Review of Reservoir Engineering I

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Review of Reservoir Engineering I

© All Rights Reserved

- Relative Permeability Measurements in Carbonate Rock
- P620_2012C_Syllabus_(v20130829)_(pdf)
- How Abnormal Pressures Affect Hydrocarbon Exploration
- Petroleum (Drilling and Production Regulations 1969
- Interpret as i
- TIGHT GAS
- Tech%5CReservoir%5CUnitSystems2002 TAMU
- 1_Introduction to Nodal Analysis
- Engineering Geology Solution
- Water Coning Performance-tugas Teklan
- IJG_2014012315081046
- 10687_ftp
- Unit 2
- Masoudi
- Thesis Stress Dependant Perm
- Next Generation Ess
- Oil&Gas CAT Letter USA 2017
- Introduction and Overview
- Completion Challenge Paper
- Chukwudi S 2012 Pet Eng MSc Thesis

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Malaysia | Tel: +605 368 7045 | Fax: +605 365 5670

e-mail : shiferaw.jufar@utp.edu.my

Learning objectives

Contents

o Reservoir classification

o Fluid properties

o Concepts of relative permeability

o Flow through porous media

Flow geometry

Type of regimes

Darcys Law

Steady-state Flow

o Natural drive mechanism

o Phase behavior of reservoir fluids

o PVT analysis

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

engineering that applies scientific principles to the

drainage problems arising during the development and

production of oil and gas reservoirs so as to obtain a high

economic recovery. source: Wikipedia

Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

forecasting for property

evaluations and

development planning.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

studies to optimize recoveries.

o Predicting reserves and

performance for well proposals.

o Predicting and evaluating

waterflood and enhanced

recovery performance.

o Developing and applying

reservoir optimization techniques.

o Developing cost-effective

reservoir monitoring and

surveillance programs.

o Performing reservoir

characterization studies.

o Analyzing pressure transients.

o Designing and coordinating

petrophysical studies.

o Analyzing the economics and risk

assessments of major

development programs.

Characterization of Oil Reservoirs

A wide variety of

characterization

tools and methods

are usually required

to properly portray

the complexity

found in an average

hydrocarbon

reservoir The major

principles behind

these tools depend

upon:

the scale

resolution, and

nature of the

measurement

itself.

Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

Role and responsibilities of a reservoir engineer

In physics and chemistry, multiscale

modeling is aimed to calculation of

material properties or system behavior on

one level using information or models from

different levels. On each level particular

approaches are used for description of a

system. The following levels are usually

distinguished: level of quantum

mechanical models (information about

electrons is included), level of molecular

dynamics models (information about

individual atoms is included), coarse-

grained models (information about atoms

and/or groups of atoms is included),

mesoscale or nano level (information

about large groups of atoms and/or

molecule positions is included), level of

continuum models, level of device models.

Each level addresses a phenomenon over

a specific window of length and time.

Multiscale modeling is particularly

important in integrated computational

materials engineering since it allows the

prediction of material properties or system

behavior based on knowledge of the

process-structure-property relationships.

Source: Wikipedia

Reservoir Classification

Oil reservoir

In general Tres<Tc of

reservoir fluid

Gas reservoir

In general, Tres>Tc of

reservoir fluid

(hydrocarbon

systems)

10

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Reservoir Classification

Oil reservoir:

Under-saturated oil reservoir:

initial reservoir pressure, pi > the

bubble-point pressure, pb of the

reservoir fluid

pi = pb

reservoir

pi < pb

Note:

The appropriate quality line gives

the ratio of volume of liquid (oil)

to volume of gas

11

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Reservoir Classification

Gas Reservoir:

Dry gas reservoir

initial reservoir temperature higher than

cricondentherm temperature (light

components)

even at low pressure (separator) and

temperature, fluid is 100% gas

initial reservoir temperature higher than

cricondentherm temperature

But even at low pressure (separator) and

temperature, some gas condensate to

liquid

Reservoir temperature lies between Tc

and Tcri (Tc<Tr<Tcr)

Reservoir temperature is nearly equal to

critical temperature of fluid (Tr ~Tc)

12

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Reservoir Classification

Reservoir Classification

Black Oil Volatile Oil

Pressure path Critical

in reservoir 1 point

Pressure path 2

in reservoir Dewpoint line

Critical Volatile oil

point

Pressure, psia

Pressure

Black Oil % Liquid

% Liquid

33

Separator Separator

Temperature, F Temperature

Pressure path

in reservoir Pressure path Pressure path

in reservoir in reservoir

1

Retrograde gas 1 1

2

Pressure

Wet gas

Pressure

Pressure

Critical Dry gas

point

% Liquid

Critical % Liquid

% Liquid

point

3 2 2

Separator Separator

Separator

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Fluid properties

Viscosity ():

A measure of resistance to flow

Symbols: o, g, w

Units: cp

Sources: Lab measurements,

correlations

Range and typical values

0.25 to 10,000 cp, Black oil

0.5 to 1.0 cp, Water

Pb

0.012 to 0.035 cp, Gas

Pressure

Fluid properties

Fluid Compressibility (Co, Cg, Cw)

ln Vo 1 dV 1 1 dz

1 Vo cg cg

co V dP P z dP

Vo p p T

in pressure

Fluid properties

Gas at Surface

Oil at Surface

Pb

Oil Volume in Place

Bo

Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Fluid properties

Oil at Surface

Pb Gas at Surface

Gas Volume at Surface

GOR

Oil Volume at Surface

Oil in Place

Concepts of relative permeability

Concepts of relative permeability

reduction in flow capability due to the presence of multiple

mobile fluids.

o It is dependent upon:

pore geometry

wettability

fluid distribution and

fluid saturation history

reservoir fluids. A number of models have been developed

to relate relative permeability to other reservoir properties.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Flow through porous media

Pressure-volume relationship

Flow through porous media

Flow through porous media

Flow Regimes

o There are basically three types of flow regimes that

must be recognized in order to describe the fluid flow

behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a

function of time:

Steady-state flow

Unsteady-state flow

Pseudosteady-state flow

Flow through porous media

Steady-State Flow

The pressure at every location in the reservoir

remains constant and does not change with time

P

0

t i

Flow through porous media

When It Happens?

occur when the reservoir is completely recharged and

supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance

operations.

Flow through porous media

Unsteady / Transient State Flow

pressure with respect to time at any position in the

reservoir is not zero or constant

essentially a function of both position i and time t

P

f i, t

t

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Flow through porous media

Pseudosteady-State Flow

declining linearly as a function of time

P

constant

t i

Flow through porous media

Flow regimes

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Flow through porous media

Reservoir Geometry

flow behavior

possible only with the use of numerical simulators

the following flow geometries:

Flow through porous media

Reservoir Geometry

o Radial flow

o Linear flow

Flow through porous media

Radial Flow

from a wellbore will

follow radial flow lines

Three-dimensional flow

cylindrical coordinate

structure in radial-

from a substantial

distance from the

system

wellbore

o In the absence of

severe reservoir

heterogeneities

o fluids move toward the

well from all directions

and coverage at the

wellbore

A typical one-dimensional,

radial-cylindrical flow model

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Flow through porous media

Flow through porous media

Linear Flow

o When flow paths are parallel and the fluid flows in a

single direction

o The cross sectional area to flow must be constant

o A common application of linear flow equations is the

fluid flow into vertical hydraulic fractures

Linear flow

Flow through porous media

Flow through porous media

Spherical and Hemispherical Flow

Depending upon the type of wellbore completion

configuration

possible to have a spherical or hemispherical flow near

the wellbore

A well with a limited perforated interval could result in

spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations

A well that only partially penetrates the pay zone could

result in hemispherical flow

Flow through porous media

Flow through porous media

Flow through porous media

Henry Darcy

his towns water demand

packed sand

permeability (unit: mD)

Darcys Law

L

q

A

dx

medium, Darcys Law states that:

kA dp

q

dx q =Flow rate (cm3/s)

A= Cross sectional area (cm2)

=Viscosity of flowing fluid (cp)

k =Permeability (Darcy)

/=Pressure gradient (atm/cm)

reciprocal to viscosity

Pressure vs. distance in a linear flow

Darcys Law for Radial Flow

kA dp k (2rh) dp

q

dr dr

Curved surface

open to flow

between the inner and outer boundary of the reservoir.

Pressure gradient in radial flow

Darcys Law

exist:

Steady-state flow

Incompressible fluids

Homogeneous formation

Steady-state Flow

throughout the reservoir does not change with time

o The applications of the steady-state flow include:

Linear flow of incompressible fluids

Linear flow of slightly compressible fluids

Linear flow of compressible fluids

Radial flow of incompressible fluids

Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids

Radial flow of compressible fluids

Multiphase flow

Steady-state Flow

to another

Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids

both ends are entirely open to flow

no flow crosses the sides, top, or bottom

Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids

If an incompressible fluid is flowing across the element dx, then the fluid

velocity v and the flow rate q are constants at all points

form of Darcys equation

q

L

k

P2

kAP1 P2

q

A0 dx dP

P1

OR

L

In field units

Area (ft2)

Permeability (mD)

0.001127kAP1 P2

Pressure (psi)

q

L

Flowrate (bbl/d)

Distance

Viscosity (cp) (ft)

Darcys units

k= permeability, darcy;

= fluid viscosity, cp;

p= pressure, atm

l= length, cm;

= fluid density, gm/cm3;

g= Acceleration due to gravity, cm/sec2; and

Z= elevation, cm.

below the datum level and as a negative when it is above the datum level

In fields units

where

i = fluid potential at point i, psi

pi = pressure at point i, psi

zi = vertical distance from point i to the selected datum level

= fluid density, lb/ft3

= fluid specific gravity (water=1)

v= apparent fluid velocity, res bbl/day/ft2;

A= total cross-sectional area, ft2

B= formation volume factor, RB/STB.

k= permeability, md

= dip angle of the reservoir or formation measured counterclockwise

from the horizontal to the positive flow path

The negative sign in Eq. (16) accounts for the sign convention that flow is considered

positive in the positive direction of the flow path length, and pressure decreases in the

direction of flow

Linear Flow of Slightly Compressible Fluids

volume for slightly compressible fluid is:

V Vref 1 cPref P -------------- (6)

written in terms of flow rate as:

q qref 1 cPref P -------------- (18)

where qref is the flow rate at some reference pressure Pref.

Darcys Unit Conversion

Oil Recovery Mechanisms

geometric form

geological rock

properties

fluid

characteristics

primary drive

mechanism

Primary Recovery Mechanisms

mechanism.

The recovery of oil by any of the natural drive

mechanisms is called primary recovery.

Types of Reservoir Energy

water and rock within the reservoir.

oil and gas within the reservoir.

petroleum reservoir.

segregate within the reservoir.

Types of Reservoir Energy

recovery?

o Compressed oil

o Compressed gas

Compressibility of water=3x10-6 /psi

Compressibility of rock=6x10-6 /psi

Primary Recovery Mechanisms

Knowledge of the

driving

mechanisms

behaviour

and

predicting future performance

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

determined by the nature of the energy, i.e., driving

mechanism, available for moving the oil to the wellbore.

characteristics in terms of:

Ultimate recovery factor

Pressure decline rate

Gas-oil ratio

Water production

Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

the natural energy necessary for oil recovery:

Rock and liquid expansion drive

Depletion drive

Gas-cap drive

Water drive

Gravity drainage drive

Combination drive

Primary Recovery Mechanisms contd

throughout its pressure-depletion life by any single

producing mechanism.

are divided into either

expansion-drive (sealed reservoir)

compaction-drive (sealed reservoir)

water drive reservoirs (unsealed reservoir)

Classification of Primary Recovery Mechanisms

Phase behavior of reservoir fluids

o VLE calculation

PVT analysis

reservoir fluids.

Review of Reservoir Engineering I, January 2017 semester

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