacteria
bacteria are stained blue. Then is very fast under favourable
treat them with iodine solution, conditions of temperature, nutrition,
which stains them in deep purple. moisture, and pH. The common
After that decolourise them by means of reproduction is by cell
removing excess stain with the division or binary fission (Fig. 9.4).
help of water and then with Some bacteria produce spores
alcohol or acetone. (endospores) during unfavourable
You will observe that some period. They are highly resistant
bacteria retain stain whereas structures and have dense
others do not. The difference in cytoplasm. Spore wall is further
staining behaviour is primarily enclosed by spore coat. Bacteria also


observe it under a compound

microscope. Try to draw and
identify it as bacteria or fungi.
These algae are blue-green in colour
(Fig. 9.5). There are many similarities
between blue-green algae and
bacteria. They are also referred to as
cyanobacteria. Like bacteria, they
too generally have a primitive cell
structure and may get organised in
filamentous or colonial forms. Nostoc,
Anabaena and Oscillatoria are some
of the commonly available forms of

Fig. 9.4 Reproduction in bacteria

reproduce sexually.

Activity 3
Take some agar gel and boil it in
water. Now, dissolve some sugar
and transfer it in a glass tumbler
or a petri dish. Keep the dish or
tumbler open for a few hours. It
will attract spores of bacteria or
fungi present in the air. Now, Fig. 9.5 Common blue-green algae
keep it in a dark and warm place blue-green algae. They can also fix
for a few days. You will observe atmospheric nitrogen into usable
some spot on the culture compounds. That is why these are
medium. These spots are in fact being commonly used as fertilisers.
colonies of microbes, may be
As has been mentioned before,
bacteria or fungi. You can take a
many blue-green algae can fix
very small part of the colony and
atmospheric nitrogen. These are also


primary producer of energy, which is 9.6. DIATOMS

done by the process of photosynthesis.
Diatoms are also microscopic algae
Blue-green algae, therefore, also make
that occur in springs, estuaries,
useful contribution to soil or pond
sediments and ocean (Fig. 9.6). They
fertility. In some cases, about 625 kg
are unicellular and may be found in
of nitrogen can be fixed in a year by
colonial and filamentous forms also.
blue-green algae present in one square
The cell wall of the organism consists
kilometre area in a paddy field. The
of two overlapping halves, hence
addition of blue-green algae to barren
named as diatom. The siliceous
fields or soils with poor fertility
nature of the cell wall helps them to
increases the nitrogen and humus
Answer These remain for longer period as diatom
1. How can you culture microorganisms? rocks or fossils. Pinnularia, Cyclotella
Describe the process in brief. and Navicula are some of the
2. Describe the various types of bacteria diatoms. They reproduce vegetatively
with examples. as well as sexually.
3. State some beneficial effects of
bacteria. 9.7 FUNGI
The microorganisms of this group are
content of the soil. This improves the known to man since long.
water-holding capacity of soil and Mushrooms, puff balls and toad balls
supports crop growth. are bigger in size and can be seen
along the roads, streets and in
wasteland. Many moulds and yeasts
are very small in size and can be seen
only with a microscope. Most of the
species of fungi are useful in one way
or the other and play an important
role in the balance of nature. They
have an ability to help in recycling of
nutrients and energy. Together with
bacteria, fungi also convert dead
organic matter into simple soluble
minerals and gases, which can be
used again by plants. Some fungi
damage and spoil food products,
leather, paper, textile and paint.
Some are pathogenic to crops
Fig. 9.6 Different types of diatoms ( Puccinia and Ustilago ) and
animals ( Dactylella , Arthrobotrys )

Iodine stains the yeast to reddish

including humans ( Microsporium , brown. Yeast reproduces through
Arthroderma). asexual mode by budding and
sometimes by binary fission. Sexual
reproduction is also reported. Yeasts
Activity 4 are disseminated by insects, air and
Take a fresh piece of bread. Keep even through dust particles.
it in a place with dim light and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a
high moisture. After 4-5 days you common species of yeast. The yeasts
will observe some greenish grey get destroyed in a few minutes even
colour patches on the bread. at a temperature of 60C.
These are the colonies of fungus.
Fungus can also be seen on Activity 5
leather or pickles during rainy
season. Take a tumbler, fill it upto with
Some of the biochemical activities tap water. Dissolve 2-3 teaspoons
of fungi have been exploited by of sugar in it. Now divide this
humans for centuries. For example, sugar solution into two parts. To
yeasts have been used in the making one part add teaspoon yeast
of bread, beer and wine and also powder. Keep it for 3-4 hours.
to improve flavour of certain Now, taste the solutions from both
types of cheese. One of the most and feel the difference in their
remarkable discoveries has been the taste. The solution with yeast
transformation of steroid by fungi powder becomes alcoholic in
into drug used in birth control and
treatment of arthritis. Some common
fungi are Mucor , Saccharomyces ,
Penicillium and Aspergillus.
Yeasts ( Saccharomyces ) are
unicellular and saprophytic fungi.
They are present in soil and air and
can even be stored in dry form
(powder or tablet) upto 4 years.
Yeast cells could be spherical, Fig. 9.7 Yeast cells and their reproduction
by budding
elliptical or cylindrical in shape with
variable sizes. Yeast cell has a cell taste. It is because sugar has been
wall, cytoplasmic membrane, converted into alcohol due to the
nucleus, large vacuole, numerous presence of yeast.
granules and fat globules (Fig. 9.7).

Yeasts have a strong liking for Answer These

acidic foods that contain sugar. They
1. Describe the role of blue-green algae
produce ethyl alcohol and large in fertility of soil.
quantity of CO2. This process is known 2. Mention two important uses of fungi.
as fermentation. Fruits and fruit 3. Name any two food items that are
juices often get spoiled due to prepared using yeast.
fermentation. Yeasts are very 4. Name two diseases caused by
important to industries which
produce beer, wine and other
beverages by the process of cell and reproduce by binary fission.
fermentation. Along with the bacteria They have an appearance like rod-
Acetobacter , yeasts are used to shaped or spherical bacteria.
produce vinegar, cheese and acetic 9.8 VIRUS
acid. A few yeasts are pathogenic and
cause of infections in human. Viruses are smaller than bacteria.
The mycoplasma is another Their presence can be determined
class of microorganisms that only by observing the effect they have
on their hosts, or by viewing them
resemble bacteria in many respects.
under an electron microscope. They
However, there are many differences
replicate only inside living cells. It is
between them and so they are not
impossible to culture viruses outside
grouped with bacteria. Mycoplasma
specific host cells. This extreme
lack cell wall. They are very small and
parasitism is associated with relative
spherical in shape. Mycoplasmas are
simple structure of virus. In a virus,
both parasitic and saprophytic in a small amount of genetic material
nutrition. The pleuropneumonia in the form of DNA or RNA is enclosed
disease in domestic animals and in a protective protein coat. Unlike
witches broom in plants are due to
these organisms. Their cells are non-
motile and form a typical poached
egg shaped minute colonies.
Mycoplasmas are resistant to
antibiotics, like penicillin,
cephalosidine and vaucomycin.
However, mycoplasma are sensitive
to tetracyclines.
Rickettsias represent a class of
disease-producing parasitic
organisms. They grow only in host Fig. 9.8 Generalised structure of a virus


other microorganisms, viruses do not common cold, influenza and mosaic

have a cellular structure of tabacco and potato. You will study
(Fig. 9.8). A virus outside the host some of them in Chapter 13.
cell remains like a non-living particle Bacteriophages kill bacteria that are
without any activity of a living. responsible for the spoilage or
Viruses are found everywhere, rottening of organic matter. Such
namely, air, water, soil and even in viruses have been found in Ganga
the body of living things. Viruses can water of some areas.
even be crystallised and stored for
many years.
Several opinions have been put Protozoans are also unicellular
forward regarding possible origin of organisms and are rarely found in
viruses. Due to their relatively simpler colonial form. They could be found
structure, it has been argued that in ponds and pools and on animals
they are primitive and represent an and plants, on decaying leaves, in the
early stage in the evolution of living soil, and in almost all other places.
organisms from inanimate (non-living) A typical cell of a protozoan contains
chemical compounds. Another view membrane-bound protoplasm and
is that they have been originated by cell organelles like nucleus and
the degeneration of higher organisms mitochondria. The single cell carries
and have lost their synthetic ability its all essential processes of life, like
and independent existence. feeding, locomotion, respiration,
The viruses possess certain excretion and reproduction. Amoeba,
physical and chemical properties.
The important ones are their
transmissible and parasitic nature
including host specificity. Antibiotics
have no effect on viruses as they do
not have a metabolism of their own.
The viruses are classified on the basis
of the host in which they thrive. For
example, those viruses that make
plants as their host are called plant
viruses. Similarly, they are
categorised as animal viruses and
bacterial viruses or bacteriophages.
Viruses cause various diseases
like rabies, polio, chicken-pox, Fig. 9.9 Some common protozoans


Paramaecium, Euglena, Plasmodium, merely acts as a carrier of malaria

Entamoeba and Trypanosoma are causing parasite. It takes them along
some common examples of the with the blood sucked from an infected
protozoa (Fig. 9.9). person and transmits them to a
You have studied locomotion in healthy person. Entamoeba causes
protozoa in Class VII. Loco- amoebiasis or amoebic dysentery
motion takes place by means of which is characterised by pain in
protoplasmic projections called abdomen and repeated motions.
pseudopodia or by flagella or cilia. Trypanosoma causes a dangerous
They feed mostly on solid food disease, called sleeping sickness,
particles. The parasitic forms live in which is common in some African
the bodies of other living things and countries. Some other diseases caused
absorb digested food from the host. by protozoa are given in Chapter 13.
Protozoa reproduce both asexually
and sexually. Asexual reproduction
is generally by binary or multiple MICROORGANISMS
fissions, in which a single organism Secondary treatment of sewage is
gives rise to two or many new a microbial activity and involves
organisms without facing natural aerobic bacteria. Species of
death. In other words, they are Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Proteus
potentially immortal. are used for this purpose. These
Plasmodium is a parasite and bacteria are circulated around
causes a disease called malaria. The sewer in large tanks through which
air is pumped. In the presence of
sufficient oxygen, the bacteria
bring about rapid decomposition of
sewage in a few hours. Undigested
sewer is then transferred to
anaerobic digestion tank, while
aerobic bacteria stay behind. Here,
anaerobic bacteria carry out rapid
digestion and produce gases like
methane. The mixture of gases so
produced is the biogas which is
Fig. 9.10 Female anopheles mosquito used as a fuel.
The sludge left after digestion of
parasite is transmitted by the bite of sewer is rich in nitrogen and is used
the female anopheles mosquito as manure after drying.
(Fig. 9.10). Anopheles mosquito Majority of the microorganisms

are very sensitive to toxic chemicals. Answer These

A careful control over the discharge 1. Viruses are living or non-living.
of harmful industrial effluent must Comment with reasons.
be maintained. Synthetic chemicals 2. What is the basis of classification of
also present a problem as they are viruses.
non-biodegradable. They persist and 3. Name any five protozoa known to you.
4. Describe how microorganisms help in
produce foam which cut aeration sewage treatment.
thereby inhibit microbial activity. 5. Draw a labelled diagram to show
Thus, the role of microorganisms in structure of a virus.
the production of biogas and
compost is also significant.
Key Words
Microbiology, Fermentation, Protozoa, Fungi, Blue-green algae, Virus, Bacteria,
Diatom, Yeast, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Host specificity, Sewage treatment,


Microorganisms are very small and can survive in almost all kinds of
environmental conditions.
Microorganisms are placed under bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and
Microorganisms are used to produce useful products although some
of them also cause diseases.
The growth in our knowledge about microorganisms is closely related
with the advancement of microscope.
Microorganisms can be grown on culture media in the laboratory for
detailed study.
Bacteria are spherical, rod-shaped, spiral or even filamentous in shape.
Bacteria may be phototrophic, chemotrophic, parasitic or even
saprophytic in their modes of nutrition.
Blue-green algae, also called cyanobacteria, are helpful in fixing
atmospheric nitrogen and in increasing soil fertility.
Diatoms are unicellular organisms, which consist of two overlapping
halves with cell walls of siliceous nature.


Fungi are saprophytic or parasitic in their mode of nutrition. Some of

them damage and spoil food products, leather, paper and textile,
whereas others are pathogenic to crops and animals.
Yeasts are unicellular and saprophytic fungi, which are used in
fermentation to produce beer, wine and other beverages.
Mycoplasmas are non-motile, parasitic or saprophytic in nutrition.
They are resistant to most of the antibiotics.
Viruses are the smallest parasitic organisms with an ability to replicate
only inside living cells.
Protozoans are very common and some of them cause serious diseases,
like dysentery and malaria.
Some microorganisms help in decomposition of wastes in sewar
treatment plants.


1. What do you understand by microorganism? Describe their useful

and harmful effects.
2. Describe some of the important landmarks in the study of
3. Describe the method of preparing a medium for the culture of
4. Draw a well-labelled diagram of a bacterial cell.
5. Describe the modes of nutrition and reproduction in bacteria.
6. Explain how does blue-green algae help in increasing the fertility of
7. Describe the structure of yeast and name the process by which they
8. List out the major differences between, bacteria, mycoplasma and
9. Describe the main characteristics of viruses in brief.
10. Write an essay on the beneficial aspects of microorganisms.

his lens forms a real, inverted and
mage of the object. Since the image so
al, it acts as an object for the eyep

Refraction of he distance between the two lens

icroscope is so adjusted that the ima
y the objective falls between the eye
s focus.This lens forms a real, inve
Light nlarged image of the object. Since the
rmed is real, it acts as an objec
yepiece lens. The distance between
nses of the microscope is so adjusted

Y ou are familiar with light and

some of its properties. You have
learnt that light travels in straight
Does it still travel along a straight
path with the same speed? In this
chapter, we shall seek answers to
line. In general, when light strikes a some such questions.
surface, a part of it may get scattered, When light travels from one
some part may get transmitted, while transparent material or medium to
the rest gets absorbed. In earlier another, it gives rise to the
classes you have learnt how light gets phenomena of refraction. You will
reflected from a mirror. You also study the phenomena of refraction
know the laws of reflection. You have and some interesting events that take
studied about the nature, size and place due to it. Refraction of light
the location of images formed by through a glass slab and a prism will
plane and spherical mirrors. be discussed to understand the
All materials that allow most part phenomena. You will also learn how
of the light that fall on them to pass the refraction of sunlight through a
through are known as transparent prism gives rise to a band of light of
materials. Air, water, glass and seven colours. Refraction of light by
certain types of plastics are some lenses, images formed by them and
common examples of transparent their application in making
materials. What happens when light microscopes and telescopes will also
enters from a transparent material, be presented in the chapter. Finally,
say air, to another transparent you will study how the lens helps in
material like water? Does it continue the formation of image in a camera
to move along the same direction? and in the human eye.

10.1 WHAT IS REFRACTION changes. This phenomenon is

called the refraction of light.
You know that light travels along
straight line in air, which is a
transparent medium. What happens
when a beam of light travelling in air
falls on the surface of another
transparent medium like water? Let
us find out.

Activity 1
Cover the glass of a torch with a
piece of thick black paper that
has a small hole in its middle. Fig. 10.1 A beam of light appears to
be bent when it enters
This arrangement will help you
water from air
to obtain a thin beam of light. A
pencil laser torch, if available, Many interesting events occur due
can also be used in place of a to refraction of light in nature. Some
torch. Take water in a glass of them are quite familiar to all of us.
container or a tumbler and add For example, have you ever observed
a few drops of milk to it. Place a straight object like a pencil kept
the glass tumbler on a table in a partly immersed in water in a glass
dark room. Produce smoke tumbler? The part of the pencil inside
around the glass tumbler by water appears to be bent relative to
lighting some incense sticks the part that is above water (Fig. 10.2).
(agarbattis). The particles of
smoke would help to make the
path of light visible in air while
those of milk will do so in water.
Now direct the beam of light
on the surface of water in the
tumbler (Fig. 10.1). Note the
change in the direction of the
beam of light as it enters water.
Thus, when a beam of light falls
obliquely on the surface that Fig. 10.2 The part of the pencil immersed
divides two transparent media, in water appears to be bent and
its direction of propagation thicker when viewed from sides


The part of the pencil inside water also [Fig. 10.3(b)]? The coin becomes
appears to be thicker if viewed from visible again. Can you guess the
the side. Similarly, the body of a diver reason for your observation? This
inside water appears to be inflated. is due to refraction of light. Now
Have you ever noticed that the you can understand why you and
lemons kept in water in a glass your friend failed to pick up the
tumbler and rasgullas kept in sugar coin from the bottom of a bucket
syrup in a glass jar appear larger full of water. This is because the
than their actual size when viewed coin appears slightly above its real
from the side? Sometimes such tricks position due to refraction of light.
fool you.
You too can play a trick with your
friends. Place a coin in a bucket full
of water. Ask your friend to pick up
the coin in one attempt. Does your
friend succeed in doing so? Try
yourself. Most likely, both of you will (a) (b)
fail in your first attempt. Can you Fig. 10.3 (a) The position of the eye
guess why? This is because both of from where the coin placed
you failed in correctly estimating the in the bowl just disappears
depth of water due to refraction. The from sight (b) the coin
becomes visible on pouring
following activity may help you to
water in the bowl
understand the reason.
Will a pencil appear bent or a coin
appear raised to the same extent if
Activity 2
instead of water we use some other
Place a bowl or a katori on a table transparent liquid like turpentine or
and put a coin in it. Now slowly kerosene? You will find that the effect
move away from the bowl until of refraction is different for different
you reach a place from where the media. It means that light is not
coin just disappears from your refracted equally in different media.
sight [Fig. 10.3(a)]. Ask your friend
Answer These
to gently pour water into the
bowl ensuring that the coin 1. Name any three transparent
does not move from its position. materials.
2. What happens to the light of beam as
Keep watching in the direction it travels from air to water?
where the coin is placed in the 3. Give any two examples of refraction of
bowl. What do you observe light, which you observe in everyday life.


10.2 REFRACTIVE INDEX Table 10.1 : Refractive Index of Some

Materials With Respect to
You know that light travels with a Vacuum
speed of nearly 3,00,000 km/s.
Material Medium Refractive Index
However, the speed of light is highest
in vacuum and has a smaller value Air 1.0003
for all other material media. Thus, light Water 1.33
travels with different speeds in air, Turpentine 1.47
water, glass, kerosene and glycerin. Kerosene 1.44
When light enters from one medium Alcohol 1.36
to the other, there is a change in its Glass (crown) 1.52
direction of propagation and it appears Diamond 2.42
to bend. The bending of light depends
on the ratio of the speed of light in the respect to vacuum is given in
two media. The extent to which Table 10.1.
bending of light takes place is Note that the refractive index of
expressed in terms of the refractive air is very close to one, which is that
index of one medium with respect to of vacuum. Therefore, refractive
the other. Thus, refractive index is indices of other materials with
given by respect to air are considered to be
Refractive index of medium II with same as with respect to vacuum for
respect to medium I = all practical purposes.
The ability of a material to refract
light is also expressed in terms of its
optical density. A material with a
Note that it is written as higher refractive index is said to be
refractive index of medium II with optically denser than that having a
respect to medium I. The refractive lower refractive index. Thus, water
index of water with respect to air is is optically denser than air while
nearly 1.33. It means that light glass is optically denser than water.
travels in water with a speed, which However, one should not confuse
is approximately or times its optical density with mass density of
a material. It is possible that a
speed in air. Similarly, refractive
material may have a higher optical
index of glass with respect to air is
density but a lower mass density as
nearly 1.5. Thus, the speed of light
compared to another material. For
in glass is approximately or example, turpentine is optically
times of that in air. Refractive denser than water but has a lower
index of some materials with mass density.


10.3 REFRACTION THROUGH A feet of all the four pins appear to

G LASS SLAB be on the same line as seen
through the glass slab. Remove
Why does a straight rod appear to be the glass slab and the pins.
bent or a coin appear to be raised in Now join points C and D to
water? Let us try to find. draw the line CD and extend it
till it meets the line RS at a point
Activity 3 O'. Draw a line to join the points
O and O'. Line OO' shows the path
Fix a sheet of white paper on a of the incident ray AO as it
drawing board by means of travels through the glass slab.
thumb pins. Place a glass slab Thus, OO' shows the direction of
in the middle of the sheet and the ray after refraction at the point
draw its outline PQRS with a O and is called the refracted ray.
pencil. Draw a straight line AO At point O', the ray OO' acts as
inclined to the edge PQ of the an incident ray on the face RS of
glass slab. Fix two pins at points the glass slab. The refracted ray
A and B on the line AO as shown O'C for OO' is known as emergent
in Fig. 10.4. Let AO represent a ray corresponding to the incident
ray AO. Note that the points A and
B do not lie on the same line as
the points C and D.
Draw a line NON' perpendicular
to the face PQ at point O, which is
also called the normal at point O.
Also draw MO'M' perpendicular to
the face RS at point O'. Thus, NON'
and MO'M' are normal to points O
and O' respectively. At point O, the
angle between the incident ray and
Fig. 10.4
the normal to the surface ON, that
Refraction through a
rectangular glass slab is, the angle AON, is called the
angle of incidence . The angle
ray of light incident on the face N'OO' is the corresponding angle of
PQ of the glass slab. Look at the refraction. Note that the angle of
pins through the opposite face RS incidence is greater than the angle
of the glass slab. Fix two more of refraction. Similarly, at the point
pins at points C and D such that O', the angle MO'O is the angle of


incidence and the angle M'O'C is the Also note that the ray of light
corresponding angle of refraction. bends towards the normal when it
In this case, the angle of incidence travels from air to glass, but it moves
is smaller than the angle of away from the normal when it travels
refraction because here the light from glass to air. From the above
travels from glass to air. activity, we can conclude that a ray
of light bends towards normal when
You can also observe the effect of it passes from air to glass, that is
refraction of light through a glass from an optically rarer to an optically
slab by doing a simple activity. denser medium. On the other hand,
Draw a thick line with ink on a
the ray of light bends away from the
white sheet of paper. Place the
normal when it travels from an
glass slab over this line in such a
way that its edges make an angle optically denser to rarer medium.
with the line (Fig. 10.5). However, no deviation takes place if
the incident ray is normal to the
boundary of the two media, that is,
if the angle of incidence is 0. In such
a case, the ray continues to move in
the same direction after refraction.
In the case of refraction of light
through a glass slab the incident
ray bends towards the normal when
it enters the glass. At the other face,
the ray bends away from the normal
as it emerges again into the air. The
extent of bending of the ray at the
Fig. 10.5 Refraction through two opposite faces of the glass slab
a glass slab is equal and opposite. As a result,
Look at the portion of line inside the the incident ray and the emergent
slab from either side. Does the part ray are parallel to each other but
of the line inside the slab appear to slightly displaced laterally. The
bend at the edges? Next, place the lateral displacement of the
slab such that its edges are emergent ray with respect to the
perpendicular to the line. Does the incident ray increases with the
part of the line inside the glass slab thickness of the glass slab, that is,
still appear bent? Look at the line the distance between its opposite
from the top of the slab. Does the part faces. This displacement also
of the line between the edges appear increases with the increase in the
to be raised?
angle of incidence. Thus, for

refraction through a glass slab, we rod in air. As a result, the pencil

may conclude that appears bent at the boundary of air
when light travels from air and water. Similarly, due to
refraction of light, the coin at the
(a rarer medium) to glass
bottom of a bucket full of water
(a denser medium), it bends
appears slightly raised and the coin
towards the normal, but it bends
placed in a bowl or katori becomes
away from the normal when it visible when water is poured in it
travels from glass to air; (Fig. 10.6).
no bending takes place if the light
is incident normally, that is, if the
angle of incidence is zero;
the ray of light emerging from a
glass slab is parallel to the one
entering it; and
the lateral displacement
between the incident and the
emergent rays increases with
the increase in the angle of
incidence and the thickness of Fig.10.6 When light travels from water to
air, it bends away from the
the slab.
normal. As a result, the coin at the
Similarly, rays of light bend bottom of the bowl appears raised
towards normal when these are
incident on water from air. The light Answer These
rays bend away from the normal 1. Complete the ray diagram shown in
when they emerge from water to air. Fig. 10.7 and draw the normal at
Can you now understand why a points A and B.
straight rod appears bent when
placed in a glass of water? The rays
of light from the portion of the rod
inside water bend away from the
normal as they emerge from water
into air. The light reaching the A B

observer from this portion appears

to come from a different direction
as compared from the part of the Fig. 10.7


2. Measure the angle of incidence and arrangement will enable you to

the angle of refraction in Fig. 10.4. obtain a narrow beam of sunlight.
3. A beam of light is incident on a layer Now, take a glass prism and a
of turpentine floating over water. white sheet of paper. Hold the
Using the information provided in
Table 10.2, explain how the beam of
prism in the beam of sunlight and
light will travel through air to the sheet of paper at some
turpentine and then in water. distance from it. Rotate the prism
4. If the speed of light inside a diamond slowly until a beautiful band of
were 0.42 times that in air, what will colours appears on the white
be its refractive index?
sheet (Fig. 10.8). This band of


You have learnt how light gets
refracted by a glass slab with parallel
faces. How would light get refracted if
instead of parallel faces the piece of
glass has faces that are inclined at Fig. 10.8 A beam of sunlight incident
on a glass prism splits into a
an angle with one another? In general, band of seven colours after
a piece of a transparent material refraction
bounded by two plane surfaces
inclined at an angle is called a prism. different colours is known as the
The angle between the two plane spectrum of sunlight. To obtain
surfaces is called the angle of the better results, the beam of light
prism. Glass prisms with triangular should be as thin as possible.
faces are the most common. Since Which are the colours that
prisms are made of transparent appear at the two ends of the
materials, they refract light incident spectrum? Why do we get such a
on them. When a prism refracts band of colours?
sunlight, something spectacular may Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was
happen. Let us find out. the first to obtain the spectrum of
sunlight with a prism. He tried to split
Activity 4 the spectrum of colours further by
using a second prism. However, he
Adjust a plane mirror so that it found that a second prism does not
reflects sunlight into a room. Place spread the spectrum further into more
a thick sheet of cardboard in the colours. Then he decided to place a
path of sunlight that has a small second prism in opposition to the first
hole or slit in its middle. This such that all colours of the spectrum


The spectrum of sunlight, comprising

the above-mentioned seven colours,
is often referred to as visible region
of the spectrum. It is because some
components of sunlight are not visible
to us. These are known as infra-red
and ultra-violet rays. The infra-red
Fig. 10.9 When two prisms are placed
region lies below the red region of the
opposite to each other, the
spectrum of sunlight produced by
spectrum while the ultraviolet region
first prism recombines to produce lies above the violet light. The
white light sensation of heat that we experience
in the sunlight is mainly due the
pass through it. He was surprised to presence of infra-red in it. The
find that a beam of white light exposure to ultraviolet could be a
emerged from the other side of the health hazard as prolonged exposure
second prism (Fig. 10.9). This gave to it might cause skin cancer. Luckily,
him the idea that sunlight is made most of the ultraviolet rays present
in sunlight get absorbed in the upper
up of all the colours in the spectrum.
regions of the atmosphere by ozone.
Any light that gives a spectrum similar
However, both infra-red and ultra-
to that of sunlight is often referred to violet rays are used for a variety of
as white light. The phenomenon of purposes. For example, all hot bodies
splitting of light into its constituent emit infra-red in the process of
colours is known as dispersion of cooling. Our body too gives off
light. infrared. Solar energy devices like
If you carefully look at the solar cookers gather heat mainly
spectrum of white light, it will be from the infra-red component of the
difficult for you to decide where the sunlight. Ultra-violet lamps are
boundary of one colour ends and that used to conduct many scientific
of the other begins. Yet something investigations. They are also used to
makes each colour distinct from the detect fake currency notes.
other. The spectrum of sunlight or
white light comprises seven colours. to the first letter of the seven colours
These are Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, of the spectrum.
Yellow, Orange and Red. Whenever Dispersion of light also takes place
you see the spectrum of white light when white light passes through water
you will find that they appear in the drops. The appearance of a rainbow
same order. You can recall this order in the sky is due to dispersion of
by remembering the acronym sunlight by the water droplets present
VIBGYOR, in which each letter refers in the upper regions of the atmosphere


Fig. 10.11 Some common shapes of lenses

form a lens. Some common shapes of

lenses are shown in Fig. 10.11. The
lenses are divided into two classes,
Fig. 10.10 Formation of a rainbow is due
convex and concave, according to
to refraction of sunlight by water their shapes. One surface of a lens
droplets in the atmosphere must be either convex or concave. If
both the surfaces of a lens are convex
(Fig. 10.10). You will learn more about it is called a double convex or simply
dispersion of light in higher classes. a convex lens. Similarly, both surfaces
of a double concave or a concave lens
Answer These are concave.
1. Name the colours in the order they Since a lens has two spherical
appear in the spectrum of sunlight. surfaces, each one has a separate
2. Who discovered that sunlight consists centre of curvature. Let us consider a
of seven colours?
convex lens as shown in Fig. 10.12(a).
3. A laser beam consists of light of only
single colour. Will a laser beam
incident on a glass prism produce a


You might have seen people using
spectacles. Watchmakers use a piece
of glass fixed in a frame to see very
small parts of watches while repairing Fig. 10.12 (a) Rays parallel to the
them. The glasses used in spectacles principal axis converge at focus
and that of a watchmaker are after refraction through a
examples of lenses. What is a lens? convex lens while (b) rays
Any transparent material bound with parallel to the principal axis of
a concave lens diverge after
two surfaces of different curvature


Suppose the centres of curvature of back and forth until you get a
its two surfaces are at points C and bright spot of light on the sheet
C'. A straight line AB passing through of paper (Fig. 10.13). If you hold
the centres of curvature C and C' is
called the principal axis of the lens.
The point O is called the centre or
the optical centre of the lens.
Suppose a beam of light, parallel
to the principal axis, falls on a convex
lens [Fig. 10.12(a)]. Experimentally it
has been found that all these rays pass
Fig. 10.13 A piece of paper held at
through a point F1 after the refraction the focus of a convex lens
by the lens. This point F1 is called the catches fire due to
principal focus or the focus of the converging of sunlight
lens. The distance between the centre the lens and the paper steady for
of the lens and its focus is known as a minute or two, you will find that
the focal length of the lens. If a beam the paper begins to burn. If,
of light parallel to the principal axis instead of a sheet of paper, you
falls on the lens from the other side, use a piece of carbon paper, it
all the rays pass through a point F2 begins to burn in a much shorter
after refraction. Thus, a convex lens time.
has two foci, one on each side.
A parallel beam of light incident Why does the piece of paper
on a convex lens converges after burn? It is because the rays of
refraction through it as can be seen sunlight form a parallel beam of light.
from Fig. 10.12(a). It is therefore All these rays get converged at the
known as a converging lens. On the focus of the lens. The heat due to
other hand, a parallel beam of light concentration of sunlight on a very
incident on a concave lens diverges small spot is sufficient to ignite the
after refraction through it. It is known paper. However, never look at the sun
as a diverging lens [Fig. 10.12(b)]. directly or through a lens, as it would
cause irreparable damage to the eyes.
Now, let us try to understand why
Activity 5
a parallel beam of light converges at
Take a convex lens and hold it the focus, F1, after refraction by a
perpendicular to the path of convex lens as shown in the Fig. 10.12
sunlight. With your other hand (a). Let us imagine that the convex lens
hold a sheet of paper on the other is made up of a number of small pieces
side of the lens. Move the lens of glass joined together as shown in

refraction at the lens, we can locate

the position of the image of an object
F formed by it. We can do so by drawing
ray diagrams as you did in the case
of spherical mirrors in the previous
class. Usually, the following three
rays are used to draw ray diagrams
Fig. 10.14 (a) Converging and (b) diverging (Fig. 10.15).
actions of lenses may be
explained by assuming them to
be made up of a number of prisms
with a glass slab in the middle

Fig. 10.14(a). It can be seen that the

piece at the centre of the lens
resembles a glass slab while those on
the outer sides resemble a prism.
Remember that a ray passing through Fig. 10.15 Any two of the three rays are
a prism gets deviated towards its base. sufficient to draw ray diagrams to
When the rays parallel to the principal study images formed by lenses
axis fall on the periphery of the lens
they get deviated towards the base of The ray SA, parallel to the
the prism-like structure of this part. A principal axis, passes through or
ray incident on the lens parallel to its appears to diverge from the focus
principal axis, therefore, converges F2 after refraction.
towards the central part of the lens and The ray S'B passing through the
passes through the point F1. The ray focus F1 or directed towards it
along the principal axis falls normally becomes parallel to the principal
on the central part of the lens that has axis after refraction. This follows
the shape of a slab with parallel faces. from the fact that the incident ray
This ray, therefore, goes without any and the refracted ray are
deviation after refraction through the reversible.
lens. In the case of a concave lens, the The ray SO, passing through the
action is just the opposite. The rays optical centre of the lens, goes
parallel to the principal axis bend away undeviated.
from the principal axis in this case Any two of the above three rays
[Fig. 10.14(b)]. are sufficient to construct a ray
Once we know how to determine diagram and to study image
the direction of the rays of light after formation by lenses.


Answer These f is the focal length of the lens.

1. Mention two common uses of lenses
Fig. 10.16 shows the ray diagram
in everyday life. for the formation of image. Note
2. The line joining the centres of that the image formed in this case
curvature of the two surfaces of a lens is real as it can be obtained on a
is called its _____________ _____. screen.
3. A convex lens is also known as a
_______ lens.
4. The point of the lens through which
the light goes undeviated after
refraction is known as _________.


Fig. 10.16 Image formed by a convex
A convex lens forms a real or a virtual lens lies between f and 2f
image of an object placed in front of if the object is placed
it. The nature, size and position of beyond 2f
the image formed by a convex lens
depend on the distance of the object Now place the candle at a
from it and its focal length. distance of 2f from the lens. Move
the screen until a sharp image of
the candle flame is formed on it.
Activity 6 You will find that the image is of
Take a lens of known focal length the same size as the candle flame
and fix it on to a lens holder. Fix a (Fig. 10.17). Again the image is
lighted candle at a distance greater
than twice the focal length from
the lens. Place a screen on the
other side of the lens. Make sure
that the flames of the candle and
the screen are at the same level as
the principal axis of the lens. Move
the screen back and forth until you
obtain a well-focussed or sharp Fig. 10.17 Image of the object formed
by a convex lens is at the
image of the candle flame on the same distance if it is placed
screen. You will find that the image at 2f
is inverted and smaller in size than
the flame (Fig. 10.16). The image real and inverted. If you measure
is formed between f and 2f where the distance of the image from the


lens, you will find that it is also You may not be able to get an
equal to 2f. Thus, when the object image if the candle flame is
is placed at a distance twice the exactly at the focus of the lens.
focal length of a convex lens, the Instead, you get a patch of light
image formed is real, inverted on the screen. This is because the
and of the same size as the object. rays of light become parallel after
Fig. 10. 17 shows the ray diagram refraction through the lens (Fig.
for the formation of image when 10.19). The image is said to form
the object is placed at a distance at infinity and it is real, inverted
twice its focal length. and very large in size.
Next, move the candle
further towards the lens,
between f and 2f, and obtain a
sharp image of its flame on the
screen. This image is now bigger
in size than the candle flame
though it is real and inverted as
before. Note that this image is
formed at a distance more than
Fig. 10.19 Image formed by a convex
2f. The ray diagram for the lens is at infinity if the
formation of this image is shown object is placed at its focus
in Fig. 10.18.
Finally, place the candle
between the focus point and the
convex lens. Try to obtain the

Fig. 10.18 Image formed by a

convex lens is beyond 2f
if the object is placed
between f and 2f Fig. 10.20 Image formed by a
convex lens is on the
Place the candle at the focus same side of the lens
of the lens. Try to obtain the as the object if the
image of the candle flame by object is placed
moving the screen backwards. between f and the lens


image on the screen. You will find are concerned. However, you must
that it is not possible to do so. If remember that a concave mirror
you look at the candle flame reflects light while a convex lens
through the lens, you will observe refracts it.
its enlarged and erect image. In A double concave lens, on the
this case, the image formed is other hand, always forms a virtual
virtual and, therefore, you could and diminished image of the object
not obtain it on the screen. Fig. irrespective of its distance from the
10.20 shows the ray diagram for lens. The ray diagram for the
the formation of the image when formation of image by a concave lens
the object is placed between the is shown in Fig. 10.21.
lens and its focus. Note that the Lenses are used for various
image is formed on the same side purposes. They are used in making
of the lens as the object.
The nature, size and location of
the image formed by a convex lens
for different positions of an object
with respect to it are given in Table
10.2. In the previous class, you have
studied about the image formed by a
concave mirror for different positions
of the object. If you compare the two, Fig. 10.21 Image formed by a concave lens
you will find a similarity as far as is always virtual irrespective of
nature, size and location of the image the position of the object

Table 10.2 : Position, Nature and Size of the Image of an Object Formed by a
Convex Lens
Position of the Object Position of the Image Nature of the Image Size of the Image
At infinity AT f Real Point image
Beyond 2f Between f and 2f Real and inverted Smaller than the
At 2f At 2f Real and inverted Same size as the
Between f and 2f Beyond 2f Real and inverted Larger than the
At f At infinity Real and inverted Very large than the
Between f and On the same side Virtual and erect Larger than the
the lens as the object object


microscopes, telescopes and frame with a handle to make it easy

cameras. They are also used for to use. It is used to get magnified and
making spectacles. We will consider erect image of small objects
some of the uses of lenses now. (Fig. 10.22). A lens of short focal
length is generally used for this
Answer These
purpose. A watchmakers glass is
1. If the image formed by a convex lens also a magnifying lens.
is real, inverted and of the same size
as the object, then it must be placed Microscope
at a point that is __________ times the
__________ __________ of the lens.
A Microscope is used to obtain an
2. A ray of light continues to move in the
enlarged image of very small objects
same direction even after refraction that cannot be seen with unaided or
through a lens. It means that the ray naked eyes. A magnifying glass may
passes through the ________________ be considered to be the simplest form
__________ of the lens. of a microscope. The most commonly
3. A lighted bulb placed at the focus of a used microscope has two convex
convex lens will produce a lenses fixed at two ends of a small
____________ beam of light.
cylindrical tube. Such a microscope
4. You are given a concave and a convex
lens. How will you identify them
is known as a compound microscope.
without touching their surface? Anton van Leeuwenhoek (16321723)
5. Are the pictures seen on the screen of invented the compound microscope.
a cinema hall real or virtual? The lens fixed at viewing or the upper
end of the microscope, which is used
10.7 APPLICATIONS OF LENSES to look at enlarged image of the
object, is known as its eyepiece. The
Magnifying glass object is kept in front of the lens at
A magnifying glass is, in fact, a convex the other end, which is known as the
lens. The lens is usually fixed to a objective of the microscope. The
distance of the object from the
objective lens is kept slightly more
than its focal length. This lens forms
a real, inverted and enlarged image
of the object. Since the image so
formed is real, it acts as an object for
the eyepiece lens. The distance
between the two lenses of the
Fig. 10.22 A magnifying lens is used to microscope is so adjusted that the
get an enlarged view of small image formed by the objective falls
objects between the eyepiece and its focus.


acts as the eyepiece while the other

as the objective of the telescope. The
objective of a telescope is a convex
lens with a large focal length. The size
of the objective is also taken as large
as possible so that it may collect more
light from a distant object. The
objective forms a real and very small
image of the distant object near its
focus. The real image formed by the
objective is inverted and acts as an
object for the eyepiece. The distance
between the objective and the
eyepiece in a telescope is so adjusted
that the image formed by the objective
lies between the eyepiece and its
focus. Therefore, the final image
formed by the eyepiece is enlarged
and virtual (Fig.10.24). Thus, the

Fig. 10.23 Ray diagram to show the

formation of image in a
compound microscope

The eyepiece, therefore, forms a further

enlarged but virtual image of the object Fig. 10.24 Ray diagram to explain
(Fig. 10. 23). formation of image by a
A telescope is a device that is used to final image of the object seen
get an enlarged view of distant objects, through the telescope is inverted
like the moon and the planets. These with respect to the object. However,
are known as astronomical it does not matter while viewing
telescopes. An astronomical astronomical objects. To observe
telescope in its simplest form has two enlarged and erect image of distant
lenses fixed at two ends of a long objects around us on the earth, one
cylindrical tube. One of the two lenses more lens is inserted between the


objective and the eyepiece. Such Photographic Camera

telescopes are known as terrestrial You might have clicked a camera to
telescopes. take a picture or seen others doing
You might be interested to know how a so. A photographic camera is yet
photographic film helps us to obtain another device that makes use of the
picture of an object. The photographic
films are made from thin, transparent
properties of lenses. A camera
sheets of special types of plastics. The essentially consists of a light proof box
plastic sheets are coated with a few that has a convex lens fixed on one
layers of light-sensitive chemicals to make face while a photographic film is kept
photographic film. Light-sensitive at the opposite face. The lens makes
chemicals have a special property. When
an image of the object to be
exposed to light, they undergo chemical
change and form new substances. The photographed, which is real, inverted
effect of light depends on its brightness. and smaller in size (Fig. 10.25). To
Brighter the light, more is the number of
layers of chemicals on the film that get
affected and undergo chemical change.
When the image of an object is formed
on the film by the camera, different parts
of it get affected in accordance with the
brightness of different parts of the object.
In a camera usually a roll of film is used.
A small part of the film is allowed to be in
front of the lens with the help of special
mechanism provided in the camera. Once
the entire roll has been exposed, it is Fig. 10.25 A photographic camera
washed in a solution of special chemicals.
The solution dissolves the light sensitive focus images of the objects at different
chemicals from the unexposed parts of distances on the film, the distance
film and in the process fixes the image between the lens of the camera and
on the film. This process is called
developing and this gives us the negative
the film can be adjusted. A simple
of the photographs taken with the activity may help you to understand
camera. The positive prints from the how the image is formed on the film
negatives are obtained on a special paper. in a camera.
Now-a- days cameras are also designed
to convert an image into electric signals
to get it on a computer screen or to record Activity 7
it on a videotape. It is now possible even
Take a convex lens and a piece of
to get a computer print of the picture
taken with such a camera. However, the cardboard that has a white sheet
lens still remains the most important of paper pasted on it. Standing
component of the camera. near a window hold the lens in


one hand and the cardboard in the

other. Move the lens back and
forth until you obtain a well-
focussed image of a building or a
tree that is illuminated with
sunlight. If you carefully study the
brightness of different portions of
the image on the screen, you will
find that it varies according to the
brightness of the corresponding
portions of the object. In a camera,
a photographic film replaces the
cardboard screen.
Fig. 10.26 Structure of the eye
LIVING LENS Fig. 10.26 shows a simplified
Our eyes enable us to see the view of the structure of our eyes. Our
beautiful world around us. The most eyes are shaped like a ball. The eye
important part of our eye is a convex lens in the front of the eyeball makes
lens like structure that is made of a real and inverted image of the
living cells. The lenses in our eyes are objects on the retina, which is located
as alive as any part of our body. The behind it. The retina is a thin tissue
eye lens has a variety of living cells. that has many layers of cells. The
Many of them are similar to those that most important layer of the retina
form other parts of our body. Yet each consists of nerve cells that are
cell in an eye lens is as clear as glass sensitive to the brightness as well as
to allow light to pass through it. to the colours of light. The nerve cells
How does an eye lens differ from carry the message about the image
a lens made of glass? You know that from the retina to the brain in the
a glass lens has a fixed thickness and form of special signals. The brain
therefore a fixed focal length. then interprets these signals and
However, you keep changing the enables us to see the objects we are
thickness of your eye lenses most of looking at.
the time and hence their focal length. The eye lens is held in its place
That is why you can see the printed by ciliary muscles attached to the
words in your book at one moment eyeball. The ciliary muscles contract
and those written on the blackboard or tighten up when you look at the
in the next. How does it become things close to you. As a result, the
possible? Let us try to find out. eye lens becomes thicker and


shortens its focal length. This enables some other reasons. These types of
eyes to form image on the retina of defect in vision can be corrected by
the objects close to you. On the other using spectacles with either concave
hand, the ciliary muscles relax or or convex lenses of appropriate focal
loosen up when you look at the length. Sometimes, both types of
distant objects. The relaxing of lenses may be required to correct the
muscles makes the eye lens thinner vision of a person.
and increases its focal length to focus
the image of distant objects on the Take Care of Your Eyes
retina. Our eyes are, perhaps, the most
Other parts of our eyes also help wonderful gift nature has provided
in their proper functioning. Some of to us. Remember that you have only
these parts are iris, pupil and cornea. two eyes. They must serve you for
Iris is the coloured part of the eyes, your whole life. You must take proper
which, in the case of majority of care of them and protect them
Indians, is brown or black. It controls against any possible damage. Some
the amount of light that can pass simple precautions that may help to
through the eye lens to the retina. protect your eyes are :
The dark spot in the centre of the iris
Wash your eyes at least twice a
is called pupil. Pupil is the opening
day with clean cold water. The
to the eye and that is why it appears
dark. In bright light, the iris water that has been boiled and
constricts the pupil to cut off excess then cooled should be preferred.
light. In the dark, the iris widens up Do not use too bright or too dim
the pupil to allow more light to enter light while reading or doing work
into the eye. A thin layer of a that requires a close look.
transparent material, which is Raise your eyes from time to time
known as cornea, covers the iris. The while you are reading, watching
main function of the cornea is to television or doing work that
protect the eyes, but to some extent requires a close look.
it also helps in focussing light. Do not read in a moving bus or a
A person with normal eyesight car. Avoid reading even in a
can clearly see both nearby and moving train.
distant objects. However, some Never rub your eyes if something
persons are unable to see clearly gets into them. In most
either nearby or distant objects or situations, your tears will wash
both. Such a defect in vision may it out. If that does not help, eyes
occur due to weakening action of should be washed with clean cold
ciliary muscles either due to age or water.


Carelessness while playing or spectacles if the doctor so

inattentiveness to surroundings recommends. If you find any of
may sometimes cause injury to your friends or family members
your eyes. You must pay facing such a problem you must
attention to sharp projections, insist on them to consult a
like hooks, wall fixings, twigs or doctor.
branches of trees while walking,
running, cycling or attending to
other daily activities. Answer These
In the event of an injury or any 1. Name the scientist who was the first
other problem to the eyes, you to make a compound microscope.
must consult a doctor. Self- 2. Microscopes are used to get a
treatment could be dangerous to _________ image of a _______ object
while a telescope is used to obtain a
the eyes.
_______ image of a ____________ object.
Do you squeeze your eyes to see?
3. A camera has a __________ lens in it.
Do you find that to read
4. Our eye makes an image of objects at
comfortably you have to either the __________.
bring the book closer or move it 5. Name the instrument you will use to
further? If it is so, you must get observe rings of the planet Saturn.
your eyesight checked and use

Key Words
Angle of incidence, Angle of refraction, Ciliary muscles, Concave lens,
Convergent lens, Convex lens, Cornea, Dispersion, Divergent lens, Emergent
ray, Focal length, Focus, Incident ray, Infra-red, Iris, Magnifying lens,
Microscope, Optical centre, Principal axis, Pupil, Real image, Refraction,
Refractive index, Refractive ray, Retina, Spectrum, Telescope, Ultra-violet


 Refraction takes place when light enters from one transparent medium
to the another.
 Objects kept partly in a transparent liquid, like water, appear to bend
at the surface.
 The speed of light is different in different transparent media. Light
travels with maximum speed in vacuum.


 The ratio of speed of light in two media is expressed as refractive index

of one medium with respect to the other.
 The angle of incidence is larger than the angle of refraction, when light
travels from an optically rarer to an optically denser medium.
 A ray incident obliquely on a rectangular glass slab and the emergent
ray corresponding to it are parallel but laterally displaced with respect
to each other.
 Refraction of sunlight through a glass prism splits it into a band of
seven colours.
 The seven colours in the spectrum of white light are Violet, Indigo,
Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. These are often represented by
the acronym VIBGYOR.
 Lenses could be divergent or convergent depending on the nature of
the curvature of their surfaces.
 A convex lens is a converging lens, which can produce a real or virtual
image of an object depending on its position with respect to it.
 A concave lens is a divergent lens, which always produces a virtual
image of the object irrespective of where it is placed.
 Convex lenses are used as a magnifying glass and also in making
telescopes and microscopes.
 The most important component of a photographic camera is its lens,
which forms a real image of the objects on the film.
 Our eyes have a convex lens whose focal length can be changed at will
with the action of ciliary muscles.


1. The point where the rays from a point object meet after refraction
through a lens is called the
(i) focus
(ii) centre of curvature
(iii) optic centre
(iv) image point.


2. Which of the following material cannot be used to make a lens?

(i) Plastics
(ii) Water
(iii) Clay
(iv) Glass
3. Which of the following would you prefer to read very small letters
printed on the pages of a dictionary?
(i) A convex lens of focal length 100 cm.
(ii) A concave lens of focal length 100 cm.
(iii) A concave lens of focal length 5 cm.
(iv) A convex lens of focal length 5 cm.
4. What is meant by the refractive index of a material?
5. Give any two examples of refraction of light from daily life that are
not given in this chapter.
6. What will be the speed of light in a medium of refractive index 1.6 with
respect to vacuum, if the speed of light in vacuum is 3 00 000 km/s?
7. An object is placed at a distance of 20 cm from a convex lens of focal
length 15 cm. Draw a ray diagram to show the position and size of
its image formed by the lens.
8. You are given two convex lenses of focal length 2 cm and 20 cm.
Which one of them would you like to use as an objective in a
microscope? Give reason for your answer.
9. You are given four lenses; two of them are convex lenses of focal
length 200 cm and 10 cm while the other two are concave lenses of
focal length 100 cm and 10 cm. Which of these lenses would you
use as objective and eyepiece to make a telescope?
10. With the help of a diagram explain the working of a photographic camera.
11. Draw a labelled diagram to show different parts of the human eye.
12. Why is it important to take care of our eyes? Mention any two activities
that may cause damage to our eyes.


Electricity and

Y ou have learnt about electric

charges in your earlier classes.
You have learnt that there are two
electric current and about simple
electric circuits.
You might have played with
types of charges, called positive and magnets. You will learn about
negative charges. Most of the bodies magnets and their basic properties.
around us have equal amount of Magnetic effect of current will also
positive and negative charges and, be discussed. Electricity is now the
thus, are as a whole neutral. You need of every household. The device
have also learnt that charges of the used to produce electricity on a large
same kind repel one another but scale is electric generator. The
those of the opposite kind attract principle on which an electric
each other. A body can be charged generator works, will also be
by friction, by contact or by discussed, in brief, in this chapter.
induction. All bodies consist of atoms
the building block of matter. An 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT
atom is electrically neutral but In earlier classes, you have learnt
consists of positively charged that an uncharged body can be
proton(s) and negatively charged charged by connecting it to a
electron(s). In the process of charged body with a metal wire. In
charging, electrons are transferred the process of transfer, charge
from one body to the other. flows through the wire in a fraction
The flow of charge forms an of a second. The flow of electric
electric current. In this chapter, you charge constitutes an electric
will learn about some sources of current or simply current.

In the example described above, 11.2 SOURCES OF ELECTRIC

the flow of charge is due to transfer C URRENT
of negatively charged particles called
electrons. The current in the metal Voltaic Cell
wire, therefore, is due to the flow of A successful attempt to produce an
electrons. However, conventionally electric current was made by
the direction of current is taken as Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) in Italy
opposite to the direction of motion of in 1790. The arrangement used by
electrons. Also note that this chapter Volta is shown in Fig. 11.1. It
uses the phrase direction of current consisted of strips of two different
and not the direction of flow of metals (copper and zinc) kept in
current, because the term current water containing an acid or a salt
itself implies flow. dissolved in it. Volta discovered that
Let us again consider a charged if the two metal strips are connected
and an uncharged body connected with a wire, a current flows through
with a metal wire. Suppose, we have it. Thus, Volta succeeded in inventing
an arrangement by which we can a source of current. Such a simple
supply as many electrons to the source of current is known as a
charged body as are moved out of voltaic cell, in honour of its inventor.
it through the wire. Suppose, we The solution of an acid or a salt
also have an arrangement to remove in water that is used in a cell is called
as many electrons as are electrolyte. The two metal strips of
transferred to the uncharged body the cell are known as electrodes.
at the other end of the wire. Can Thus, in a voltaic cell, the electrodes
you guess what would happen to are made of copper and zinc. The
the flow of electrons through the
wire? The flow of electrons through
the wire will continue as long as we
can maintain this arrangement. In
other words, a continuous current
through the wire can be obtained if
somehow we can maintain supply
of electrons, at its one end and
remove equal number of them at the
other end. A source of electric
current does exactly that. Let us
study some common sources of
electric current.
Fig. 11.1 A voltaic cell


electrolyte used in a voltaic cell is Daniel Cell

usually dilute solution of sulphuric The principle of a voltaic cell was
acid. used by J.F. Daniel (1790-1845) in
A chemical reaction begins when 1836 to construct another cell. A
the metal strips are placed in the Daniel cell consists of a glass
electrolyte in a cell. It results in container, which is divided into two
accumulation of positive charges on halves with a porous membrane
one metal strip or plate and negative
charges on the other. The negative
charges get accumulated on the zinc
plate while positive charges
accumulate on the copper plate in a
voltaic cell. When the two metal
plates are connected with a wire, the
negative charges from zinc plate
begin to flow to the copper plate,
giving rise to a current in the wire.
When negative charges reach the
copper plate, they get neutralised by
the positive charges present on it.
However, the amount of electric Fig. 11.2 A Daniel cell
charge lost, by one of the plates due
(Fig. 11.2). One compartment
to transfer and the other in
contains a solution of zinc sulphate
neutralisation, is replenished by the
while the other has a solution of
chemical reaction in the voltaic cell.
copper sulphate. These solutions act
Thus, the voltaic cell makes it
as electrolytes in the cell. A zinc plate
possible to maintain a continuous
is dipped in zinc sulphate solution
flow of charges, that is, an electric
while the copper sulphate solution
current. A voltaic cell can, therefore,
has a copper plate dipped in it. The
act as a source of current as long
negative charges get accumulated on
as the chemical reaction continues the zinc plate due to its reaction with
in it. the electrolyte and, therefore, it acts
The voltaic cell, however, was not as a negatively charged plate.
found to be a convenient source of Similarly, the copper plate becomes
electric current because it did not positively charged due to its reaction
provide a steady current for a long with the electrolyte in which it is kept.
time. You will learn in higher classes In some forms of Daniel cell, the zinc
why it is so. plate is immersed in dilute sulphuric

acid. The zinc dissolves, forming zinc pulp soaked in a solution of

sulphate solution. ammonium chloride. Along with it is
The Daniel cell was an kept a mixture of zinc chloride,
improvement over the voltaic cell as powdered coke, graphite and
it could supply a steadier current for manganese dioxide. A carbon rod
a longer duration. However, the use with a metal cap on its top is fixed in
of electrolytes in liquid form in these the middle of the dry cell. These days,
cells made them cumbersome to carry instead of zinc container, a container
from one place to another. Thus, a made of a hard cardboard with its
search for a still more suitable source bottom made of zinc is also used. The
of current continued. A French container is sealed on the top with a
scientist Georges Leclanche (1839- suitable sealing material. The positive
1882), overcame this disadvantage charge accumulates at the carbon
and developed a dry cell in 1866. rod due to chemical reaction that
takes place between the ammonium
Dry Cell
chloride and zinc. The negative
You are familiar with dry cells, which charge accumulates at the zinc
are used in torches, transistor radios, container.
toys, clocks and for many other The dry cell is not completely dry
purposes. Do you know what it as its name suggests, but it is
contains inside? Try to cut open a comparatively dry in comparison
used dry cell. If you do so, you will with those cells that have electrolyte
find that a dry cell usually consists in a liquid form. A chemical reaction
of a cylindrical container made of zinc takes place between the electrolyte
as shown in Fig. 11.3. The electrolyte present inside and the electrode
is in the form of a paste of ammonium when a current is drawn from it. The
chloride, which is held with a paper chemicals present in it are spent after
the dry cell has been used for a long
time. When the entire chemicals in
the cell get used up, it can no longer
produce current. We then say that
the cell is dead. The cell has then to
be replaced with a fresh one.
In many gadgets and appliances
more than one dry cell is used. For
example, in a torch, usually two cells
are used. Similarly, in a transistor
radio, three to four cells are used.
Fig. 11.3 A cut view of a dry cell
Have you ever noticed how the cells

A single secondary cell is seldom

used. It is always in the form of a
battery containing a number of cells
connected with each other just like
primary cells in a torch (Fig. 11.5).

Fig. 11.4 A battery of two dry cells

are placed in a torch or a transistor

radio ? The positive terminal, that is
the carbon cap of one cell, is kept in
contact with the bottom of the other
made of zinc. In other words, the
positive terminal of one cell is kept
in contact with the negative terminal
of the other. When two or more cells
are joined together in this way, we
get a battery of cells (Fig. 11.4).
The voltaic cell, Daniel cell and Fig. 11.5 A lead-acid storage battery
dry cell described above are also
known as primary cells. Such a cell One battery usually consists of six
cannot be used once its chemicals cells. The electrolyte used in most
get used up. However, there are secondary batteries is a dilute
other types of cells in which it is solution of sulphuric acid while
possible to restore the chemicals electrodes are made of plates of lead
present in the cell once it has been oxide and spongy lead. These
used for some time. This is done by batteries are also known as lead
passing a current in the cell in accumulators or storage batteries.
opposite direction, that is from its The batteries used in cars, trucks,
positive terminal to negative inverters are examples of secondary
terminal. The current passed in this batteries.
manner starts a chemical reaction,
which again produces the chemicals Button Cell
initially present in the cell. This Some dry cells look like buttons in
process is known as charging. These shape and size and therefore, are
types of cells are known as popularly known as button cells.
secondary cells. The French They are compact and have long life.
scientist Gaston Plante developed Examples are mercury oxide and
the first secondary cell in 1854. silver oxide cells. A mercury oxide cell

has mercury oxide as the cathode through the key with connecting
and zinc as anode. In a silver oxide wires as shown in Fig. 11.6(a).
cell, silver oxide is the cathode and Plug the key to complete the
zinc is the anode. These cells are used circuit. What do you observe?
in watches, calculators, hearing aids, Does the bulb begin to glow?
and many other devices. The bulb begins to glow as soon
as the circuit is closed. This is so
Answer These because as soon as you plug the key,
1. What is current? electrons flows through the bulb that
2. Name two sources of electric current. makes it glow. In this situation, the
3. Who discovered the dry cell? connecting wires, the bulb and the
4. What is meant by a battery ? key provide a path to current from
one terminal of the cell to the other
and we say that the circuit is closed.
11.3 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS On the other hand, if the key is open
The path of electric current is or the wires are disconnected at any
commonly referred to as an electric point, the bulb stops glowing. The
circuit. Let us do the following activity circuit is then said to be broken or
to learn more about an electric open. Thus, a closed circuit provides
circuit. a path for electric current.
Drawing a circuit which shows
the cells, bulbs and switches, as
Activity 1
they actually look like, is
Take a torch bulb with holder, a cumbersome. We, therefore, use
dry cell with holder, a key and symbols to describe different
pieces of connecting wire. components of a circuit. Fig. 11.7
Connect the bulb and the cell shows symbols for some components.

(a) (b)
Fig. 11.6 (a) An electric circuit in which
a bulb is connected to a cell
through a key, (b) circuit Fig. 11.7 Symbols for some circuit
diagram for the electric circuit components


Fig. 11.6(a) shows the circuit with

an artists drawing of the Activity 2
components. Fig. 11.6(b) shows the
same circuit in terms of symbols. Set up an electric circuit as
You can see how easy it is to draw a shown in Fig. 11.6 (b) as you
circuit using symbols. did in Activity 1. You have seen
that the bulb begins to glow as
11.4 CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS soon as the key is plugged. Now
You have seen that a metal wire is remove the key and connect
used to provide a path to an electric crocodile clips at the free ends
current. You are aware that the of two wires. Hold a matchstick
materials that allow the current to between the clips [Fig. 11.8(a)].
pass through them are called
conductors of electricity or simply
conductors. All metals are
conductors of electricity. Some non-
metals like graphite are also (a)
conductors of electricity. On the
other hand, the materials that do
not allow current to pass through
them are called insulators. Mica,
rubber, plastics, glass, wood, dry
air and most of the gases are
examples of insulators. Let us do
an activity to find out whether a (b)
given material is a conductor or an Fig.11.8 Testing whether a material
insulator. conducts electricity

Table 11.1
S.No. Material Bulb glows Conductor/Insulator
1. Matchstick
2. Paper-strip
3. Eraser
4. Graphite in a pencil
5. Paper clip


Does the bulb glow? Repeat the

activity using different types of Activity 3
materials, say a strip of paper,
a piece of chalk, a drinking Take some water in a cup or
straw, a piece of plastics, a saucer made of plastic. Set up the
paper clip and a rubber eraser circuit as in Activity 2. Cut one
[Fig. 11.8(b)]. Also, try a piece of the connecting wires in the
of the lead (graphite) of a circuit, say the one connecting
pencil. You can do so by the bulb and the key [Fig.
sharpening the pencil at its 11.8(a)]. This will provide you
both ends [Fig.11.8(b)]. Take with two free ends of connecting
care that current flows for a wires. Now dip the free ends of
short time in each case. Note two connecting wires into the
in each case whether the bulb water in the cup and insert the
glows or not and enter your key in the plug to close the
observations in Table 11.1. circuit. Does the bulb glow ? If
Based on your observations yes, the water between the two
state whether a given free ends of wire is conducting
substance is a conductor or an electricity. Replace the water with
insulator. some common liquids, like
You can choose as many kerosene and vegetable oil, and
materials of common use as you like repeat the above activity. You can
to see whether they are conductors also replace water with the
or insulators. You can also do a solutions of fruit juices, acids, alkali
similar activity to find whether a or salts in water. In each case, note
given liquid is a conductor or an whether the bulb glows or not when
insulator. the free ends of the connecting

Table 11.2
S.No. Material Bulb glows Conductor/Insulator
1. Water
2. Solution of common salt
3. Coconut oil
4. Kerosene
5. Lime juice


wires are dipped in the solution and them. You have learnt some
the key is plugged. Record your properties of magnets in earlier
observations in Table 11.2. classes. Let us study more about
From Activities 2 and 3, it can be magnets and their properties.
concluded that both solids and The magnetic properties of
liquids could be conductors of electric materials were known from ancient
current. From these observations, times. A mineral discovered around
can you infer which types of solid and 800 BC in the town of Magnesia was
liquid substances are conductors of found to have a wondrous property. It
electric current? It can be seen that could attract pieces of iron towards it.
all metallic substances and solutions This mineral is called Magnetite after
of acids, bases and certain salts are the place where it was discovered.
conductors. Knowledge about the Further, it was found that thin strips
conducting and insulating property of magnetite always align themselves
of substances is made use of in in a particular direction when
choosing materials for the suspended freely in air. For this
manufacture of electrical components property, it was given the name
and appliances, like switches, cables, leading stone or lead stone. Later, it
electric iron, toasters and ovens. was found that magnetite is mainly
Those parts of these appliances, composed of oxides of iron (Fe3O4).
which are likely to be handled by us, These are now known as magnets and
are made of insulating materials. the study of their properties is called
Similarly, conducting materials are magnetism.
used to make those components that William Gilbert did the first
detailed study of magnets and their
are meant for passage of electric
properties in 1600 and wrote a book
on it. Magnets are now widely used
Answer These for a variety of purposes. Magnets
form an essential component of all
1. What is meant by an electric circuit?
2. Draw symbol of (i) a cell, (ii) a battery generators used for the production
and (iii) a key. of electricity. They are also used in
3. What is a conductor? Give two electric motors that are an essential
examples. component of many machines and
4. What is an insulator? Give three gadgets that operate on electricity.
Modern electronic gadgets, like
television, radio and tape recorder
11.5 MAGNETISM also make use of magnets. Working
You might have seen or played with of many of these devices also depends
magnets. Many toys have magnets in on the magnetic effect of electric


current, which you will learn later in magnet come to rest. Mark the
this chapter. position of two ends of the
Let us do some activities to study magnet on the table. Rotate the
the properties of magnets. magnet slightly by pushing its
one end with your finger. Let the
magnet come to rest again. What
Activity 4
do you observe? You will find that
Take a bar magnet. Place it on a the magnet comes to rest in the
sling suspended freely with a same direction as before. You will
string tied at its middle as shown find that it always comes to rest
in Fig. 11.9(a). Make sure that the in the same direction irrespective
magnet is horizontal and can of whether it is made to rotate
rotate freely in the sling. Let the clockwise or anti-clockwise with
a gentle push or a hard one.
Draw the line joining the
points that mark the position of
two ends of the magnet in its
position of rest. This line shows
(a) the north-south direction at the
place where the magnet is
suspended. This experiment
shows that a magnet has the
tendency to align itself along the
North and South Poles of the
earth if it is allowed to move
freely. The end of the magnet that
points towards the north
direction is called the north-
seeking end, or the North Pole.
The other end is the south-
Fig. 11.9 (a) A freely suspended bar seeking end or the South Pole.
magnet aligns itself in N-S This property of the magnets is
direction; (b) a compass; used in making a magnetic
(c) when the north pole of compass, which is a convenient
another magnet is brought
device to find directions at any
close to the N-pole of the
suspended magnet, the place [Fig. 11.9(b)]. A magnetic
suspended N-pole moves compass is nothing but a small
away magnet enclosed in a glass case,


which is pivoted at its centre so magnet. We can, therefore, conclude

that it can rotate freely. When that the south pole of the earths
placed on a flat surface, like a magnet is near the geographical
table top, the needle of a compass north pole and the north pole of the
will soon come to rest pointing earths magnet is near the geographic
in the north-south direction. south pole (Fig. 11.10).

Activity 5
Take two bar magnets. Suspend
one of them as in Activity 4. Mark
its north and south poles. Now
bring the north pole of the second
magnet near the north pole of the
suspended magnet [Fig. 11.9(c)].
What do you observe? Next, bring
the south pole of the bar magnet
held in your hand near the south
pole of the suspended magnet
and note your observation.
You will observe that the north
poles of two magnets repel one
another. The same is true for their Fig. 11.10 The earth behaves like a bar
magnet with its north pole
south poles. Now, bring the north pole
towards geographic south pole
of the magnet in your hand near the and south pole towards
south pole of the suspended magnet. geographic north pole
What do you observe? You will find
that the pole of the suspended magnet The nature of force between the
gets attracted towards the magnet in two like or two unlike poles of a
your hand. This shows that unlike magnet is similar to that between two
poles attract each other. like and unlike electric charges. Since
You have seen that a bar magnet, positive and negative charges are
which is free to move, always points found to exist separately, you might
in the north-south direction. This be tempted to believe that a single
happens because the earth itself North or a single South pole could also
behaves like a bar magnet. You know exist in nature. But this is not true.
that the north pole of a magnet is Magnetic poles do not exist
attracted to the south pole of another separately. We can never separate or


isolate a north pole of a magnet from You may have discovered as a

its south pole. This is true for all child that a magnet attracts not
magnets including the bar magnets. only other magnets but also attracts
Thus, it is not possible to obtain a nails, paper clips and other objects
single north or south pole by cutting made of iron. Have you ever tried
it into two pieces. If you cut a bar to bring an iron nail near another
magnet into two halves, you will end iron nail that is sticking to one end
up by having two new magnets, each of a magnet (Fig. 11.12)? If you do
with its own north and south poles so, you will find that the nail sticks
(Fig. 11.11). If we further divide the to the free end of the iron nail,
which is in contact with the magnet.
In other words, the nail in contact
with, say south pole of the magnet,
behaves as if it has become a
magnet itself. That end of the nail,
which is in contact with south pole
of the magnet acts like a north pole
while its other end as the south
pole. We say that the nail has been
magnetised. But, the nail is
magnetised only temporarily. This
can be confirmed by detaching
the nails away from the
magnet. The nails magnetism
Fig. 11.11 Dividing a magnet successively
disappears immediately. The nail so
would still produce tiny magnets,
each with its north pole and south

two pieces of the magnet, we would

get four new magnets, each
possessing a north and a south pole.
If we go on so dividing a magnet
indefinitely, we will get extremely
small pieces of bar magnets, but we
will never succeed in isolating its poles
to obtain a north pole separate from Fig. 11.12 The nail sticking to one end of the
a south pole. Magnetic poles always magnet behaves like a temporary
exist in opposite pairs. magnet and attracts another nail


magnetised is, thus, a temporary

magnet. But in many applications,
we need permanent magnets.
Most permanent magnets are
mainly made of ALNICO, an alloy
of ALuminium, NIckel and CObalt.
These are permanent magnets and (a) (b)
retain their magnetism for a long
Fig. 11.13 (a) A compass kept near a
time. These days, permanent wire shows the north-south
magnets of different shapes and direction (b) the needle of
sizes are being made of ferrite. the compass shows a
These being light, strong and deflection when a current
is passed through the wire
permanent find wide applications.
You might have seen them in your Does the compass needle still
magnetic toys. point in the same direction
[Fig. 11.13(b)]? Take out the key
to stop current through the wire.
M AGNETISM What happens to the magnetic
Magnetism and electricity were needle? Does it again point in the
considered to be two separate original direction? Move the
physical phenomena for a long time. compass to different points on the
However, in 1820, the Danish table at varying distances from
physicist Hans Christian Oerested the wire. Observe the amount of
(1777-1851) made an important deflection in the compass needle
discovery that established a relation in each case. You will find that
between electricity and magnetism. the compass needle gets deflected
Let us do an activity to study the as soon as a current is passed
same. through the wire. You know that
the magnetic needle gets deflected
only if a magnet is brought near
Activity 6 it. This experiment shows that a
Fix a wire along the edge of a table. current-carrying wire also
Place a magnetic compass near behaves like a magnet. When the
the wire and note the direction of current is stopped, the associated
its needle [Fig. 11.13(a)]. Connect magnetic property also vanishes.
the two ends of the wire to a cell This is shown by the return of the
through a key. Insert the key in compass needle to the original
its plug. What do you observe? position.


When an electric current flows

through a coil of wire, the coil
behaves like a permanent magnet.
When this current-carrying coil is
brought near a suspended bar
magnet, one side of the coil repels
the north pole of the magnet. The
other side of the coil attracts the north
pole of the magnet. Thus, a current-
carrying coil has both a north and a
south pole like a magnet. Such a
magnet is called electromagnet. The
strength of an electromagnet can be
increased by placing an iron rod or
core inside the coil. You can make a
simple electromagnet by passing a
current through a wire wound on a
nail or an iron rod. Fig. 11.14 Electromagnets are used to lift
Electromagnets are widely used heavy loads
in industries and also in many zinc, brass, plastics and paper. They
situations in daily life. They are used are also used to remove foreign
in cranes to lift heavy loads of scrap bodies like iron filings from a
iron and iron sheets. The end of such patients body, particularly from the
a crane that has a strong eyes. Electromagnets are also used
electromagnet attached to it, is in electric bells, telegraphs,
brought near the load to be lifted and telephones, speakers, audio and
the current through it is switched on. video tape recorders and players, etc.
The load containing magnetic
materials sticks to the electromagnet. Electric Bell
The crane is then moved to the place An electric bell consists of a coil of
where the load is to be carried. After wire wound on an iron core that acts
that, the current through the as an electromagnet. An armature
electromagnet is switched off as a with a hammer at one end is kept
result of which the load gets detached close to the electromagnet facing its
from the crane (Fig. 11.14). poles (Fig. 11.15). When a current
Electromagnets are also used to flows through the coil, it becomes an
separate magnetic substances, like electromagnet and attracts the
iron, nickel and cobalt, from non- armature made of iron. As a result,
magnetic substances, like copper, the armature gets pulled towards the

armature without hammer and gong

is often used as a buzzer.
Electromagnetic Induction
You have learnt in the previous
section that an electric current
produces magnetic field. Is the
reverse also true? Yes, the
reverse effect of using magnets to
produce electricity was discovered
independently in 1831 by Michael
Faraday in England and Josheph
Henry in America. Both discovered
Fig. 11.15 An electric bell that electric current can be produced
in a wire (in the form of a loop or coil)
magnet. In the process, the hammer by simply moving a magnet in and
at the end of the armature strikes the out of it [Fig. 11.16(a)]. No battery or
gong of the bell to produce a sound. other voltage source is needed. The
To make the bell ring same effect is observed if a part
continuously, a device is needed to of a wire loop is moved through
keep the hammer moving back and the magnetic field of a magnet
forth. This device is called an [Fig. 11.16(b)].
interrupter. The armature of the
bell is designed in such a manner
that current flows to the coil of the
electromagnet through a contact
near its movable end. When the
electromagnet pulls the armature, a
break occurs in the circuit and the
current through the coil ceases to
flow. Once the electromagnet loses
its property, it no longer attracts the
(a) (b)
armature. Armature is then pulled
back by a spring attached to it, Fig 11.16 Electromagnetic induction
which brings back the contact to its
position to complete the circuit Investigations by Faraday and
again. Current then again flows in Henry showed that:
the coil and the cycle is repeated (i) A current flows when the wire is
automatically. The vibrating moved relative to the magnet.


(ii) A current flows when the magnet induction. Electric generators which
is moved relative to the wire. are used to produce electricity work
(iii) No current flows when both wire on this principle.
and magnet are stationary
relative to one another. Answer These
(iv) Reversing the direction of movement 1. What is a magnet? How is a temporary
of the wire or the magnet reverses magnet different from a permanent
the direction of the current. magnet?
(v) The magnitude of the current 2. What happens when the north pole
of a magnet is brought near (i) the
increases with the number of
north pole, (ii) the south pole of a
loops of wire in the field, the freely suspended magnet?
strength of the magnet and the 3. Can we have an isolated north pole
speed of the movement. or south pole?
The phenomenon of inducing 4. What is an electromagnet? Give two
voltage by changing the magnetic applications of electromagnets.
field in a coil is called electromagnetic

Key Words
Battery Charge, Current, Cell, Electrode, Electrolyte, Voltaic cell, Button cell,
Daniel cell, Dry cell, Primary cell, Secondary cell, Storage battery, Circuit,
Conductor, Insulator, Magnet, North Pole, South Pole, Attraction, Repulsion,
Electromagnet, Electric bell, Electromagnetic induction, Electric generator


 Electric charges can be made to flow in a conductor. Such a flow of

charges is called an electric current.
 Materials, which do not allow an electric current to pass through them
are called insulators.
 Cells are sources of electric current. Examples are voltaic cell, Daniel
cell, button cell and dry cell. These cells are also known as primary cells.
 As the chemicals in a cell are used up, the cells stops supplying current.
 Lead storage battery is an example of a secondary cell. It can be recharged.
 Button cells are made of special materials, which are used as sources
of current in many devices.
 Some materials like the mineral magnetite, show magnetic properties.
That is, they attract pieces of iron. They also tend to orient themselves
along the north-south direction. They are called magnets.


 The north-pointing end of a magnet is called its north pole and the
south-pointing end is called its south pole.
 Like poles of two magnets repel each other while their unlike poles attract.
 The earth also behaves like a giant magnet whose south pole is in the
direction of its geographical north. The north pole of the earths
imaginary magnet is in the direction of its geographical south.
 Magnetic poles do not exist separately. They always exist in opposite pairs.
 A current-carrying wire behaves like a magnet.
 A current-carrying coil makes an electromagnet. The strength of an
electromagnet can be increased by placing an iron rod inside the coil.
 Magnetic effect of current is used to design many useful devices.
 The phenomenon of inducing voltage by changing the magnetic field
through a coil is called electromagnetic induction. Electric generators
work on this principle.


1. List the appliances around you that depend on electricity for their
operation. List the appliances that do not use electrical energy.
2. What energy is converted to electrical energy in an electric cell?
3. What is the difference between a voltaic cell and a dry cell?
4. Make a list of materials around you which conduct electricity and a
list of those that do not.
5. Describe a simple experiment to test whether a given material is a
conductor or an insulator.
6. What is a button cell? Write its two uses.
7. Explain the statement that repulsion is a sure evidence of a
permanent magnet.
8. If you suspend a circular loop of wire, carrying an electric current,
by a thread, how will you expect it to align itself ?
9. Describe a simple experiment to show that electric current produces
a magnetic effect.
10. Describe the working of an electric bell.
11. What is electromagnetic induction? Describe in brief the main
observations made by Faraday and Henry about this effect.


Sources of

I n previous classes, you have learnt

about energy, its different forms
and that energy can be converted
petroleum and natural gas, are
getting depleted. So, we must use
reserves of these fuels very
from one form to another. Modern carefully.
living uses a lot of energy. We get In addition to fuels, we also
most of the energy required by us utilise many other sources of energy.
from fuels and electricity. Solar Attempts are also being made to
energy is also available to us in the develop new or alternative sources of
form of a variety of fuels that have energy. In this chapter, we shall learn
been stored in the earths crust. about different sources of energy,
Coal, petroleum and natural gas are types of fuels, and why we should use
examples of such fuels. The term them judiciously.
fuel is used for any material which 12.1 SOURCES OF ENERGY
provides heat on burning. However,
the known reserves of these fuels
are limited and are not sufficient to RENEWABLE
meet our demands. You have learnt The energy of flowing water, wind,
that energy can be converted from tides and biogas are examples of
one form to another. But, once fuels some sources of energy that come
are used, it is not possible to get directly or indirectly from the sun.
back fuels from the forms of energy The energy of these sources is
these get converted into after their continually replenished through a
use. Therefore, conventional number of natural processes. These
sources of energy, such as coal, processes, like the water cycle, are

part of our natural environment. We

Answer These
use the energy from these sources by
converting it as electrical energy or 1. What are renewable and non-
renewable sources of energy?
some other forms. We have also 2. Give two examples each of renewable
developed many devices that enable and non-renewable sources of energy.
us to use solar energy directly to meet
our demand for energy. The sources 12.2 BURNING AND COMBUSTION
of energy derived from solar energy,
whether directly or indirectly, are You know that a fuel is a source of
available to us as long as we continue energy. But to utilise its energy, a fuel
to receive light and heat from the sun. has to be burnt. The process of
These types of sources are, therefore, burning of a fuel is called
known as renewable sources
sources. Wood, combustion
combustion. Usually, during
charcoal and many agricultural combustion, a material or substance
wastes are also used as fuels or combines with the oxygen of the air
sources of energy. Wood can be to produce heat and light. But
replenished by growing more trees. combustion can also take place in the
But, you know that a tree takes many absence of oxygen. For example,
years to mature before it can provide magnesium undergoes combustion
wood to be used as a fuel. Thus, wood in presence of chlorine. In fact,
could be considered as a renewable combustion is an oxidation process.
source of energy provided adequate You will learn more about it in higher
measures are taken to grow more classes.
trees. The temperature at which a
We use fuels, like coal, kerosene particular substance burns in the
and cooking gas, for domestic presence of air is called ignition
purposes. Petrol and natural gas are temperature. Have you ever
used as fuels in automobiles and in thought why does a can full of
industries. These sources of energy kerosene or petrol not catch fire on
are known as non-renewable its own? Or, why a piece of paper
sources. These sources have formed or wood takes some time before it
through a series of processes that catches fire? This is so because a
have taken place over millions of substance does not catch fire if its
years. We shall learn about some of temperature is lower than its
these later in this chapter. Once ignition temperature. Ignition
these fuels are used, they will not temperature is different for
be available again. Therefore, there different substances. The ignition
is a need to save them and use temperature of petrol is lower than
renewable sources of energy. that of kerosene. Since petrol can


easily vapourise and catch fire, we with the shortage in supply due to
do not use petrol in stoves. large-scale felling of trees. The
Our daily experience tells us supply of wood can be improved
that some materials are combustible through sustained and serious
while others are not. Paper, straw, efforts to plant more trees than are
cooking gas, kerosene, cow-dung utilised for various purposes.
cakes and coal are combustible. However, using firewood, cow-dung
Stones, glass and cement are cakes and agricultural wastes as a
examples of non-combustible fuel has some other disadvantages
materials. as well. Burning of these fuels often
produces a lot of smoke, which, in
12.3 TYPES OF FUELS turn, can cause respiratory
You know that the term fuel is used diseases. Moreover, traditional
for any material from which energy chulhas used do not completely
or heat can be obtained on burning. burn firewood, cow-dung cake and
Make a list of fuels that are familiar other agricultural wastes. Often a
to all students in your class. Your lot of energy, that is heat, go waste
list may include fuels like wood, due to poor design of these chulhas.
charcoal, coal, cow-dung cake, Inefficient chulhas, further add to
kerosene and LPG or cooking gas. the problem of air pollution.
Can you classify them in any Coal is another important solid
manner ? You know that some of the fuel used in cities, industries and
fuels in your list are solids, some power stations. Coal is believed to
liquids and the rest gases. Thus, one have been formed by the slow
criteria to classify fuels could be their compression of plant bodies of large
state solid, liquid and gaseous in forests that existed on earth 300
which they become available to us. millions years ago. Due to certain
Solid Fuels changes that took place on earth at
that time, these plant bodies got
Commonly used solid fuels in our buried under the surface. Gradually
country are firewood, charcoal, these were covered with many layers
cow-dung cakes, agricultural of soil. The intense heat and high
wastes and coal. In rural areas, pressure ultimately converted them
firewood, agricultural wastes and into coal. For this reason, coal is
cow-dung cakes are the major called a fossil fuel.
fuel Coal contains
sources of energy. However, wood mainly carbon and is used to heat
is becoming more and more scarce water in industries.
and expensive due to increase in its Coal deposits are found on the
demand for other purposes coupled surface of earth as well as below it.

mass is burnt completely under ideal

What are Fossils?
conditions. Calorific values of
The term fossil refers to structures some common solid fuels are given
of dead plants and animals that have in Table 12.1.
been preserved in nature for
thousands of years. You might have Liquid Fuels
heard of fossils of dinosaurs that The most commonly used liquid fuel
lived on the earth more than six in our homes is kerosene. Other
million years ago.
familiar liquid fuels, such as petrol
and diesel, are used in automobiles.
These deposits are called coalmines. Fuel oil is another liquid fuel, which
The coal extracted from mines is is used in ships, power plants and in
used either as such or it is converted some industries. All these fuels occur
into other useful products, such as in a liquid state under normal
coke. conditions. They are obtained from
Coal is also used to prepare coke. petroleum, also called crude oil .
On being heated in the absence of These liquid fuels are mixtures of
air, coal produces coke, coal gas and compounds of hydrogen and carbon,
an oily liquid. This liquid is known which are known as hydrocarbons.
as coal tar.
tar Coke contains a higher The word petroleum is derived
percentage of carbon than coal. It is from the Greek word, petra meaning
used in many industries, in the rock and oleum meaning oil .
extraction of iron and also for Therefore, petroleum means oil from
domestic purposes. rocks. It is believed that petroleum
Often it becomes necessary to was formed from the dead remains
compare quality of one fuel with the of microscopic marine plants and
other. One characteristic of fuels that animals, which settled in muddy
helps in determining their quality is sediments at the bottom of the sea
their calorific value. The calorific millions of years ago. Due to
value is the energy liberated in the prolonged sedimentation and
form of heat by a fuel when its unit accumulation of organic debris,
Table 12.1 : Calorific Value of
these got buried deep below the
Some Solid Fuels surface of the earth. In intense heat
and high pressure underneath and
Fuel Calorific value in the presence of natural catalysts,
kilojoule per kilogram
the remains were ultimately
Cowdung cake 6000-8000 converted into petroleum. For this
Wood 17000-22000 reason, petroleum is also called a
Coal 25000-33000 fossil fuel.


Petroleum is a dark oily liquid, Gaseous Fuels

which surprisingly does not burn. It Petroleum gas and natural gas are
has an unpleasant odour. It is two common gaseous fuels.
insoluble in water and floats on it. Petroleum gas is obtained as a by-
Petroleum deposits are found deep product in the process of refining of
inside the earths crust. These petroleum. It mainly consists of a gas,
deposits are usually surrounded by called butane , although it also
rocks, which do not allow petroleum contains other gases, like ethane and
to flow. The petroleum is pumped out propane. All these gases are
from its reservoirs after drilling holes hydrocarbons. Butane can be
through the rocks. These are known liquefied easily under high pressure.
as oil wells. In India, petroleum is Therefore, it is stored and supplied
found in Gujarat and Assam. Its in liquid form in cylinders. Cooking
reservoirs have also been discovered gas cylinders used at our homes
buried deep under the seabed near contain Liquefied Petroleum Gas or
Mumbai. This oil-bearing region is LPG, as it is commonly known. When
called Bombay High. A special we open the valve provided in the
platform made with steel has been cylinder, liquefied gas vapourises due
erected in the sea to pump out to decrease in pressure and gas flows
petroleum from Bombay High. to the burner through rubber tubing.
Recently, petroleum and natural gas Natural gas is another fossil fuel
have also been discovered near the that is found with petroleum in oil
basins of Godavari and Cauvery wells. However, some oil wells yield
rivers. only natural gas. It mainly contains
Petroleum extracted from its methane, which burns easily to
reservoirs is taken through pipes to produce heat. Methane is also a
refineries where different
constituents, such as petrol, diesel, The LPG is highly inflammable, that
kerosene and petroleum gas, are is, it catches fire easily. It is an
obtained. Table 12.2 gives calorific odourless gas. Therefore, it is difficult
value of some liquid fuels. to detect leakage of LPG, which may
cause damage to property and life as
Table 12.2 : Calorific Value of Some the leaked gas may catch fire. To
Liquid Fuels
prevent this, a strong smelling
Fuel Calorific value substance is mixed with the LPG
kilojoules per kilogram supplied to our homes. As a result,
Petrol 47000 its leakage can be detected easily
Kerosene 45000 and preventive measures can be
Ethenol (alcohol) 30000


hydrocarbon. Transport and use of light throughout the year, twenty-

natural gas is made easy by four hours a day. A part of this energy
compressing it under high is reflected back into the space by
pressure. In the compressed form, the dust and water droplets present
it is called Compressed Natural Gas in the atmosphere. Huge deposits of
or CNG. Traditionally, natural gas ice in the polar regions of the earth
has been in use as a fuel in also reflect some parts of solar energy
industries and for generation of back into the space. A major part of
electricity. It is now being used solar energy is absorbed during the
more and more in automobiles as a day by the land and sea, which heats
fuel. Another gaseous fuel, which up the earth. Some of the heat
is commonly used, is biogas about absorbed by the earth is given off at
which you will study later. The night as it cools down.
calorific values of some gaseous Absorption of heat by the land
fuels are given in Table 12.3. and water on the surface of the earth
gives rise to many natural
Table 12.3 Calorific Values of Some
Gaseous Fuels phenomena, like blowing of wind,
rain and snow. During these
Fuel Calorific value in processes, some part of the solar
kilojoules per kilogram
energy gets converted into different
Methane 55000
forms. For example, the energy of
Butane (LPG) 55000 wind and flowing water are due to
Biogas 35000-40000 solar energy.
Let us consider a simple case to
Answer These understand how the solar energy
becomes available as the energy of
1. Define the term fossil fuel. Name three
fossil fuels. water flowing through rivers. The
2. Give two examples each of solid fuels, absorption of heat by the oceans and
liquid fuels and gaseous fuels. land causes continuous evaporation
of water. This water vapour in air is
carried upwards and then to distant
12.4 RENEWABLE SOURCES places by the convection currents in
Sun is the most important source of the air. Thus, a part of solar energy
energy. At any point of time, one part gets converted as the potential energy
or the other of the earths surface is of water vapour in air. Clouds are
illuminated by sunlight. So, we can formed due to the condensation of
say that the earth receives the energy water vapour in air, which ultimately
from the sun in the form of heat and brings water back to the surface of


the earth in the form of rain and energy more readily than white or
snow. The rain and snow that fall in reflecting surfaces. Thus, black
the higher mountain regions have a surfaces are used to absorb solar
high potential energy. When this energy and to heat the surrounding
water flows through rivers, it has area. A solar cooker works on this
both kinetic as well as potential principle (Fig. 12.1).
Similarly, the convection
currents in the air create wind,
cyclone or hurricane depending on
the speed with which the air moves.
The energy of wind, therefore, is also
solar energy in another form. A very
small fraction of solar energy is
absorbed by plants during the
process of photosynthesis and is
stored in them as chemical energy.
Thus, the energy given by the plants
and their products to other living
things including humans is again
solar energy in another form. Now,
you can understand that coal and
petroleum may also be said to have
been derived from solar energy. This
Fig. 12.1 A solar cooker
is so because they are formed from
the plants and animals that existed The solar cookers are used to
long back on the earth. cook food. It consists of a box of
The solar energy falling on the insulated material whose inner walls
earth even in an hour is almost equal and bottom are in black colour. It has
to the total energy used by the whole a glass cover on the top (Fig. 12.1).
population of the world in a year year. One can cook rice, dal and vegetables
Unfortunately, the solar energy with such a solar cooker. This solar
falling on a unit area of the earths cooker can attain a temperature of
surface is quite small. Therefore, to about 100C. Hence, it cannot be
utilise even a small fraction of it, we used for making chapatties or for
need devices that may collect it over frying.
large areas. It has been discovered If, instead of containers for
that black surfaces absorb solar cooking food, a black paint coated


pipe in the form of a coil is placed in energy of moving air or the wind
a box similar to a solar cooker, it energy has been used for running
works as a water heater. The water windmills for many centuries in
circulated through the pipe absorbs some countries, especially in Europe
solar energy and becomes hot. A solar (Fig. 12.2). The windmills can be
water heater provides hot water for utilised to grind grains, to pump
bathing and cooking. A large solar water or to generate electricity.
heater can also be used to heat air.
The hot air so obtained can be used
for drying of grains, vegetables, fruits
and other materials. Such a device
is known as a solar dryer
Solar cells convert solar energy
into electricity. They are usually made
of silicon. Solar cells are used to
generate electricity in satellites and in
far off areas such as Ladakh. On a
limited scale, these are also used in
calculators, traffic lights and for the
transmission of radio and television
programmes from remote areas. At
present, the cost of solar cells is high
and this prohibits their widespread
Wind Energy Fig. 12.2 A Windmill
Winds are convection currents in the The electricity produced by a
air caused by the uneven heating of single windmill is quite small and
the earths surface by the Sun. The cannot be used for commerical
wind direction and its speed keeps purposes. Therefore, a number of
on changing throughout the year at windmills are erected over a large
every place on the earth. However, area, which is known as wind energy
the pattern of the changes in wind farm
farm. The energy output from all
speed and its direction at any given windmills are coupled together to get
place is fairly constant over the years. electricity on a commercial scale.
The speed of wind usually increases The wind power potential of India
with height, being the highest in hilly is estimated to be 20,000 MW. Until
areas. Wind speed is also greater over 1999, India had an installed capacity
the sea and in coastal areas. The of more than 1025 MW for generating


electricity from wind energy. The sources can be utilised more

largest wind energy farm has been efficiently. In this method, the animal
established near Kanyakumari in dung including human excreta and
Tamil Nadu, which can generate agricultural wastes are used to
380 MW of electricity. obtain a gaseous fuel known as
biogas. Dead bodies of plants and
Hydroelectric Energy
animals can also be used to obtain
You know that the water flowing biogas.
through rivers has both kinetic as The raw materials, like the
well as potential energy, which is animal dung, agricultural wastes are
indirectly the solar energy in another kept in a specially constructed pit to
form. The energy of flowing water or obtain biogas. The biogas plant is
the hydro-energy is an important designed in such a way that the raw
source of energy. Flowing water has materials do not come in contact with
traditionally been used to turn the oxygen. In the absence of air, the
water wheel for grinding of grains. plant and animal material in the
Nowadays, the energy of flowing presence of water decompose to give
water is used for generating methane, carbon dioxide and some
electricity in hydroelectric power other gases. This mixture of gases is
plants. This is done by constructing known as biogas
biogas. Biogas is a good
dams on rivers in higher plateaus. fuel for cooking. It can also be used
The water stored in such dams has for street lighting and for running
potential energy. The water from the engines. Several lakh biogas plants
top of the dam is made to flow have been set up in our country. If
downhill through large tunnels. all the cow-dung and agricultural
When this fast flowing water falls on waste are utilised for producing
turbines of the generators fixed at the biogas, the problem of energy for
bottom of the dam, they begin to most rural areas can be solved to a
rotate and generate electricity. The large extent. The residue that
electricity generated in this way is remains behind, after removal of
known as Hydel Power. biogas is a good source of manure
Biogas for plants.
You have learnt that firewood, 12.5 NUCLEAR ENERGY
agricultural waste and animal dung You have learnt that the mass of an
are used as energy sources. These are atom is in the dense nucleus. That is
usually burnt in air to obtain heat. also where most of the atoms energy
However, there is another method is. When the nucleus of a heavy atom
through which energy of these (for example, uranium) splits into

lighter nuclei, large quantities of Answer These

energy is released. This process is 1. Name some devices that are used to
called nuclear fission and the energy harness solar energy.
produced is known as nuclear energy 2. What is biogas?
or atomic energy.
energy When heat is 3. Define nuclear energy.
4. Give names of three places where
generated in a fission reaction, there nuclear power plants are functioning
is no flame and no smoke. In contrast in our country.
to fission, when a lump of coal burns,
the atoms of carbon in coal combine
with atoms of oxygen in the air and 12.6 ENERGY, DEVELOPMENT AND
form carbon dioxide. Heat is released ENVIRONMENT
in the process and we see it as flame. The primitive mans main source of
Smoke is also generated. energy was wood. When he learned
The energy from fission has many to control fire, he used wood for
uses. A nuclear power plant produces heating and cooking. The demand for
power from the energy of nuclear
energy increased when humans
fission. In these plants, fission
started growing crops. He started
reactions are controlled through
using animals. Later on, man started
special techniques. India is one of the
using energy of coal, wind, water and
few countries in the world which have
petroleum. With the development of
mastered the technology of
various industries during the last one
constructing and running nuclear
hundred years, the demand for
power plants. We have nuclear power
plants functioning at Tarapur, energy is increasing very rapidly. A
Kalpakkam, Kota and Narora. Energy modern man uses about one
from nuclear fission is also used for hundred times more energy than a
running ships and submarines. primitive man. This has been
Another kind of nuclear reaction is possible because of large-scale
called nuclear fusion.
fusion In nuclear exploration of fossil fuels, such as
fusion, light nuclei fuse to form a coal and petroleum.
larger nucleus. For example, the Energy consumption is
energy production in the sun is due increasing due to setting up of new
to fusion. In sun, hydrogen nuclei industries and growth of cities.
combine to form helium nuclei at very Energy consumption is also very high
high pressure and temperature. in modern agriculture due to use of
Scientists are trying to develop modern machinery, fertilisers,
technology to harness energy insecticides and water supply from
released in fusion processes as a wells and canals. The storage and
source of energy. transportation also consume energy.


There is a greater demand for a to increase in the amount of carbon

variety of food, which are processed; dioxide in the atmosphere.
for example, drying, cold storage, Factories, power plants,
canning, freezing, etc. Ready-to-eat underground coalmines and oil wells
food, such as bread, biscuits, snacks, discharge materials that pollute
cold drinks, ice creams, etc., are water. Therefore, there is a need to
being marketed on a large scale. They maintain a balance between
require a lot of energy to make, development and environment.
It is necessary that we develop
package, store and transport.
strategies so that the need of present
The consumption of energy in our
generation is met without creating
homes is going up because of need
environmental imbalances for the
for many conveniences. The water is future generations.
pumped and stored in overhead tanks Therefore, there should be
so that water supply is available all judicious use of various sources of
the time. Energy is used for lighting, energy. We should switch off the
heating water and running fans, lights, fans and other appliances
radio, television, refrigerator, air- when we do not need them. Water
conditioners and kitchen appliances. taps should be closed after use. In
Transport is consuming very large cooking, we should only use the
quantities of fuels. The cities are required quantity of water. We should
becoming bigger. People have to cover the vessels during cooking rice,
commute to places of work. dal, etc. Pulses should be soaked in
But the development of cities and water for some time before cooking.
industries has a negative impact on These simple habits can save a lot of
our natural environment. These have energy.
resulted in the release of several Another way of conserving energy
is by using more efficient appliances.
pollutants in air, such as carbon
Energy saved is energy produced. A
monoxide, sulphur dioxide,
tube light and a compact fluorescent
hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, lamp (CFL) give much more light than
lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive a light bulb using the same amount
materials and dust. The burning of of energy. Better stoves burn fuel
fossil fuels, such as coal and efficiently and give more heat per unit
petroleum products, is a major of fuel burned. Improved chulhas
source of air pollution. Mining have been developed and are
activities, use of fertilisers and available in market in fixed and
pesticides also contribute to portable types (Fig. 12.3). Many
pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of models of fixed type with options of
trees and clearing of forests has led single, double and triple pots with or


An important step in controlling

fire is to disrupt the contact between
air and fuel. Cutting off the air supply
can do this. Burning liquid fuels such
as kerosene, can be isolated from the
air by covering it with sand or soil to
put off the fire.
Water is very effective in fire
fighting. It cools the fuel below its
ignition temperature and prevents
fire from spreading. It also helps to
control fire by acting as a buffer
between fuel and air.
Fig. 12.3 A woman using an improved
chullah. Foam, carbon dioxide or a blanket
is also effective in cutting off the
without chimney are available. supply of air to burning substances.
Portable chulhas made of metal or However, water and foam should not
metal clad ceramic are available in be used for extinguishing fire in
different sizes. electrical appliances. Water, being a
conductor of electricity, can cause a
12.7 FIRE FIGHTING shock to people handling the fire-
You must have seen or heard of fire fighting equipment. Also, water
breaking out in homes and factories. should not be used to put out fire
As combustion requires fuel, oxygen caused by burning oil or petrol. Water
and heat, removing any of these can is heavier than petrol or oil. Therefore,
control fire. it may further spread the fire.

Key Words
Renewable sources, Non-renewable sources, Combustion, Solid fuel, Liquid
fuel, Gaseous fuel, Fossil fuels, Coal, Petroleum, Diesel, Liquefied Petroleum
Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Solar cooker, Solar dryer,
Windmill, Wind energy farm, Hydroelectric energy, Biogas, Nuclear energy,
Fission, Fusion, Environmental pollution, Air pollution, Water pollution,
Judicious use of energy, Conservation of energy, Fire fighting



Energy sources are either renewable or non-renewable.

Water, wind, biogas and sunlight are examples of renewable sources
of energy.
Coal and petroleum are examples of non-renewable sources of energy.
The process of burning of a fuel is called combustion. During
combustion, fuel combines with the oxygen from the air to produce
heat and light.
Fuels can be in the form of solid, liquid, or gas.
The main solid fuels are wood, agricultural wastes, cow-dung cakes,
coal and charcoal.
The main liquid fuels are kerosene, petrol and diesel.
The main gaseous fuels are biogas, petroleum gas and natural
gas. Petroleum gas and natural gas are supplied in the form of
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural Gas
Solar energy can be harnessed by devices, such as solar cooker, solar
dryer and solar cells.
Wind energy can be harnessed by a windmill.
Using flowing water to run a turbine can generate energy. Energy
generated in this way is called hydroelectric energy.
The mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by
decomposition of plant and animal waste in water is called biogas.
This process takes place in the absence of air in a plant known as
biogas plant.
When the nucleus of a heavy atom splits into lighter nuclei, large
quantity of energy is released. This process is called nuclear fission.
In nuclear fusion, lighter nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus.
The demand of energy has increased with the pace of development.
This has led to indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources. The
consequences are bad for our environment.


There should be judicious use of various sources of energy. Non-

renewable sources are getting depleted. Therefore, we should use more
and more renewable sources of energy.
Energy saved is energy produced. Energy-efficient devices should be
used. Energy should be conserved.
Fire can be controlled by disrupting the contact between air and the


1. Why should we increase the use of renewable sources of energy?

2. What is combustion? Name three combustible substances.
3. How will you prove that air is required for combustion?
4. How can wind energy produce electricity?
5. Describe the principle on which a hydroelectric energy plant works.
6. Fill in the blanks:
(i) The water stored in a dam is a source of _____________ energy.
(ii) Three examples of renewable sources of energy are
(1) _____________ (2) _____________ (3) _____________
(iii) People living in _____________ use more energy than people living
in _____________
(iv) _____________ and _____________ are fossil fuels.
(v) Burning of wood and coal causes _____________ of air.
(vi) An important liquid fuel, used in homes, is _____________
(vii) Fuel must be heated to its _____________ temperature before it
starts burning.
7. Describe briefly the reasons for increasing need for energy sources.
8. Why is solar energy not utilised on a large scale?
9. Explain that the sun is a major source of energy.


10. Match the items in Columns A and B:

Column A Column B
Petrol Thermal power station
Coal Hydroelectric power station
Water in a dam Bus
Diesel Cooking
Wind Scooter
LPG Windmill


Common Diseases

Y ou know that health is a state of

well-being and is essential for a
purposeful existence. Good health is
In our daily life, we continuously
interact with various elements of
not only freedom from sickness and
environment. Some unfavourable
diseases but a complete absence of
environmental factors may adversely
anxiety, social and psychological
affect our body and cause some disease.
tensions. Any deviation in the
harmonious functioning of the body These factors may be inside the body
is termed as disease
disease. (intrinsic) or outside the body (extrinsic).
You have learnt about some of The intrinsic factors are malfunctioning
the diseases caused by nutritional of an organ or part, hormone or
deficiencies. You are also familiar immune system of the body. The
with some communicable and non- diseases caused due to disorders in
communicable diseases, which you hormone or immune system are
have studied in earlier classes. In this generally referred as metabolic
chapter, you will learn about some diseases. The extrinsic factors include
more diseases, like cholera, lack of proper diet, influence or effect
tuberculosis, common cold, chicken- of disease causing organisms and
pox, typhoid, diarrhoea and environmental pollutants. The diseases
gastroenteritis, polio and rabies. You caused by intrinsic factors can be
will also study about the organisms, prevented and cured by taking medical
which cause these diseases, their treatment. Diseases caused by extrinsic
symptoms and the methods of factors, on the other hand, can be
preventing them. prevented and cured by taking

wholesome food, keeping the

environment clean and proper habits.
Some disorders or defects in the
body may arise during the period of
growth and development. Such
ailments may be due to physiological
malfunctioning or may be present
from birth. Some of these may also
be acquired and develop after birth.
Thus, the diseases or ailments may
be due to infections, malfunctioning
of vital organs of the body, nutritional
deficiencies, allergies or some other Fig. 13.1 Some causal organisms
The knowledge of the causal
organisms, their life cycle and modes
Activity 1 of their transmission is one of the
Visit the areas nearby your essential requirements for the
school and house. Note down the effective prevention of disease. It is
environmental conditions and also important in the study of
their positive and negative diseases and their cure. Diseases like
aspects in relation to health in cholera, tuberculosis and typhoid are
the following table: caused by bacteria. Chicken-pox,
polio, rabies and even common cold
Location Condition Impact on
are caused by viruses. Diarrhoea and
gastroenteritis are intestinal
House Open drain Negative disorders and may be caused by
School Park Positive protozoans, bacteria or even viruses.
On the basis of causal organisms, the
diseases can also be categorised as
bacterial, viral and protozoan
The infectious diseases are caused 13.3 MODES OF TRANSMISSION
by viruses, bacteria, protozoans, As mentioned earlier, the diseases
fungi and worms (Fig. 13.1). can be categorised (or classified)
Generally, they spread from one as communicable and non-
person to another, and are referred communicable on the basis of their
as communicable diseases. modes of transmission (Fig. 13.2).


Fig. 13.2 Modes of transmission of diseases

Air is an important medium for the against its contamination is very

transmission of causal organisms essential.
from a patient to a healthy person,
as in tuberculosis (TB) and
Activity 2
pneumonia. Contaminated food
and water also play significant role List out in the table below the
in the spread of diseases like names of diseases common in
cholera, typhoid and diarrhoea. your area and mention their
Therefore, a proper system for the causal organisms, modes of
disposal of human wastes and transmission and possible ways
protection of the sources of water of prevention from your earlier

Name of Causal Organism Modes of Prevention

Disease Transmission

1. TB Bacteria Air, contaminated food BCG vaccination and

and water isolation of patient


Answer These
rice water. Excessive loss of water
results in dehydration in the body,
1. What do you understand by the term
accompanied by fever. This results
2. Deviation from normal health may in intense thirst, dry tongue and
lead to some diseases. Justify this sunken eyes. The output of urine is
statement. reduced. If the state of dehydration
3. Name the causal organisms for continues, it could be fatal. To avoid
tuberculosis, chicken-pox and the dehydration, Oral Rehydration
4. Categorise the common diseases on
Solution (ORS) should be given to the
the basis of causal organisms. patient at regular intervals. If any
person shows the above stated
symptoms, a physician should be
13.4 CHOLERA consulted immediately.
Cholera is a highly infectious You know that the transmission
disease. It affects gastro-intestinal of the cholera-causing bacterium is
tract, which comprises organs like through contaminated food and
stomach and intestines. It has water. The preventive measures
persisted for thousands of years against the spread of cholera include
and breaks out in overcrowded a complete check on the consumption
places. It affects the people of all of contaminated food and water.
age groups. Other preventive measures are
Cholera is caused by Vibrio consumption of properly cooked food,
cholerae bacterium. Once a person use of boiled drinking water, a proper
consumes food or water contaminated system for the disposal of human
by the cholera-causing bacterium, it wastes, and protection of the source
begins to multiply inside the body. The of water from contamination.
bacteria begin to interfere with the The number of people in contact
normal functioning of the body. The with a cholera patient should be
period between the entry of the restricted. The excreta and clothes of
organism inside the body and the the patient, the room of the patient,
appearance of the symptoms generally including its walls and the floor,
varies from a few hours to five days. should be disinfected regularly.
This duration is known as incubation Improved sanitary conditions also
period. help in controlling the spread of this
The symptoms of cholera include highly infectious epidemic disease.
vomiting, acute diarrhoea and A vaccine to protect against
muscular cramps. A person suffering cholera is now available. The
from cholera may pass stool many immunisation with cholera vaccine
times in a day. The stool appears like remains effective for about 6 months.

The surveillance and timely

notification help to control the spread
of this disease.

Activity 3
The Oral Rehydration Solution
(ORS) can be prepared at home
also. Take one cup (about 200 mL)
of water in a suitable container.
Heat the water till it begins to
boil. Allow it to boil for at least 5
minutes. Let the water cool up Fig. 13.3 Modes of transmission of TB
to room temperature. Add a
pinch of common salt (sodium suffering from it. About 5 percent of
chloride) and one tea spoon of the people suffering from TB die every
sugar to it. Add lemon juice, if year.
available, and stir the solution. The symptoms of tuberculosis
The ORS is ready. appear gradually in a patient. The
incubation period of the bacterium
13.5 TUBERCULOSIS varies from a few weeks to several
years depending on the degree of
Tuberculosis, generally denoted by infection, virulence of the organism
the letters TB (from Tubercle present in the body and the
bacillus), is an infectious disease. It resistance offered by the body of the
is transmitted mainly by air through infected person. There is a loss of
phlegm ( balgam ) or sputum of a appetite and weight, resulting in an
patient. TB is caused by a bacterium overall weakness. Persistent cough
named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. for more than 3 weeks and low grade
Once it enters a living body, it fever are the earliest symptoms of TB.
releases a toxin called tuberculin
tuberculin. Sometimes, the presence of blood in
This bacteria can invade all parts of the sputum, pain in the chest and
the body and damage the tissues. The out-of-breath feeling on exertion are
lungs are the favourite site for TB the symptoms of the advanced stage
infection. In some cases, the other of tuberculosis. There may be a
parts of the body, like alimentary swelling of the lymph nodes in the
canal and bones, also get affected. children suffering from TB.
TB is one of the major health The correct diagnosis of TB is
problems in our country and about made on the basis of a positive
one in every 100 persons may be sputum test, chest X-rays and

tuberculin skin test. The present day 13.6 TYPHOID

treatment of TB is based on drugs
Typhoid is an acute infection of the
(chemotherapy), diet, rest, surgery,
intestine, caused by the bacterium
rehabilitation and health education.
Salmonella typhi (Fig.13.4). The
DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment
disease is very common among
Short-Course) is a comprehensive
children and occurs throughout the
strategy designed to check
year. The consumption of
irregularity in taking treatment by
contaminated food, water, milk and
the patient. A close watch is kept on
its products, unwashed raw
the patient all along so that he/she
vegetables and fruits results in the
simply cannot give up the treatment
spread of this disease. Indiscriminate
midway. DOTS ensures that each
defecation and urination by patients
and every patient completes his/her
also help in the spread of infection
full course of medicines and gets fully
through soil, water, food, and flies.
cured. The immunisation with BCG
The incubation period of typhoid
(Bacillus Chalmette Guerin)
causing bacterium in human body
vaccination provides some protection
may vary from 10 to 20 days,
against this disease.
depending on various factors.
For a TB patient, it is absolutely
essential to cover his/her mouth while
coughing, not to spit indiscreetly, to
stay away from young children and to
spend maximum time in the open
areas. These measures greatly help in
controlling this disease. Revised
National Tuberculosis Control
Programme is being implemented by
the Government of India at the
Fig. 13.4 Diseases and causal bacteria
national, state and district levels. The
control measures involve the detection
Weakness and high fever, lasting
of TB cases, treatment of the patient
for 2-3 weeks, are the main symptoms
and the follow-up action till the disease
of typhoid. Body pain, headache,
is fully cured. Eradication through
constipation, slow pulse rate and
awareness is a very effective method
coated tongue are other symptoms of
for the prevention of TB. This is
the disease. In later stages of this
emphasised every year, especially on
disease, diarrhoea may occur along
24 March, which is the World TB Day.
with abdominal discomfort. Patients
The proverb, Know TB No TB, is very
of typhoid may develop complications
popular in this regard.

like ulceration and haemorrhage in the infected person fail to carry out their
small intestine. normal functions. It is a kind of
Prevention of typhoid requires paralysis. The effects of paralysis are
complete isolation of the patient and more on the limbs, particularly legs.
his belongings, improved methods of Children between the age of 6
sanitation and proper immunisation. months and 3 years are most prone
The commonly used vaccine TAB to polio infection. A mild infection in
(typhoid para A and B) provides the early life of a person may develop
protection against typhoid for about immunity in the adult. Polio is
three years. Drugs should be given to transmitted among children by faeco-
a typhoid patient under strict medical oral route, through direct contact,
supervision. The patient requires dirty hands, contaminated food or
complete bed rest during the period milk and flies.
of fever and for 10-13 days after the The symptoms of polio depend
fever comes down. A light diet should upon the degree of severity of the
be given to typhoid patients keeping disease. In mild cases, the impact
in mind the possibility of ulcerations may last only for a few days. In severe
in the intestines. paralytic type, the fever is sustained
for a longer period, along with
Answer These
headache, vomiting, pain and
1. Write the symptoms of cholera. stiffness of the neck, and sometimes
2. Write a note on the diagnostic
convulsions, followed by paralysis of
methods of TB.
3. Describe the methods of prevention limbs (Fig. 13.5).
of typhoid.

13.7 POLIO
Polio or poliomyelitis is a disease,
which has been known from ancient
times. It is caused by one of the
smallest known viruses called
Poliovirus. It enters the body
through food or water and ultimately
reaches central nervous system via
lymphatic system and blood stream.
There, the viruses destroy the cells
of the spinal cord that are responsible
for the control of muscle activities.
As a result, the muscles of the polio- Fig. 13.5 A polio patient


Polio is diagnosed in a child by the affect of rabies. A patient

fever accompanied with restlessness, suffering from rabies dies a painful
followed by stiffness of the neck, and death following restlessness,
drowsiness. Complete rest, passive choking, convulsions and inability to
movements to the affected limbs, swallow even liquids.
including physiotherapy, can be The symptoms of rabies include
helpful in the beginning. Isolation of severe headache, fever with alternating
the patient, improvement in sanitation stages of excitement, and depression.
and immunisation are some of the A severe muscular spasm in the throat
methods for the control and prevention and chest is also reported. There are
of polio. Nowadays, Oral Polio Vaccine two manifested forms of rabies among
(OPV) is given orally to the children as dogs: the furious and the dumb. The
per National Immunisation Schedule furious is characterised by the typical
in our country. mad dog syndrome. In this, the dog
attacks people without provocation,
13.8 RABIES runs without any apparent reason and
Rabies or hydrophobia is a dreadful begins to eat noneatables like mud and
disease, transmitted to human by the stick. In the dumb form, the dog
bite of animals, especially dogs chooses a lonely site, withdraws from
infected with rabies virus. Some the attention of others, remains in the
other common animals, who may state of sleep, and dies.
transmit rabies through biting, are Remember, if you ever come
cats, monkeys, foxes, jackals, wolves across any case of dog-bite, cat-bite
and mongoose. In urban areas, or monkey-bite, advise the victim to
rabies is mostly transmitted by rabid immediately go to a nearby hospital.
dogs. The saliva is the main source Also remember not to ever tease any
of rabies infection, which may also animal.
be transmitted through contact with
the injured skin. 13.9 CHICKEN-POX
The incubation period of rabies Chicken-pox is an acute infectious
ranges from 10 days to more than disease caused by a virus, named
one year. In the case of deep wounds Varicella zoster. This disease mostly
or bite on the upper parts of the body, occurs in children under the age of
the incubation period may be even 10 years. It is generally transmitted
less. Pasteur (after Louis Pasteur) from one person to another by direct
vaccine in the form of 14 injections contact with clothing or other articles
in the stomach or human diploid cell soiled with discharges from an
vaccine in the form of five injections infected person. The most suitable
in the thighs or hands can prevent period for the transmission of the

disease is about 2 days before the 13.10 DIARRHOEA AND

appearance of rashes, and up to 14 GASTROENTERITIS
days afterwards. The first attack of
chicken-pox generally produces a Diarrhoea is the discharge of liquid
permanent immunity to the disease. or semi-liquid stools by a person,
The symptoms of chicken-pox are generally more than three times in a
mild or moderate fever, pain in the day. It is caused by certain types of
back, shivering and malaise. The bacteria (E.coli, Shigella), protozoa
length and severity of the disease and viruses. Food poisoning also
depends upon the number of eruptions leads to diarrhoea, which may be due
produced. In severe cases, almost the to some bacteria or chemicals. It is
whole body may be covered with very difficult to identify the actual
rashes. The rashes first appear on the causal organism of diarrhoea,
trunk and later spread upwards to the especially in tropical countries, like
face and downwards to the limbs. ours.
Formation of scabs begins 4 to 7 days Gastroenteritis is a disease that
after the appearance of the rashes. includes a number of infections in
The preventive measures against which an acute diarrhoea is
chicken-pox are aimed at avoiding accompanied with vomiting. It affects
contact with a patient. Vaccination the people of all age groups, but the
is done to prevent this disease. children below 5 years are the worst
Perhaps you know that the effect of affected. This disease is more
this disease is mild with very low common in summer months, and
mortality rate. Some specially during the rainy season.
prepared lotions or coconut oil can The mode of transmission of
be applied on the eruptions for infection due to gastroenteritis is
getting some relief. The patient, his through contaminated food and
bed and clothing should be kept water, generally by faeco-oral route.
clean and away from contact with Poor sanitation and bad personal
other persons, especially children. hygiene help in the spread of the
disease. The most common
Answer These symptoms of gastroenteritis are
1. Polio disease can be prevented by a abdominal pain, frequent loose
vaccine. motions and vomiting leading to
2. Write down the symptoms and dehydration.
methods of prevention of rabies. Gastroenteritis can be prevented
3. Chicken-pox is caused by virus. by checking contamination of food,
4. Describe the methods of prevention proper washing of vegetables and
of chicken-pox. fruits before use, and hands.


Pasteurisation and boiling of milk are that they develop immunity against
effective in destroying the organisms small pox due to their exposure to
responsible for the disease. Proper cows suffering from cow-pox disease.
sanitation is also an important Based on this observation, he
measure in preventing the occurrence developed a vaccine that could
and spread of this disease. provide immunity against small-pox.
Vaccination is a process of
13.11 COMMON COLD inoculation (injecting) of a substance
Common cold is an infectious disease. (vaccine) into a healthy person in
Most of you might have suffered with order to develop immunity against a
common cold at one time or the other. disease. Immunity is the ability of a
There are many viruses (Rhinoviruses) body to recognise, destroy and
responsible for the common cold. In eliminate external disease-causing
common cold, the mucous membrane agents. Vaccination helps a person to
of the upper respiratory tract, acquire immunity against a certain
especially in the nose and the throat, disease. The vaccine is a solution
gets infected with the virus. containing the disease-causing
The symptoms of common cold organisms in a diluted or weakened
include the release of fluids from the form. It may have organisms in living
eyes and the nose and inflammation or even dead form. Protection against
in the infected area of the body. A mild diseases, like small pox, rabies, polio,
fever may also develop. The treatment diphtheria, chicken-pox and hepatitis,
for common cold also includes the is provided through vaccination. It has
prevention of dehydration. Analgesics been possible to eradicate smallpox
and antipyretics are used to get relieve from all regions of the world through
from the pain and fever in the body a massive vaccination programme.
and decongestants are given to shrink A person becomes immune against
the swollen mucous membrane. It is a disease if the specific protective
believed that consumption of substances, known as antibodies, are
vitamins, especially Vitamin-C, may present in the body. It may be due to
be helpful in the prevention of the result of immunisation or any
common cold to some extent. earlier infection of a particular disease.
When an antigen is administered for
the first time to a person, it is called a
The word vaccination is derived from primary response. When a similar
the latin word vacca, which means antigen is introduced subsequently to
cow. Edward Jenner (1795) observed any person who already had contact
that milkmen and milk-maids seldom with that antigen, it is known as a
suffered from small-pox. He argued secondary response, or booster dose.

Table 13.1 : Dosage and Administration of Vaccines

Vaccine Dosage Method of Site of
administration administration
DPT 0.5 mL intramuscular buttock, arm or thigh
BCG 0.1 mL intradermal left upper arm
0.05mL (below
4 weeks)
Polio 0.5 mL oral mouth
Typhoid 0.5 mL intramuscular arm or thigh
(5 to 6 years)
Measles 0.5 mL subcutaneous upper left arm
Smallpox 0.002 mL intradermal lower arm
(multiple puncture)

In the secondary response, the body to produce antibodies and give

latent period is shorter, a higher level immunity against the disease for
of antibodies is reached soon and which a person has been immunised.
maintained for a longer time. The anti- The commonly used vaccines in
bodies in this case have greater our country are DPT for diphtheria,
capacity to bind the antigens. Thus, pertussis (whooping cough) and
the secondary response due to tetanus; Polio vaccine; BCG; typhoid
vaccination provides a better vaccine; and measles vaccine. An
protection against the disease. Keeping expanded programme of immunisation
this in mind, more than one dose of of the Government of India covers the
vaccine are given at certain intervals diseases to be cured by the vaccines.
as in the cases of polio and DPT.
The vaccines have to be kept at Answer These
low temperature as they are 1. List out the causal organisms for
destroyed easily by heat. They also typhoid, TB and chicken-pox.
have a limited shelf life with a loss of 2. It is difficult to prevent common cold.
potency which cannot be regained. Comment on this statement.
You now know that vaccines do not 3. What is vaccination?
4. Describe the various types of vaccines.
produce disease; they stimulate the


Key Words
Health, Disease, Nutritional deficiencies, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Typhoid,
Diarrhoea, Chicken-pox, Common cold, Polio, Rabies, Causal organisms,
Instestinal disorders, Gastroenteritis, Oral Rehydration Solution,
Immunisation, Vaccine, Vaccination, Incubation period, Dehydration,
Immunity, Antigen, Antibody


Health is a state of well-being including complete freedom from anxiety

and social and psychological tensions.
Diseases like cholera, tuberculosis and typhoid are caused by
bacteria whereas chicken-pox, polio and common cold are caused
by viruses.
The symptoms of cholera include vomiting, acute diarrhoea and
muscular cramps.
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease transmitted through phlegm
and sputum of the infected persons.
Correct diagnosis for TB is made on the basis of chest X-ray and sputum
Typhoid is an acute infection of intestine caused by Salmonella typhi
Polio has been known from the ancient times and, if not controlled in
time, may lead to paralysis.
Rabies is a dreadful disease causing virus transmitted to humans by
the bite of infected dogs, cats or monkeys.
Chicken-pox is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, generally
found in children.
Diarrhoea is a discharge of liquid or semi-liquid stools caused by
bacteria, protozoa and also viruses.
Common cold is an infectious disease caused by viruses.
Vaccination is a process of injecting a substance (vaccine) into a healthy
person in order to develop immunity against a specific disease.
Vaccine should be administered as per schedule and in desired dosages.



1. What do you mean by good health?

2. Match column I with column II.
Column I Column II
Tuberculosis Vibrio cholerae
Cholera Salmonella typhi
Chicken-pox Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Typhoid Varicella zoster
3. Write an essay on the symptoms, methods of transmission and
prevention of cholera in our country.
4. Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. Justify the statement.
5. Describe the various measures that are to be taken to control TB.
6. Write a note on the symptoms and methods of prevention of typhoid.
7. Polio is a disease known from the ancient times. Describe the methods
of its control.
8. Write a short note on the symptoms of rabies disease.
9. Chicken-pox is a highly infectious disease. Describe the measures
for controlling it.
10. Describe the symptoms and causal organisms of diarrhoea and
11. What is a vaccine? Describe the importance of vaccination.
12. Name the commonly used vaccines in our country. Describe the
methods of their administration.


Food Production
and Management
Basic Practices
Y ou know that all organisms need
food, which provides energy. You
have learnt earlier about green
practices require tools called

plants, which synthesise their food

by photosynthesis. This food and In the beginning of civilisation
energy are utilised by an individual humans were hunters and used to
organism for carrying out its various gather food from jungles or forests.
body functions, like digestion They used to consume plant parts,
respiration and excretion, etc. Like like fruits, leaves, stems and roots.
other animals, we also obtain food Even animals were hunted and eaten.
from other sources. Later, people started settling at places
It may be easier to feed a few close to water sources. They started
members of your family. What would growing food plants at their place.
you do if you have to provide food to This activity gradually expanded and
the people in your locality, state or became more systematic.
country? We will have to produce food When certain plants of the same
on a large scale. This would require kind are grown at a place, it is called
systematic and proper management of domestication of plants or
practices of production and distribution agriculture
agriculture. Cultivation of crops has
of food. A country should be self- gradually become an organised
sufficient in food to feed its population. sector. The plants of same kind
In this chapter, we will study grown at a place is referred to as
different practices of obtaining food crop (wheat, paddy). The crops you
both from plants and animals. These know are of different types, like

cereals (wheat, paddy, maize), Preparation of Soil

vegetables (potato, tomato) and fruits You know that plants grow in soil. They
(mango, oranges). These are grown obtain water and minerals from the soil.
on ground or in water and what we You have learnt that soil is made
obtain from the crop is called up of small particles of different sizes.
produce. Try to list two crops in each They are distributed in different
case of fibre, fruit and vegetables. Tea regions or horizons of soil. Soil contains
and coffee are also crops. A crop may minerals, water, air and some living
grow well in one season, say winter, organisms. It acts as a medium for
but in summer it may not grow. germination and growth of crops. Only
Based on the seasons, crops are a few centimetres of top layer of soil
categorised into Kharif and Rabi support plant growth. Soil also receives
crops. The kharif season is based on dead plant and animal parts, which
south western monsoon. The crops get decomposed by soil organisms. In
grown during June-October are this process, various nutrients that are
called kharif crops (paddy, maize), held up in the dead organisms are
while the crops grown during released. These nutrients are again
November-April are not based on
monsoon. The crops sown during this
season are called rabi crops (wheat,
legumes like clover).
Cultivation of crops involves
several activities undertaken by
farmers spread over a time period.
You may find that these activities are
also carried out by a gardener or even
by you for the ornamental plants in
your home. These activities or tasks
are referred to as agricultural
practices. The practices require
certain tools called implements
implements. They
are to be performed in a sequence over
a duration of crop growth, i.e. time
required for crop to mature in the form
of produce
produce. This produce is harvested
and stored. We will study these
practices to know how the food is Fig. 14.1 Various types of ploughs: Iron
produced on a large scale. wooden, bullock and tractor drawn


absorbed by plants. The preparation these crumbs with a plank and also
of soil is the first step before growing a levelling of field for sowing as well as
crop. The soil is tilled with various irrigation purposes. The levelling of
types of ploughs (wooden, iron for hard soil is done with the help of a leveller
soil, bullock drawn or tractor driven (Fig. 14.2). Iron parts of plough gets
(Fig. 14.1). rusted. It needs to be sharpened
The ploughing also, known as regularly and kept at a dry place to
tilling, (Fig. 14.1) loosens the soil and protect it from rusting.
improves air circulation in the soil. It
also helps in the retention of moisture.
Activity 1
Ploughing uproots the undesirable
plants growing in the field. Ploughing Take some soil in a container. Add
also enhances the water retaining water till saturation. If you leave
capacity of soil since it turns the soil it as such, soil will dry up. If you
upside down. In earlier times, ploughs dig this soil carefully you find
were made up of stones, bronze or crumbs are formed. You break
iron. The ploughed field may have big these crumbs and add water. You
pieces of soil, called crumbs, formed will observe air bubbles coming
by ploughing. It is necessary to break out of soil. Water expels the air.
Sometimes, manure is added to
the soil before tilling. This helps in
proper mixing of manure with soil.
Manure is first transported to the field
and then spread out. Manure should
not be kept in the field for a long time
since nutrients get degraded.
Many crops, like wheat, maize and
millet, are grown by sowing seeds.
However, in some crops, like potato
and sugar cane, vegetative parts are
also used. Sowing is the process of
putting seeds in the soil. Before
sowing, good and healthy seeds are
selected. Following activity
demonstrates a simple method of
Fig. 14.2 Wooden plank and leveller selection of seeds.


the field (Bajra, maize, barseem).

Activity 2 Seed drills help in sowing at an
appropriate depth. Seeds are covered
Take 100 gram of wheat seeds. by soil during sowing with drills. It
Put them in a beaker containing prevents damage from birds which
water. Ensure that water is generally pick up the seeds from the
sufficient for seeds to float. Shake surface of the soil. Seed drills need
and leave it. Some seeds will float to be protected against rusting since
and some will settle at the bottom. these are made up of iron. They are
The floating seeds are light and kept at a dry place. The simple seed
may be spoiled ones or eaten by drill has a long pipe with a funnel at
pests. Some seeds may have the top. It is tied at the back of the
become hollow. The seeds at the plough (Fig. 14.3 a, b). Seeds are
bottom are healthy and taken for
sowing. While sowing seeds,
depth is very important. It varies
from crop to crop. Seeds sown too
deep into the soil may not
germinate due to non-availability
of moisture as well as air.

Activity 3
Take three containers A, B and
C. Put some soil in each. Sow ten
wheat seeds in each container at
different depths (5 cm, 10 cm, (a)
15 cm). Water the soil for a few
days. Observe the germinated
seeds in each container. Find out
the number of seeds germinated Seed drill
in all the containers. Can you tell
in which container more seeds
have germinated? You can relate
it with the depth of sowing.
There are different ways of
sowing seeds. It is done manually by Fig. 14.3 Seed drill (a) Bullock drawn and
simple broadcasting or spraying in (b) Tractor driven


Fig. 14.4 Nursery and transplantation of paddy

released through the pipe in furrows Some of you might have seen
made in the field by the plough. The that the farmers keep an appropriate
seeds sown with drills are in rows. distance between the seeds
Some seed drills have common while sowing. This is regulated
funnel with 5-6 pipes. Seeds are kept automatically by seed drill. However,
in the funnel and distributed through keeping an appropriate distance is
pipes in 5-6 rows attached to the important to avoid overcrowding of
ploughs. These are tractor-driven crop plants. Plants get sufficient
drills (Fig. 14.3b). sunlight, nutrients and water from
This type of sowing is not done the soil. Sometimes, some plants
in the case of paddy. Seeds of this have to be removed to prevent the
crop are sown in a small plot, called overcrowding. Proper sowing also
nursery. When seedlings are formed, prevents waste of space in the field.
they are transplanted in the field
manually. You might have seen Irrigation of Crops
paddy being planted in fields with Crop plants, as you know, need water
standing water (Fig. 14.4). like any other living organism. They
This helps in selecting and absorb it from the soil. The crop needs
planting only healthy seedlings. water supply at different intervals.
Paddy needs constant supply of This is called irrigation
irrigation. Fields are
water in the field since the crop supplied water from different sources
requires standing water. like canals, waterways, wells and


rains. What do you do with the wind accompanied by rains) also

ornamental plants in your garden or damage the crop. In the case of wheat
pots? They are also supplied water and other crops, fast and strong
regularly. In summer, you find the winds accompanied by rains result
frequency of watering is more due to in the fall of crop plants at the grain
the evaporation of water from the soil maturation stage. It is called lodging
and plant surfaces. The frequency of Fields are irrigated before sowing
irrigation varies from crop to crop and also. This helps in tilling. The
also from soil to soil. Seasons also unwanted plants also germinate with
influence requirement of water by this irrigation and they are uprooted
crops. You know that water is kept during tilling. Irrigation of crop field
standing for most of the time in paddy is also influenced by the type of soil.
fields. Wheat crop is irrigated at In a sandy soil, more water is
intervals during different stages of required since it percolates very fast
crop growth. In fact, in many parts of and roots are not able to absorb
north India, excessive and continuous water. If you pour water in sandy soil,
cultivation of paddy has affected the you can find water going down. The
water table. It has gone deeper. water retaining capacity of clay or
Farmers are being advised to diversify black soil is more than sandy soil.
crop cultivation so that water is Therefore, chances of water logging
available. In fact, they are being asked is more in fields with clay soil. Crops
to reduce area under paddy and go are grown keeping in view of their
for cash crops like pulses. water requirement and nature of soil.
What will happen if there is an
unnecessary or erratic water supply
to the crops? In both cases, crop may Soil supplies mineral nutrients to the
get damaged. Excessive supply of crop. These nutrients are essential for
water to the crop reduces air in the crop growth. In certain areas, farmers
soil spaces. As a result of this, the grow crop after crop in the same field.
roots get damaged. It also results in It is never left uncultivated or fallow.
a condition called water logging
logging. You Fallowing is the process of leaving the
might have observed floodwater field uncultivated. Since crops take up
standing in the fields. This damages nutrients from soil, continuous
the crop due to water logging. To growing of crops makes the soil poorer
prevent the damage to soil, excess in certain nutrients. Same thing
water is drained out from the field. It happens in your lawn or potted plant.
is also necessary for the preparation Farmers add manure to the field to
of the next crop. Sometimes, replenish soil with nutrients which
untimely rains and hailstorms (fast benefits the crop. This process is called


manuring. This helps in enriching the grown by using manure are considered
soil with organic matter such as cattle safe as compared to crop grown by
dung, vegetable wastes, oil cakes, etc. using chemical fertilisers. These days,
Any organic matter obtained from emphasis is again being given on
plant or animal wastes is called organic farming in which only organic
organic manure.
manure Farmers dump plant manure is used.
and animal wastes at open places and Fertilisers, in contrast to manure,
allow them to decompose. The are the substances rich in inorganic
decomposition is facilitated by nutrients (ammonium sulphate, super
organisms like bacteria and fungi. The phosphate, potassium chloride and
decomposed matter is used as potassium sulphate). They provide
manure. Since it is from organisms, it specific nutrients, like nitrogen and
is simple recycling of nutrients through potassium, to deficient soil. Growing
soil. It is the traditional fertiliser used the same crop in same field season
by the farmers. It is considered better after season results in the deficiency of
than the chemicals used as fertilisers. a particular nutrient, say nitrogen or
Crops, especially vegetables and fruits, potassium. The soil requires quick
replenishment to prevent decline of crop
A pit is dug up and vegetable wastes output. It is done by chemical fertilisers.
and animal wastes like dung are put In order to increase the food output in
in this pit. A layer of soil/mud is used the last four decades, we have overused
to cover them. Water is added to the soil which have become deficient in
facilitate decomposition. Manure in the nutrients. Such soils require frequent
form of compost is obtained by the use of chemical fertilisers. The overuse
above method. It is used in the fields. of fertilisers damages the soil by
These days, use of earthworm for reducing natural recomposting ability.
preparing compost is becoming quite These are again absorbed by crop roots
popular. Certain species of worms are and enter the food chain.
suitable for vermi-composting and are We have also adopted high yielding
to be procured from certain agencies. varieties of crops, especially wheat,
paddy and maize. Though we have
succeeded in obtaining better yield, the
use of chemical fertilisers has also gone
up. In order to maintain fertility of soil,
we have to adopt natural measures like
using manures, leaving the field
uncultivated or fallow. The use of
manure improves soil texture as well
Vermi composting
as its water retaining capacity. It

replenishes the soil with all the dissolved in water and reaches the
nutrients. The problem is being faced field.
for storage of plant and animal wastes These chemicals have nutrients in
and, thus, use of organic manures. concentrated forms. They are nutrient-
You might have seen heaps of manure specific (nitrogenous and phosphatic,
lying in vacant land in villages. rich in nitrogen and potash). They have
Another method of replenishing high solubility in water and are easily
the soil with nutrients is by reducing absorbed by the crop plants. These
the cultivation of the same crop year fertilisers absorb moisture quickly,
after year or season after season. It can that is why they are packed in air-tight
be done by growing another crop bags. Their proper storage is very
alternatively. This is called crop important. Fertilisers are crop specific
rotation. Earlier, farmers in northern also. For example, legume crops like
India used to grow legumes as fodder clover (barseem) and gram gram, do not
in one season and wheat in next require nitrogenous fertilisers since
season. This helped in replenishment they fix atmospheric nitrogen through
of soil with nitrogen. Farmers are being bacteria present in their root nodules.
encouraged to adopt crop rotation. Excessive use of fertilisers changes the
In fact, farmers find it easy to chemical nature of the soil. Addition
store, transport and use the chemical of nitrogenous fertiliser increases the
fertilisers. They are used by spraying nitrate content and alkanity of the soil.
(broadcasting) or through irrigation However, the same nitrate fertiliser can
channels (Fig. 14.5). The fertiliser is be used to reduce the acidic content
kept in the channel where it gets of the soils. These nutrients also leach
in the soil and are absorbed by crop
In a crop field, you may find many
other plants growing along with the
crop. You know that crop is plants of
same kind (wheat, rice, potato,
sugar-cane). All plants other than
crop plants are called weeds
weeds. Thus,
weed is an undesirable plant growing
in a crop field. Sometimes, crop seeds
are mixed with weed seeds. In that
case, the crop field may be dominated
Fig. 14.5 Broadcasting of fertiliser by the weeds. You also find weeds


growing in your lawns or even in growth. Tilling before sowing of crops

potted plants. How do you identify a helps in uprooting and killing of
weed in a lawn? The removal of weeds weeds, which dry up and get mixed
is called weeding
weeding. Weeding is with the soil. There is a danger of
necessary since weeds also use weed seeds getting mixed up with
nutrients from the soil. They compete crop seeds. The best time for the
for water and light, thus, affecting the removal of weeds is before they
growth of crop by reducing the yield. produce flowers and seeds. It is easy
Some weeds even interfere in the to do weeding in dry weather. The
harvesting. Weeds may be poisonous manual removal includes physical
for animals as well as human beings. removal of weeds through uprooting,
Farmers adopt many ways to cutting close to the ground from time
remove weeds and control their to time. This is done with the help of
a khurpi and a harrow (Fig. 14.6 a, b).
These implements also need
protection from rusting. Crops may
get damaged during weeding
operation since it may also uproot the
crop. We should know the life cycle
of weeds (germination and
maturation). Since weeds are crop-
specific, rotation of crops helps in
controlling the weeds.
Weeds are also controlled by
using certain chemicals called
weedicides. These are sprayed in the
fields (Fig. 14.7). These chemicals are
good for killing the weeds. They
(a) however do not damage the crops.
The weedicides are diluted with water


Fig. 14.6 Manual removal of weeds with

(a) khurpi and (b) harrow Fig. 14.7 Spraying of weedicides


and sprayed in the field with a be destroyed by the stray animals,

sprayer. Sometimes spraying affects especially in the areas close to the
the health of farmers who are using human habitations or urban areas.
these chemicals. The weedicides are Farmers protect their crops from
sprayed during the vegetative growth animals by raising wire fences and
of weeds before flowering and seed mud walls. Farmers have to protect
formation. The weedicides are crops from birds and insects, like
harmful for the organisms including locust and grasshopper. Animals,
the human beings. These are being birds and insects are scared away by
replaced with chemicals called beating of drums and raising scare
herbicides which are obtained from crows (Fig. 14.8).
plants and are not harmful. Pest is an organism which
damages crop. The common pests are
Protection of Crops
insects, rats and birds (Fig.14.9).
The crop in a field is exposed to Chemicals are used to protect crops
several external factors. Crops may from organisms called pests
pests. These
chemicals are known as pesticides
They are used to kill eggs and larval
stages of insects. Like weedicides,
pesticides are also sprayed on the
crops. These chemicals are more
effective at particular stage of life
cycle of pests.


Fig. 14.9 Some common pests

Small aircrafts are used to spray

(b) pesticides over large areas or during
Fig. 14.8 Protection of crops (a) beating of epidemic or severe attack of pests.
drums, (b) scare crow This is done during attack by pests


like locusts and grasshopper. Small September while wheat grows during
farmers spray these pesticides November-April. Sugarcane crop
manually after diluting these grows over 2-3 years. The removal of
chemicals. The spray of chemicals crop after maturity is called
directly affects the health of farmers. harvesting
harvesting. The harvested grains
These chemicals generally get called produce represents crop yieldyield.
washed down to soil and are The harvesting is done manually with
absorbed by plants and enter the the help of ordinary sickle
food chain. They also stick to fruits (Fig. 14.10a) in crops like wheat,
and leaves in vegetables. It is paddy and maize. Even tractor-driven
advisable to wash the vegetables and machines are also used for harvesting
fruits before using them. wheat and paddy. However, fruits and
vegetables are plucked. The crops
need to be thrashed to separate grains
The completion of life cycle from the from the chaff. The mechanised
time of sowing to maturation of grains harvesters help both in thrashing and
varies from crop to crop. Paddy is separation of grains. Sometimes, both
grown in north India during June- harvesting and thrashing are done by
the machine simultaneously. These
machines are called combines
(Fig. 14.10b). They work very efficiently.
However, it has been observed that
in case of wheat, thrashing with
(a) combines gives less amount of fodder.
Also, the remaining straws in the field
are burnt by the farmers. It causes
pollution as well as damage to crops
lying in the fields through fires.
Farmers are advised to avoid burning
of crop remains. You may also discuss
this with your elders to highlight the
point of burning of crop remains.
Farmers with small holding of
lands do the separation of grain from
chaff by winnowing which you have
studied earlier. In this process, chaff
(b) being lighter is blown away by wind
to some distance while grains fall
Fig. 14.10 Harvesting : (a) Sickle, (b) Combine straight on the ground due to gravity.

Storage However, large-scale storing of grains

Food production in terms of crop is done in granaries and silos to
yield can be increased by adopting protect grains from pests like rats and
agricultural practices described insects (Fig. 14.11). Humidity in these
storage places is controlled to prevent
earlier. Storage of produce is an
growth of fungus which damages the
important task. The farmers store
both grains and chaff as fodder for
You know that total output of
their own use. However, part of the
grains is called crop yield
yield. You may
produce is sold to government as well remember that fodder (chaff) is also
as private agencies. These grains are a produce of crop. You are already
to be transported and stored aware of the large number of factors
properly. These are usually stored in which influence crop growth. We can
godowns by agencies like Food list various practices as preparation
Corporation of India (FCI), and State of soil, seed selection, ploughing,
Warehousing Corporations. sowing, manuring, irrigation and
Grains are required to be sun- weeding, protection of crop,
dried before storage to prevent harvesting and thrashing. Once the
damage. It is necessary to reduce crop produce is available, its proper
moisture level of grains to prevent pest storage becomes very important.
attack on them. Farmers store their Remember that proper sequence of
grains in jute bags or metallic bins
bins. various practices is also important.

Fig. 14.11 Godown, bins and silos


In general, the agricultural to increase food production since our

practices are common to all crops. population to be fed has already
They are true even for your garden crossed a billion mark. Three decades
and potted plants. Your gardener back our population was 3.5 million
may be carrying out these activities. and food output was 45 million tons.
However, these practices also vary A revolution, popularly known as
from crop to crop. You can compare Green revolution
revolution, was brought about
sowing and irrigation in case of wheat in India in 1960s to improve
and paddy. You have learnt that agricultural output. Food production
paddy requires more water and it is was enhanced to the extent of
grown through transplantation. becoming self-sufficient in food
production by introducing high
Answer These yielding varieties of wheat and rice.
During Green Revolution, high-
1. How did agriculture get started?
2. What is tilling?
yielding dwarf varieties of wheat from
3. Preparation of soil involves Mexico were introduced in India. They
. were resistant to certain disease-
4. Why is it necessary to sow seeds at causing organisms and pests. They
an appropriate depth? required frequent irrigation and use of
5. Define crop. pesticides. Even the duration of crop
6. Name two categories of crops based
on season.
life cycle in these varieties was shorter
7. What does waterlogging do to a field? than our own local/indigenous
8. What is lodging? varieties. The Mexican varieties gave
9. Distinguish between manure and higher yield but the fodder output was
fertiliser? less since the varieties were dwarf.
10.Why weeding is done? These varieties also required more
11.What are pesticides?
12.What are the functions of combines?
chemical fertilisers. Farmers started
13.How is the crop produce stored? using fertilisers and use of manure
declined considerably. Soil became
fertiliser-dependent. It lost its natural
14.2 CROP IMPROVEMENT ability to replenish its nutrient
It is necessary to follow the above requirements. Today, though we have
described practices and their proper enough food but its proper storage and
adoption helps in increasing yield. distribution is not adequate. It requires
These practices, such as irrigation, good management.
application of fertilisers and protection Increasing food output through
of crops, are improved from time to improved practices like irrigation,
time to meet the growing demand of manures, fertilisers and agricultural
food output. It has become necessary implements is possible. We have


improved our knowledge of agricultural technique, anthers are removed from

practices and used the same for flowers of one plant, say A. This
having higher food output. Another process is called emasculation
way of improving yield is by developing (Fig.14.12). Pollens from other
improved varieties of crops. This variety, say B, are transferred to
practice is called improvement of stigma of emasculated flower of plant
varieties or crop improvement
improvement. This A. It is covered with a plastic bag to
is done by a technique known as prevent self pollination, and fertilisation
breeding. Two varieties with different also. The seeds produced by the
characteristics are crossed through crossed plant A are grown in the field.
breeding. This is done to develop a This is done for several generations
variety with desired characters like to ensure that desired characters are
higher yield, resistance to diseases established in the seed called stock
and pests. of a variety. The desired characters
The breeding is done to prevent include high yield, resistance to
self-fertilisation, i.e. fertilisation diseases and pests. The improved
within the same variety. In this varieties of wheat (Sonalika, Kalyan
Sona), Paddy (Jaya, Padma, Pusa 215)
and maize (Genga 101, Ranjit) have
been developed in India.
Finally, you find that
introduction of high-yielding
varieties resulted in increased yield.
It has also adversely affected the
soil, water and even cultivation of
other crops. For example, the water
table has gone down. Tube wells
need to be dug deeper. Therefore,
while adopting new agricultural
practices and technologies or
introducing new varieties of
crops, we should ensure that
environmental resources are not
damaged. The conservation of rain-
water through water harvesting is
encouraged in rural areas. In urban
areas, rainwater flows down to
rivers and water table is going
Fig. 14.12 Emasculation
deeper. Efforts should be made to

collect rain-water and allow it to go animals on a large scale in farms. Is

to water table through seepage. The it not similar to raising crops in the
harvested water can also be used fields? Like crops, we need to follow
for horticulture purposes. certain established practices or steps
to take care of animals.
Answer These
In this section, we will discuss
1. Why breeding is necessary ? ways of rearing animals which
2. Define stock in terms of plant breeding. provide food in the form of milk, eggs
3. What is emasculation? and meat. You will also learn about
rearing of some small animals to
14.3 FOOD FROM ANIMALS obtain some food items, like oil and
Like crops, there are several animals
which are useful to us. You have Dairying
already learnt about different ways Milk giving animals, like cow and
of producing food from plants in the buffalo, are reared on a large scale
form of grains, vegetables and fruits. in dairy farms
farms. These animals are
We also get food from animals in the called milch animals or milch
form of milk, eggs and meat. There cattle
cattle. Milk is the second largest
are many useful animals providing agricultural commodity, next only to
food. However, their number is rice. Major part of milk required in
smaller as compared to the number our country is obtained from cow and
of food giving plants. You drink milk buffalo. These have been milk
everyday. Some of you also take eggs providers since ancient times. Among
regularly. Some are fond of meat. the cow and buffalo, the later is
Sometimes, your mother gives you considered more productive. It has
honey, another nutritious product long productive life extending over 20
from animals. All the food-giving years. Buffalo has more efficient
animals are reared or domesticated system to convert feed into milk as
either at home or in farms. The food compared to indigenous cow. Buffalo
from animals provides certain milk has been found to be richer in
proteins not available from plants. fat, proteins, sodium, potassium,
Animals need proper food, shelter calcium, Vitamin E and cholesterol.
and care, which, in other words, is Since milk is a common food item, it
husbanding of animals. There is an is available in rural areas and in
established scientific discipline, packets in urban areas. We can
called animal husbandry for rearing approximately learn about the mixing
of animals on a large scale. To obtain of water in the milk through a simple
food from animals we have to raise activity.


important for the good health of

Activity 4 animals. The feed is generally given
in troughs (wooden, brick-laid) in the
The villagers test the milk by a morning and evening before milking
simple test. Put a few drops at the (Fig. 14.13). Water is also provided
back of your hand on any finger.
If it flows down fast, it contains
more water. The quality of milk is
also tested by measuring the fat
content by using a small device,
known as Lactometer
Our country has the largest
population of cattle (cow, bullock and
buffaloes). These animals have close
and well established relationship with
crops. In fact, they are considered live
machines which convert low-grade
fodder into high-value milk. Cattle, in
addition to milk, are also used for
draught purposes or farm work.
Rearing of milch animals requires
proper feeding (food), weeding
(removal of unproductive animals),
care and protection and breeding.
The feed of these animals includes
grasses, dry fodder (wheat chaff) and Fig. 14.13 Shelter showing feeding troughs
legumes, like clover and alfalfa (green
fodder). The feed is categorised into twice a day. In rural areas, animals
roughage (mainly green fodder) and are taken out for grazing and also to
concentrate (cereals, millets).
millets) Oil water ponds for self cleaning.
cakes made from mustard and cotton However, in farms, animals are
seeds are also added to enrich the cleaned in their shed itself.
feed. You can compare this feed with Care of milk-giving animals
what we give to crops. Fodder plays requires airy and suitably ventilated
the role of manure, while oil cakes shelter. In dairy farms, it is pucca
play the role of fertilisers. shed with floor of bricks. These sheds
In addition to nutritious feed, the have feeding troughs. The shelter has
timing and frequency of feed is very small drains or outlet to facilitate


collection of urine and dung. farm. Sometimes, animals are given

Washing of the shed regularly helps injection to extract milk. It is more
in maintaining cleanliness. Straw or common towards the end of lactation
grass is used as bedding to absorb period or even if calf dies young. This
wastes, like urine. The size of shelter is quite harmful to the animal and
depends on the number of animals should be avoided.
to be kept. Any projections should High-yielding breeds of cow
be avoided in the shed to protect (Friesian-Sahiwal, Hollstein-Friesian
animals from injury. = 3200 3500 litre) and buffalo
Cow and buffalo may suffer from
many diseases. Some are infectious
i.e. spread from one animal to
another. Foot and mouth disease
caused by virus is common. In this
case, blisters appear on the feet and
in mouth of the animal. Animals
show high temperature and
sometimes shivering also occurs.
Sick animals become inactive and
lazy as it happens to us when we fall
sick. Animals stop taking food and
water. Other symptoms are watering
eyes and excessive secretion of saliva.
Sometimes, even parasitic worms,
like tape worms, attack these
animals, which may prove fatal also.
Ticks and flies are other common
parasites harming the animals.
These parasites suck blood and may
also transmit disease-causing
Cow and buffalo fulfil our
requirement of milk during their
reproductive life spreading over
years. However, with age, the milk
out-put declines. Animals become
more prone to diseases and get sick
frequently. Sick and unproductive Fig. 14.14 High-yielding breeds of cow and
animals are not kept in the dairy buffalo


(Murrah = 2000 3000 litre) have been the males, are separated. The egg
developed through cross breeding output decreases during winter since
(Fig. 14.14). It involves crossing of the days are shorter and damp. Birds
high milk-yielding breeds with low also do not get food during the time.
milk-yielding breeds. New breeds also In the big poultry farms, hatching
have disease-resistant characteristics. is done by a machine, called
The yield of milk from Indian cow and incubator (Fig. 14.15 b). It provides
buffalo is quite low in comparison to
foreign breeds. The cross breeding is
quite helpful in developing desired
characters, like high yield and
resistance to diseases.
The rearing of birds, like chicken,
fowl and ducks for eggs and meat is
referred as poultry. Eggs are rich in
proteins and vitamins. Poultry birds,
like hen, are reared in homes as well
as on a large scale in poultry farms.
The bird sits on the eggs for about
21 days. This period is called
incubation period (Fig.14.15 a).
It is done to provide required
moisture and heat or temperature.
The eggs crack and chicks come out.
The process is called natural
hatching. Sometimes, straw is kept
beneath the eggs to provide required
warmth. The hen sitting on the eggs Incubator for
becomes lazy but at the same time artificial hatching
keen to hatch the eggs. It is called
broody henhen. It becomes more Fig.14.15 (a) Natural incubation
aggressive if disturbed. It ruffles its (b) Incubator
feathers to show anger as well to
scare away the aggressor. Eggs are a constant temperature. Moisture
checked on the 7th and 9th days to content is also regulated during
eliminate infertile eggs. After a few incubation. Let us learn more about
days of hatching, chicks, especially the eggs consumed by us.


Activity 5
Egg has a calcareous shell made
up of calcium carbonate. You
crack the shell and break the egg
in a plate. You will find a yellow-
coloured solid material, called
yolk. It is surrounded by
transparent mucilaginous
material, known as albumin
(Fig 14.16). Both these parts get Fig. 14.17 Observing egg against light

The eggs can also be tested for

their quality by a simple method.

Activity 7
Put some eggs in a container
containing warm/hot water.
Some of the eggs may float on
Fig. 14.16 Egg and its parts water; some will settle at the
solidified when you boil the egg bottom of the container. These
and peel off its shell. You can settled eggs are of good quality
observe the yolk and the while floating ones are spoiled
albumen. We can also examine (Fig. 14.18).
the quality of egg through the
following activity.

Activity 6
See any egg against any source
of light (Fig. 14.17). The inner
material may move to one side.
It may appear transparent. It is
Fig. 14.18 Eggs in warm water
an infertile egg. On the other
hand, the fertilised egg has dark Egg shell is made up of
round body in the centre. calcium carbonate. Its


deficiency results in a soft shell.

You can put a boiled egg in
concentrated hydrochloric acid
or nitric acid in a beaker. The
shell will gradually dissolve.
You can now put the egg in a
narrow-mouthed bottle after the
shell has dissolved since the egg
without shell is soft and
Poultry birds are given poultry
feed. It is a common practice in
villages to keep a few birds to meet
the egg requirement of the family. The
birds are fed with grains/wheat
bread. They are also let out to feed
on small insects/vegetable waste in
manure heaps. However, in a poultry
farm, the bird feed contains
powdered broken grains, wet
mixtures, meshes and green manure
(Fig. 14.19). Birds need grit or stones
in their feed to grind the grains. These
Fig. 14.19 A poultry shed
help in grinding, especially the hard
grains of wheat, millet and maize. regularly. The excreta is used as a
Generally, limestone is added to the fertiliser. Birds shed should be such
feed. It is rich in calcium carbonate that birds are protected especially
and helps in the formation of egg during winters when windows or net
shell. Birds are given enough water walls need to be covered.
in troughs. If the birds do not Birds in a poultry farm are prone
consume adequate water, the egg to many diseases. These diseases are
production declines. caused by viruses and bacteria. The
Poultry farms have ventilated, birds may suffer from cholera and
airy sheds for birds. Birds in these chicken-pox. The birds become lazy
farms are fed in troughs (Fig. 14.19). and loose appetite. To get rid of
Lights are kept on in the poultry external parasites, like ticks and flies,
sheds. Excreta of birds is collected the birds take dust or mud bath. A
and removed from the shelter hole is dug in the poultry farm and


manufacturing fertilisers and

Fish are categorised into
freshwater and marine categories.
Fish growing in ponds, lakes, canals
and rivers are freshwater type (Catla,
Labeo, Rohu), while those growing in
sea/ocean/estuaries are marine
fishes (Tuna, Cod). Marine fish are
captured with mechanised boats,
called fishing trawlers. Rearing of fish
Fig. 14.20 Birds taking mud bath on a large scale is called
pisciculture. (The word is derived
filled with dust, mud or dry ash for from the Latin word pices: fish). Seed
the birds, bath (Fig. 14.20). fish is used in culture. The fish farm
Breeding techniques have also or culture pond is called nurseries
been used to develop high egg or hatcheries
hatcheries. Fish eggs are
yielding varieties of birds. In our introduced in the hatcheries. Ponds,
country high egg yielding breeds lakes and canals are called natural
such as white leg horn, Rhode Island hatcheries. However, special ponds
Red, ILS 82, B77 have been are developed as hatcheries. The
developed. The egg yield in these hatcheries with circulating water
birds is about 200 per annum. Birds ensures 100 per cent hatching of
(broilers) are reared for meat. eggs. The hatching takes place
Fisheries forming small fish or fries. These are
put in culture pond with proper fish
Another major source of food in our feed. These ponds are provided with
country is fish. Large population sufficient light and oxygen. Fish are
residing in coastal areas and along harvested from time to time. Fast
the rivers take fish regularly. Fish is growing fish varieties have been
a rich source of animal protein. Fish developed through breeding.
oil, like shark liver and cod liver oils,
are rich in Vitamin D. Fish is also Apiculture
used in dry form as well as in the We also get some food substances
form of canned food. Fish meal is a from small animals, like insects. We
rich source of poultry and cattle feed. get honey from bees. It contains
Non-edible parts of fish, like tails, fins water, sugar, minerals and enzymes.
and bones, which are considered as It is easily digestible and is also given
fish waste, are used for for common ailments, like cough.


the box. These compartments made

by bees are called combs combs. All
activities of bees are restricted to the
box. Queenbee lays eggs which hatch
into larvae, forming pupae. Both
larva and pupa are looked after by
bee workers. Honey bees collect
nectar from flowers and make honey.
Honey is extracted by honey extractor
(Fig. 14.22).

Fig. 14.21 Beehives

Fig. 14.22 Honey extractor
Honey is not consumed as a regular
food item. It is used in medicines. It is stored in clean and air-tight
Honey bees are common in bottles. As a by-product of bee
forests. They raise their nests called activities, another useful substance
hives on tall trees in forests and even is obtained from bees. It is called
tall buildings in urban areas (Fig. bee wax
wax, and is used for making
14.21). The honey-bees are also candles. In our country, farmers are
reared in boxes and the method is being encouraged to raise honey-
called apiculture
apiculture. (The word is bee apiaries with the help of
derived from the Latin word apies : agencies, like Khadi and Village
bee). These boxes are called Apiaries. Industries Commission and various
Bees develop hives on the frames in agriculture universities. Honey is


sometimes adulterated with sugar

and gur. It can be tested by a simple
test as given in the following

Pure honey Adulterated honey

Activity 8
Fig. 14.23 Test of honey
Take a glass of water. Add two
drops of honey into it. If These days, bee-keeping is also
continuous thread is formed being pursued by many farmers. It
throughout the glass, it is pure has led to increase in production of
honey. Impure honey will not honey in our country. You have
form thread since sugar or gur learnt how the crops and animals can
get dissolved in water be raised to obtain food on large
(Fig.14.23). scale.

Key Words
Crop, Crop produce, Kharif crops, Rabi crops, Agricultural practices, Ploughing,
Tilling, Crumbs, Leveller, Sowing, Seed drill, Nursery, Transplantation, Irrigation,
Weed, Weedicides, Pest, Pesticides, Bio-pesticide, Fallow, Harrow, Harvesting,
Combines, Bins, Silos, Crop yield, Crop improvement, Breeding, Variety,
Emasculation, Animal husbandry, Dairying, Milch animals, Roughage,
Concentrate, Feed, Fodder, Weeding, Natural hatching, Incubation period, Broody
hen, Hatcheries, Fries, Hives, Combs, Apiculture, Apiaries, Honey extractor


In order to provide food to our growing population, we need to adopt

certain agricultural practices.
Same kind of plants grown at a place constitutes a crop.
Crops depending upon season are either Kharif or Rabi crops.
It is necessary to prepare soil by irrigation, tilling and levelling. Ploughs
and leveller are used for this purpose.
Sowing of seeds at an appropriate depth and distance gives good yield.
Seeds are sown after selection of healthy seeds. Sowing is done by
seed drills.


Crops are irrigated from different sources. The time and frequency of
irrigation varies from crop to crop. It is also determined by the nature
of the soil.
Soil needs replenishment through use of organic manures and
enrichment through fertilisers. Use of chemical fertilisers has increased
tremendously with introduction of new varieties.
Use of organic manure should be encouraged.
Weeds compete with crop for light, nutrients and water. The removal
of weeds is necessary for crop growth. Weeds can also be controlled by
use of chemicals, called weedicides.
Crops are harvested and thrashed manually or with the help of machines,
called combines. Part of harvested produce in the form of grains and
fodder is stored by farmers for family use. The remaining is sold in the
market. The food is also stored on large scale in godowns and silos.
Crops are improved with desired characters through cross breeding.
Animals, such as cow, buffalo, poultry birds and fish, are reared for
major food items, like milk, eggs and meat.
Domesticated animals need proper feeding, weeding and protection
against diseases and parasites.
The animal food output can be increased through proper animal
husbandry practices as well as through cross breeding.
Small animals like honey-bees, are also reared to get useful substances,
such as honey.


1. How was agriculture started as a regular activity of cultivation of

food plants?
2. Name two categories of crops based on seasons.
3. Crop is the cultivation of same _____________ of plants.
4. Ploughing of soil helps in ________________ of air.
5. Sowing in paddy is done by _____________.
6. Define fertiliser.
7. Why should we use organic manure?
8. Define lodging. How does it happen?


9. By excessive supply of water or during floods soil becomes

waterlogged. What should be done to prevent waterlogging?
10. How do you control the weeds?
11. Define pesticide.
12. Distinguish between pesticide and weedicide.
13. What steps are taken to protect crop from pests?
14. Explain the process of harvesting and thrashing.
15. How are the dairy animals fed? Explain.
16. Give the symptoms of a sick cow or a buffalo.
17. Some seeds are given to you to grow. What factors will you keep in mind?
18. Write short notes:
(i) Weeding
(ii) Beehive
(iii) Feeding poultry birds
(iv) Transplantation.
19. How can one check the quality of eggs.
20. How are the fish cultured?
21. What is apiculture? What are the steps necessary for rearing bees?