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All about Failure Mechanisms of C-steels according to API 571

Failure Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection


Description
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Creep and Creep at Temperature 1. All metals 1. Material 1. Heater tubes 1. Hardening 1. Design Visual
Stress >370C depending on 2. Low creep 2. Load in fired heaters 2. Creep voids 2. Material UT,RT,EC,
Rupture material. Deformation ductility 3. Temperature 2. Tube support at grain bound. Selection WFMT
(API 571/ may lead to a rupture 3. Cut of 3. Other furnace 3. fissures 4. PWHT
GALIOM) Related Mechanism: remaining internals 4. cracks
1.Short term overheat. life 4. HAZ (bulging)
Stress Rupture
2. Reheat cracking
in heavy wall equipm.

Mechanical sudden, unexpected 1. All metals 1. Geometrie 1. small concentric 1. Good Design PT, MT and
Fatigue failure exposed to 2. Stress level (Temp.) nozzles rings (waves) 2. Material SWUT
(API 571) cyclic stresses for an 2. Fatigue 3. Number of cycles 2. rotating emanating Selection (shear wave
Corrosion extented period limit 4. Material strength shafts on from the crack 3. Minimize US testing)
Fatigue 5. Material Hardness pumps and initiation site weld defects Vibration
Cracking Related Mechanism: 3. Endurance 6. Material Mikrostruct. compressors 4. use of UIT Monitoring
(GALIOM) Vibration induced limit 5. Min. Stress
consider fatigue,Thermal fatigue concentration
also Therm.
Vibration
Fatigue(API
Erosion/ Erosion: 1. All metals 1.Velocity 1. Bends localized loss 1. Geometry 1. Visual
Erosion- mechanical removal 2.Hardness 2.Concentration of 2. Tees in thickness, 2. Material inspection
Corrosion of surface material of the impacting medium 3. Reducers in the form of Selection of suspected
(API 571/ Erosion- Corrosion: surface 3. Size and hardness 4. Nozzles pits, grooves, 3. Surface areas
GALIOM) removing protective 3. Free of impacting particles 5. Valves waves, rounded Hardening 2. UT, RT
films corrosion 4. Hardness and 6. Pumps holes and 4.Inhibitors (metal loss)
Related Mechanism: potential corrosion resistance 7. Heatexch. valleys
Cavitation, Fretting (V) 5. Angle of impact
Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Reheat Cracking of a metal 1.Low alloy 1. Chemical composit. 1. Heavy wall Reheat cracking 1. Minimize 1. Surface
Cracking due to stress steels 2. Impurity elements vessels in areas is intergranular restraint during cracks:UT,MT
(API 571/ relaxation during 2. Loss of 3. Grain size of high restraint and can be welding and 2. Embedded
GALIOM) PWHT or in service toughness 4. Residual stresses including surface breaking PWHT. cracks: UT
at elevated temperat. 3. Intergran. (cold working, welding) nozzle welds or embedded 2. Small grain
It is most often cracking 5. Section thickness and heavy wall depending on size
observed in heavy wall 6. Notches and stress piping. the state of 3. UIT to weld
sections. concentrations 2. High strength stress and toe
low alloy are geometry.
very susceptible

Galvanic occur at the junction 1. Free 1. Electrolyte any unit 1. General 1. no contact 1.Visual
Corrosion of dissimilar metals corrosion 2. Two different where there metal loss 2. Coating inspection
(API 571/ when they are joined potential materials is a 2. Crevice (the more noble 2. UT
GALIOM) together in a suitable (anode/cathode) conductive 3. Groove material should Thickness
electrolyte. 3. Electrical connection fluid and 4. Pitting be coated)
Related Mechanism: between the anode and alloys are 3. electric
Soil corrosion cathode coupled. insulating
4. cathodic
protection
Atmosph. occur from moisture 1. Free 1. Physical location 1. any unit 1. general or 1. Surface 1.Visual
corrosion associated with corrosion (marine) 2. under poor local metal loss preperation inspection
(API 571/ atmospheric potential 2. Moisture coating 2. Localized and proper 2. UT
GALIOM) conditions. (humidity) system coating failure coating Thickness
Marine environments 3. Temperature 3. low temp. will tend to application
are most severe. 4. not used promote
component corrosion
Related Mechanism: 5. open to
Corrosion under atmosphere
isulation
Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Corrosion resulting from water 1. Free 1. Design of insulation 1. any unit often appears 1. High quality 1. Partial or
under trapped under corrosion system as loose, flaky coating full stripping
Insulation insulation potential 2. Insulation typ scale covering 2. Selection 2. UT-Thickn.
(CUI) fireproofing 3. Temperature the corroded of insulation 3. Real-time
(API 571/ 4. Environment component material Profile X-ray
GALIOM) Humidity, rainfall, (closed-cell for small bore
Related Mechanisms: chlorides from marine foam glass piping
1. Atmospheric environment better than 4. Neutron
corrosion 5. Operating below the mineral wool) backscater
2. Crevice/Under water dew point 3. Calcium or IR
Deposit Silicate insul. termography
contain identifying
chlorides wet insulation
4. inspection 5. Guided
plan wave UT
6. Deep
penetrating
Eddy-current

Cooling General or localized 1. Free 1.Fluid Temperature cooling water cooling water 1.Proper design Inspection
Water corrosion caused by corrosion (increasing temp. tend corrosion is corrosion can 2.Operat. Data depending
Corrosion dissolved salts, potential to increase corr.-rate a concern result in many 3.Chem.treatm. on the
(API 579/ gases, organic and fouling) with water- different forms 4.Water velocity Morphology
GALIOM) compounds or 2. Type of water cooled heat of damage incl. 5.Periodic of Failure
don't use microbiological (fresh, brackish, salt) exchangers 1. General corr. mechanical
activity >60C for fresh, >46C and cooling when dissolved cleaning of tube
for brackish and salt towers in all oxygen is ID's and OD's
Related Mechanisms water cause scaling applications present. 6. Minimize
1. Microbiologically 3. Type of cooling syst. 2. Local corr. stagnant areas
induced corrosion (once-through, open from under-
(MIC) circulating, closed circ.) deposit, MIC

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue 2. Chloride stress 4. Oxygen content 3. Pitting corr.
Cooling corrosion cracking (increasing oxygen 4. MIC
Water 3. Galvanic corrosion content tends to 5. SCC
Corrosion increase corr.-rates) 6. Fouling
(API 579/ 5. Fluid velocities
GALIOM) <1m/s are likely to
don't use result in fouling,
sedimendation and
increased corr.-rates.
6. Fouling occur from
mineral deposits, silt,
suspended organic
materials, corrosion
products, mill scale,
marine and mircro-
biological growth

CO2 CO2 Corrosion results 1. Free 1. Partial Pressure of 1. Welds 1. Localized 1. Optimizing 1.VT, UT and
Corrosion when CO2 dissolves corrosion CO2. Increasing partial 2. Bends thinning and/or Process data RT inspection
(API 571/ in water to form potential pressure of CO2 3. Reducer pitting corrosion 2. Corrosion techniques
GALIOM) carbon acid (H2CO3) result in lower pH 4. Tees 2. deep pitting inhibitors should focus
The acid may lower condensate and higher 5. Nozzles and grooving in steam on general
the pH and sufficient rates of corrosion. (1.-5 are in areas of condensate or local loss
quantities may 2. Corrosion occurs in turbulent turbulence systems. in thickness
promote general the liquid phase, often areas of flow 3. material where water
corrosion and/or at locations where CO2 regime) selection wetting
pitting corrosion condenses from the 6. Bottom of (300 series SS is anticipated.
vapor phase. pipe/ are highly 2. Preferential
3. Increasing equipment resistant) corrosion of
temperature increase (as the 4. increase of weld seams

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue Related Mechanisms corrosion rate up to the density of PH >6 may require
CO2 1. Boiler water point where CO2 is water is angle probe
Corrosion condensate corrosion vaporized. larger than UT or RT.
(API 571/ 2. Carbonate cracking 4.In absence of of oil).
GALIOM) moisture is CO2 a non- 7. Dead legs
corrosive gas. 8. Top surface
5. Whether or not free of the pipe if
water will be present condensation
in crude oil and gas in wet gas
depends upon factors systems is
as the water cut, flow anticipated
regime and process
parameters.

Flue-Gas 1. Sulfur and chlorine C-Steel, 1. Concentration of 1. All fired 1. General 1. Wall thick-
Dew-Point species in fuel will C-Cr-Mo-St. contaminants (sulfur and process heaters wastage often ness: UT
Corrosion form sulfur dioxide, chlorides) in the fuel and boilers that with broad,
(API 579/ sulfur trioxide and 2. Operating Temp. burn fuels shallow pits,
GALIOM) hydrogen chloride 3. Dewpoint of sulfuric in the econo- depending on
within the combustion acid depends on the mizer sections the way the
products. concentration of sulfur and in the sulfuric acid
2. At low enough trioxide (about 138C). stacks. condenses.
temperature, these 4. Dewpoint of hydro-
gases and the water chloric acid (about 54C)
vapour in the flue gas
will condense to form
sulfurous acid, sulfuric
acid and hydrochloric
acid which can lead
to severe corrosion.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Micro- corrosion caused by 1. Free 1. Where water is 1. Heat 1. localized 1. Application 1. Measuring
biologically living organisms such corrosion present exchangers pitting under of biocides biocide
Induced as bacteria, algae or potential 2. stagnant or low-flow 2. Bottom water deposits or 2. minimize residual,
Corrosion fungi. It often 3. Organisms can of storage tanks tubercles that low flow or microbe
(MIC) associated with the survive and grow under 3. Piping with shield the stagnant zones counts and
(API 571) preence of tubercles severe conditions incl. stagnant or organisms. 3. Wrapping visual
or slimy organic a. lack of oxygen low flow 2. cup-shaped and appearance.
Biological substances b. light or dark 4. Piping in pits cathodically 2. Special
Corrosion c. high salinity contact with protecting probes have
(GALIOM) Related Mechanisms: d. PH range: 0 to 12 some soils underground been designed
Cooling water e. Temperature: 0 to 5. Open and not structures to monitor for
corrosion 235F (-17 to 113C) used component have been evidence of
4. Organisms thrive on 6. Product effective in fouling which
different nutrients incl. storage tanks preventing may precede
inorganic substances and water MIC. or coincide
(e.g. sulfur, ammonia, cooled heat with MIC
H2S) and organic exchangers damage
substances (e.g. in any unit 3. An increase
hydrocarbons, organic where cooling in the loss of
acids). In addition, all water is not duty of a
organisms require a properly treated heat exchang.
source of carbon, 7. Fire water may be
nitrogen and phosphor. systems indicative of
for growth. fouling and
5. In-leakage of process potential MIC
contaminants such as 4.VT, UT and
hydrocarbons or H2S RT
may lead to a massive
increase in biofouling
and corrosion

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Soil The deterioration of 1. Free 1. Temperature 1. Bottom of 1.localized loss 1. Coating 1.Visual
Corrosion metals exposed to corrosion 2. Moisture storage tanks due to pitting 2. Cathodic inspection
don't use soils is refered to as potential 3. Oxygen 2. Production 2. Poor protection 2. UT, RT
soil corrosion. 4. Soil resistivity Separator condition of a
5. Soil type protective
6. Cathodic protection coating is a
Related Mechanisms 7. Coating type,age, tell tale sign of
Galvanic corrosion condition potential
8. Soils having high corrosion
moisture content, high damage.
dissolved salt concentr.
and high acidity are
usually the most
corrosive.
9. Soil-to-air interface
areas are often much
more susceptible to
corrosion than the rest
of the structure because
of moisture and oxygen
availability.
10. corrosion rates
increase with increasing
metal temperature
11. Other factors
a. galvanic corrosion
b. dissimilar soils
c. stray currents
d. differential aeration
corrosion cells
e. MIC

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Caustic Localized corrosion 1. Free 1. Presence of caustic 1. Boilers 1.Localized 1. Design 1.For process
Corrosion due to the corrosion (NaOH or KOH) 2. Steam metal loss 2. Process equipment,
(API 579) concentration of potential 2. Caustic is sometimes generating which may 3. In process UT thickness
Caustic caustic or alkaline added to process equipments appear as equipment, gauging is
Corrosion salts streams for neutralizat. incl. heat grooves in a caustic useful to
and SCC 3. Caustic solutions exchangers boiler tube or injection detect general
(GALIOM) Related Mechanisms: for removal of sulfur 3. Where locally thinned facilities should corrosion.
consider Steam Blanketing compounds caustic is added areas under be designed Localized
also 4. A concentrating to crude unit insulating to allow proper losses may
Caustic mechanism must exist charge deposits mixing and be difficult
SCC to built up the caustic 4. Accelerated 2. Deposits may dilution to locate.
(API 579) strength localized corr. fill corroded of caustic in 2. Injection
5. Caustic may become in preheat depressions order to avoid points should
concentrated by exchangers, and mask the be inspected
evaporation and furnace tubes damage below. concentration in acc. with
deposition and transfer Probing suspect of caustic on API 570
6. Exposure to high lines, unless areas with a hot metal 3. UT scans
solution strength caustic the caustic is sharp instrument surface and RT
can result in general effective mixed may be required 4. Steam
corrosion above 175F in the oil stream 3. Localized generation
(79C) and very high 5. units use gouging may equipment
corrosion rates above caustic for result along a may require
200F (93C) removing waterline where visual inspect.
sulfur corrosive with the use a
compounds. concentrate. boroscope.
In vertical tubes
circumferential
in horizontal at
the top or
longitudinal.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Oxidation Oxygen reacts with C-Steel, 1. Temperatur >538C fired heaters and 1. General 1. Material UT
(API 571) C-steel at high temp. C-Cr-Steel 2. Alloy Composition. boilers as well 2. covered out- selection
High converting the metal as other side surface
Temperat. to oxide scale. combustion with oxide scale
Corrosion It is most often equipment
(GALIOM) present as oxygen in
the surrounding air
used for combustion
in fired heaters/boilers

Sulfidation Corrosion of C-steel C-Steel, 1. Temperatur >260C 1.Heaters fired 1. General 1. Material UT,RT
(API 571) resulting from their C-Cr-Steel 2. Alloy Composition. with oil, gas 2. localized selection
High Temp. reaction with sulfur 3. Concentration of 2. Boilers 3. high velocity
H2S compounds in high corrosive sulfur comp. 3. Piping erosion-corr.
Corrosion temp. environments. 4. Sulfidation is primarily 4. sulfide scale
(GALIOM) caused by H2S

Carburi- Carbon is absorbed 1.C-Steel, 1. Temperatur >593C 1.Fired heater 1. Increase of 1. Material Initial stage:
zation into a material at C-Cr-Steel 2. Alloy Composition. tubes hardness selection Hardness
(API 571/ elevated temp. while 2.loss of high 3. Carburizing environm. 2. loss in EC
GALIOM) in contact with a temperature or carbonaceous mater. ductility Advanced
carbonaceous mater. creep 4. Hydrocarbons, CO, 3. volumetric stage:cracks
or carburizing environ. ductility; CO2, methane,ethane increase RT,UT,MP
Initially, carbon diffuse 3.loss of 5. Low O2 or steam
into the component at ambient temp
a high rate and then mech. Prop.
tapper off as the depth 4. loss of
of carburization weldability
increases. 5. loss of
Related: Metal dusting corros. resis.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Decarbu- A condition where 1.C-Steels 1. Time 1. Components 1.The decarbur. 1. Material Hardness
rization steel loses strength C-Cr-Steels 2. Temperature exposed to layer will be free selection
(API 579/ due the removal of 2. loss in 3. Carbon activity of the elevated temp., of carbide
GALIOM) carbon and carbides room temp. process stream; gas heat treated or phases.
leaving only an iron tensile phase (H2, CO2 ) that exposed to
matrix. Decarburizat. strength has a low carbon activity fire.
occurs during 3. loss in so that carbon in the 2. Piping in hot
exposure to high creep steel will diffuse to the hydrogen service
temperatures, during strength surface to react with gas 3. fired heater
heat treatment, from phase constituents. tubes
exposure to fire, or 4. Pressure
from high temperature vessel comp.
service in a gas envir. hot formed

Related Mechanism:
High temperature
Hydrogen Attack
(HTHA)

Metal Metal dusting is a see see see see see see


Dusting form of carburization Carburization Carburization Carburization Carburization Carburization Carburization
(API 571/ resulting in accelerat.
GALIOM) localized pitting which
don't use occurs in carburizing
gases and/or process
streams containing
carbon and hydrogen.
Pits usually form on
the surface and may
contain soot or
graphite dust.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Corrosion A form of fatigue 1. Free 1. Corrosive environment 1. Rotating 1. The fatigue 1. Using 1. cracking
Fatigue cracking in which corrosion 2. Cyclic stresses Equipment fracture is brittle coatings and is generally
(API 571) cracks develop under potential 3. Cracking is more 2. Deaerators and the cracks and/or detected with
Corrosion the combined affects 2.Endurance likely to occur in 3. Cyclic Boilers are most often inhibitors WFMT (wet
Fatigue of cyclic loading and limit environments that 4. any equipm. transgranular, 2. Minimize fluorescent
cracking corrosion. promote pitting or subjected to as in stress- residual magnetic
(GALIOM) Cracking often localized corrosion cyclic stresses corrosion welding and particle testing
consider initiates at a stress under cyclic stress due cracking, but not fabrication 2. Many of the
also concentration such as to thermal stress, branched, and stresses cracks are
Thermal a pit in the surface. vibration or differential often results in through PWHT. very tight and
and Cracking can initiate expansion propagation of 3. Minimize difficult to
Mechanical at multiple sites. 4. Contrary to a pure multiple weld reinforce- detect.
Fatigue mechanical fatigue, parrallel cracks. ment by 3. Cracking
of API 571 Related Mechanisms: there is no fatigue limit 2. Fatigue grinding weld may occur at
Mechanical fatigue load in corrosion- cracking will be contours the
Vibration induced assisted fatigue. Corr. evidenced by smooth. membranes
fatigue promotes failure at a very little plastic Better is in the highly
lower stress and number deformation Ultrasonic stressed
of cycles than the except that final Impact Treatm. regions,
materials' normal fracture may (UIT) or WIG- particularly
endurance limit in the occur by dressing corners at
absence of corrosion mechanical buckstays.
and often results in overload
propagating of multiple accompanied
parallel cracks. by plastic
5. Cracks initiation sites deformation.
include concentrators
such as pits, notches,
surface defects,
changes in section or
fillet welds.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Caustic Caustic embrittlement 1. Free 1. Caustic Strength 1. Equipment 1. cracking 1. PWHT 1. Although
Stress is a form of stress corrosion Cracking can occur at that handles typically 2. Steamout cracks may
Corrosion corrosion cracking potential low caustic levels if a caustic, incl. propagates of non-PWHT'd be seen
Cracking characterized by concentrating mechan. H2S removal parallel to the carbon steel visually, crack
(Caustic surface-initiated is present. units. weld in adjacent piping and detection is
Embrittle- cracks that occur in Concentration can occur 2. Equipment base metal but equipment best perfored
ment) piping and equipment as a result of alternating that uses can also occur should be with WFMT
(API 571) exposed to caustic, wet and dry conditions, caustic for in the weld avoided. (wet flouresc.
Caustic primarily adjacent to localized hot spots or neutralization deposit or HAZ Equipment magnetic
Corrosion non-PWHT'd welds high temperature steam- in sulfuric acid 2. sometimes should be particle test.),
and SCC out. and HF described as a water washed RT, ACFM
(GALIOM) In such cases, caustic alkylation units. spider web of before steam- (alternating
consider Related Mechanisms: concentrations of 50 to 3. Caustic is small cracks. out. current
also Amine cracking 100 ppm are sufficient sometimes 3. oxide-filled 3. Proper magnetic
Caustic Carbonate cracking to cause cracking. injected into the cracks design and flux leakage
Corrosion 2. Metal Temperature feed (Inlet) to the operation of the testing).
(API 571) Crack propagation rates crude tower injection 2.PT (Liquid
increase dramatically for chloride system is penetrant
with temperature. control. required to testing) is not
3. Stress Level ensure that effective for
Stresses that promote caustic is finding tight,
cracking can be residual properly scale-filled
that result from welding dispersed cracks and
or from cold working before should not be
(such as bending and entering the used for
forming) as well as high-temp. detection.
applied stresses. crude preheat 3. Crack
(Temp. and Stress system. depths with
causing caustic embritt. shear wave
see Fig.4-85). UT (SWUT)

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
Ammonia Carbon steel is 1. Harness 1. Anhydrous ammonia 1. Ammonia is 1. Cracking will 1. PWHT 1. WFMT
Stress susceptible to SCC > 225 BHN with < 0.2% water will present as a occur at 2. Addition of welds inside
Corrosion in anhydrous cause cracking in process exposed non- small quantit. tanks
Cracking ammonia. C-Steels. contaminant PWHT welds of water to the 2. External
(API 571) 2. PWHT eliminates in some and HAZ ammonia (0.2% UT Shear
Ammonia Related Mechanism: susceptibility of most services or may 3. Hardness wave
Corrosion not applicable common steels (< 70 be intentionally 225 BHN
and SCC ksi =482 Mpa) added as an 4. prevent
(GALIOM) 3. Contamination with acid neutralizer ingress of
air or oxygen increases 2. ammonia oxygen into
tendency toward storage tanks, storage
cracking piping and facilities.
equipment in
ammonia
refrigeration
units.
Hydrogen A loss in ductility of 1.Loss of Three conditions must 1.Mild steel 1.Cracking due 1. Use lower 1. For suface
Embrittlem. high strength steels ductility be satisfied: for vessels and to HE can strength steels cracking
(HE) due to the penetration 2. C-Steel 1. Critical concentration piping in most initiate sub- 2. PWHT use PT
(API 571/ of atomic hydrogen with 22 HRC of hydrogen within steel. refining, process surface, but in 3. Use low (liquid penetr.
GALIOM) can lead to brittle Hydrogen can come from applications most cases is hydrogen, dry testing), MT
cracking. HE can Welding-if wet electrode have low hard- surface breaking electrodes and (magnetic
occur during are used. ness and are 2. HE occurs preheating particle test.)
manufacturing, High temper. Hydrogen usually not at locations of methods. or WFMT
welding, or from gas atmospheres. susceptible to high residual or (wet flouresc.
services that can Wet H2S or HF acid. HE (Pipe and tri-axial stresses magn. Part.
charge hydrogen into If the partial pressure Pressure vessel (notches, testing)
the steel in an of H2S in the gas is steels classified restraint) and 2. UT may
aqueous, corrosive, 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi) as P-No.1, where the also be useful
or a gaseous SSC (Sulfide stress Group 1 and 2. microstructure in finding HE

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue environment. cracking)- resistant in Section IX of is conducive, cracks.
Hydrogen steels, selected using ASME Boiler a. such as in weld 3. RT often is
Embrittlem. Related Mechanisms: Annex A.2 of ISO 15156 Pressure vessel HAZ's (22 HRC not sufficiently
(HE) 1. hydrogen flaking Part 2, shall not show code. is acceptable). sensitive to
(API 571/ 2. underbead cracking HE. 2. HAZ of welds detect HE
GALIOM) 3. delayed cracking 2. Strength level and if not PWHT is cracks
4. hydrogen assisted microstructure must be done.
cracking susceptible to 3. Bolts and
5. hydrogen induced embrittlement. SSC- springs made
cracking. resistant steels shall of high stength
6. Sulfide stress not show HE. steel are very
cracking 3. A stress above the prone to HE.
7. Hydrogen stress threshold of HE must be
corrosion cracking present from residual
stresses and/or applied
stresses.

Amine general and/or local Primarily 1. Type of amine used 1. all units to General uniform 1. proper 1. visual and
Corrosion corrosion that occurs C-steel From most aggressiv to remove H2S, thinning, operation UT Thickness
(API 571/ principally on carbon least: MEA,DGA,DIPA, CO2 and localized 2. temperature 2. UT scans
GALIOM) steel in amine treating DEA,MDEA mercaptans corrosion or limits or profile
processes. 2. Amin-Concentration (a sulfur-contain localized 3. Oxygen radiography
Corrosion is not >2% HSAS organic comp.) underdeposit inleakage are used for
caused by the amine 3. Temperature 2. Regenerator attack. causes high external
itself, but results from Corr. Rates increase reboiler and Localized if the corrosion rates inspection.
dissolved acid gases with Temperature regenerator velocity is high and contributes 3. hot areas
(CO2 and H2S), amine 4. Process stream 3.The rich amine or with to HSAS. such as the
degradation products, velocity. Corrosion is side of the lean/ turbulence. 4. Filtration reboiler feed
Heat Stable Amine generally uniform reach exchanger of solids and and return
Salts (HSAS) and however high velocities hot lean amine hydrocarbons line, the hot

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue other contaminants. (>2 m/s for rich amine piping, hot rich from amine lean/rich
Amine and >6 m/s for lean amine piping, solution. amine piping,
Corrosion Related Mechanisms: amine) and turbulence the amine 5. Corrosion the stripper
(API 571/ Amine stress corr. will cause localized solution pumps, inhibitors overhead
GALIOM) cracking thickness loss. reclaimer condenser
piping.

Ammonium Aggressive corrosion Carbon 1. NH4HS-concentration 1. NH4HS salts 1.General 1. Flow regime 1. UT scans
Bisulfide occuring in hydro steel is < 2 wt% solutions not precipitate in metal loss with 2. Relation and/or RT
Corrosion processing reactor less generally corrosive. the reactor potential for between profile thickn.
(Alkaline effluent streams and resistant 2. NH4HS salt deposits effluent streams extremely high concentration of high and
Sour in units handling lead to underdeposit when temperat. localized rates and velocity. low velocity
Water) alkaline sour water corrosion and fouling. drop to within of wall loss if 3. velocity areas.
(API 571/ (localized corrosion). 3. Oxygen and iron in the range of turbulent flow between 2. UT
GALIOM) the wash water injected 49 to 66C. > 2 wt%. 3 and 6 m/s. downstream
Related mechanisms: into hydroprocessing 2. Fouling and/ 2. Low velocity 4. C-steel may of control
Erosion/Erosion corr. reactor effluent can lead or velocity may result in be suceptible valves at high
to increased corrosion accelerated extremely to high corr. NH4HS
and fouling. corr. may be localized under- rates >8 wt% concentrat.
found at: deposit corr. if 5. Properly 3. RFEC
air cooler head insufficient design and (remote field
exchanger tubes water is maintain water eddy current
inlet and outlet available to wash injection testing) and
piping. dissolve the with low oxygen flux leakage
3. Piping into NH4HS salts content. inspection of
and out of the that precipitated steel air
reactor effluent 3. Heat cooler tubes.
separators. exchangers
4. Vapor line may show
from the high plugging and

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue pressure loss of duty due
Ammonium separators. to fouling.
Bisulfide 5. Hydrocarbon
Corrosion lines from
(Alkaline reactor effluent
Sour separators due
Water) to entrained
(API 571/ sour water.etc.
GALIOM)
Ammonium General or localized 1. Free 1. Concentration: 1. Crude tower 1.The salts have 1. Crude Unit: 1. Accumulat.
Chloride corrosion, often corrosion (NH3, HCl, H2O or overheads: a whitish, a.Limit salts by of ammonium
Corrosion pitting, normally occur potential amine salts) tower top, top greenish or limiting chloride salts
(API 571) under ammonium 2. PRE 2. Temperature: trays, overhead brownish chlorides in the can be very
chloride or amine salt (Pitting Ammonium chloride piping, exchang. appearance. tower feed localized and
don't use deposits, often in the resistant salts may precipitate may be subject Water washing through the resulting
absence of a free equivalent) from high temperature to fouling and and/or steamout desalting and/ corrosion may
water phase streams as the they are corrosion. will remove or the addition be difficult to
cooled, and may corrode Deposits may deposits so that of caustic to detect.
Related Mechanisms: piping and equipment occur in low evidence of the desalted 2. RT, UT
HCl corrosion at temperature well flow zones due fouling may not crude. tickness
above the water dewpoint to ammonia and be evident b. A water Monitoring
(149C). or amine during an inter- wash may be
3. Ammonium chloride chloride salts nal visual required in the
salts are hygroscopic, condensing inspection. crude tower
and readily absorb water from the vapor 2. Corrosion overhead line
A small amount of water phase. underneath the to flush the
can lead to very 2. Hydroprocess salts is typically salt deposits.
aggressive corrosion Reactor effluent very localized c. Filming
(>100mpy or >2,5 mm/y streams. and results in amine inhibitor
4. Some neutralizing pitting. are often added
amines react with 3. Corrosion to control corr.

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue chlorides to form amine rates can be 2.Hydroprocess
Ammonium hydrochlorides that can extremely high a.Limit
Chloride act in a simular fashion. chlorides in the
Corrosion 5. Corr. Rates increase hydrocarbon
(API 571) with increasing temp. feed to the
reactor and the
make-up
hydrogen
supply.

High Temp. The presence of C-Steel, 1. Temperatur >260C 1. Hydro- 1. General 1. Material UT,RT
H2/H2S hydrogen in H2S C-Cr-Steel 2. Alloy Composition. processing selection
Corrosion streams increase the Cr-Mo-Steel 3. Prensence of H2
(API 571/ severity of high temp. 4. Concentration of H2S
GALIOM) sulfide corrosion. When H2 is present in
don't use significant quantities,
Related Mechanism: corrosion rates are
Sulfidation higher than those
associated with high
temp. sulfidation in the
absence of H2.

Sour Water Corrosion of steel due C-Steel 1. H2S content 1. General 1. Material UT,RT
Corrosion to acidic sour water 2. pH Thinning selection
(Acidic) cointaining H2S at a 3. Velocity 2. Localized
(API 571/ pH between 4.5 and 7. 4. O2 concentration 3. under deposit
GALIOM) CO2 may also be 5. <4.5 pH corrosion
present. Sour water 6. >4.5 pH thin FeS
containing significant layer limits corr. Rate
amounts of ammonia, a thicker, porous FeS

Failure Description Affected Mat. Critical factors Affected Appearance Prevention Inspection
Mechanism Properties related to service Units Morphology Mitigation Monitoring
continue chlorides or cyanides layer can promote
Sour Water may significantly pitting under sulfide
Corrosion affect pH but are out- deposits.
(Acidic) side the scope of this 7. HCl and CO2 lower pH
(API 571/ mechanism. 8. Ammonia significantly
GALIOM) increases pH (alkalin
sour water and ammonia
bisulfide corrosion)
9. The presence of air or
oxidants may increase
the corrosion und
usually pitting or under
deposits.
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.2.8
Table 4-2
Figure:4-9, 4-10
API 579: G.3.5
Subsurface Crack.
and Microfissuring
Microvoid Format.

API 571:
Chapter: 4.2.16
Fig. 4-29 to 34

API 579:
G.3.4 Surface
connected
cracking

API 571:
Chapter:4.2.14
Table: 4-3
Fig. 4-23,-24,-25

API 579:
G.3.3 Localized
metal loss
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapt.: 4.2.19
API 579:
G.3.4./3.5.
Surface and Sub-
surface Cracking

API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.1
Table: 4-4
Fig. 4-36/-37

API 579: G.3.3


General or local
metal loss, Pitting

API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.2

API 579: G.3.3


General or local
metal loss, Pitting
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.3
Fig. 4-38/-39

API 579: G.3.3


General or local
metal loss, Pitting

API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.4
Fig. 4-40

API 579:
G.3.2. General
G.3.3. Localized
Metal Loss
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579

API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.6
Fig.: 4-41 to 44
API 579:
G.3.2 General
G.3.3 Localized
Metal Loss
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579

API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.7

API 579:
G.3.3 Localized
Metal Loss
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.8
Fig.: 4-45 to -50
API 579:
G.3.3 Localized
Metal Loss

een designed

An increase

eat exchang.
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.3.9
Fig.: 4-51 to -53
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter:4.3.10
Fig.: 4-54 to 55

API 570:
Chapter:5.3.1
Injection points

sual inspect.
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter 4.4.1
Table 4-6:
Corrosion Rates
Fig. 4-62 to 4.64

API 579:
G.3.2. General
metal loss

API 571:4.4.2
Fig. 4-65/66
Corr.-Rates
Fig. 4-67
API 579/G.3.2/3
General/Localized
Metal loss
API 571: 4.4.3
Fig.4-68/69

API 579/G.3.6
Metallurgical
Changes
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter 4.4.4

API 579: G.3.6


Metallurgical
Changes

see
Carburization
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.5.2
Fig.: 4-83 to 84

API 579:
G.3.4 Surface
connected
cracking
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.5.3
Fig.4-85 to 92

API 579: G.3.4


Surface connect.
cracking
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
API 571:
Chapter: 4.5.4
Fig.: 4-93 to 95

API 579: G.3.4


Surface connect.
cracking

API 571:
Chapter: 4.5.6
Fig. 4-99
ISO 15156-1/2
Petroleum and
natural gas
industries-
Materials for use
in H2S containing
environments in
oil and gas
production
Part 1:

Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
General principles
for selection of
cracking-resistant
materials.
Part 2:
cracking-resistant
carbon and low
alloy steels, and
the use of cast
irons

API 579:
G.2. Pre-Service
Deficiencies
G.3.5 Subsurface
Cracking

API 571:
Chapter: 5.1.1
Fig. 5.1

API 579: G.3.3


Localized metal
loss

Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579

API 571:
Chapter: 5.1.1.2
Fig.: 5-2

API 579:G.3.3
Localized Metal
Loss
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579

API 571:
Chapter: 5.1.1.3

rrosion may
Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579

API 571:5.1.1.5
Fig. 5-3/4
Corr.-Rates
Tab. 5-1
API 579/G.3.2
General
Metal loss

API 571:5.1.1.10

API 579:G.3.2/3
General and
Localized metal
loss

Remarks acc. to
API 571 and 579
Explanation of Failure Mechanisms
Failure
Mechanism
Creep and
Stress
Rupture

Thermal
Fatigue

Short Term
Overheating
Stress Rup.
Erosion/
Erosion-
Corrosion

Cavitation
Failure
Mechanism
Mechanical
Fatigue

Vibration-
Induced
Fatigue
Reheat
Cracking

Galvanic
Corrosion

Atmospher.
Corrosion
Failure
Mechanism
Corrosion
Under
Insulation
Cooling
Water
Corrosion

Boiler
Water
Condensate
Corrosion
CO2
Corrosion

Flue Gas
Dew Point
Corrosion

Biological
Corrosion
Failure
Mechanism
continue
Biological
Corrosion

Caustic
Corrosion

Oxidation

Sulfidation

Carburi-
zation
Failure
Mechanism
Decarburi-
zation

Metal
Dusting

Fuel Ash
Corrosion

Corrosion
Fatigue
Caustic
SCC
Failure
Mechanism
continue
Caustic
SCC

Ammonia
SCC

Hydrogen
Embrittle-
ment (HE)
Failure
Mechanism
Amin
Corrosion

Ammonium
Bisulfide
Corrosion
(Alkaline
Sour Water
High Temp
H2/H2S
Corrosion

Sour Water
Corrosion
(Acidic)

Failure
Mechanism
Amine
SCC

Wet H2S
Blistering

Sulfide
Stress
Cracking
(SSC)
Failure
Mechanism
continue
Sulfide
Stress
Cracking
(SSC)

Stress
Corrosion
Cracking
(SCC)
Hydrogen
Induced
Cracking
(HIC)

Failure
Mechanism
continue
Hydrogen
Induced
Cracking
(HIC)

Stress
Oriented
Hydrogen
Induced
Cracking
(SOHIC)

Soft Zone
Cracking
(SZC)
Crevice
Corrosion

Failure
Mechanism
continue
Crevice
Corrosion
Explanation of Failure Mechanisms
Explanation

At high temperature, metal components can slowly and continuously deform under load below the yield stress. This time dependent deformation
of stressed components is known as creep. The initial stages of creep damage can only be identified by scanning electron microscope
metallography. Creep voids typically shows up at the grain boundaries and in later stages form fissure and than cracks. Threshold Temperature
for Creep: 370C for C-Steel and 400C to 425C for C-Mo and Cr-Mo-Steels.

Thermal fatigue is the result of cyclic stresses caused by variations in temperature. The process starts on the surface in areas of high local
stresses caused by notches (such as the toe of a weld) and sharp corners (such as the intersection of a nozzle with a vessel shell) and other
stress concentrations may serve as initiation sites. The Process starts with locally movement of dislocations, blocking of dislocations on the
grain boadaries, plastically deformation of local grains, creating of intrusions and extrusions, generating of corr. layers on the free surfaces of
in- and extrusions in case of corrosive environment (Corrosion Fatigue). These are the initial stages of cracks. The cracks can be blocked
through strengthening on tip of the cracks. Time of failure is a funktion of the magnitude of the stress and the number of cycles and decreases
with increasing stress and increasing cycles.
Permanent deformation occuring at relatively low stress levels as a result of localized overheating.This usually results in buging and eventually
failure by stress rupture (Explanation: see Creep and Stress Rupture).
Stress Rup.
In general, wear failures or Erosion may be defined as damage to a solid surface caused by the removal or displacement of material by the
mechanical action of a contacting solid, liquid, or gas. The term abrasive erosion is sometimes used to describe erosion in which the solid
particles move nearly parallel to the solid surface. The term impingement- or impact-erosion is used to desribe erosion in which the relative
motion of the solid particles is nearly normal to the solid surface. The collision at high speed of liquid droplets with a solid surface results in a
form of liquid erosion called liquid-impingement erosion. The high-velocity impact of a drop of liquid against a solid surface produces two effects
that results in damage to the surface: high pressure, which is generated in the area of the impact, and liquid flow along the surface at high speed
radially from the area of impact, which occurs as the initial pressure pulse subsides (water hammer pressure:liquid density x acoustic velocity of
the liquid x impact velocity). For example, for water impaction at 480 m/s =1728 km/h this pressure is about 1100 Mpa - considerably above
the yield strenght of many alloys. This value is somewhat reduced by the compressibility of the surface.

If gas-filled bubbles (or cavities) formed in a low-pressure region (suction side of a pump) pass into a region of higher pressure (pressure side of
a pump), their growth will be reversed, and they will collapse and disappear as the vapor condenses or the gas is resissolved in the liquid. A
vapor-filled cavity will implode, collapsing very rapidly. The collapse of cavities (bubbles) produces the damages to materials. Almost all of the
energy of the collapse will be used to compress the surrounding liquid. Only when the vapor pressure is high compared to ambient pressure or
when the dissolved-gas content is high.

Explanation

Fatigue cracking is a mechanical form of degradation that occurs when a component is exposed to cyclical stresses for an extended period,
often resulting in sudden, unexpected failure (Explanation: see Thermal Fatigue).

A form of mechanical fatigue in which cracks are produced as the results of dynamic loading due to vibration, water hammer (see Erosion), or
unstable fluid flow (Explanation: see Thermal Fatigue)

Cracking of a metal due to stress relaxation during PWHT or in service at elevated temperatures. It is most often observed in heavy wall sections.
Reheat Cracking (or Stress- relief embrittlement) results in the loss of toughness within the HAZ and/or the weld metal as a result of stress
relieving of a welded structure. Reheat cracking is also thought to be caused by the same mechanisms and leads to intergranular cracking within
the weld zone upon stress relieving. Both phenomena (loss of toughness and intergranular cracking) have been observed only in those alloy
systems that undergo precipitation hardening. These system include low-alloy structural and pressure vessel steels, ferritic creep -resisting
steels, austenitic SS, and some nickel-base alloys. During welding, the HAZ is exposed to high temperatures, ranging up to the melting point
of the alloy. At these temperatures, existing precipitates in the base metal (in steels, carbides, and nitrides) are taken into solution, and grain
coarsening occurs. During cooling, some precipitation takes place at grain boundaries or within the grains, but the majority of the precipitates
remain in solution. Subsequent exposure at stress-relieving temperatures causes precipitation in the HAZ, leading to significant strengthening.
This results in the loss of toughness in the HAZ. Residual stresses in the structure are relieved through creep deformation. However, the
strengthening of precipitates of the grain interiors tends to concentrate creep strain at grain boundaries, leading to intergranular cracking.

Galvanic Corrosion is a form of corrosion that can occur at the junction of dissimilar metals when they are joined together in a suitable
electrolyte, such as a moist or aqueous environment, or soils containing moisture. The less noble metal is more active and acts as Anode, i.e.
it dissolves. The more noble metal acts as Cathode, i.e. it remains intact. The Role of oxygen in Galvanic Corrosion: Oxygen is the most
corrosive gas in the presence of water. The maximum solubility of O 2 in water is 8 ppm, i.e. sparingly soluble. The reduction of oxygen at the
cathode site, keeps the cyclic corrosion process on going. The corrosion rate depends on the rate of diffusion of O 2 to the cathode site.
(H20 + 1/2O2 + e- = 2OH- ). The overall corrosion rate of O2 is about 72 times higher than CO2 and 200 times higher than H2S at low
concentrations (<2 ppm O2 and <200ppm H2S) and 400 times higher at high concentrations (8 ppm O 2 and 800ppm H2S)

A form of corrosion that occurs from moisture associated with atmospheric conditions. Marine environments are most severe. New C-steel
built in wet marine atmosphere a less protective layer Fe 2O3, etc. With the time the thickness will be thicker and more brittleness.
Marine environments can be very corrosive 0.5 mm/year as specialy in the splash zone (riser), at coating failures (see Corrosion Under Insulation)
or in Crevices/Under Deposits.

Explanation

Corrosion of piping, pressure vessels and structural components resulting from water trapped under insulation or fireproofing. This is a special
case of crevice Corrosion (Explanation: see Crevice/ Under Deposit)

General or localized corrosion caused by dissolved salts, gases, organic compounds or microbiological activity. Cooling water corrosion and
fouling are closely related and should be considered together. Fouling may occur from mineral deposits (hardness), silt, suspended organic
materials, corrosion products, mill scale, marine and microbiological growth.
Cooling water corrosion can result in many different forms of damage including general corrosion, pitting corrosion, MIC, SCC, and fouling.
Explanation for C-Steel: see Crevice/Under Deposit

General corrosion and pitting in the boiler system and condensate return piping. Corrosion in boiler feedwater and condensate return system is
usually the result of dissolved gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Explanation: see CO2 corrosion

CO2 gas is soluble in water, the solubility increases with temperature and pressure, CO 2 dissolves in water forming carbonic acids
( CO2 + H2O = H2CO3). Carbonic acid reduces the pH of water (H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-). The produced acidity (H+ ions) drives on the hydrogen
evolution reaction at the cathode site, thus the cyclic corrosion process continues. CO 2 corrosion is termed "sweet". CO2 corrosion
promote uniform, pitting and mesa attack. A partial pressure of <3 psi will be not corrosive, 3-30psi may indicate corrosion, >30 psi corrosion.

Sulfur and chlorine species in fuel will form sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide and hydrogen chloride within the combustion products. At low enough
temperatures, these gases and the water vapor in the flue gas will condense to form sulfurous acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid which can
lead to severe corrosion.

These organism affect corrosion processes on metals by directly influencing anodic and cathodic reactions, by affecting protective surface films
on metals, by producing corrosive substances and by producing solid deposits. These organisms include microscopic forms, such as bacteria,
and macroscopic types, such as algae and barnacles. Microscopic and macroscopic organismus have been observed to live and reproduce in
medium with ph values between 0 and 11, at temperatures between 0 and 80C and under pressure up to 103 MP (15 000 psi). Thus, biological
activity may influence corrosion in a variety of environments, incl. soil, seet and seawater, crude oil and petroleum products. Marine organisms,
such as barnacles and mussels, attach themselves to many surfaces; they grow and effectively seal off a small part of the surface from the
environment. This is termed fouling, or bio-fouling.Concentration cells form underneath the barnacles and produce deep pits. Fouling on risers
(Tidal and submerged zone) or in heat exchangers that use seawater as a coolant. Rapid fluid flow tends to suppress fouling, whereas rapid

Explanation

accumulation occurs a low fluit rates (during shutdown periods). Colonies of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria (SRB), grow only in absence of oxygen
SRB utilize O-atoms of SO42- radical to oxidize the organic compounds. This step requires H-atoms. At cathode site: Cathodic depolarization
SO42- + 8H (ads) =(SRB) HS- + 3H2O + OH-
At anode site: Fe2+ + HS- = FeS (iron sulfide) + H+ Explanation: see Crevice/Under Deposit

The corrosion resistance of C-Steel is usually acceptable up to concentration of about 70% caustic (NaOH or KOH) at 80C, exept for the
problem of Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking. However, the corrosion rate increases rapidly with temperature, reaching more than 12.5 mm/year
at 100C. This can cause high rates with steam-traced carbon steel piping, for example, when static rather than flowing conditions prevail.

Oxygen reacts with C-Steel, C-Cr-Steels at high temperature converting the metal to oxide scale. It is most often present as oxygen in the
surrounding air (20%) used for combustion in fired heaters and boilers. API 571 Table 4-6: Estimated Corrosion Rates for Oxidation

Corrosion resulting from their reaction with sulfur compounds in high temperature environments. Sulfur is present in crude in the form of elementar
Sulfur, H2S, Aliphatic Sulfides, Aromatic Sulfides, Polysulfids, Disulfides, Mercaptans. If heated >350C produce H 2S. The attack is chemical
rather the electrochemical, i.e. independent of the presence of water: Fe + H 2S = FeS + H2
API 571 Figure 4-65: Corrosion Rates of different C-Steel, C-Cr-Steel and SS between 232 and 427C for 0.5 wt % Sulfur.

Carburization and Decurburization of Steel: Various species can react with the carbon contained in a steel, influencing the carbon level of the
steel. Because the strength is in most cases directly linked with the carbon content (interstitional Carbon atoms expand the crystal-
structure and make it more difficult for dislocations to move), any change of the carbon concentration will have an effect on the mechanical
properties of the steel. Carburization is an increase of the carbon content to the steel. This results in a higher strenght and hardness but also in
embrittlement. For chromium-containing alloy this can also result in a decreases of the corrosion resistance. C built Cr-Carbides,i.e. the .
dissolved Cr are reduced. Species that can change the carbon level are: Hydrogen (Decarburization), CO,CO 2 (Decarburization and Carburization),
Methane (Carburization >700C), ethane, etc.
Explanation

Carburization and Decurburization of Steel: Various species can react with the carbon contained in a steel, influencing the carbon level of the
steel. Because the strength is in most cases directly linked with the carbon content (interstitional Carbon atoms in the expand the crystal-
structure and make it more difficult for dislocations to move), any change of the carbon concentration will have an effect on the mechanical
properties of the steel. Decarburization is a decrease of the carbon content of the steel. The decreasing carbon content causes a degradation
of the mechanical properties, as the hardness as well as the strength decrease. However, the elongation of the metal when subjecteted to a
tensile stress increases.
Decarburization by Hydrogen see High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA):

In situations where oxidizing and reducing conditions do alternate, metal dusting can occur. During the reducing period Caburization takes
place to a limited depth at breaks in the protective oxide scale. After switching to the oxidizing situation the carbon is burned out and the metal is
oxidized leaving a shallow pit. The final metal oxide powder is taken down stream by the gas flow. Metal dusting is a form of rapid localized
degradation that occurs in environments containing carbon and hydrogen compounds, but almost no oxygen. Due to Carburization of the metal
iron carbides can form which ultimately, if enough carbon is available, can decompose into iron and Graphite. These products can act as
catalysts for the decomposition of Carbon monooxide (CO) into Carbon and Oxygen, resulting in localizied accelerated attack and the production
of voluminous amounts of Carbon, Iron, Iron Carbides and other Carbides.

Fuel ash corrosion is accelerated high temperature wastage of materials that occurs when contaimants in the fuel form deposits and melt on the
metal surface of fired heaters, boilers and gas tubines. Corrosion typically occurs with fuel oil that is contaminated with a combination of sulfur,
sodium, potassium and/or vanadium. The resulting molten salts (slags) dissolve the surface oxide and enhance the transport of oxygen to the
surface to re-form the iron oxide at the expense of the tube wall or component.

(Explanation: see Thermal Fatigue).

Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion cracking by surface-initiated cracks that occur in piping and equipment exposed to caustic,
primarily adjacent to non-PWHT'd welds.Susceptibility to caustic embrittlement in caustic soda (NaoH) and caustic potash (KOH) solutions is a
function of caustic strength, metal temperature and stress levels. Increasing caustic concentration and increasing temperatures increase the
likelihood and severity of cracking. Cracking can occur at low caustic levels if a stress concentrating mechanism is present. In such cases,
caustic concentr. of 50 to 100 ppm are sufficient to cause cracking. Stresses that promote cracking can be residual that result from welding or
from cold working (such as bending and forming) as well as applied stresses. Crack propagation rates increase dramatically with temperature
and can sometimes grow through wall in a matter of hours or days during temperature excursions, especially if conditions promote caustic
concentration. Concentrations can occur as a result of alternating wet and dry conditions, localized hot spots or high temperature steamout.

Explanation

Caustic stress corrosion cracking typically propagates parallel to the weld in adjacent base metal but can also occur in the weld deposit or HAZ.
The pattern of cracking observed on the steel surface is sometimes described as a spider web of small cracks which often initiate at or inter-
connect with weld-related flaws that serve as local stress raisers. (see also Explanation: SCC)
API 571 Figure 4-85: Recommended operating limits for C-Steels in caustic service

C-Steel is susceptible to SCC in anhydrous (<0.2% water). Consiteration must be given to vapor spaces could have less than 0.2% water
present due to partitioning of ammonia in water phase. (Explanation: see SCC)

Also known as hydrogen flaking, underbead cracking, delayed cracking, hydrogen assisted cracking, hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). SSC and
Hydrogen Stress Cracking -HF are closely related forms of hydrogen embrittlement.
Three conditions must be satisfied:
a. Hydrogen must be present at a critical concentration within the steel.
b. The strength level and microstructure of the steel must be susceptible to embrittlement (see ISO 15156-2)
c. A stress above the threshold for HE must be present from residual stresses and/or applied stresses.
The hydrogen can come from Welding, Pickling, Service in high temperature hydrogen gas atmospheres, wet H 2S or HF acid services and CP.
A few ppm of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracking and loss of tensile ductility. Even when the quantity of gas in solution is
too small to reduce ductility, hydrogen-induced delayed fracture, sometimes called static fatigue, may occur. Hairline cracking usually follows
prior-austenitic grain boundaries and seems to occur when the damaging effect of dissolved hydrogen is superimposed on the stresses that
accompany the austenitic-to-martensite transformation. Steels with tensile strenght <690 Mpa =100ksi appear to be resistant to HE, and the
structures made with such steels have been used in service without serious problems in various environments that do not contain H 2S.
For H2S environment see explanation of SSC, SSC and HIC.
Mechanism:
The electrochemical conditions at the tip of a pit or an advancing crack are not the some as those of the bulk solution (see crevice corrosion).
In a laboratory study, when wedge-opening loading specimens were exposed to sodium chloride solutions, the pH value of the solution at the
crack tip was measured to be about 3.5 regardless of that of the bulk solution. At the crack tip, where diffusion is limited, the pH value of the
solution is lowered by the acidic hydrolysis reaction, and in such a low-pH solution, the cathodic partial reaction is the reduction of the hydrogen
ion. As a result, nascent (atomar) hydrogen is generated at the tip of the pit or crack and absorbed into the metal. It has also been shown that
hydrogen can be generated at the cracktips even when an anodic potential is applied to the bulk metal.

Explanation

Amine corrosion refers to the general and/or localized corrosion that occurs principally on C-Steel in amine treating processes (H2S,CO 2 and
Mercaptans Removal). Corrosion is not caused by the amine itself, but results from dissolved acid gases (CO 2 and H2S), amin degradation
products, Heat Stable Amine Salts (HSAS) and other contaminations.
Lean amine solutions (like MDEA: methyldiethanolamine) are general not corrosive because they have either low conductivity and or high pH.
However, an excessive accumulation of HSAS above about 2%, depending on the amine, can significantly in crease corrosion rates. Corrosion
rates increase with increasing temperature, particularly in rich amine service, like MEA (monoethaolamine). Temperatures above about 104C
can result in acid gas flashing and severe localized corrosion if the pressure drop is high enough.
Process stream velocity will influence the amine corrosion rate and nature of attack. Corrosion is generally uniform however high velocities and
turbulence will cause localized thickness losses. For carbon steel, common velocity limits are generally limited to 1 to 2 m/s for rich amine
(MEA) and about 6 m/s for lean amine (MDEA).
Aggressive corrosion occuring in units handling alkaline sour water (Ammonium Bisulfide NH 4HS)
Ammonium Bisulfide (NH4HS) concentration, velocity and/or localized turbulence, pH, temperature are critical factors. Below 2 wt % solutions
are not generally corrosive. NH4HS salt deposits lead to underdeposit corrosion and fouling.
Amin Units: High concentrations of NH4HS may be found in regenerator overheads and reflux piping depending on unit operation.

The Presence of hydrogen in H2S streams increases the severity of high temperature sulfide corrosion at temperature above about 260C. This
form of sulfidation usually results in a uniform loss in thickness associated with hot circuits in hydroprocessing units. Corrosion will appear as
a uniform loss in thickness from the process side and is accompanied by the formation of an iron sulfide scale. Scale is about 5 times the
volume of lost metal and may be in multiple layers. API 571 Fig. 5-3/4 Corrosion rates in H 2/H2S service

Corrosion of steel due to acidic sour water containing H 2S at a pH between 4.5 and 7.0. CO 2 may also be present. Sour waters containing
significant amounts of ammonia, chlorides or cyanides may significantly affect pH but are outside of the scope of this mechanism.
H2S content, pH, temperature, velocity and oxygen concentration are all critical factors.
H2S is soluble in water, its aqueous solution behaves as a week acid H 2S = H+ + HS-. H2S corrosion is called "Sour". Role of H2S in corrosion:
The produced acidity (H+ ions) drives on the hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode site, thus the cyclic corrosion process continues.
Combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone. Combination of H2S and O2 is highly corrosive.
The overall corrosion rate of O2 is about 72 times higher than CO2 and 200 times higher than H2S at low concentrations (<2 ppm O2 and
<200ppm H2S) and 400 times higher at high concentrations (8 ppm O 2 and 800ppm H2S)

Explanation

Amin SCC is a form of Alkaline SCC. Caustic SCC and Carbonate SCC are two other forms of Alkaline SCC (ASCC) that are similar in appearan-
ce.The critical factors are the level of tensile stress, amine concentration and temperature.Cracking is more likely to occur in lean MEA and DEA
service but is also found in most amines including MDEA and DIPA (ADIP). It is most often found at or adjacent to non-PWHT'd C-Steel weld-
ments or in highly cold worked parts. The appearance of the cracks on the surface may be similar to those caused by wet H 2S cracking.
Explanation: see SSC

Hydrogen-induced blistering is most prevalent in low-strenght alloys, and it is observed in metals that have been exposed to hydrogen-charging
conditions, for example, acid pickling or corrosion in environments containing hydrogen sulfide. When hydrogen is absorbed into metal and
diffuses inward, it can precipitate as molecular hydrogen H 2 at internal voids, laminations, matrix interfaces, and it can built up pressure great
enough to produce internal cracks. If these cracks are just below the surface, the hydrogen-gas pressure in the cracks can lift up and bulge out
the exterior layer of the metal so that it resembles a blister.
Corrosion-generated hydrogen causes blistering of steel in oil-well equipment and in petroleum-storage and refinery equipment. In storage vessels
blistering is generally at the bottom or in the vapor space where water is present.

The hydrogen is generated on the surface of the steel because of a corrosion reaction. Iron reacts with H 2S to form Fe2S3 and H+ . This hydrogen
is generated in atomic form on the surface, where it can combine to form H 2 and leave the surface as bubbles or the H+ can diffuse into the steel.
This latter process may result in hydrogen enbrittlement (HE) or SSC . It is important to note that water be present for this mechanism to
occur; without it, SSC will not be observed, because the ionization of the hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) is required.
Factors that influence SSC:
a) H2S Concentration
In general, lower H2S concentration take longer to promote cracking than higher concentrations; lower concentrations also require high-strength
materials before SSC is ovserve.
b) Effect to pH
With decreasing pH, the corrosion rate of the steel tends to increase, which causes more hydrogen to be produced. It is generally agreed that
increasing the pH above 8 is beneficial in reducing the tendency toward SSC. During drilling operations in sour reservoirs, the pH is usually
maintained in the 10 to 11 rage, thus providing the opportunity to use high-strength steels.
c) Temperature
As temperatures increases, the resistance to SSC also increases. This is due to a reduction in the hydrogen-permeation rate at elevated
temperatures. This effect allows materials that are susceptible to SSC at room temperature to be used at elevated temperature. It has been found

Explanation

that SSC is most severe at room temperature below room temperature, resistance to SSC again begins to increase.
d) Strength Level (< 22 HRC)
The microstructure of the steel is very important and essentially controls the observed SSC properties. It has been found that the microstructure
that provides the best SSC resistance is that of tempered martensite; other transformation products reduce SSC resistance. Consequently, it is
very important to ensure through hardening in the component. It is common practice when quenching tubular products for this application to
implement both side quenches.
d) Cold-Work
It is widely known that cold work can adversely affect the SSC resistant of materials. The hardness is locally increased, and residual stresses
can also be generated. Hardness that greatly exceed 22 HRC (some as high as 40 HRC have been measured) can be produced by inproper
straightening and handling. Even idendification stamping has been reported to cause enough cold work to initiate SSC.
e) Stress (applied and residual)
Threaded connections: High stress, stress concentrations

With this mechanism of degradation, a tensile stress is required (like SSC), together with a susceptible material and an environment that
promotes cracking. In the oil and gas industries, the material that are most generally found to be susceptible to SSC are austenitic stainless
steel and nickel-base alloys are used in oil and gas production because they form protective films and therefore have very low corrosion rate.
Mechanism:
Chloride ions (Cl-), either in combination with hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) or alone, can attack this film, causing smallpits to form. These small pits
act as anodes, while the remainder of the oxide film acts as a cathode; the unfavorable area ratio causes the pit to grow. Also, the solution inside
the pit (see Mechanism of Hydrogen Embrittlement HE) is acidified because of the corrosion reaction, which also tends to increase the
corrosion rate. Finally, a crack is initiated at the base of the pits because of the stress concentration, and propagation occurs because of the
tensile stress. The crack often grows along grain boundaries because grain boundaries are electrochemically more active than the bulk grain.
Chloride SCC is usually observed at temperature exceeding 65 to 95C.
Factors that influence SCC: Temperature, Chloride Concentration, H 2S concentration, Elementar Sulfur, pH and PRE (Pitting Resistance
Equivalent).

HIC is also called stepwise cracking or blister cracking. HIC is primarily found in lower-strength steels, typically with tensile strengths less than
about 550 MPA (80 ksi), primarily found in line-pipe steels.
In GUPCO rehab project we use: A 106 B (60 ksi), SA 105 (70 ksi), 516 Gr.70 (70 ksi), A 234 WPB (60 ksi), API 5L Gr.B and X42 (60 ksi),
API Gr.X52 (66 ksi) and API Gr. X60 (75 ksi).

Explanation

Mechanism:
This type of degradation also begins with a reaction between steel and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in the presence of water. Again, hydrogen atoms
enter the steel, but with HIC, as opposed to SCC, these hydrogen atoms combine to form H2-gas at internal defects. These internal
discontinuities can be hard spots of low-temperature transformation products or laminations. However, manganese sulfide inclusions are the
primary site for this to occur. These inclusions tend to become elongated during pipe manufacture and give rise to high stresses at the tip of the
inclusion when hydrogen gas forms there. As cracks initiate and propagate, they begin to link up with others, and a series of stepwise cracks
can propagate through the material.
Factors that affect HIC:
Concentration of H2S, Shape control of MnS, Addition of Calcium makes the sulfides spherical, Reducing of S-content, Addition of Cu up to
about 0.25% (no tensile stress required).

Staggered small cracks formed approximately perpendicular to the principal stress (residual or applied) resulting in a "ladder-like" crack array
linking pre-existing HIC's. The mode of cracking can be catogorized as SSC caused by a combination of external stress and the local
strain around HIC's. SOHIC is related to SSC and HIC/SWC. It has been observed in plate form and parent material of longitudinally welded
pipe and in the HAZ of welds in pressure vessels. They have caused sudden failures in parents steels (SOHIC) and in the HAZ of welds (SOHIC
and Soft Zone Cracking (SZC)). The presence of sulfur or oxygen in the service environment is thought to increase the probability of damage by
these mechanisms.

Form of SSC that may occur when steel contains a local "soft zone" of low yield strength material. Under service loads, soft zones may yield
and accumulate plastic strain locally, increasing the SSC susceptibility to cracking of an otherwise SSC -resistant material. Such soft zones are
typically associated with welds in carbon steels.
A crevice in a metal surface at a joint between two metallic surfaces or between a metallic and a nonmetallic surface or a crevice beneath a
particle of solid matter on a metallic surface provides conditions that are conducive to the development of the type of concentration- cell corrosion
called crevice corrosion. Crevice corrosion can progress very rapidly. For example, a sheet of stainless steel can be cut (corroded) into two
pieces simply by wrapping a rubber band around it, then immersing the sheet in seawater or dilute ferric chloride solution (FeCl 3 ).
The open surface will pit slowly, but the metal under the rubber band will be attacked rapidly for as long as the crevice between the rubber and
the steel surface exists. In a metal-ion concentration cell, the accelerated corrosion occurs at the edge of or slightly outside of a crevice. In an
oxygen-concentration cell, the accelerated corrosion usually occurs within the crivice between the mating surfaces.

Explanation

Mechanism of Concentration-Cell Corrosion (Crevice Corrosion):


If a piece of metal is immersed in a electrolyte and there is a difference in concentration of one or more dissolved compounds or gases in the
electrolyte, two areas of metal in contact with solution differing in concentration will ordinarily differ in solution potential, forming a concentration
cell (see also HE).
Failure Mechanisms: Comparison of GALIOM, API 571 and others

Failure Mechanisms Discription of the Failure Failure Mechanism of GALIOM Remarks to the Failure Mechanisms
acc.following Standards of GALIOM
Mechan. and Metallurg. Failures
Graphitization API 571 Spheroidization & Graphitization Better: Graphitization
Softening (Spheroidization) API 571 Spheroidization & Graphitization Better: Softening (Spheroidization)
Temper Embrittlement API 571 Temper Embrittlement
Strain Aging API 571 Strain Aging
885F (474C) Embrittlement API 571 885F(474C) Embrittlement
Sigma Phase Embrittlement API 571 Sigma & Chi Phase Embrittlement Better: Sigma Phase Embrittlement
Brittle Fracture API 571 Brittle Fracture
Creep/Stress Rupture API 571 Creep-Stress Rupture
Thermal Fatigue API 571 Thermal Fatigue Cracking Better: Thermal Fatigue
Short Term Overheating-Stress Rupture API 571
Steam Blanketing API 571
Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)Cracking API 571
Thermal Shock API 571
Errosion/ Erosion-Corrosion API 571 Erosion-Solids and Erosion Droplets API 571 incl. impact from solids, liquids, vapor or any combinations
Cavitation API 571 Cavitation
Mechanical Fatigue API 571
Vibration-Induced Fatigue API 571
Refractory Degradation API 571
Reheat Cracking API 571 Reheat Cracking
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Galvanic Corrosion API 571 Galvanic CR Better: Galvanic Corrosion
Atmospheric Corrosion API 571 Atmospheric Corrosion
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) API 571 CR Under Insulation/Fireproofing Better: Corrosion Under Insulation
Cooling Water Corrosion API 571 Cooling Water CR Better: Cooling Water Corrosion
Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion API 571 Boiler Water/Condensate CR Better: Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion
CO2 Corrosion API 571 CO2 Cr Better: CO2 Corrosion
Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion API 571 Flue Gas Dew Point CR Better: Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion
Microbiologically Induced Corr. (MIC) API 571 Biological Corrosion Biological Corrosion include Biofouling, MIC and SRB Corrosion
Soil Corrosion API 571 Soil Corrosion

Failure Mechanisms Discription of the Failure Failure Mechanism of GALIOM Remarks to the Failure Mechanisms
acc.following Standards of GALIOM
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Caustic Corrosion API 571
Dealloying API 571 Dealloying
Graphitic Corrosion API 571
High Temperatur Corr.(400F/204)
Oxidation API 571 High Temperature Corrosion
Sulfidation API 571 High Temperature H2S Corrosion Better: Sulfidation
Carburization API 571 Carburization
Decarburization API 571 De-Carburization
Metal Dusting API 571 Metal Dusting
Fuel Ash Corrosion API 571
Nitriding API 571 Nitriding
Environment -Assisted Cracking
Chloride Stress Corr. Cracking API 571 Chloride Stress CR Cracking (SCC) Better: Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking or Chloride SCC
Corrosion Fatigue API 571 CR Fatigue Cracking Better: Corrosion Fatigue Cracking
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking API 571 Caustic CR and Stress CR Cracking are different mechanism/morphology and probability of failure (POF)
Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking API 571 Ammonia CR and SCC
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) API 571 Liquid Metal Embrittlement Cracking Better: Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Hydrogen Embrittlement API 571 Hydrogen Embrittlement
Refining Industry Failure
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Amine Corrosion API 571 Amine CR Better: Amine Corrosion
Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion API 571 Ammonia Bisulfide CR Better: Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Ammonium Chloride Corrosion API 571
Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion API 571 HCl CR Better: Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion
High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion API 571 High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion
Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion API 571 Hydrofluoric Acid CR Better: Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) API 571 Naphtenic Acid CR Better: Naphtenic Acid Corrosion

Failure Mechanisms Discription of the Failure Failure Mechanism of GALIOM Remarks to the Failure Mechanisms
acc.following Standards of GALIOM
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion API 571 Phenol/NMP Corrosion Better: Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion
Phosphoric Acid Corrosion API 571 Phosphoric Acid Corrosion
Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) API 571 Sour Water Corrosion Better: Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic)
Sulfuric Acid Corrosion API 571 Sulfuric Acid Corrosion
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Polythionic Acid Stress Corr. Cracking API 571 Polythonic Stress Corrosion Cracking Better: Polythonic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking
Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking API 571 Amine Stress CR Cracking Better: Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking or Amine SCC
Wet H2S Blistering API 571
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) ISO 15156 Sulfide Stress Cracking Better: Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC)
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) ISO 15156, API 571
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) ISO 15156, API 571 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
Stepwise Cracking (SWC) ISO 15156
Stress Orient. Hydr. Induc. Cr.(SOHIC) ISO 15156, API 571 Stress oriented Hydr. Induc. Cracking (SOHIC)
Soft Zone Cracking (SZC) ISO 15156
Hydrogen Stress Cracking-HF ISO 15156, API 571 Hydrofluoric Acid Cracking Better: Hydrogen Stress Cracking-HF
Galv. Induc. Hydr. Stress Cr.(GHSC) ISO 15156
Carbonate Stress Corr. Cracking API 571 Carbonate Stress CR Cracking
Other Mechanisms
High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) API 571 High Temperature H2 Attack Better: High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
Titanium Hydriding API 571 Hydriding Better: Titanium Hydriding (other hydrogen diffuses: HIC, SSC,etc)
Blistering Blistering include Coating-, Deposit-, Delamination und pressure (H 2)
Brittleness due to high temp. aging Should be removed: already incl. in Temper and 885F Embrittlement
Carbide precipitate embrittlement Should be removed: already incl. Brittle Fracture (Intergranular)
Chloride/Sodium Hypochlorite CR Chloride and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) wastewater treatment
Creep Cracking Should be removed: already incl. Creep-Stress Rupture
Crevice/ Under deposit Crevice/Under deposit incl. Cooling Water, MIC, Caustic,Amine-Corr.
Cyanide Stress Cracking (HCN) Cyanide are respons. for accelerated corr. and H-charging of steel
Fatigue Fatigue incl. Corrosion- Thermal- and Mechanical Fatigue (API 571)
Flue Gas CR Flue Gas Corr. Incl. Flue Gas Dew Point and Flue Ash Corrosion

Failure Mechanisms Discription of the Failure Failure Mechanism of GALIOM Remarks to the Failure Mechanisms
acc.following Standards of GALIOM
H2/H2S Sulfidation Should be removed: already incl. in High Temper. H2S corrosion
Hardening Hardening can be a prerequisite of a failure mechanism like aging
Hot Oxidation Should be removed: no difference to "High temperature Oxidation"
Hydrogen Attack Should be removed: already incl. in HIC, SSC, HSC, SOHIC,GHSC,
Incipient Melting
Injection point CR If do not know the chemicals (no failure mechanism)
Inorganic Chloride CR Should be removed: already incl. in HCl Corrosion, Chloride SCC,
Ammonium Chlorid Corrosion
Organic Chloride CR Should be removed: or Literature Examples shall be given
Organic Sulfur CR Mercaptans are a group of sulfur-containing organic chem. Subst.
Oxygen Pitting/Carbonic Acid Corrosion Should be removed: already incl. in Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corr.
Overload (Plastic Collapse) also buckling
Polysulfide- Water Corrosion Should be removed: already incl. in Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Sliding Wear Better: Fretting or Fretting Corrosion
Softening due to overaging Should be removed: already incl. in Graphitization, Softening, Temper
Embrittlement, Strain Aging
Thermal ratcheting
Wet H2S Corrosion Should be used for general or localized Corrosion
Wet H2S Cracking Should be removed: already incl. in Hydrogen Embrittlement, Wet
H2S Blistering, SSC, HIC, SCC,etc.
Failure Mechanisms affecting to C- and low alloy Steel/ different units at the oil and gas production and refining industry

Failure Mechanisms Components oil/gas Crude Delayed Fluid cat. Catalytic Hydro- Alkylation Amine Sulfur Sour water Isomeri
Parameter product. Vacuum Coker cracking Reforming process. HF/Sulfur Treating Recover stripper zation
Mechan. and Metallurg. Failures
Graphitation Heater x x
Softening Heater x
Temper Embrittlement Heater x x x x
Strain Aging vessel walls x
885F (474C) Embrittlement x x x x
Sigma Phase Embrittlement x x
Brittle fracture vessels x x
Creep/Stress Rupture Heater-tubes x x x x x
Thermal Fatigue Heater x x x x
Short Term Overheating-Stress Rupture Heater x x x x x x
Steam Blanketing Heater x x x
Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)Cracking x x
Thermal Shock x
Errosion/ Erosion-Corrosion Bend, Velocity x x x x x x x x x
Cavitation Pumps x
Mechanical Fatigue small pipes/nozz x x
Vibration-Induced Fatigue small pipes/nozz x
Refractory Degradation x x x
Reheat Cracking PWHT thick wall x x x
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Galvanic Corrosion heat exchanger x x
Atmospheric Corrosion low temp. x
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) water trapped x x x x
Cooling Water Corrosion Head exchanger x x
Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion Feedwater heat x x x
CO2 Corrosion Feedwater heat x x
Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion fired Heater x x
Biological Corrosion Tanks,etc. x x
Soil Corrosion Tanks x

Failure Mechanisms Components oil/gas Crude Delayed Fluid cat. Catalytic Hydro- Alkylation Amine Sulfur Sour water Isomeri
Parameter product. Vacuum Coker cracking Reforming process. HF/Sulfur Treating Recover stripper zation
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Caustic Corrosion Caustic+Heater x x x x
Dealloying x
Graphitic Corrosion
High Temperatur Corr.(400F/204)
Oxidation Heater x x x x x x
Sulfidation Heater x x x x x x
Carburisation Heater x x x
Decarburization Heater x x x
Metal Dusting Heater x x
Fuel Ash Corrosion Heater x x
Nitriding
Environment -Assisted Cracking
Chloride Stress Corr. Cracking x x x
Corrosion Fatigue cyclic heater x
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ,Heater x x x x
Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking overhead cond. x x x x
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) x
Hydrogen Embrittlement HAZ,welding x x x
Refining Industry Failure
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Amine Corrosion reboiler x x x
Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion air cooler x x x x x
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Ammonium Chloride Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. x x x x x x
Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. x x x x x
High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion Piping high temp x x x
Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion x
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) x x x

Failure Mechanisms Components oil/gas Crude Delayed Fluid cat. Catalytic Hydro- Alkylation Amine Sulfur Sour water Isomeri
Parameter product. Vacuum Coker cracking Reforming process. HF/Sulfur Treating Recover stripper zation
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion
Phosphoric Acid Corrosion
Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) PH 4,5-7,H2S x
Sulfuric Acid Corrosion HAZ x x x
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Polythionic Acid Stress Corr. Cracking x x x
Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ x x x
Wet H2S Blistering wet H2S x x x x x x x x
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) HAZ,wet H2S x x x x x x x x
Stress Corrosion Cracking
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) wet H2S x x x x x x x x
Stepwise Cracking (SWC) wet H2S x
Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced
Cracking (SOHIC) HAZ,wet H2S x x x x x x x x
Soft Zone Cracking (SZC) wet H2S x
Hydrogen Stress Cracking -HF HAZ,wet HF x x
Galvanically induced Hydrogen Stress
Cracking (GHSC)
Carbonate Stress Corr. Cracking x x
Other Mechanisms
High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) x x x x
Titanium Hydriding x x
Blistering x
Chloride/Sodium Hypochlorite CR water treatm. x
Crevice/ Under deposit x
Cyanide Stress Cracking (HCN) below scrubber x
Fatigue x
Flue Gas CR Heater x x x

Failure Mechanisms Components oil/gas Crude Delayed Fluid cat. Catalytic Hydro- Alkylation Amine Sulfur Sour water Isomeri
Parameter product. Vacuum Coker cracking Reforming process. HF/Sulfur Treating Recover stripper zation
Hardening x
Injection point CR Injection unit x
Organic Sulfur CR x
Overload (Plastic Collapse) all Compon. x
Wet H2S Corrosion wet H2S x
ng industry

Hydrogen
Reforming

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x
Hydrogen
Reforming

x
Hydrogen
Reforming

x
x

x
Hydrogen
Reforming
Failure Mechanisms: shall used and Influence Parameter

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM C water psi psi psi dissolv. susp. Chemic.
of API 571/ISO 15156 affected units,etc used press. Temp. cut H2 S CO2 PH Fe Solids Inject.
Mechan. and Metallurg. Failures
Graphitation HAZ, Heater no >427
Softening Heater no 440/760
Temper Embrittlement HAZ, Heater no 343/593
Strain Aging vessel walls no x
885F (474C) Embrittlement no 316/540
Sigma Phase Embrittlement no 538/954
Brittle fracture vessels no
Creep/Stress Rupture Heater-tubes x >370
Thermal Fatigue Heater no swing93
Short Term Overheating-Stress Rupture Heater no x
Steam Blanketing Heater no x x
Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)Cracking no x
Thermal Shock no x
Errosion/ Erosion-Corrosion Bend, Velocity x x
Cavitation Pumps no
Mechanical Fatigue small pipes/nozz x x x
Vibration-Induced Fatigue small pipes/nozz no x x
Refractory Degradation no
Reheat Cracking PWHT thick wall x x
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Galvanic Corrosion heat exchanger x
Atmospheric Corrosion low temp. x x
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) water trapped x x
Cooling Water Corrosion heat exchanger no x x x x
Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion Feedwater heat no x x x x x
CO2 Corrosion Feedwater heat x x x x x x
Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion fired Heater x x
Biological Corrosion Tanks,etc. x x x x x x
Soil Corrosion Tanks no x

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM C water psi psi psi dissolv. susp. Chemic.
affected units,etc used press. Temp. cut% H2 S CO2 PH Fe Solids Inject.
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Caustic Corrosion Caustic+Heater x x x x x
Dealloying no
Graphitic Corrosion no
High Temperatur Corr.(400F/204)
Oxidation Heater x >482
Sulfidation Heater x >260 x
Carburisation Heater x >593 x
Decarburization Heater x
Metal Dusting Heater no 482/816 x
Fuel Ash Corrosion Heater no >538
Nitriding no >316
Environment -Assisted Cracking
Chloride Stress Corr. Cracking no
Corrosion Fatigue cyclic heater no x x x x x x x
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ,Heater x x x x
Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking overhead cond. x <0.2
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) no x
Hydrogen Embrittlement HAZ,welding x x
Refining Industry Failure
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Amine Corrosion reboiler x x x x x x
Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion air cooler x x x x
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Ammonium Chloride Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. no x x x
Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. no x x
High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion Piping high temp no >260
Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion no
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) Crude high temp no

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM C water psi psi psi dissolv. susp. Chemic.
affected units,etc used press. Temp. cut H2 S CO2 PH Fe Solids Inject.
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion phenol extraction no
Phosphoric Acid Corrosion polymerization no
Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) PH 4,5-7,H2S x x x x x x x
Sulfuric Acid Corrosion HAZ x x x
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Polythionic Acid Stress Corr. Cracking no
Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ x x x
Wet H2S Blistering wet H2S no x RT/150 x x x <7/>7
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) HAZ,wet H2S x <82 <8
Stress Corrosion Cracking no x x x x x x
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) wet H2S x RT/150 x x x x
Stepwise Cracking (SWC) wet H2S no x x x x x x
Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced
Cracking (SOHIC) HAZ,wet H2S x x RT/150 x x x x
Soft Zone Cracking (SZC) wet H2S no x x x x x
Hydrogen Stress Cracking -HF HAZ,wet HF no
Galvanically induced Hydrogen Stress
Cracking (GHSC) no
Carbonate Stress Corr. Cracking HAZ no x x x x x
Other Mechanisms
High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) no x x x
Titanium Hydriding no
Blistering pipe, vessel no x x x x x x
Chloride/Sodium Hypochlorite CR water treatm. no x x x
Crevice/ Under deposit heatexchanger x x x x x x x x x
Cyanide Stress Cracking (HCN) stripper no x x x x x x x
Fatigue heater,nozz. no x x x x x x x
Flue Gas CR Heater no >538

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM C water psi psi psi dissolv. susp. Chemic.
affected units,etc used press. Temp. cut H2 S CO2 PH Fe Solids Inject.
Injection point CR Injection unit no x x x x
Organic Sulfur CR no
Overload (Plastic Collapse) all Compon. no x x
Wet H2S Corrosion wet H2S no x x x x x x
Failure Mechanisms: affected Material, Locations, Inspection methods

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Material


affected units,etc used
Mechan. and Metallurg. Failures
Graphitation HAZ, Heater no C-/0.5Mo Steel
Softening Heater no C-/0.5Mo -9Cr
Temper Embrittlement HAZ, Heater no 2.25Cr-1Mo
Strain Aging vessel walls no C-/0.5Mo Steel
885F (474C) Embrittlement no Stainless St.
Sigma Phase Embrittlement no Stainless St.
Brittle fracture vessels no C-Steel
Creep/Stress Rupture Heater-tubes x C-/Cr-Mo St.
Thermal Fatigue Heater no C-Steel
Short Term Overheating-Stress Rupture Heater no C-/Cr-Mo Steel
Steam Blanketing Heater no C-/Cr-Mo Steel
Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)Cracking no C-Steel/SS
Thermal Shock no C-Steel
Errosion/ Erosion-Corrosion Bend, Velocity x C-Steel
Cavitation Pumps no C-Steel
Mechanical Fatigue small pipes/nozz x C-Steel
Vibration-Induced Fatigue small pipes/nozz no C-Steel
Refractory Degradation no
Reheat Cracking PWHT thick wall x C-/Cr-Mo Steel
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Galvanic Corrosion heat exchanger x Steel/Cooper
Atmospheric Corrosion low temp. x C-Steel
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) water trapped x C-Steel
Cooling Water Corrosion heat exchanger no C-Steel
Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion Feedwater heat. no C-Steel
CO2 Corrosion Feedwater heat. x C-Steel
Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion fired Heater x C-Steel
Microbiologically Induced Corr. (MIC) Tanks,heat ex. x C-Steel
Soil Corrosion Tanks no C-Steel

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Material


affected units,etc used
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Caustic Corrosion Caustic+Heater x C-Steel
Dealloying no
Graphitic Corrosion no cast iron
High Temperatur Corr.(400F/204)
Oxidation Heater x C-/Cr- Steel
Sulfidation Heater x C-/Cr- Steel
Carburisation Heater x C/Cr-Steel
Decarburization Heater x C/Cr-Steel
Metal Dusting Heater no C/Cr-Steel
Fuel Ash Corrosion Heater no C/Cr-Steel
Nitriding no C/Cr-Mo Steel
Environment -Assisted Cracking
Chloride Stress Corr. Cracking no SS, Ni-base
Corrosion Fatigue cyclic heater no C/Cr-Steel
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ,Heater x C/Cr-Steel
Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking overhead cond. x C-Steel
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) no C-Steel
Hydrogen Embrittlement HAZ,welding x C-Steel
Refining Industry Failure
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Amine Corrosion reboiler x C-Steel
Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion air cooler x C-Steel
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Ammonium Chloride Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. no C-Steel
Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. no C-Steel
High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion Piping high temp no C-Steel
Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion no
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) Crude high temp no

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Material


affected units,etc used
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion phenol extraction no
Phosphoric Acid Corrosion polymerization no
Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) overhead syst. x C-Steel
Sulfuric Acid Corrosion HAZ x C-Steel
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Polythionic Acid Stress Corr. Cracking no
Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ x C-Steel
Wet H2S Blistering wet H2S no C-Steel
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) HAZ,wet H2S x C-Steel
Stress Corrosion Cracking no
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) wet H2S x C-Steel
Stepwise Cracking (SWC) wet H2S no C-Steel
Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced
Cracking (SOHIC) HAZ,wet H2S x C-Steel
Soft Zone Cracking (SZC) wet H2S no C-Steel
Hydrogen Stress Cracking -HF HAZ,wet HF no
Galvanically induced Hydrogen Stress
Cracking (GHSC) no
Carbonate Stress Corr. Cracking Amine proc. no C-Steel
Other Mechanisms
High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) Boiler tubes no C/Cr-Mo Steel
Titanium Hydriding no
Blistering pipe, vessel no
Chloride/Sodium Hypochlorite CR water treatm. no
Crevice/ Under deposit heat exchanger x
Cyanide Stress Cracking (HCN) stripper no C-Steel
Fatigue heater,nozz. no C-Steel
Flue Gas CR fired Heater no C-Steel

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Material


affected units,etc used
Injection point CR Injection unit no
Organic Sulfur CR no
Overload (Plastic Collapse) all Compon. no
Wet H2S Corrosion wet H2S no
s, Inspection methods

Location
of Falures

HAZ and regions with signif. plastic deformation (work hardening or bending): metallograpic exam
Fired heater tubes; metallographic observation, a reduction of tensile strength and/or hardness
can be identified by upward shift of ductile-brittle transition temperatue (Charpy V-notch impact test)
Mostly older (pre 1980), cold worked without stress relieving, vessels walls; metallographic exam.

Thick wall equipment, with low Charpy-values, high ductile-brittle transition temprature
HAZ, Nozzles, dissimilar materials (ferritic to austenitic welds), in heater tubes, if signif. Bulging
Notches, Weld toes, nozz. to vessel shell, stress concentr., mix point hot and cold streams;MT,PT
Flame impingement or local overheating; Bulging and Distortion of tubes, VT, EC,IRIS
All steam-generating units including fired boilers

Bend, Tee, Reducer, Nozzles, Outlets in Vessels, Heat exchanger tubes, scrapers,etc.; VT,UT,RT
Pumps
vibration from adjacent equipment or wind to small nozzles, pipes; PT, MT and SWUT
socket welds and small bore piping, bypass lines,heat exchanger;PT,MT

HAZ and/or weld metal heavy wall vessel sections incl. nozzles, stress concentration;UT,MT

The more active mat. can suffer general, crevice, groove or pitting (Steel-tubesheet, buffles);VT, UT
Piping and equipment with operating temper. suff. low to allow moisture to be present; VT,UT
high moisture areas down-wind from cooling tower, near steam vents, deluge systems;UT,RT
water-cooled heat exch. and cooling towers, velocities < 1m/s, dead spots or stagnant areas;EC,IRIS
In closed heater and economizers piiting corr., in condensate return system smooth grooving;EC,IRIS
Bottom if wetted, top of pipe if condensation, elbows, tees, weld root; VT,UT,RT
All fired process heaters and boilers that burn fuels containing sulfur, economizer section;UT
water is always/sometimes present, stagnant, low -flow conditions,S,ammonia, H2S,etc.,pitting:VT,UT
Tank bottom, General and localized Corrosion: VT,UT

Location
of Falures

Boiler, steam gen. equipment, heat exch., Inspect. Points (API 570), Local.Corr.;VT,UT,RT,boroscope

Presence of air, outside of furnace tubes, internal furnace components;general corr.;UT


piping in sulfur-containing (>0.2%) streams, heaters fired with oil, gas;general and localized;UT,RT
high gas phase carbon activity and low O2 or steam, heater tubes;increase harness,cracks;EC,UT,RT
low gas phase carbon activity, excessive overheating (fire); furnace tube OD, decreasing hardn.
metal dusting is a form of carburization; furnace tube OD; compression wave UT
fuel oil with sulfur, sodium, potassium and vanadium, melting on surfaces of fired heaters;VT, UT
high temp. process stream containing high partial pressure nitrogen such ammonia or cyanides

ID of tubes, opposite buckstay attachment on the OD ( stress concentration);UT


HAZ, Heat transfer equipment, Caustic treating section, caustic service, mercaptan treatm.;VT,EC,RT,
overhead condensat. where ammonia is a neutralizer;WFMT welds inside tanks, UT shear wave-outs.
where surface is wetted by lower-melting liquid metal ( Zinc, Indium, Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, Copp.)
a few ppm of H diss.(wet electr., pickling, wet H 2S, HF acid), thick wall; PT,MT,WFMT,UT,RT

Amine treat. units, low velocity general and at high velocity or under deposit localized corr.;VT,UT
Sour water stripper and amine regenerator overhead system; general and localized/turbul.;UT,RT

Amin trea units, under ammonium chloride or amine salt deposits, general and local corr.;RT,UT
dew point corrosion, overhead stream of a distillation, fractionation or stripping tower;gen.,loc;UT,RT
in H2S streams at >260C sulfide corrosion. Uniform corr.;UT,VT and RT
Location
of Falures

PH 4,5-7,H2S; general, localized underdeposit:UT scan, profile RT


Caustic treating section, reboiler, overhead systems, effluent lines,waste water treatm.,velocity;UT,RT

HAZ in lean amine serv. incl. contactors, absorbers, stripp., regenerators, heat ex.:VT,WFMT,ACFM
on the ID,OD or within the wall thickness of pipes or pressure vessels;VT
Weld cover passes and attachment welds which are not tempered, HAZ, high hardness;WFMT,EC,RT

vapor recovery system, sour water stripper and amine regenerator overhead system; VT,WFMT
vapor recovery system, sour water stripper and amine regenerator overhead system; VT,WFMT

HAZ, vapor recovery system, sour water stripper amine regenerator overhead syst.;VT,WFTM,EC
Form of SSC, occur when Steels contain a local "soft zone" in the HAZ;WFMT, EC, RT

Not PWHT, HAZ, near weld , weld, PH >7.6

Blistering include Coating-, Deposit-, Delamination und Pressure (H 2)


if do not know the chemicals of waste water treatment Chlorine or NaOCl
Crevice/Under deposit incl. Cooling Water-, MIC-, Caustic-,Amine-, Ammonium Bisulfide-Corrosion
vapor recovery system, sour water stripper and amine regenerator overhead system (see wet H 2S)
see thermal-, mechanical and corrosion fatigue
see flue gas dew point and flue ash corrosion

Location
of Falures
If do not know the chemicals (no failure mechanism) use Injection point Corrosion (see API 570)
Mercaptans are a group of sulfur-containing organic chem. Subst. (see caustic corrosion/cracking)

Should be used for general or localized H2S Corrosion


Failure Mechanisms affecting to C-,low alloy Steel and Copper/ different units at the oil and gas production

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling Water Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling
used need Condensate water Treatm. Condensate Water
Mechan. and Metallurg. Failures
Graphitation HAZ, Heater no
Softening Heater no
Temper Embrittlement HAZ, Heater no
Strain Aging vessel walls no
885F (474C) Embrittlement no
Sigma Phase Embrittlement no
Brittle fracture vessels no
Creep/Stress Rupture Heater-tubes x x
Thermal Fatigue Heater x
Short Term Overheating-Stress Rupture Heater x
Steam Blanketing Heater no
Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW)Cracking no
Thermal Shock no
Errosion/ Erosion-Corrosion Bend, Velocity x x x x x x x x
Cavitation Pumps no
Mechanical Fatigue small pipes/nozz x
Vibration-Induced Fatigue small pipes/nozz x
Refractory Degradation no
Reheat Cracking PWHT thick wall x
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Galvanic Corrosion heat exchanger x x x x x x
Atmospheric Corrosion low temp. x x x x x
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) water trapped x x x x x
Cooling Water Corrosion heat exchanger x
Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion Feedwater heat x
CO2 Corrosion Feedwater heat x
Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion fired Heater x
Microbiologically Induced Corr. (MIC) Tanks,etc. x x x
Soil Corrosion Tanks no

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling Water Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling
used need Condensate water Treatm. Condensate Water
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Caustic Corrosion Caustic+Heater x x
Dealloying (selective leaching) no x x x x x
Graphitic Corrosion no
High Temperatur Corr.(400F/204)
Oxidation Heater x x
Sulfidation Heater x
Carburisation Heater x
Decarburization Heater x
Metal Dusting Heater x
Fuel Ash Corrosion Heater x
Nitriding no
Environment -Assisted Cracking
Chloride Stress Corr. Cracking no
Corrosion Fatigue cyclic heater x
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ,Heater x
Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking overhead cond. x x x x x
Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) no x x
Hydrogen Embrittlement HAZ,welding x x
Refining Industry Failure
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Amine Corrosion reboiler x
Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion air cooler x
(Alkaline Sour Water)
Ammonium Chloride Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. x
Hydrochlorid Acid (HCl) Corrosion Crude, Hydropr. x
High Temp. H2/H2S Corrosion Piping high temp x
Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion no
Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC) Crude high temp no

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling Water Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling
used need Condensate water Treatm. Condensate Water
Uniform or Localized Metal Loss
Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion phenol extraction no x x
Phosphoric Acid Corrosion polymerization no
Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) PH 4,5-7,H2S x
Sulfuric Acid Corrosion HAZ x
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Polythionic Acid Stress Corr. Cracking no
Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking HAZ x
Wet H2S Blistering wet H2S x
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) HAZ,wet H2S x
Stress Corrosion Cracking no x x x x
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) wet H2S x
Stepwise Cracking (SWC) wet H2S x
Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced
Cracking (SOHIC) HAZ,wet H2S x
Soft Zone Cracking (SZC) wet H2S x
Hydrogen Stress Cracking -HF HAZ,wet HF no
Galvanically induced Hydrogen Stress
Cracking (GHSC) no
Carbonate Stress Corr. Cracking HAZ x
Other Mechanisms
High Temp. Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
Titanium Hydriding
Blistering pipe, vessel x
Chloride/Sodium Hypochlorite CR water treatm. x
Crevice/ Under deposit heatexchanger x x x x
Cyanide Stress Cracking (HCN) stripper x
Fatigue heater,nozz. x x x x x x
Flue Gas CR Heater x

Failure Mechanisms (FM) FM FM Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling Water Steam Steam Heating Cooling Cooling
used need Condensate water Treatm. Condensate Water
Injection point CR Injection unit x
Organic Sulfur CR
Overload (Plastic Collapse) all Compon. x
Wet H2S Corrosion wet H2S x
Water
Treatm.
Water
Treatm.
Water
Treatm.
Water
Treatm.