Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Modeling and Simulation

1. Introduction
INSTITUT FR TECHNISCHE MECHANIK / BEREICH DYNAMIK UND MECHATRONIK

KIT Universitt des Landes Baden-Wrttemberg und


nationales Forschungszentrum in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft www.kit.edu
Overview

1. Learning outcomes and course structure


2. Syllabus
3. Basic concepts:
What is simulation?
What is a system?
What is a model?
4. Process of a simulation study

2 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
1. Learning outcomes

The students
are able to formulate the steps necessary to resolve problems
arising in engineering, to create appropriate conceptual and
mathematical models and to analyze them.

are able to develop and implement algorithms for the solution of


mathematical models.

are able to perform comprehensive and interdisciplinary simulation


studies to assess the simulation results and to critically evaluate
the quality of the simulation results.

3 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
1. Course structure

Models

Continuous Discrete

Lumped parameters Distributed parameter

Ordinary differential Differential


equations algebraic equations

4 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
2. Syllabus

Compulsory course
of the MSc
Central resource: ILIAS
https://ilias.studium.kit.edu

Institutes:
IFL, ITM, MOBIMA, FSM

Exercise:
either computer lab
or auditorium

Teaching Assistant:
Dipl-Ing. Maximilian Geiendrfer

5 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
2. Bonus system

Bonus system for computer lab training


Exercise sheets are voluntary.
Exercises will be carried out in teams of four students.

A file is provided for editing in Matlab. It can be downloaded from Ilias.

A solution is available in Ilias eight days after the last exercise meeting.
Until that time, the exercise sheet must have been successfully processed.

Prepare yourself for the exercise by working on the task beforehand!

If successful, you get a signature on a form.

For successful completion of at least 80% exercise sheets, there will be a grade
improvement 0.3 for a passed exam.

6 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3. Todays learning objectives

The students
are familiar with the concepts of system and model,
know the principle procedure of a simulation study,
can develop a conceptual model,
can design a simulation study for engineering problems.

7 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
What is simulation?

Tell us what you think !

8 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.1 What is simulation?

Simulation is the process of


designing a model of a real system and
conducting experiments with this model
for the purpose either
of understanding the behavior of the system and its
underlying causes or
of evaluating various designs of an artificial system or
strategies for the operation of the system.

R. E. Shannon: Introduction to the Art and Science of Simulation, 1998

9 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.1 What is simulation?

Simulation is a method for representing a system with its


dynamic processes in an experimental model, in order to
arrive at insights that can be transferred to reality.

In a broader sense, simulation consists of the preparation,


execution and analysis of defined experiments within a
simulation model.

By means of simulation, the behavior in time of complex


systems can be investigated.

VDI-Richtlinie 3633

10 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.1 What is simulation?

Simulation = representing the behavior


of systems by models

Simulation can be performed


on a digital computer,
on an analog computer,
by experiments on a similar, e.g. a scaled-down
model (for example: an object in a wind tunnel).

11 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
And why do we do that?

12 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.1 What is simulation?

Why simulation?
Obtain knowledge of systems, that in reality can not
be experimented directly or can only be experimented
at excessive expense
Time scale is too small/large (nuclear reactions, climate)
Spatial dimensions are too small/large (atoms, galaxies)
Real system does not (yet) exist (product development)
too expensive (crash, aviation)
Real system can be disturbed or destroyed
too dangerous (power plants, ecosystems, financial market)

13 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.1 What is simulation?

Opportunities:
Decision support
Representation of system complexity
Alternative to experiments

Risks of simulation:
Lack of data
Susceptibility to errors
High effort of modeling
Far from reality
Mixture of model and reality
Lack of transparency

14 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?

A system is a delimited set of interacting structures.


Such structures can be both objects or methods and their results
This structure is delimited by its boundary from the surrounding.

The boundary cuts the connections between the system and its
surrounding. The properties and states that are transferred by these
connections are quantities whose relationships determine the
system behavior.

Smaller and larger systems arise by appropriately combining and


dividing such systems.
DIN 19226

15 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?

External structure:
a set of objects
influenced from the surrounding (system inputs, disturbances)
effects of the system on the surrounding (system outputs)
Boundary

Input Output
System
(Cause) state (Effect)

Input variable State variable Output variable


parameter

The selection of the system boundary is carried out


according to
objective (delimitation) and
available ressources (exclusion)
16 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik
Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?
Internal structure
Systems are structured.
Structuring is possible on several hierarchical levels (e.g. scales).
Interaction between subsystems.

Decomposition: disassembly of a system into subsystems.


Aggregation: assembling a system composed of subsystems, additional
parameter must possibly be added to the system description.

Elementary systems are not decomposable anymore.


They determine the granularity of the system description.

Selection of the granularity/structuring: objective-oriented


greater clarity, minimized effort coarse granularity
transparency, expressiveness fine granularity
as coarse as possible, as fine as necessary!

17 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?

Possible classifications:
discrete system: range of value of the state variable is discrete
(opposite: analogue system).
continuous system: change of state can take place at any time.
(opposite: discontinuous system).
static system: system properties and state are constant with
time. (opposite: dynamic system).
linear/nonlinear system.
Similarly, discrete and analogue as well as continuous and
discontinuous processes can be distinguished.
Digital computer work with discrete-discontinuous data!

18 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?

Complexe systems:
consist of many subsystems of different type with varied
interactions
may be unstructured
( statistical results)

Complicated systems:
few subsystems, many state variables/parameters

19 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.2 What is a system?

Task:
System analysis (system identification):
uses the known system behavior
to build the structure system.

System synthesis:
uses the known structure of system
in order to investigate its function.

20 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.3 What is a model?

A model of an original is a system that irepresents the


essential behavior and the relationships of the original, in
order to solve a particular task that can not be carried out
with the original (because it is e.g. too expensive or too
time consuming).

One obtains a model by reducing the multiple factors and


relationships present: in reality to those that are necessary
with respect to the problem to be solved.

A distinction is made between conceptual and algorithmic


models.

21 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.3 What is a model?

Conceptual models can not be directly experimented.


require an executable form (e.g. software)

An algorithm is an ordered finite sequence of elementary


operations and conditions for transforming input data into
output data whereby after executing an operation it is
clearly identified or it can be decided based on a condition
what operation to perform at the next step or whether the
process is stopped.

An algorithmic model (or simulation model) is a model that


reflects the original process by algorithmic connections in
dependence on initial conditions, input information and
parameters.

22 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.3 What is a model?

Implementation: transformation of a conceptual model into


an executable computer simulation model.

Experimentation: a targeted empirical study of the model


behavior by applying repeated simulation runs with
systematic parameter variations.

Summary of the definition of simulation:


Simulation comprises implementation and experimentation
of simulation models in order to gain new insights that can
be transferred to reality.

23 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.3 What is a model?

Verification: Did I do it right?

Does the simulation model describe


the conceptual model right?

Have I done the


Validation: right thing?

Does the model describe reality


sufficiently accurate with respect to
the aims of the investigation?

24 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
3.3 What is a model?

last (but not least):


The DONTs of Mathematical Modelling

DONT believe that the model is the reality


DONT extrapolate beyond the region of fit
DONT distort reality to fit the model
DONT retain a discredited model
DONT fall in love with your model

S.W. Golomb, Simulation 14 (1970), 197-198

25 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
4. Process of a simulation study

Validation
of the model

Reality Model
Modeling

Simulation
model
26 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik
Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
4. Process of a simulation study

Procedure of the simulation study


Problem definition, quality criteria
Problem specification
results, time and budget

Modeling Idealization, physical principles

Mathematical model Algebraic equations, Differential eqs.

Model analysis e.g. Response, natural frequencies

Simulation process Algorithms

Simulator Hardware + Software

Simulation results, assessment e.g. time histories, animation

27 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
4. Process of a simulation study

Possibilities to develop simulators:


direct programming using program libraries
e.g. Matlab, C/C++, Fortran

using special simulation languages


e.g. ACSL, Modelica

block-oriented simulation
e.g. Simulink, Dymola

complete packages for specific system classes


e.g. - multi-body systems: ADAMS, Simpack
- drive dynamics: DRESP
- hydraulics, pneumatics: DSH plus
- electrical networks: SPICE

28 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
Outlook

Next Lecture:
Which models are common in mechanical engineering?
Lumped parameter models
Distributed parameter models

Network representation of lumped parameter models

Next Exercise:
Introduction to Matlab (Computer labs)

29 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik


Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik
Problem of the week

Concept for a simulation study?


Who does what?
What would you pay particular attention to?
30 Modellbildung und Simulation Institut fr Technische Mechanik
Abteilung Dynamik / Mechatronik