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lpt.jorge@gmail.com

CEMACOM, Computational Mechanical Center, Engineering School, Federal University of

Rio Grande do Sul

Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99-3o Floor, 90035-190, RS, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Armando Miguel Awruch

Incio Benvegnu Morsch

amawruch@ufrgs.br

morsch@ufrgs.br

PPGEC Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering School, Federal University of Rio

Grande do Sul

Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99-3o Floor, 90035-190, RS, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Abstract. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model based on the finite element

method has been developed to simulate liquefaction of saturated sand layers under

earthquake loading. The numerical tool is based on the coupled dynamic Biot equation for

porous media where the pore pressure of the fluid and displacements of the solid matrix,

respectively, are the main unknowns of the formulation. Discretization of equations in time is

done through the Generalized Newmark (GNpj) method. Liquefaction in the sand layers is

predicted by using an appropriate constitutive model known as Pastor-Zienkiewicz Mark III

which has proved to predict adequately all features of cyclic loading. Firstly, validation of the

numerical tool is done by comparing numerical results with experimental ones for model No 1

of VELACS project. Next a parametric study of a sandy soil column is carried out in order to

investigate the effect of soil properties in its response. This response is related to the study of

pore pressure generation, magnitude of lateral displacements and accelerations.

Keywords: saturated sand, liquefaction, finite element.

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Finite element analysis of saturated sand layers subjected to earthquake loading

1 INTRODUCTION

Some geotechnical problems are still usually solved by using simplifying assumptions such as drained or

undrained behavior in the soil mass. Specifically, in the case of earthquake analysis, the undrained behavior is

sometimes adopted for simplicity, however, when the permeability of the soil and draining conditions are

considerable in the problem in question, the undrained assumption is not adequate at all. In this way, a more

general condition between drained and undrained behaviors is needed. Biot (1956) proposed a set of differential

equations for describing the hydro-mechanical behavior of a porous saturated media based on the effective stress

approach. In this work, Biots formulation is adopted in the manner as presented in Zienkiewicz et al. (1999),

which is already suitable for finite element implementations. Here, the well-known u-p (where u refers to solid

displacement and p stands for pore pressure) formulation is implemented for describing the behavior of the

saturated soil (Zienkiewicz et al., 1999), which is composed of a solid matrix and pore fluid.

The above formulation is complemented by choosing a suitable constitutive model for the soil grains.

Because sandy soils and earthquake loading are of interest in this work, this constitutive model should be able to

deal with the simulation of liquefaction flow and cyclic mobility. These two processes are related directly to the

liquefaction phenomenon, which occurs due to the strong interaction between soil and pore fluid. This

phenomenon takes place when the excess of pore pressure generated due to external loading nullifies the initial

effective vertical stress in the soil mass and therefore loss of contact among particles is generated. In this work,

the mechanical behavior of the solid phase is simulated by using the well-know PZ-Mark III constitutive model

proposed in the work of Pastor & Zienkiewicz (1986), which is considered to be suitable for cyclic loading. Due

to space limitations, the complete formulation of the constitutive model is not presented here and the reader is

referred to that reference for more details.

To investigate the interaction of soil and pore fluid, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element program is

implemented in this work. It is based in all previous concepts describe above and adopted the subroutine library

provided by Smith and Griffith (2004). Firstly, validation of the numerical model is done by replicating the

experimental results of model No 1 of the VELACS (Verification of Liquefaction Analysis by Centrifuge

Studies, Arulanandan e Scott, 1993) project. After this, a sand column under a real earthquake loading is

analyzed in detailed for two different cases. In the first case, the soil column is made of a very loose sand

material (Ou and Chan, 2006) while in the second case, a loose sand material is considered. Previous studies

have calibrated the parameters needed in the PZ-mark III model for these two soils (Ou & Chan, 2006; Chan, et

al., 1993). For that reason, these parameters are directly used in this study. Finally, some conclusions of the

obtained results are described and commented.

The coupled set of equations of Biot (1956) that governs the behavior of a saturated porous media is given

in the following way:

Equilibrium of mixture is defined in the following manner:

where ij is the total stress tensor (tensile positive), u&&i and wi are the acceleration of the solid skeleton and

average (Darcy) fluid velocity respectively, bi is the body acceleration per unit mass, s , f and are the

densities of the solid grain, fluid and mixture, respectively, with = (1 n) s + n f and n being the porosity

of the porous media. The underlined terms represents the fluid acceleration relative to the solid and the

convective terms of this acceleration.

Equilibrium of fluid

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

where R represent the viscous drag forces which, assuming the Darcy seepage law, can be written as

k ij R j = wi , k is the permeability of soil with dimensions of [length]3[time]/[mass] which can also be expressed

by the usual soil mechanics permeability k , with k = k / f g , where f and g are the fluid density and

gravitational acceleration at which the permeability is measured.

Conservation of mass for fluid phase

wi ,i + &ii + + &ii + + n f + s&0 = 0 . (3)

Kf Ks

Ks Ks f

where wi ,i is the flow divergence in the unit volume, &ii is the increased volume due to a change in strain,

np& / K f is the additional volume stored by compression of void fluid due to the fluid pressure increase,

(1 n) p& / K s is the additional volume stored by the compression of grains by the fluid pressure increase,

K T (&ii + p& / K s ) / K s is the change in volume of the solid phase due to a change in the inter-granular effective

contact stress, and the underlined part n& f / f + s&0 are the corresponding change of fluid density and the rate

of volume expansion of the solid part in the case of thermal changes and which are consider to be negligible in

general. The mass conservation equation can be further expressed by using the definition of and Q in the

following way:

p& & f

wi ,i + &ii + +n + s&0 = 0 . (4)

Q f

where K T is the average bulk modulus of the solid skeleton, K s is the average material bulk modulus of the

solid components of the skeleton and K f is the bulk modulus of the fluid, with

1 / Q n / K f + ( n) / K s n / K f + (1 n) / K s and = 1 K T / K s . Combining Eq. (2) and Eq. (4), together

with Eq. (1), neglecting the underlined terms which are small under earthquake analysis, the governing equations

can be expressed in the following way:

ij , j + bi u&&i = 0 . (5)

{k ( p

ij ,j f u&& j + f b j )},i + &ii +

p&

= 0. (6)

Q

Due to this simplified equation set, only containing two dependent variables u and p , the present

formulation is called u p approximation form.

For the spatial discretization of the governing equations, the finite element method is used. The variables u

and p are interpolated by suitable shape functions in the following manner:

n

u N

k =1

k u k

u

= N u u . (7)

n

p N

k =1

k

p

p k = N p p . (8)

where u and p are the nodal displacement vector and the nodal pore pressure vector, respectively. Multiplying

( )

and N

p T

, respectively, and using the definition of Biot effective stress (in

vectorial form)

= + m p . (9)

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Finite element analysis of saturated sand layers subjected to earthquake loading

where m is the vectorial form of the delta of Kronecker, the matrix form of the u-p form governing equations

can be obtained and expressed in the following manner:

V

Mu&& + dV Qp = f u . (10)

where

M=

V

(N u )T N u dV . (12)

~ n

(N p ) K

n

S= T

+ N p dV . (13)

f K s

V

(N )

k

H= T

N p dV . (14)

p

f g

V

Q = B T ~mN p dV .

(15)

V

(N )

k

G= p

T

N u dV . (16)

g

V

B LNu . (17)

fu = (N

V

u )T bdV + ( N u )T t d .

(18)

(N ) (N )

k T

fp = p

T

bdV p w& d . (19)

g

V

where t is the prescribed traction on boundary and w& is the prescribed influx

Equations (10) and (11) must be integrated in time. In this work, the single-step Generalized Newmark

(GNpj) (Kantona & Zienkiewicz, 1985) method is used. Using GN22 for the displacements u and GN11 for the

pore pressure p (Wood, 1990; Ou & Chan, 2006), the following expressions are used:

u t + t = u + u t . (20)

1 1 &t 1 &&t

u& t + t = u + 1 u + 1 u t . (21)

2t 2 4

u u u + 1 u . (22)

t 2 t 2

and

p t +t = p + p t . (23)

1 1 & t

p& t + t = p p . (24)

t

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

where = 0.25 and = 1.0 are used for unconditional stability of the integration scheme and t

refers to current time.

3 NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

For verification of the developed code towards liquefaction analysis, the class A prediction of the

experiment No 1 of VELACS (Verification of Numerical Procedures for the Analysis of Soil Liquefaction

Problems, Arulanandan e Scott, 1993) project is considered. The experiment carried out by Taboada & Dobry

(1993) consists of a 20 cm high, horizontal, uniform Nevada sand layer, which is placed in a laminar box at a

relative density of about 40% (loose sand). The purpose of the laminar box is to simulate the response of a semi-

infinite loose sand layer during shaking. A sketch of the laminar box and the instrumentation used for this

experiment is presented in Fig. 1.

LVDT3

LVDT4

The sand is fully saturated with water, spun at a centrifuge acceleration of 50g, and excited horizontally at

the base with the target prototype accelerogram reproduced in Fig. 2. A zero vertical acceleration was

considered.

Numerical modeling is done in prototype scale using a three dimensional formulation with a plane-strain

condition. The finite element mesh is composed of 5120 coupled hexahedral finite elements with 8-node for pore

pressure and 8-node for solid displacements (called 8-8 elements). The mesh is regular and uniform as shown in

Fig. 3. The laminar box is modeled with the constraint of the lateral tied nodes. The displacements of nodes

located at the two ends of the soil at the same level are restrained to have the same value. The base nodes are

fixed in both horizontal and vertical directions. Dissipation of pore pressure is allowed only through the top

surface of the layer; the lateral boundaries and the base are kept impermeable. First a static analysis due to

application of gravity (models own weight) is performed before seismic excitation. The resulting fluid

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Finite element analysis of saturated sand layers subjected to earthquake loading

hydrostatic pressures and stress-states along the soil mass are used as initial conditions for the subsequent

dynamic analysis (Ou & Chan, 2006). Material properties are listed in Table 1.

Properties Unit

Very loose

Loose sand

sand

Elastic linear analysis

Elastic modulus Es = 30000 30000 kPa

Poisson coefficient s = 0.3 0.3

pressure p' o K evo = 770 3500 kPa

Three times shear modulus at reference

pressure p' o K eso = 1155 5250 kPa

Reference pressure p' o = 4 40 kPa

Mg = 1.15 1.5

Slope of critical state for plastic deformation

vector Mf = 1.035 0.4

Dilatancy parameter to plastic deformation

vector f = 0.45 0.45

Dilatancy parameter g = 0.45 0.45

Hardening parameter for shearing 0 = 4.2 4.2

Hardening parameter for shearing 1 = 0.2 0.2

Plastic modulus of loading H0 = 600 350 kPa

Plastic modulus of unloading H u0 = 4000 6000 kPa

Parameter for plastic deformation during

unloading u = 2 2

Parameter plastic deformation during

loading DM = 0 2

Another propierties

Mixture density = 2.089 kN.sec2/m4

Density of fluid f = 0.98 kN.sec2/m4

Compressibility modulus of solids Ks = 1017 kPa

6

Compressibility modulus of fluids Kf = 1.092x10 kPa

Porosity n = 0.363

Permeability k = 6.6x10-5 m/sec.

Gravity of acceleration g = 9.81 m/sec.2

CILAMCE 2014

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

The magnified deformed mesh and excess of pore pressure at the end of the analysis are shown in Fig. 4. In

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 is compared the development of the excess of pore pressure at points P1, P2 and P3, P4, (see

Fig. 1) respectively, as predicted by the numerical model and those recorded in the experiment. In Fig. 7, the

lateral displacement at locations LVDT3 and LVDT4 are shown. As it can be seen, a reasonable agreement

between numerical and experimental results is depicted.

30 30

P1 P2

25 25

Excesso de poropresso (KPa)

Excess of pore pressure(kPa)

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

Present analysis Present analysis

-5 Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993) -5

Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993)

-10 -10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Time (sec.) Time (sec.)

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Finite element analysis of saturated sand layers subjected to earthquake loading

60 60

P3 P4

50 50

Excess of pore pressure (kPa)

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

Present analysis Present analysis

0 0

Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993) Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993)

-10 -10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Time (sec.) Time (sec.)

0.10 0.10

LVDT3 Deslocamento horizontal (m)

LVDT4

Horizontal displacement (m)

0.05 0.05

0.00 0.00

-0.05 -0.05

Present analysis Present analysis

Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993) Experimental (Taboada e Dobry ,1993)

-0.10 -0.10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Time (sec.) Time (sec.)

In this section, the responses of a very loose sand column and a loose sand column, both of them subjected

to the E-W component of the Centro (1940) earthquake, are studied. The geometry and finite element mesh used

for this problem are shown in Fig. 8. The typical column is 30 meters high and it is discretized by using ten 8-8

coupled finite elements. The same boundary conditions of the previous example are also used here. The

properties and model parameters for these two soils are presented in Table 1 where a permeability value equal to

2.1E-03 m/sec is used here. The E-W component of the Centro (1940) earthquake is shown in Fig. 9. In addition,

in the work of Ou & Chan (2006), the case of the very loose sand column has also been studied in detailed and

therefore the results of the present study can be compared with those of that reference.

In Fig. 10 and Fig 11 are shown the results at different depths of the column for the very loose and the

loose sand cases, respectively, in terms of stress paths, excess of pore pressure, shear stress versus shear strain

curves and horizontal displacements. The chosen control points (where the results are plotted) are located at a

depth of 1.5 m (element E10), 10.5 m (element E07), 19.5 m (element E04) and 25.5 m (element E02) from the

top surface of the column.

In Fig. 10, the maximum shear strain in the soil column is almost 20% in element E04. The maximum

lateral displacement occurred at the soil surface and it is almost equal to 3.5 m (relative to the base movement).

In Fig. 11, the maximum shear strain in the soil column is almost 4% for element E10. The relative lateral

displacements at all depths are negligible in comparisons with those obtained for the very loose sand layer.

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

1.5

1

Acelerao (m/seg.2 )

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

0 2 4 6 8 10

Tempo (seg.)

In Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 are shown the absolute accelerations at the top and at the base of the soil column for

the two cases (very loose and loose sand, respectively). In Fig. 12, it is seen that de-amplification of the

acceleration occurs due to soil liquefaction. In fact, the acceleration is almost to zero after 4 sec. of loading. This

is because all soil grains have lost contact among them and they are not able to transmit the soil base acceleration

to the top surface of the column. Otherwise, Fig. 13 depicts that the loose soil column greatly amplifies the

magnitude of the acceleration for all time instants. The maximum amplification takes place after 2 sec. of

loading where the top surface acceleration has almost a value of 7 m/sec.2.

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

5 20 5 400

10 -2

3 3

200

1 1

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

10 0

-1 -1

-3 -200

-3

A -5 0 -5 -400

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 2 4 6 8 10 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

'v (KPa) Tempo (seg.)

40 30

B 100.0

10 -2

100

20 50.0

10

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

0 0.0

50

-10

-20 -50.0

-120 -70 -20 0 2 4 6 8 1 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0 2 4 6 8 10

50 250 50 10.0

Excess of pore pressure (kPa)

10 -2

30 200 30 5.0

0.0

10 150 10

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

D -10 -10

-5.0

100

-10.0

-30 50 -30

-15.0

E -50 0 -50 -20.0

-250 -150 -50 0 2 4 6 8 1 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

50 300 50 6.0

Excess of pore pressure (kPa)

10 -2

30 250 30 4.0

200

2.0

10 10

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

150 0.0

-10 -10

100 -2.0

-30 -30

50 -4.0

-300 -200 -100 0 2 4 6 8 1 -4.0 -2.5 -1.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 0 2 4 6 8 10

'v (kPa) Time (sec.) h (%)

Figure 10. Stress paths, excess of pore pressure, shear stress versus shear strain curves and lateral displacements for very loose sand

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

12 20 12 400

10 10

10 -2

8 8

6 6 200

4 4

2 2

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

0 10 0 0

-2 -2

-4 -4

-6 -6 -200

-8 -8

A -10 -10

-400

-12 -12

0

-20 -15 -10 -5 -5.0 -3.0 -1.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

B 40 30 100.0

10 -2

100

20 50.0

10

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

0 0.0

50

-10

-20 -50.0

C -30 -100.0

-40 0

-120 -70 -20 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

50 250 50

10.0

10 -2

30 200 30 5.0

0.0

D 10 150 10

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

-5.0

-10 100 -10

-10.0

-30

E -30 50 -15.0

0

-250 -150 -50 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

60 300 60

Excess of pore pressure (kPa)

6.0

10 -2

40 250 40 4.0

20 200 20

2.0

h (kPa)

h (kPa)

0 150 0 0.0

-40 -4.0

-40 50

-60 -6.0

-60 0

-0.5 -0.3 0.0 0.3 0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10

-300 -200 -100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

'v (kPa) Time (sec.) h (%) Time (sec.)

Figure 11. Stress paths, excess of pore pressure, shear stress versus shear strain curves and lateral displacements for loose sand

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

2.0

1.5

Acceleration (m/seg.2 )

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (sec.)

base surface

8.0

6.0

Acceleration (m/seg.2 )

4.0

2.0

0.0

-2.0

-4.0

-6.0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (sec.)

base surface

In Fig. 14 are compared the development of the excess of pore pressure at different depths of the sand

column for the two soils and for various time instants. Also, in these figures the initial overburden effective

stress in the sand column is shown (dashed black line). As it can be seen in Fig. 14a, the excess of pore pressure

equals the initial overburden stress at all depths after 10 sec. of loading for the case of the very loose sand.

Therefore, a complete liquefaction state has taken place in almost the whole column (with exception of its base).

In the case of the loose sand column (see Fig. 14b), the excess of pore pressure never reaches the initial

overburden stress. Therefore, liquefaction has not taken place in the column and the soil grains remain in contact

for the whole column. For this reason, amplification of the soil base acceleration occurs at the top surface of the

column.

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Tamayo J. L. P., Awruch A. M., Morsch I. B

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

0 0

-5 -5

-10 -10

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

-15 -15

-20 -20

-25 -25

-30 -30

Excess of pore pressure (KPa) Excess of pore pressure (kPa)

Present analysis (t=2) Present analysis (t=2)

Present analysis (t=4) Present analysis (t=4)

Present analysis (t=6) Present analysis (t=6)

Present analysis (t=8) Present analysis (t=8)

Present analysis (t=10) Present analysis (t=10)

Figure 14. Excess of pore pressure development at various depths of the soil column for various times

instants

CONCLUSION

In this work, a three-dimensional numerical model for analyzing saturated porous media under earthquake

loading is presented. The coupled approach is based on a simplified form of the Biots governing equations. In

this formulation, the soil mass is modeled as a fully saturated porous media (solid skeleton plus fluid) where the

two main variables of the formulation are the displacements of the solid skeleton and the pore pressure of the

fluid. Liquefaction phenomenon in sands is simulated by using the well-know PZ-Mark III constitutive model

(Pastor & Chan, 1986). Firstly, the numerical model is validated with the experimental results obtained for the

experiment No1 of the VELACS project. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical and experimental

results in terms of excess of pore pressure and lateral displacements at monitoring points. After, a brief study is

carried out to investigate the response of a soil column under a real earthquake loading. Firstly, the response of

the soil column is evaluated considering that it is composed of a very loose sand material, and secondly it is

studied considering that it is comprised of a loose sand material. Both responses are compared in terms of stress

paths, excess of pore pressure, shear stress versus shear strain curves, horizontal displacements, accelerations

and potential of liquefaction. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that both soils have totally different

behaviors, yielding very different lateral displacements (which is a main concern in lateral spreading analysis).

As expected, the very loose sand column liquefies almost entirely after 10 sec. of loading at all depths. In the

case of the loose sand column, it is far from being in a liquefaction state. In this way, the very loose sand column

greatly de-amplifies the acceleration at the soil surface because it is not able to maintain contact among soil

Proceedings of the XXXV Iberian Latin-American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering

Evandro Parente Jr (Editor), ABMEC, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, November 23-26, 2014

Finite element analysis of saturated sand layers subjected to earthquake loading

grains. Otherwise, the loose sand column greatly amplifies the acceleration at soil surface up to a value of 7

m/sec.2 after 2 sec. of loading. This preliminary studied can also provide some insight into the different responses

obtained with these two set of parameters for sandy soils, especially for those researches which are familiar with

the PZ-Mark III model. Nevertheless, the PZ-Mark III model in its original version (as used in this work) has

some limitations such as that a new set of material parameters is needed for soils with different relative densities.

According to the state of the art of the topic, constitutive models must be able to predict soil responses for a

given unified set of model parameters. In this way, modifications are needed to take this fact into account.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by CAPES and CNPq for the

development of this work.

REFERENCES

Arulanandan, K., & Scott, R.F., 1993. Verification of Numerical Procedures for the Analysis

of Soil Liquefaction Problems. Proceedings of the International Conference on the

Verification of Numerical Procedures for the Analysis of Soil Liquefaction Problems, held at

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