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Review of Reservoir Engineering I

Dr. Shiferaw Regassa Jufar

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak,


Malaysia | Tel: +605 368 7045 | Fax: +605 365 5670
e-mail : shiferaw.jufar@utp.edu.my
Learning objectives

o To review concepts introduced in reservoir engineering I.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Contents

o Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer


o Reservoir classification
o Fluid properties
o Concepts of relative permeability
o Flow through porous media
Flow geometry
Type of regimes
Darcys Law
Steady-state Flow
o Natural drive mechanism
o Phase behavior of reservoir fluids
o PVT analysis
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

o Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum


engineering that applies scientific principles to the
drainage problems arising during the development and
production of oil and gas reservoirs so as to obtain a high
economic recovery. source: Wikipedia

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

o Estimating reserves and


forecasting for property
evaluations and
development planning.

Source: AAPG WIKI


Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

o Carrying out reservoir simulation


studies to optimize recoveries.
o Predicting reserves and
performance for well proposals.
o Predicting and evaluating
waterflood and enhanced
recovery performance.
o Developing and applying
reservoir optimization techniques.
o Developing cost-effective
reservoir monitoring and
surveillance programs.
o Performing reservoir
characterization studies.
o Analyzing pressure transients.
o Designing and coordinating
petrophysical studies.
o Analyzing the economics and risk
assessments of major
development programs.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Characterization of Oil Reservoirs

A wide variety of
characterization
tools and methods
are usually required
to properly portray
the complexity
found in an average
hydrocarbon
reservoir The major
principles behind
these tools depend
upon:
the scale
resolution, and
nature of the
measurement
itself.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

Reservoir modeling involves assimilation of multi-scale information

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer
In physics and chemistry, multiscale
modeling is aimed to calculation of
material properties or system behavior on
one level using information or models from
different levels. On each level particular
approaches are used for description of a
system. The following levels are usually
distinguished: level of quantum
mechanical models (information about
electrons is included), level of molecular
dynamics models (information about
individual atoms is included), coarse-
grained models (information about atoms
and/or groups of atoms is included),
mesoscale or nano level (information
about large groups of atoms and/or
molecule positions is included), level of
continuum models, level of device models.
Each level addresses a phenomenon over
a specific window of length and time.
Multiscale modeling is particularly
important in integrated computational
materials engineering since it allows the
prediction of material properties or system
behavior based on knowledge of the
process-structure-property relationships.
Source: Wikipedia

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Reservoir Classification

Oil reservoir
In general Tres<Tc of
reservoir fluid
Gas reservoir
In general, Tres>Tc of
reservoir fluid
(hydrocarbon
systems)

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Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Reservoir Classification

Oil reservoir:
Under-saturated oil reservoir:
initial reservoir pressure, pi > the
bubble-point pressure, pb of the
reservoir fluid

Saturated oil reservoir:


pi = pb

Gas-cap reservoir or two phase


reservoir
pi < pb

Note:
The appropriate quality line gives
the ratio of volume of liquid (oil)
to volume of gas

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Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Reservoir Classification

Gas Reservoir:
Dry gas reservoir
initial reservoir temperature higher than
cricondentherm temperature (light
components)
even at low pressure (separator) and
temperature, fluid is 100% gas

Wet gas reservoir


initial reservoir temperature higher than
cricondentherm temperature
But even at low pressure (separator) and
temperature, some gas condensate to
liquid

Retrograde gas-condensate reservoir


Reservoir temperature lies between Tc
and Tcri (Tc<Tr<Tcr)

Near critical gas-condensate


Reservoir temperature is nearly equal to
critical temperature of fluid (Tr ~Tc)

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Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Reservoir Classification

Reservoir Classification
Black Oil Volatile Oil
Pressure path Critical
in reservoir 1 point

Pressure path 2
in reservoir Dewpoint line
Critical Volatile oil
point
Pressure, psia

Pressure
Black Oil % Liquid

% Liquid

33

Separator Separator

Temperature, F Temperature

Pressure path
in reservoir Pressure path Pressure path
in reservoir in reservoir
1
Retrograde gas 1 1
2
Pressure

Wet gas
Pressure

Pressure
Critical Dry gas
point
% Liquid
Critical % Liquid
% Liquid
point
3 2 2

Separator Separator
Separator

Temperature Temperature Temperature

Retrograde Gas Wet Gas Dry Gas


Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Fluid properties

Viscosity ():
A measure of resistance to flow
Symbols: o, g, w
Units: cp
Sources: Lab measurements,
correlations
Range and typical values
0.25 to 10,000 cp, Black oil
0.5 to 1.0 cp, Water
Pb
0.012 to 0.035 cp, Gas
Pressure

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Fluid properties
Fluid Compressibility (Co, Cg, Cw)

ln Vo 1 dV 1 1 dz
1 Vo cg cg
co V dP P z dP
Vo p p T

Fractional change in volume due to a unit change


in pressure

Symbol: co, cg, cw

Units: psi-1, microsips (1 microsip = 1x10-6 psi-1)

Source: Lab measurements, correlations

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Fluid properties

Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo)


Gas at Surface
Oil at Surface

Pb
Oil Volume in Place
Bo
Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Fluid properties

Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR)

Oil at Surface

Pb Gas at Surface
Gas Volume at Surface
GOR
Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Concepts of relative permeability

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Concepts of relative permeability

o Relative permeability is a concept used to convey the


reduction in flow capability due to the presence of multiple
mobile fluids.

o It is dependent upon:
pore geometry
wettability
fluid distribution and
fluid saturation history

o Relative permeability has important implications for flow of


reservoir fluids. A number of models have been developed
to relate relative permeability to other reservoir properties.
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Flow through porous media

Pressure-volume relationship

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Fluid density versus pressure for different fluid types

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Flow Regimes
o There are basically three types of flow regimes that
must be recognized in order to describe the fluid flow
behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a
function of time:
Steady-state flow

Unsteady-state flow

Pseudosteady-state flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Steady-State Flow
The pressure at every location in the reservoir
remains constant and does not change with time

P
0
t i

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
When It Happens?

o In reservoirs, the steady-state flow condition can only


occur when the reservoir is completely recharged and
supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance
operations.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Unsteady / Transient State Flow

o The fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of


pressure with respect to time at any position in the
reservoir is not zero or constant

o The pressure derivative with respect to time is


essentially a function of both position i and time t

P
f i, t
t
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Flow through porous media
Pseudosteady-State Flow

o The pressure at different locations in the reservoir is


declining linearly as a function of time

P
constant
t i

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Flow regimes
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Flow through porous media
Reservoir Geometry

The shape of a reservoir has a significant effect on its


flow behavior

Most reservoirs have irregular boundaries

Rigorous mathematical description of geometry is often


possible only with the use of numerical simulators

The actual flow geometry may be represented by one of


the following flow geometries:

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Reservoir Geometry

o Radial flow

o Linear flow

o Spherical and hemispherical flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Radial Flow

o Flow into or away


from a wellbore will
follow radial flow lines

Three-dimensional flow

cylindrical coordinate
structure in radial-
from a substantial
distance from the

system
wellbore
o In the absence of
severe reservoir
heterogeneities
o fluids move toward the
well from all directions
and coverage at the
wellbore
A typical one-dimensional,
radial-cylindrical flow model
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Flow through porous media

Ideal radial flow into a wellbore.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Linear Flow
o When flow paths are parallel and the fluid flows in a
single direction
o The cross sectional area to flow must be constant
o A common application of linear flow equations is the
fluid flow into vertical hydraulic fractures

Linear flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Ideal linear flow into vertical fracture

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media
Spherical and Hemispherical Flow
Depending upon the type of wellbore completion
configuration
possible to have a spherical or hemispherical flow near
the wellbore
A well with a limited perforated interval could result in
spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations
A well that only partially penetrates the pay zone could
result in hemispherical flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Spherical flow due to limited entry

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Hemispherical flow in a partially penetrating well

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Flow through porous media

Number of Flowing Fluids in the Reservoir:

o Single-phase flow (oil, water, or gas)

o Two-phase flow (oil-water, oil-gas, or gas-water)

o Three-phase flow (oil, water, and gas)

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Henry Darcy

o 19th century French engineer

o While designing a filter to process


his towns water demand

o Vertical flow of water through


packed sand

o Introduce the concept of


permeability (unit: mD)

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Darcys Law

o What are the parameters that affect fluid flow?

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


L

q
A
dx

For one-dimensional, horizontal flow through a porous


medium, Darcys Law states that:

kA dp
q
dx q =Flow rate (cm3/s)
A= Cross sectional area (cm2)
=Viscosity of flowing fluid (cp)
k =Permeability (Darcy)
/=Pressure gradient (atm/cm)

Transport eqn. implying velocity is proportional to pressure gradient and


reciprocal to viscosity
Pressure vs. distance in a linear flow
Darcys Law for Radial Flow

kA dp k (2rh) dp
q
dr dr
Curved surface
open to flow

For fluid flow to occur, a pressure gradient must be established


between the inner and outer boundary of the reservoir.

h Pressure gradient dp/dr

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Pressure gradient in radial flow
Darcys Law

o Darcys Law applies only when the following conditions


exist:

Laminar (viscous) flow

Steady-state flow

Incompressible fluids

Homogeneous formation

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Steady-state Flow

o Represents the condition that exists when the pressure


throughout the reservoir does not change with time
o The applications of the steady-state flow include:
Linear flow of incompressible fluids
Linear flow of slightly compressible fluids
Linear flow of compressible fluids
Radial flow of incompressible fluids
Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids
Radial flow of compressible fluids
Multiphase flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Steady-state Flow

o Derive simple Linear Flow of Incompressible fluid

o Understand the fluid potential concept

o See how units can be converted from one system


to another

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids

The flow occurs through a constant cross-sectional area A


both ends are entirely open to flow
no flow crosses the sides, top, or bottom

Linear flow model

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids

If an incompressible fluid is flowing across the element dx, then the fluid
velocity v and the flow rate q are constants at all points

The flow behavior in this system can be expressed by the differential


form of Darcys equation

q
L
k
P2
kAP1 P2
q
A0 dx dP
P1
OR
L
In field units
Area (ft2)
Permeability (mD)

0.001127kAP1 P2
Pressure (psi)
q
L
Flowrate (bbl/d)
Distance
Viscosity (cp) (ft)
Darcys units

In terms of Darcy units

v= apparent fluid velocity, cm/sec;


k= permeability, darcy;
= fluid viscosity, cp;
p= pressure, atm
l= length, cm;
= fluid density, gm/cm3;
g= Acceleration due to gravity, cm/sec2; and
Z= elevation, cm.

The vertical distance zi is assigned as a positive value when the point i is


below the datum level and as a negative when it is above the datum level

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


In fields units

where
i = fluid potential at point i, psi
pi = pressure at point i, psi
zi = vertical distance from point i to the selected datum level
= fluid density, lb/ft3
= fluid specific gravity (water=1)
v= apparent fluid velocity, res bbl/day/ft2;
A= total cross-sectional area, ft2
B= formation volume factor, RB/STB.
k= permeability, md
= dip angle of the reservoir or formation measured counterclockwise
from the horizontal to the positive flow path

The negative sign in Eq. (16) accounts for the sign convention that flow is considered
positive in the positive direction of the flow path length, and pressure decreases in the
direction of flow

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids

o The relationship that exists between pressure and


volume for slightly compressible fluid is:


V Vref 1 cPref P -------------- (6)

The above equation can be modified and


written in terms of flow rate as:


q qref 1 cPref P -------------- (18)
where qref is the flow rate at some reference pressure Pref.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Darcys Unit Conversion

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Oil Recovery Mechanisms

o Each reservoir is unique:

geometric form
geological rock
properties
fluid
characteristics
primary drive
mechanism

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Primary Recovery Mechanisms

o Yet they can be grouped according to the primary drive


mechanism.
The recovery of oil by any of the natural drive
mechanisms is called primary recovery.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Types of Reservoir Energy

o The energy of compression of the:


water and rock within the reservoir.
oil and gas within the reservoir.

o Waters contiguous to and in communication with the


petroleum reservoir.

o The gravitational energy that causes the oil and gas to


segregate within the reservoir.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Types of Reservoir Energy

o Rank the types of energy in order of least importance to oil


recovery?

o Compressed water and rock


o Compressed oil
o Compressed gas

Compressibility of oil=10-5 /psi


Compressibility of water=3x10-6 /psi
Compressibility of rock=6x10-6 /psi

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Primary Recovery Mechanisms

Why study Recovery Mechanisms?


Knowledge of the
driving
mechanisms

Proper understanding of reservoir


behaviour
and
predicting future performance
Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester
Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

o The overall performance of oil reservoirs is largely


determined by the nature of the energy, i.e., driving
mechanism, available for moving the oil to the wellbore.

o Each drive mechanism has certain typical performance


characteristics in terms of:
Ultimate recovery factor
Pressure decline rate
Gas-oil ratio
Water production

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

o There are basically six driving mechanisms that provide


the natural energy necessary for oil recovery:
Rock and liquid expansion drive
Depletion drive
Gas-cap drive
Water drive
Gravity drainage drive
Combination drive

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

o A petroleum reservoir rarely can be characterized


throughout its pressure-depletion life by any single
producing mechanism.

o Broadly, all commercially productive petroleum reservoirs


are divided into either
expansion-drive (sealed reservoir)
compaction-drive (sealed reservoir)
water drive reservoirs (unsealed reservoir)

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Classification of Primary Recovery Mechanisms

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Phase behavior of reservoir fluids

o VLE calculation

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


PVT analysis

o Equations of state are used to model phase behavior of


reservoir fluids.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester


Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester