Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 47

. LnQ AAOl. ~(nOOl .

. AMMUH'l\Olt W\Nb ..

"

- )

/. -Rt~lQ\(1tD-

.. The jnf-orm~lo" coribiined' in l:hiS docu~is n«~o

, be ~ tUH.. ~~_ or itl~YC!cH&f m u..' ',.

pm$S or ~ ."'1 pusonnOi: Au~~orised. le· roci(lV4 ;~ f"

. . I '

.. ,.- ..

'. .. .,:'. ".' .

. ,- ~ .

M{~RKINGS.

JAPANBSE Am,J]NITION

ARMY AMMUNITION"

Japanese Army ammunition of 20 mm , calibre and over can usually be identified by certain markings that are characteristic of Army ammun f'td on onl.y ,

VVhile the colour of the projectile' is' usually BL'\CK with "r:TITE,.

YEWLOW and/or RED b_ands, there .a ne types of Army ammunition that

do not c onf orm to this s cheme of c o Lour Ln c, Grea. t care should be exercised When handling any projectiles that are BLUE~GREY in colour, that have a BLUE band·to the 'rear of the RED tip on the nose or

that have a wide BLUE), GREEN, ,YELLmrv, or ::3ROWN band around the

proj eetile b ody , These are very apt to contain gas I the colours

Lnd'ic a t-ing type of fill i,ngs :-

LACHRIMATORS • • ' .. GREEN
gTERl'TUTATORS . " ..... 'RED '
" VESICANT:;)' a. .. . ~ YELLOW
DIRECTPOrS ONS' • • • BROWN ,.
'" NAVY ANrMUNtTION

Available information on Japanese Naval Ammunition is very incomplete, and the colour scheme u sed on their projectiles seems

to vary with different types~ The mostcomriton c.olouI" found. 1s

mar-oon and is 'generally found on a hiSh capacity prbjectjde ..

A gre en band on the nos e genera ll_y indica tes an e xp Lo s Lve fill ed

shell. White has been found inA.P. types, bright re~ in star

shell and ol'tl.nge in H.E. tracer~ However, the above colours may

not hold true as to type. Sometimes a yellow band ar/ound body

of project He indicates centre of gr.:wi ty. j

1

The same precautions, sho,uld be ohserved 1n handl:iing Uaval blinds and investigating'Naval dumps as are pbserv&~_with Army Amn.

PACKING OF JAPANESE AMMUt~TIO~

. ~ -;--

Fr-eque nb I y enemy equipment is captured comp~ete in its -

origInal pa ckf ng cases" When ammunition cap, be Identified

wi thout uncra tins, it will often pr-ev e advantageous to I eaVfr the equipment in its original p9.ckin,s,' as bhe s s . bC(xes have been

designed to resist tropical weather. "

':Vooden boxes ar-e the most common' packing' mat'erials equiped with liners of galvanized sheet steeJ,. or blSlck water-proofed piper

inside. It may be possible to open the bQx and identify the

equd pms nt, by feeling the c orit our of the liuer.. Small arms anmuru b.i cn ,

set in ~he packing box in cardbDard containers presents a level

surface beneath the plated shee t-cs-t.e eI l,irl.er; while 25 nun and-'c 37 mID rounds held firmly by wooden spac~rs, should give a reJQlarly

wavy contour under the liner. Larf!,&T> she Ll.a and grenades, mayor

may not be discernable by feeling .the li,ner. Bomb fuzes are nearly

always sealed in air-tight cans l{:ke tennis balls, whereas projectile fuzes are frequently found in screw-top cans.

l \ ,

ARHY ... ~ AND MORTAR

Projectiles are paint~d wi~ a basic body color and 'have

colored bands. .--

Captured documents Lnd Lca t e that the bands should be the width of the driving band and are called "single-wldthfl bands,

Basic body color for HE projectiles is black. Basic body

color for chemical and incendiary pr-cj.e c td Le s is blue-grey.

BANDS

Red band at nose indicates explosive filled,'In chemical projectiles this band refers to the exploder~

Bands to indicate type of proj ectUe 'are:~

,

Yellow White Green

. HE

AP Trac-er

Bands to· indicate type of steel ~re:-

White Green No band

, ...

Steel . , . \' ,

Semi-steel (cast iron stGel)

Cast iro~ (substitute proiectile)

...

Projectiles of early manufacture normally bear three c~lor 9ands as follows:-

(a) Re,d at nose explosive filled e-
'is'Uow imme dia to 1 y
, aft- .. of'front .band HE typo
'~\Vhi::te' l-lnmedia tel y ir
,forwar_d of
qrivln-g band ,-. Steel,
(b ), Rel,i at nose ~' .. ,expl os-1 v e fiiled
Yellow at front
band HE type
Gre~n at driving
band~ .. Sami-steel
, ,~
(c) Red _lJ. t.." nos e cxplos iva filled
White at centre -
of body, .>:': ... 'AP
Green adj~6ent"
, to whi te \ "" ' .. Tracer _ A. 8implifiedsy~t;,em· omi ttfng- one ,band has' more recently been introduced, as f0110,:"s:-

(ar Rod at nOS0 , explo~ive filled
Yellow, at cen'trc
,oi'<body \ . HE type - steel
(b) , Red at nose ,. oxp1,9sive niled
Green ,-a t, centro '.
of body HE type '_ semi~8teel .
x \, On-mortar bombs the yell~o~~f>r green band is lrnmedla toly

forwo,rd of the guide band, ,'" ' "

Tho loading date and symbol for the loading factory are usually'stencilled on wi tb colored d¥Q,~

Tho-d3:to is usually folloVl.ved b;f.·· a RC\>nan letter (A, B, o t c , ) wbich is the lot number of th"'~ prOPellant for the po,rticular

factory. Each month a now 80rio$ of lots in commenced.

Dun

The f1lling factory stamp 1s placed beneath the loading date.

Some cartridge cases nave stencilled characters Indloat1ns the tn>e o£ gun.

~}- Typo 94 Mountain Gqn

lb "* ::. It Type 92 Infantry

(a)

(b)

A in shall ar o rolatlv~ly unoommon. palnt~d v~rtloQl1y on a.;rilJ8 of markings.

al~o pnintod with a typo numbor, but tb\;BO nro If type'; numb ... !' churnctGrs CLI'v prol.;;nt tb..lY uI'O th~ body b.low th~ oglv~, 1800 from tho mu1n

Stcncl11ud murkings Indicl,ltlng Lor.df ng dut"" prop-.;llunt lot numb or , ote., on c,J,rtridg~ CUS.$ ar .. not always pr-:svnt.

PLACE OF FIL.g!ft

A symbol is usod whiob is tho initial sy110.blo of tho nome of tho

pluc... SizQ about -::} diamvt0r of proj .. lctl1 ... , a.nd plncud adjnc.Jnt to

date. Thu symbol is usually unclosud in u cirelu.

r

\

Exnmpl<.:s :

Uta;1 Tokyo Ordnnnco Bro.nch D_pot

"na II Nagoya .ordnanoo Branch DL.pot

Hhi" Hiroshima Ordno.nc\J Branch D"pot

Uw( 0) il Oka:yrunn Ordnanco Br~D.Ch Dopot

it 0" Oaaka Ordnnnc0 Branch D .... pot

IIKo iJ r~okuJ:'tl Or-dnanc ; Branch v .. pot

"h",j H._ijo Crdnnnco Branch D.pot

"ka II Kwn.ntung .. Arm:y Or-dnance Dvpurtmont

fir:!. II r.::wautung ~y Port Arthur Ordnanco f.la::>;:\llch Depot

;'sh111 Kwnntung Army Rsinking Ordno.noo Brnne h Dopot

"ko " Rwantung Ordnnnco Brnnch Dopot

IiI~onll Imp,-rinl Gu.nrds DiVision Ordn.lncu :,' pur tmcnt

"lfl T'lrot Division Ordnnnce Dopartln~nt (oth~rs corrospond)

;;1(1 Itn.bc.shi PowdlJr Factory

ilk .... il ~~okyo Lnborn tory

1,1 jf i'\

.,_. J..l'my Ln:31n~ ",ring :?chool

'lh" following hav., b c..n found on projuctilvs, but thd plc.cJ they a bnnd for Ln not known,

o "ao" DA'l'I: OF FILLING.

---

® ilyc"

..

Arabic numerals ar o "mploy,_d. cmoororls ru1gn) 1s plncod'first.

'1'11._ y"ar (;yunr of pr ... .::: ... nt

Siz~ a.bout ~;;- dican.0tor of projvct11o.

E~a.mplo :

19th yonr, 6th month 1 • .:;. JunIJ 1944

..

..

.,...__--'Fuz.e c.~--,R.rl b.~d. - ~}o.sive +iUetl

r---=;:J..-- BJae~

, +:--+--Weiqh~ disc.nepanett (wha.)

t====1-__:__YQIJow hiU1cl(Hl.t'l~.- s~) -Fill~nq +~etoY1f ~~ hvonch ~c.Q dDPO J(wnit"eJ

'''---AUil'\~ dAh2 (Odobev: 1943)(wh~)

Uti

.....--+----J'=;Jhnq dD~e,(~~.J9!f-3) 11.1. a--i...-----Pvt,petf.f.n~ lot A.

(f) ; F;lIit19 fQctor~ (Tok~o bwv.cK ~d#o!j

NATURE OF HE

·c

Shell normally filled TNT have no mnrking to ind1c~te th1s, but if alternative fillings are used the shell 1s markod accordingly~ This m~rklng is just forward of the drIvIng band 1800 from the main sorios of markings.

e.g. ., f -; "Hoi ne t" filled Trinitropilenetolo

I~ It II Anga!l filled Anunonlum nitro. to/RDX 80/20 Shell with 0.1 tGrna tivo fillings (other than TNT) ar-e IIOrked:

IIHeinol" (Trinitrophenotolo)

"Anga" (RDX/Al'l'.mon Ni tra to; 20/80)

OTHER tlARKINGS ON PROJECTILES ARE AS FOLLO·~:

Wei~ht Discrepancy

G'

5mbol-
Errors from l.5~ to 2.5% -
-
0.5% to 1.5%
- 0.5% to -:t- 0.5% .ct:
+ 0.5% to + 1.5% +
+ 1.5% to+ 2'.5% +
-r I

Thoso symbols .::.ro eithor white or black tho bnck~rQund color, nnd are located ~ the on tho cylindrical p~rt of the proj~tl1Q • . ~~ tho diameter of the projectile.

in color dopending on distance from tho o~lve, The symbol is about

PROJ:2CTILES OTHER TI'.AN HE - SYM30r.S

(

Smoko Jr (Ko) T:lrgot Indicntor t
Incendinry -r (Yo. ) S i<;no.l 7
Illumino. t ing (S tar) 7 (a) Sand filled {mol (:!a.)

~ (Su)

This symb 01 is .:\djacElnt to and to, the right of the weight discr0p::tncy mctrking. Size is about :;" the dlo.m;:,tor of the projectilo.

Olive Groen

Rad

Toxic (D.C.) Stornutator

ARMY SMOKE GENERATORS

BaSic Body Color Ol1ve Green

One Band

White

!IE!

Hexachlorethane c.r OT

White Smoke . ._J '"

Toxic (O.A.P.) Lachrymo. tor

Some other types of smoke candle are known, but those have no distinguishing color tnark1ng~.

Blue Grey

Groen

ARMY CHEMICAL SHELL

Two types are known.

{a) Sternuta!Lqry shell filled D.C ..

Basic body color .. blue Grey _)

Red band 11 t noae - indica tea oxploder fitted. \

Blue band immediately aft of red band - indicates chemical

shell.

Yellow band immediately aft of front band - indicates an HE bursting oh~rge.

Rad band aft of oentre of gravity .. indicates type - a ternu ta tor.

71hi te band forward of driving band .. thought to indicate

steel type. •

(b) Vesicant Shell (mustard g&l.S .. Lewisite 50/50) Basic body color .. blue~r()y

Red Band at nose .. as for {a}

Blue band aft of red band .. as for (a) No yellow band aft of front band.

YelloW' band art· 'of centre of gravi ty- .. (where red band 1s on (a») .. indicates ty-~e .. Vesicant

Wh1 te band forward of dr1 v1ng band- as for (a).

The usual marks denoting dnte and place of filling, etc., appear on theae shell.

ARMY AIRCRAFT BOf.:BS

Most recovered HE bombs have markings similar to those on

Gun Ammunition, as tollows:-

Basic body color - black. Red band at nose.

Yellow and wh1 te bands round body"

Tho yellow band is forward of tho centre ot gravity and the wh1te band 1s at the centro of e;rOovity.

Bombs have boen rocovered on which the white bo.n1 has beon

omi t ted ani it; is though t tho. t bombs 0.1'0 nO'N b 0 ing marked with a. J -

simplIf1ed marking system. The data o.nd place of fil11ng and tho

weight classifioation (Kp:s) aro prosont. Weight discrepancy markings

are round only on 259 ana 500 Kg HE bombs and Type 100 chemical

bombs. The significanco of the a~mbola is not known tor bombs.

SPECIAL ARMY BOMBS

~~ Cluater Bomb (Hollow Charge) Black body with centre yellow band • . C !L&_!SB. Cluster Bomb

Black body with centre yellow band and red band round nose.

Chemical

Grey with red tipped nose and yellow and white banda (single width) Double width coloured band appears aft of suspension lug.

According to documents the color determines the type of gas.

Yellow

Blister gas (only type recovered)

(50 Kg tilled mustard/Lewlsite 50/50) Tear gas

Vomiting gas _

Choking gas

Blood and nerve poisons.

Green Red Blue Brown

(', Smoko F .S •

G!'ey with red nose marked If "Ke" Incendiary

- .----

Grey wIth red nose and one white band rnark€ld -t "Ya".

NAVY - GUN AMMUNITION

The color scheme employ,?d by the navy indica.tes the type of projectilo by overa.ll 'body co l.or ,

1~roon M Common (includes high capacIty. nose-fuzed projectiles and solId nose. base-fuzad projectiles)

- A .P.

Illuminating (reported)

- Illuminating (recovored in 14 cm. Ammunition) ~ Practico (inert loaded)

White Blue Rod Black

Bands

Color Bands are used to giva additional Information. Green ut nose - HE filled.

Rod tip on nose - Bo.se-ft..zed

Band at mid body - Centre of Gravity (red on A.P. prOjectiles yellow on common projectiles, etc.) width - 50 rom. for projectilos of 200 Mm. gun or larger.

20 mm, for 155 mm. gun

Sorvico proje cUles converted (lnerted) for practice use nave a yoll~N band at nosa.

Naval. land-usc HE rockots used by the Japanese Marines have the usual HE color markings.

JapanOSG navy bombs are d:!.vidod into land usa (rlkuyo), ordinary (tsu,yo), special (tolrushll), smoke, and practise.

Land bombs are a gendrnl purpose type, but ordinary bombs

do not 1'it any stllnd~rd "Allied" term~ Their smooth cases elva superior pfJnetra ting qual Hies to land bombs, but Ln some instancos aro not thickor.

Special bombs are for spc:l'oial1sod uses, !lnd are designa.tod by mark numbers) each number corrosponding to a particular use.

Tho na..vy tomb colour scheme was changad in 1943 or 1944.

. .

Th~ basic body ·color of sorvico bombs has been and is blue~grey.

Tho old color patt~rn consisted of painting the key color a.s a broad band on the nose and taH struts,.. The colors on the nose

and struts might be, and usually were, the same. A band slightly

aft of the suspension lug m1e:,ht be an additional key. Thin rod

.stripes 1800 apart and running from nose to apex 'Of tail cone appeared on all sarvico 'Oombst·

In the new scheme all bomba oontaining explosive have the nose tipped in green~ A. key colour appears as n band immed1atoly

behind the green t1p~ On some spocia.l bombs anothor key color

is uacd on the tail struts1 but on the major1ty ·of 'bomb types the

struts are the same color aa th.e body. The red stripes and

'body bund ~re dropped.

Examples:

Land Bombs {Hlll

Green nose .. BLUe-grey body.

Green tail struts. Blue band round b odYt

(Sometimes a ween 'bQ,nd on, aome'250 Kg bomba) Twotltin .red. stripos .1800 aps.rt.

GIleen nose~

Brown band lru.medio. tel yai't of neae , B1uo"13r9Y body ~nd tail struts.

~~ ~!.!l.c.2!.~red

[10 kg, 250 Kg and ~OO. Kg

...

Ordinary Bombs (HE) (Strcnmlinod and cylindrical)

..

Old color scheme

Green nose

Bl '.10- groy body Green tail struts Red stripes

New color scheme

As for la.nd bombs.

In the 800 Kg size

a 2" green b~nd is present just aft of the guide stud for the suspension ba.nd.

SIzes recovered

Streamlined:

30, 60, 250 Ke

Cylindrical:

60, 250, 800 Kg

Special Bombs

Only the one s which have been recovere6., or c.re 11k·sly to bo recovered, are I1s ted. Inform9. tien on unrecovered types, 1s baleen from captured documents.

M!L! (Chemical) Land Type Bomb

Mk II (Anti-Submarine) Land Type Bomb

None 'recovered.

Old color sche~

Unknown.

~color scheme Green nose.

Yellow band immediately aft of nose.

BlueMgrey body.

Yellow tail struts.

Q1&_~olor scheme B'lue nose Blue-grey body Blue tail struts Red stripos

New color scheme

Green nOSG.

Blu0 band immediately aft of nose.

Blue-grey body and tail struts.

Sizes rocovered 60, 250Kg

me III

(Air burst Incendiary Shrapnel)

XK V

(A.P.) (Ordlnury tj-pe)

MK VI

-

(Im~~ct-incendlary) (Land type)

\

Old ~olor scheme Silver nose. Blue-:;:rey body. Silve~ tail struts Red stripes.

This is tho markinR for the 30 K~; for the 250 Ke tho tail struts are red.

)

~~r schGmo Groen nose.

SIlver band immediatoly aft of nose.

Blue-grey boay.

Red tail struts.

So;.:;:.i.;;:..z.;;.e.;;:.s..;..r,;:.e..::;c.;;;o~

30 Kg Ordinary type 250 Kg Lan.d type

_)

Ol~ color scheme Unknown

New color scheme

Green nose.

White band immedl~tely aft of nose.

Blue-grey body and tail abr-u t s.,

.s izes r~coverod

800 Kg

Old color scheme

- -~... ~

Red nose. Blue-erey body Rod ta.il struts Red stripes.

!!_s_w_ ~.9..1.;;or;::...._.:;:.s.;;.c;;,;h.;;e_m_o

Green nose.

Re d band iItU110dia tel y aft of nose.

31tie-g~e:.' body

ROQ t::'J.l struts,

S lzes r~cov0red '10 Kg,

r

- 12 -

liK. Vlll

-- ...... ~- ...

(Usc unknown) (Land t~o).

" . 'Old Colour achemo ,

-_ ......... - ........... ---------

New Colour sch~mo.

=;...,;;--_ ..... -...._ .. -

Unknown

Groen noso

Brown band immediately nft of nose

Bluo-gray body c~d ta.ll struts

SIzes recovered.

...------------_

250 Kg

MK. 21

-~ .. --

(Conto.lnor for smo.lloI' 'sbdpodchargo b omba l

Now Colour Scheme.

----- ...... --.

Cld.Colour schome.

-.----------~-~

GJ;'eon nose

Brown b~d immediatoly aft ot nose

Blue-grey body no tail

struts. .

Unlmown

Sizes rocovored.

-- ..... - _ _,,_,...,_,__. ..

60 Kg

Smoke E.f?ill~. (None recoV'orod)

Now Colour Bcheme.

_ ........... ------.-...- __ ---

Old Colour scheme.

... - ....... --~--- ...... ._.... .

Unknown

Green nose

Blo.ck band lmmed1a.toly aft ot noae.

Blue- grey b ody am~ s tru te .

,.

~_£2.!.~_!!~~!.'

Various

1 Kg.Prac tise

Wh1 te rubber noae , black body, "hi te tail

and fins. .

30 Kg. Practise Nose un~)a.lnted

barrel black, tail and struts white, Red longitudinal strip.s

Type .99 - No. 3 Practise

110se green or black, barrel black, tail

and struts white. .

Red lOllgltudinn.1 stripes



New Colour Sohema.

~-- - -

Green nose

Black band immediately art of nose

White body nnd stl"Uts

NOTES ON MARKINGS.

---_ .. _.....- ........

A shrapnol round for the 75 m.m. Type 41 Mountain Gun has the following characteristics :-

Basic body colour - black.

Whi te band immediately forward of driving band.

Red band at nose. .

One HE Shell from a 75 m.m. Type 41 lloWltl1in Gun has been found completely pointvd a bright orange.

The airburst smoke shell fer the 50 m.m. Type 99 Grenade discharger is painted blaok with two white bands, one forward of the driving band and the other aft ot the front band. The usual marlcings lndlentlpg date of filling, smoke, etc., ill'S present.

Converted shrapnel shell for the 'l'ype 41 Mountain Gun haa the following colour markings :-

Basic body colour - black,

Whl te band forward of driving band. Yellow band aft of front band.

Fuze adapter - white.

Red band at nose.

J.

(1) A dummy round for the 75 mam. Type 94 Mount111n Gun bas a black wooden "sholl'" with a white dummy tuze.

Converted Shrapnel is marked with the characteps tor Type 99 modified Shrapnel on the body below the ogive on the opposite aide to the filling marking.

(vi) 75 m.m. Smoke Shell have been recovered with the following

markings : - .

Basic body ~olour - white. Red tip at nose.

The usual loading and smoke symbols o.re present.

Stamped markings on shell and base or c artr1dge case give the date and place of manufacture. On the shell these are above the driving band and are relatively small (i.e., about 3/16" high). Weight diecrepancy markings fer the empty shell body are occasionally stamped on.

(11 )

(111)

(Iv)

( v)

(vii)

(vi!i) A captured dccument lists a series of target indicator projectiles .for the 'l'ype 89 Grenade DiSCharger. They indicate the target by emission or flashes (for nigbt); or coloured smoke (for day).

There are said to be three types :-

(a) Red - emits red - a coloured smoke.

(b) Yellow - emits a yellow-coloured mnoke. (c)- Flash - emits a flash by night.

Mal'kings are the symbol 1::. (mo) in wili te mean1ns .

target indicator. This is enclosed in a '01rOle coloured \ ~

red; yellow or white for a, b, c, respectIvely. ~e ~

basic body colour is presumably black.

·c

- 13 -

S.A.A.

S.A.A.. types are distinguished by Ii coloured band at the junction of tho projectile and the cartridge case.

The following colours bold for all types:

LiG"1t Red - 130.11 (e.[*~ 12.7 rom. aircraft l':.G., 7.7 mm; ;,:.G.,

6.5''l11. Service rifle)

Green - Ball/Tracer (e.[. 12.7 mm., 7.7 mm.)

Black - h..P. (o ; """ 7.7 mm , )

POI' the 12.7 mm , a lrcrn.ft E.:::'., the followln[ additional colors arc encountered:

Groen/Vbi te ·)lh:J.t e

Deep purplebl.:lck

J\.!l. w itb Tracer n.J./lnccndlary (fuzed)

H,E./Incendiary (fu::.o105s)

~trcc rounds, ~ll H.~./I., of Italien orl~in are usod in

the 12.7 nun. Aircraft l~.G. Theso are distin~U:ished by th:: Le t t e r-a

BPD S on the base of the cartridh'e case. The whole of the shell

body, below tl10 fuze and abOV9 tho cartrld,;s ca s e , is painted eithor dull red, blue or green.

For the 7.7rnm. ~.L'J. the fo1loVlin: additional colours are encountered ~-

B~i~~t red - Incendiary. Deop purple - 'Incendiary.

NAVY

S .1 •• A. typc:s ar-c d l s t t ngu i.sh ed by a coloured. annulus ar ound tne pe reus s ion cap.

The 1'011 owl ng c.o l our's hold for all types:

Jlack Ball )

R9d /) e.g,

tScarlet) - 3all Tracer)

".Vlli teA. P • )

aircraft K.G.

For t~,a 7.7 mm , r=.G. the followin: additional colours are onc ount er-ed ,

Green - Incendiary (~.r. type) !lull Rod - r:E/I

- 14 -

NA VAL 20 •. m. A1r1}mNITION FOR AIRCRAFT CANNON

Those €l.re .uaed in the type 99 aircraft earmen , There are

two sizos ot cartr1d~e case, deslrnuted };iark3 I and II, the ',J: II bein~ dist1n~ulshed by its rrenter len~th.

;" consf.dernb l.e number of different types of shell have been

recovorod, The shell are painted with an overall solld body color,

and ono , two, or three 5 mm , wide white bands or one 10 nun. wido white band, denotin,'=" modifications.

, ..

•• Lao , s oms of tbese rounj,a 'l.r.J of Swiss 0~rllJ:on Hanuf:lcture.

The s o ar-e distin~u1shed 'o~ an n Oe" on the ba ao or tho c3.rtrldgo ca s o ,

---- ...• -~~-----

----------~--------------------

Colf)r 0 f Suo 11

-_. - - - -- -.------------.~-+-------.- ,,_--

1. (a)

H~ mod 2

Japanese

.----.--

Rust or d3.rk brown Two whi to bands

HE

.--. :._ .. _',-- -- --- -~.-~_--~--. ------------~

Blue

Japanese

---- .-~-------------------------~~----------------- --------

-- - ---~--~-...,..-----"_t_------- .. -.------------

Jl=:::!Tra.cer l:od 1

Hod 2 Uod3

i:od <'.1:

Swiss

Japanese

Yellow or Da r-k Brown

Red

One whito ba.nd

two whi te bands threa white bnnda one w1da rrhito b and

5.

~--- ... ----~--------- f- - -- -----------.- .. ----

Red

HE/T/ Ja.panese

Self

dostroyln~

UZ;!T/SD

: . ~

SwiSS

--_._ ------_.---_...:------ - .-~- ------ .. -.-----~

Slack

--------------------~-~----------~--.---------------~.----~ __ ._------

7.

(n ) ('0 ) ( c)

H::/lncend Hod 1

l~od 2

l.:od 4

Japllnese

Greenish yellow or yellow One white band.

Two white bands

one . wid3 ',lhl te band



8.

---- .. ----~-----.-----+. - --_------ ---.~.-.----

AP/lnocnd

Japanese

'Nh! te

--- -.-.------------ -- f-- - ---~ - ----

9. Tracer (i'uzeless)

[a ) nod 2

(b) mod 3

J'J.pa.nese

10.

~~--------------------------------+------------------------~ --- ---

Tra.cer Swiss

(fuze1ess)

Rod

Two white bands Three Vl:1! t e bands

Green

11.

~------------------------------~------------------

Black

Practise Japanese

(fuzcless)

or Ba.ll

-----------_ .. _--+------------ ----_.--

hll.::: II size: - H3:; HE/T j

r.le I sizo:- H3i ::'::;/'1'; -H~:/T/SDi HE/r; .AP/r; Tracer; Practise

lIE/I; and APi! (no KIt II eize are Swiss made. )

NAV'~L 25 m:. _l:t.C]1l!LGU~ (P0E::~.Q[t_!!~l~'!'lmr The shell are. painted wi tb a solid body color and rna:, or may not have a. :39 rom. wide O':,en band a t the noae ,



Color

------~--. -

Type

I.iAroon

Daroon with green band

G"reen

Orance

Orang~ with gr~en band :nood red

Blood rod VIi th sroen band Slacle wi th \'1;11 to tip and i.'.r:li te band. forward of drivin- band.

,------------- ----

R3 (filled TNT or CE)

:3 (filled a Lur-Lrd sed Tl-rr)

(sa for. l'.l:.roon :wlth green band) HE/l (allL'11inlsed Tl1T and a

canister of phosphorus)

EE/T (T~,1' or CE)

n:/T (allur.lin1aed TNT)

HE/T (somotimes 3.D.) as for previous

HJ:/T (aluminised TNT)

AT/T

~. (TiTpe 91)

.!!.:!£.:- 31poo ~n (Typo 97) by ::;round troops and will

pr ocab Ly bo usod in forward positions by infantry as an anti-tank weapon.

Roco~nition:- Lnr~e bottle-nockod, rimless, brass case. ~ro~ccttiG mayor Ina 7,- not be noso fuzedj projectile body a s bl.a ck in colour and may have yello,:" wh1te, ,...roon or red, or combinations of thoso colours in rin~s around its body.

(a) ,:'.!'. Tracor, No fuzo. (b) H.3. Tracor, Nose fuzed.

gQ_~. (TYEe 98)

(a) A.P. Tracer, No fuze

(b) H oS. Tracer, No se fuzed.

20 mn. A.A ./Tl{. A.

- 1G -

TYPICAL J:~p.m3E aotnrre



Typos :-

Used in the model 98 Anti-aircraft, Anti-tank cun. Recornitl~:- Vary aim11ar to tho type 91 and easily mistaken for it. Howe ve r , comparison will ncvoa l that

tho type 98 has a much loncor ca se , It i a a rh1.1ess

typo with a very abrupt bottle no ck , The projectile

\7111 be pain ted b 10. ck "ith re d , white, '3ro o n or

c olib ina tiona of the ae colours in bands ar-ound the b ody Tho projectile mayor may not be :uzed.

Packln~:- These rounds are pa cke d in cylindrical

co.rclooard individual containors ',i:' th oloth toar-off strips.

A .. :? Shot The shot 1s painted d.ull black and haa two

bands 2.5 mm .• \'Iide, one gr3en a nd the other white, sltuutod appr-oxtzna t e Ly l~ rom. in front of tho drivinr- band.

IT ,J!; Shell Tha shell 1s pain ted b La ck and has a a nun" y:ide rod band immedia tely to the rear of the front band. ) .. 2.5 I11r.1. wide yollow band and a 2.5 mm. ,";re~m band are painted around tho body 23 rom. in front of tihe driving band.

PackInG: - These rounds may be packed in cylindrical

cardboard cartons cloned at one end and bavins a wooden cylinder inside the closed end to receive the shell.

" .

. ! I j

gCAlo .n incMs :"+-of-- P",eGtile

6~ine -

_.,_'-- --lnib~loV""

\...-,-J~.-' _ PQf~~ h'-4in

P ... imQY' ca.p . . f=uu boc~_1

___...._I',opel~t

_ ... t1It:t."nt1 ~~

~=-""--- B";rne,

J

"') .

75 MM. Arnmtlnit;on ~irner.bJ 6un MQd_~ 41 H[. ~h411.

t-:-1::,__--r.-'fJ'G' 88 shcwb ~1~ fuze .x---Fuze 6~~U"

I~-- Bouy,.Jo~·

~!Ot---BooS!U- char-q¢

ra---Pn:jacb la -bocLj

;.+..H--_. Hf.. fi lIi"9

~-Cord.~rd. spo.cet' ~sc ---pl"Operbnb

p,.jmq,r

L:B~"'l-·-I9Vl:t'o", paQ_

o I 4 .l ....

Ii:iNij'jjip ~

S('~J~. in i?Ic:. .. ~es.

·~-U1feY fuze bocLt ~.,....__Sb,;b)"

ll..lt)E1_~

Used in _liT guns and infantry neapons ,

l1ecor-nitlon~- Rimmed brass bottle necked ca ao , black

pio~(;ct~l~scre~in primer. PPojectile may have yellow, red, or wh t te bands or combinations and mayor may not be fuzed.

Types :-

(a) A.P. base fuzed. {b) H.3. Nose fuzed.

~lcl11f.:- This ammun Lc Lcn is packed six (6) rounds in an individual box with fuzes in a separate compartment of the same box.

~:-

Gen,eral bombardment

R~o.r::ni t ion r- Short 1 atrai sht I rinu:'.ed brass case with screw-in primer. . Proj ectile-black with rod band around

nose. May have yellml or white band around body.

lIose fuzed.

IillC?!!E_ T;,r_pe s, : -

TIir;h Explosive. l"l-.P. Base fuzed.

Tlnrkln"s:- The proje etHe is painted black. The tip

of the nose is 'painted red an~ there is a white band 9.G nun. in · .... idth 27 D'Un. f'or-w.rr-d of the drlvlnS band.

General bombardment, u.sed in Batta.lion !:Ul).

~cco~nition:- Extremely short, rimraod case. In some

rounds of this type, the base of the case will screw 01'1',

a l.l.owt ng the Lncr-eman t s to be' varied, pro.tectile 1s ~Jl.:lclr

.rit21 red ',)and around the nosa I and may have ai ther whl te

or yellow bands ar.ound the projectile body.

::novm Types:-

Hi~h ]:xplos iva

Une: ..

General bombardment and anti tank

Rcco<;ni tion:- Relati \181 y sbort, rimmed, sU .... htly

bot~.:necked brass ca ae with screwed in primers. ~1~ojecti10 usually black and will usually have a red tip and ye1101'7 or ',vllite 'bands t

(a) (b) (c ).

( d) (e)

II.E. - b La ck in colour.

ll.2. - oran:e in colour. E.E. - b La ck wi th green band

indicatinG cast iron. .. ~ .. t? - b La ck

Shrapnel - 'J1n. ck .•

li,nown T;llles: .. 75 mml.' A.A.

High Explosive

~~ (Mountain Gun - Model 94)

General b ornbardment

Recognit1on:- Similar to mountain gun ammunition

for the Model ~1 gun, but has a lon~er cnso, rimmod with alight bottle-neck. Projectile, 1s· black with usual red nose and white or yellow bands.

.'

~:-

An tl-aircrai't •

RecoBBitlon:- Vary long slightly tapering rimme~ brass case, black projectile with long pointed brass fuze. Projectile has a copper driving band on the forward band. Tho usual red nos€) with white or yellow bands will be present on the projectile bod-YI

Known Types:-

A.A.-base fuzed only

75 mm~o 2 Hollow Charge AlP. Shell

This ammunition oxternally resembles that used with 70 mm. Battalion gun. It 1s dlst~nguished from othor shall of the same calibre by its shorter length.apd its separate screw-in head. This sholl is nose fuzed and is used

as A.P. due to the coned burstine charge.

Markin~s: - Th~ ahel1is painted black and has a 9 rom, wiae red band at the fuze hole and a. 9 Mm. wide yellow band around the body, the lower edge of which is 71 Mm. from the driving band.

75 rom. Regimental Gun, Modal 41 (a) Shrapnel shell:~

Markings:- shell painted black with a white band just forward of tpa driving band.

(b) H.E. Shall:;-

Markings:- sholl painted an or{l-nge colour with no coloured bands. This oranGe colour represonts a radical change in Jap~noso Army colour scheme.

(0) HE shell cast iron:~

Markinzs:- fain ted b Ia ck with a red band around the fuze adapter and a green band around the body at the centre of gravity. The green band is believed to indicate that the shell is of cast iron and the

red band means th.!l.. t the sholl 1s filled.

Incondiary.Sholl for 75 mm. Type 41 mountain gun. Basic body colour ~ bluo~groy

Red band at ncs o ,

Stencilled 1J IlKa" below the filling factory markings J .

n Kall stencilled on the opposi to sida of tho sholl painted.

out. According to a captured document this type of .

shell whiCh is filled white phophorun - carbon dlsulphide,

and r~bber pellets t s usod in t hc type 41 and 94 Mounte:ll?-

Guns, and the type 38 fl~ld ~un. This document also

states the. t "Ka" means Incondiary for this type of Shell.

.n

· .

-f-_._-- .. .. - .. _- Trc\rasi~ pluq ~==~

1lm.Iil!!.----~ ... --- 6v-ub SCNW

"7--...A.-.-~

\'..l------ ~

r--~---- ~rd. WASh ...

. ~--.-__t"J~a---,-~- G~lJb 5GYeW I-----Bo~

~-+------ Rartc}ed.. COnEl

11-+-----.-- S~ ca~~ wrappit'l9

~!l~Smo~e Anununi tion,; (Moun ta in Gun Type 94) l1o.rkin.c;a: - Tho projectile is painted white with D. rcd~~n approximately i inches wido puintcd around

, the fuzo adaptor. '

Po.ckinr.:~'- . Four rounds are packed in a dark green woodon-box, 11 ins x 12 ins x 29 ins; fitted with a tar pupor lining and wooden frames to hold sholls in p:.a.ce,

This ammunition is of tho white phosphorus bursting typo.

75 nun" Gun Type 8.§.

NOTE.:

Thts type of c.nnnunltion is appo.rontly or tho h1cr;h volocity typo dcsienod for use against light to.nks, landing cratt and liko tQ.rgcts~ Tho projootilo 1s lon6cr and hoavlor than the A.,A. sholl and 1s threaded to take 0. nose fuze. It has c. long o~lve, coppor front band and 0. doublo

coppor driving band and 1s streamlined.

Y~rkl~~:- Projoctile body is paintod black. Just

FC1ow'tn.J nose fuze is 0. 12 nnn. wide rcd bc.nd and o.t th~ centre of gravity u 10 mm.wido ycllow band.

lOS m."n,) Ho!Uz.or

General bombardment



!!_cco:;r,nl tl.~;"· Relatively short j 'straight, rimmed, bro.ss ca sc wIth s cr-ow-Ln primerj bluck, flat based projoctUo with nose f'uze~ Tho usual rcdnoso and whito or yollow bands on she 11 '0 ody ~

~own !:YEes~-

105 nrrJ1!~I. Shell

~kinz~:- Tho sholl is ~~lnted black and h~s u 15 Mm •. r-ed band. a t the nose and a 20 rom. yellow band on the body, tho lowor edge boing 100 nun. from the front of the drivinG band.. Those colour m~rkinss indicate nn HE rI1Un:.

High Explosive

Goneral bombardment

li<?...c~I3ll~~l£!!:- Long~ stra1ght, rinuned bro.ss case w1th

smuLl ac row .. in prlmnr, b La ck projoctile with long to.poring ogd.ve aud ls strcumlincd,~ Also haa a. copper dr1ving hoa.d on f01";I,\rd band , tho usual rod tIp with wh1 to or yellow bands n ppo ar- on tho- shell body.

1Q!Lllllllo HE Gun Sho 11

W~rkin~S" :-' ,The b cdy is pc.1nt cd bla.ck with G. 20 nun. wide red

b:3~i1<r"tliC tip of th: n030 n.da.ptor and a. 20 mm. '.71dc 10110;-[ ba.nd

o.round tho b,ody 'lO,mm. above the driv1ne; bend. Thooo r.rc

norme I mc.rk1n~,s tor HE aholl ~

150 rom .. How. TYEe

£££:-

Gc~c~nl bomba.rdment

·c

TYPICAL JAPAN3S=: ROUNDS

NAVY

~ ..

Use:- Artti-uircrnft, double or triple pcm-poms , possibly

quadruplo.

!tccognitioe,:" Rolo.t1voly 1-;1':':0, to.pcrin~, 'bottle-neckod, rh'i!oss, brn.ss ca se , ',ndo driving band , Projoctile xno.y havo 0. paintGd br~ss n030 fUZ0 or ~ blo.ck b~kel1to ahlppln~

plU3 in it :'.n1 mo.y be maroon or oro.n,~:::' in colour. Either

round m~y or mAY n9t hnvQ 0. groon stripe around the nose.

I;:'~o.m Types:-

(a) HE ~,!aroon or li':_lroon with [."roon band. (b) HE Trr.ccr, orarice or or-ange 'Nith ~rocn band ,

!Q._DE!.

~I?: ... ' Anti-nircr8.ft, an tl-to.nk or auti-nmphiblous crCLft.

RccofTn1tlon:- Stral~htf rimmed, bra.ss ca sc with " dc o p

crinp 0. t projo ctllc end a 1:\1':::-0 screw-in primor. Cuo ''.nd

projectile appoa r to be of ab ou.t o qua I length, mny or mo.y not be hose fuzed und its colours will vary.

~ types:-

H~ ~~roon with ~rc~n bo.nd, tim~ fuzod. AP white with .green tip, baao fuzed. Oran130 with tro.cor; purposo unknown. HE Nose fuzod. This round is British 2 Pdr and is us ed 1ntorchctn,"'o1.bly with

Jc.pane se nmnnmd ti on ..

75 mm.

!!E.£: ...

Gcnerc.l and CO.]. S t defonce.

RCCO'~l1ition:- 3trnlf:ht, r immcd , br-a sa ca s o ,

fuze in :ld'\ptor;,

'3ro.ss noso

~m Typo:-

!Is Muroon with cro~n band a. t nose.

Roco~nitlon:- Lonr., strt.lirrht, rimmed br~ss c~so, long

pointQd4 Br~ss nose fuze (army typo 94) with four rines. A plu"'· m:\y be in the nose in pla.ce of the fuze.

ifnown Ttpes;- Anti-a.ircraft only, but it is b o Li.cved

'it ·cC1.n e 'adCLptod to a. D.A. fuZe by the use .of a n a dap tio r ,

- 22 M

140 mm.

Use:- General bombardmont, coastdofonce. In common uso o.b:oQ.rd nnny types of Jo.po.noso Men-ot .. wnr. Also us ed for illumlno.tion of targots at night.

).

RoaoJmit1on:-' This type "is B.L. ammunition. Tho projoctile has ~oubre driving bandl tho after (or lowor) band has

an oxtromoly high lip on It. Projectile colours are

usually mnroon but may varyo The base plug is sealed with"

0. copper r~ng. A yollow band may ~c found around tho body.

Known TypOs -

(a) Cammon capped, maroon with green band

nnd red tip on noso; has an iron cap and is eonerally misto.ken for ~n armour piorcing typa, base fuzed.

Common uncapped, mnroon with groen band and rod tip; has no cap and is base fuzed.

(b)

(c)

Bombardment typa, time or D.A. nose fUzod, mnroon with greon band around noso.

(d) Illuminating, timo fuzed", bright red 1n cct our-,

, .

......._---- Red. bAnd. (ExploSiVQ filled.)

A------- _~- __ . __ JJY'(i,?n ~n~ (~.6. t~PQ 5emJ- stC2t'd;,

\

,

\

\

'F===----====l

+---+----- W~i9ht. d.is(.t"9panc~ (~Jhi~)

i C .9 - --------- AlIinq cLate(S'epe 194-3)

I (white)

rt;'---+--,------ - FdliM fado!'f (Tob,jO B~~ch

\!Y O~~c:e Uc2pot) (White)

\ \

M.QB.TAR AHEUNITION



GENERAL

Japanese mortar ammunition is usually Army ammunition and Army markincs. ·However, certain types of Navy m.'lnufncture is used by the Marines. These rounds are identical .l1th their Army counto~part" OXG9pt for their colour.

Type 01 Grenado:

Us~:- Used by infantry as a hand erenade or in the "Knee Morto.rtt (typo 98 Grenc.do dis char C;c:r) ..

Rd'cof':nl tion:- Black cyllndricnl body wi th deeply-scored squares. A brass fuzo projects from one and and a somewhat larger stool propellant container from the other. This container hus a cap on the bottom and six flash ports on its sides.

MarklnfliS:_- Black wi th red rin;- on top e ovor-, :r;.I1own types:- High explosive

Modol 89 Grenade Shell:

Used in the type 89 Grenado discharger.

Rcco;,:nition:- Cylindrical body with one roundod end which curries a brass fuze. The opposito cnd 1s flnt and h~s a coppor drivin~ band; in the base elent gas ports and a contra 1 initiating cap. Body is black or maroon, w1th

the usual whi to or yellow bands.,

(u) HE Ar.my, blaok (b). HE Navy, maroon

(c) Smoke; air burst, time fqz~d, black •

. SpiGot T:;£P6 Mortar Ammunition

~:-

Used in type 98 Grenade discharges

Reco0'nition:- A squar~ block-shaped charge on a wooden handle or spisot.

Known Typos:-

(a) Demolition (HE) (b) Smoke

Bangalore T1££

~:-

Used in tho grenade dischargor type ge.

Re c op:n i ti on: -

A lonr, thin tube having fins on its after end.

70 nun. Barra\e Shell

Usod in 70 nun. Mortar

rre.co:;nt~i.91:!:- . Cylindrlco.l in shapo , has 0. wooden plug in ono end and has ~as vonts in its buso.

Marlrin ''is:-

Black in colour, rod b a nd around top,

- 24 ~

NOTE:

T~is projectile is extremely dangerous to handlo or disnnsemblc~ It ejocts seven (7) steel tubes 3t inches in len,::;th and 11/16 inch' in dlnmetor filled w1th a

very sensitive explosivo. Attached to each tuba

by a six (6) foot cord is a 15~inch d1nmeter papor

par'uchute. Tho tube is exploded by jerk1ng on tho

cord. Under no clrc~tance3 should unexploded tubos bo handlod by untr~lncd personnel.

81 mnte Mort~

v •

~:- Infantry support and attach against dug-in or

concontratod troops.

~oco@it:£!l:- Toar.drop shape with fins on tho tapored ond ,

A Pl'opclIant chargo ro llombl1ng a l2~go.uge shot -gun sholl 1s scrowed into tho ba ao , and add! tional propellant may be proGont botwoon the fine of the tail section in bluo oval cloth pa cko t s e

MI;rkln.8..~: - 90 nun~ Mo~~ ~~.. Infantry support and atta.ck agJ,inst dus-ln a.nd concoaled troOpst

Body :1.s black with a white and 0. yellow bo.nd.

, ,

!l0.~~";r'.i ti£!! ~ - Long t oar-drop ehape with fins on tho tnporcd on~~ A propella.nt chargo rosembling a l2-gungo shot-tj'tll1. :oho11 is scrowed into tho basil ,and o.dditional

propollant may be found botwoon the fins in small Dvul packe t s ,

~,ro.rldn""s;- Blaclc body with yellow and rod 'bands. Mly

ha"Vo--a'roq or rod and blue band ar-ound tho nose ,

(a) High Explosivo (b) Incendic.ry

90 mm. HE Mortar Bombs

Tho two types of bomb a for tho' purposos of compar-Ls on arc dosienntadlong cnd short typos, Thoso bombs are packed in po.1.:;:'3 in boxes plugged"

Short type - "hrkings.

Tho motal parts of the bomb are Chemically blnckoned, 0. rod band 8 to 10 mmt wide is at the nose on the adaptor nnd D. Green band 15 rom. wide immodia.toly 1n front of the gn.i.do br.:~d."

Lone typo .. MarkinGs.

Tho mo tn.L pa..rts of tho bomb arc paLrrt od with a glossy b l.a ck onamo L, Paintod at the nose on tho adaptor is 0. rod band 10 m'ill wide and immodiatoly in front of tho guidCJ band .:1.s

0, ,yellow band 10 mm , wide.

~:rrn:n ••. T:{'p~o_ 9.4_ .Mort!:!" ~.ncondinry Bomb

This bomb is similar lp appearance to the 82 mm. mortar bombs. Harkinc;s;- ,..., Four coloured bands are paintod around the "C"Ir'Ci.:"unfor,en co a. s f 011 ows :-

Red band just below fuze.

Blue band between fuze a.nd front band,

Yellow band half way botween front band and tail .. ,a.ss6l'llbl;?,. 'f'lhite band at the junction of. body a.nd tail i'1n assembly.

J¥Mes6 90 MM. Incend.i.nt Morr~r Bomb. T'fF! 94 .

Hlze et.n<L q~i"e c.onia;nor . Bursl:e.r tube.

7-- Fuze holdJz,.

. 0

GRENADES

S ticl{ Granados

This gronado is similar to tho GOI'JIBn. "Potato .. Masher" , consi5tin~ at a steel case fixed on a wQod9n handlo, with an ovorall longth of ?~ inches. Under a screw cap on the ond of tho handlo is a pull string to~ tho friction igniter.

fyPo 97 Gronado

Thh missile can be recognized by tho serrated cylindr1CAl body'with a fuze protruding from the ond , Including the fuze, its length is four (4) inches. This fuze is actuatod aa f 011 owa :

1. Turrt down tho oxposed screw in the hoad of tho fuzoe

2. Remove tho U-shaped. safety pin.

3D Strike tho fuzo 'on a hard surface.

Tho delay t1me 1s 4 to 5 soconds,

Whon the granada is found w1th a rocossod throadod baso (or with a propellant chargo screwod 1nto th1s recoss), it is oalled n TYl20 91 Mortar GrcHXl.de, and has a dolo.y time of' 71 ae conda ,

Improved Japanese Hand Granado

This gronade d1ff'ors in outward appearnnco from·those proviously oncounterod.

Tho two main improvoments noted nre: ..

(0.) (b)

New typo striker whi ch 0 limina to e s crowlne: down beforo strIking.

Tho flash deflector to reduco burns to tho throwor and ?bservation by opposing forcos at n~8bt.

Mtlrkings :-

Black in oolour with brass fUzo.

~ll Tva. Gl'Orul.do

This typo grenado has horizontal grooves running around tho cylindrical body, and two rings on. oo.ch end of the boiy. On ono cnd is fitted the fuze, covored by a throaded load cap whi~ 1s roloaaod by a thumb levor; undernoath this cap 1s tho pull string for tho friction l€7litor.

Offonsive Greno.do

A Rmooth-sided cylindrioal grenade, this missile hns tho samo . typo fuZe as tho Typo 97 hand grenade. It is small be oomparison, boing only 3i inches long.

Genoral Proocl:tions

Do not·dalay in throwln~ these grenades after the delay train is ignited, because the 'times of burning are not always reliable. To render'grenades safe, rc-insert the surety pin or a pieco of wirej 01', in the case of the .pull string types of fu2:Gs, remove tho lend cap and immerso the er~ono.dea in wator.

Hollow Charge Riflo Grenades:

I

This 1s a 1/3 Kg. missilo currying n conc-shaped charge

and fitted with a base fuze. The entire assombly is 7 inch long. An adaptor or dlschnrger as wall o.s a. special cartridge is necossary to firo this granade tram a rifle. If this grenado fails to function on impact} 1t mny be found'in an oxtrema sensitive oondition and shOUld not be handled.

Typo 9~ Grenade Used as a Rifle Grenado:

A Typo 91 Mortar Granade with a fin assembly screwed in tho baso and used with tho adaptor and special cartridgo 1s 0. common typo of rifle grenada.

SMALL ARm AMMUNITION

Rec0Gnition:- Rimless brass bottlo-neckod caso. Coppor jacketed bullet oi ther ba Ll; or A.P. Typo painted on primGr as follows:- Red-tracor, White - A.P. Bolieved to be of Naval dcs~Bn.

.256 pr .25 Calibre servico round

~:-

Standard infantry rifle and light machino guns.

Rocop;ni Hon :-

Long nar r ow bulle t , bottlo-necked ca so ,

Packin~:- May be encountered in rifle clips or in curved box typo machine-gun maglzinas •

• 25~lning round

Usa:·

-

Training

Recognition: Caso similar to tho-.256 service ammunition, but bullet has a vary blunt nose projecting only a small distance forward from tho crimp.

NOTE:

Sometimes mistakcm for n 11 dum-durn", but the propellent charge is extromely small.

?~7 nun!.

(Rou~hly corresponds to US .30 calibre or'British .303 ammunition) "se:.. Typo'99 Infantry Ririo and Typo' 92 "JUKI" haavy

ma'Chine guns.

Recosnltion:- Rimless brass bottle-necked case; either cupro-nickelor copper jacketod bullet. No mnrk1ngs'on baso; either a rod band around crimp indicating ball, or a black band around crimp indicating A.P.

Packing:- :May be found in clips for riflos or in brass s~rrps for machine guns, Tho latter hold thirty rounds.

13 mm.

(Corresponds to and rosombles U.S •• 50 Calibro Ammunition)

Uso~ ..

-

Anti-aircraft or anti-tank machine guns.



.,..--:---:--_..-----FUZ4 GOV",.,. .- StV';~u pi., m..w----- .. -SJ.o~~ pi., . ~~--,----Ar-min~ sptira1 ~~~----~CUS6;on Gdp : . J=I~~ koks----c=~~

. (]as EOC6PGfFiJled. ·Alb.¥. ~' Wtt:l\

HnFodj ~.~

~----Fuze bo~

l=aJit1q. plvq -c..~d. wasl,e.,. .is!~~~~_ D~ay COtr1POGi~jo.,

i)'l a.el~ wb"

Gunpowcbr- pcllot-

Bod.~

.I

I

,



~+e~ pin Gr.b2f spvi"')

kbd. ~2.id.<2 __ . - _-' - :.\~, '~~" Pr-imev-

(tar'o"i~ .' .:": . ~WiN

,- i=uz.e

S I 0 ~ -, --. - ~.. J • I.

CCt.Je ~: =t . J. ...... i ."c.ru2S

..,.

,

fYjc~iorJ ;9tliby-~ - ·-----·-",JUtfiV

.~.-. - - Delo.~ t~Ait1 '~I----.-- M~in ~l"~e

- . BodJI

- 27 -

.50 Calibre HE Ammunition

This ammunition is Army type and 1s marked wi th painted bands around tho caso crimp dlfforontly from Navy ammunition which is markod with colours on the cnp annulus •

..

Tho A.P, tracors havo a whito nnd groon band with the band nearer tho nose.

Tho HE rounds have a plain white band and the HEir typos nave n black and whito bandJ the black band being forward.

AIRCRAFT AMMUNITION

7.7mm. NuVX Type

(Resemblos U,S •• 30 C~l~ er 4303 British excopt for rim)

Use: ..

Naval aircraft machine guns.

Rccognition:- Rimmod brass·bottlo-necked case with cupre-nickel jacketed bullet. Type indicatod by colour

on. cap annulus. White .. A.P.; Red - tracer; Groon - incendiary.

1..7 mm9 Army Ty.E.S.

(Rosombles U.S •• 30 Calor British .303 ammunltlon)

..

Army nlr cro.ft Tin chlne guns.

RocoF.nition:~ Rimless bottle-nocked crass case, aither

c oppe r or cupr-o-rit ckc L: jacketed bullet. MUl'kod around crimp to indicate typo.,. e.g" Blnck ~ A.P.; Red or Purple .. incondiary

.NOTE:

The incendiary typo will ignite if tho nose of tho bullet is crushed or broken.

Packin",::~

Gener~lly found in drum type maf,azines.

12 .. 7 nun"

Hoo.vy nircruft .n.l..qhine guns 1 Army type c

Rocop,nit1on:- Semi-rimless brass bDttle-necked caso, bUllet mny or mny not be noso fuzed. Tho fuzod types are R.E. incondiary w1th noso fuzes. Tho following ar-c known and u sua Ll.y found loaded in a disintce:ratin~ typo link b o Lt ,

(u) Bnll tracer - has green band around crimp. (b) A.P. tracer - has green and wh Lt o band around crimp.

( c ~

H.E. incendiary M noso fuzed, mado of bruss'in ,two pa r t s and 0. whi to band ar-ound tho crimp.

H.E. incendiary - very easily mistnkon for ball

• or A.P. typqs. If:1.S no fuze and 1s ac eun t e d by direct Impn ct , hny b e r-c c ogn Lacd by its blunt (sDlid) nose. CloSG examination will revoal a sto.ked joint forward of tho crimp, o.nd 0. black band around the crimp itsolf.

(0) H.~. incondiary (Italian ori~on) - body blue, nose fuzed~

( d)

(f) H.E. (Italian orip.:on) - body red, noso fuz cd ,

12.7 rom. (,50 in) Ale Ammunition

Mnrkin~s:- HEll Fuzed'. white band at junctlonof projoctile and case.

HEll Fuzalesa • black band at junction of projeotilo and caso.

0.' AP/T - white and green 'band at junction of projeotilo and case.

..

Japanese 20 Mm. A.P. Incendiary

The project1le 1s painted white and has a soft copper noaa

oap .016 ins in thickness extending 7/16 ins. back fram tho point of the nose. Tho drivin3 band is similar in construction t? tho HE and incendiary 20 Mm. Aircraft projootiles.

~. Ammunition

Markinss;- The projectilo body is painted black w1 th a yollow band 4,5 Mm. in width around the contro of tho body and a rod band 3.0 mm. in w1dth just below the front 'band.

~. Tl£Eo 99

Usa: ..

-.

In the wing cannon of Japa.nese planes.

Rocor-nition:- Short rimless brass caso which,appears

very short in comparison with the projoctilo body. .1I.n.y or may not be nosod fuzed, depending on typo.

Pnckin%:- AUy be found in largo cases in dumps near airstrips or r.evetments, or 1n drum typo mage:zinos in planes.

(0.) (b) (c) Cd) (0) ( f)

( g) (h) ( i)

Sol~~ brown colour, noso fuzed; th1s typo is HE

loaded.

Solid red, nose fuzod: HE. tracer.

Red with white band; HE tra.corj solf.dastroying. Solid black, nose fuzod; HE tracer, self-dostroying. Greenish-yellow, noso fuzed; HE incendiary.

Greenish yellow with white band, nos a razed;

HE incend1ary.

Solid black; ball with short tracer.

Solid red, no fuzo;ball with long tracer, ~olld whito, no fuzoJ A.P. incondiary.

NOTE: Fuzod projoctiles of this type that havo been firod' will be in a very sensitive condition.

The incendiary and HE tracer self.dostr6ying types aro espocially h~zardous to tamper with.

2q rom. High Velocity, Type 97

Use:-

-.

In a free gun in bombers

Recognitipq:- Large brass bottle-necked rtmless case, tmy or may not be nose fuzed; projectile body will be black in colour and may have white, red, yellOW, green or combina.tions of these colours ~round its body.

Types:-

A.P. tracer, no fuze, sharp pointed. RtE. tra.cer, nose fuzed.

NOTE:

Fuzed rounds of this type that have been fired may be .in an extremely senat tiv-e condi tiona

·1

~~/~.~/)

. , . _.

H.E.lncend.iar~. Proj~ta\e (~uzgJCl.z2)

Bo~

.H.E.filliv.q . . HoUow (.!JP

.. S6e1 sluve

IHc.eIld.k\V'lI-·~--+':~ compo$ibOl1

5te4I~·· ._-_

/

CHEMICAL ":IARFARE "NEAPONS

SMOKE G3NERATORS

Screenin!~ Smoke Gandl es and FI 00. ts

Type 94 Small Smoke Co.ndle: Grey or dark green to dark brown body, with !l white band or label. ~ength - 6.9 inches.

Diameter - 2,2 inches. .

TYE? 94 Floatin~ Smoke Candle: Grey body with white label

or brown body wi th whi to ba.nd. 31.2 inche s Long , 3.1 inches in diameter, and equipped with inflated belt to keep it afloat. It is believed thut larGer models of Type 94 candlo both for land and s<;:c: use exist I varying in weight from 20 lb. to

44 lb. .

~, Smoko Candle: Varnished tin plate body, with labels on top Qnd si~ Length, 8.3 inches; diameter, 2.1 inches. A removablo cap on the top covers the match-head fuze.

Smoke Fl~: A welded drum,14 inches high and 12 inches in diamoter, with percussion fuze in a fitting on the top. Protruding from the top of the float are a ~ons disch~rge . ~ube.and a shorter filling pipe. A rubber buoy is attachod •

..

.

1 KB, Smoke Generator: This generator 1s cyl~ndrica1 in shape and painted ex-borno:ITy with clear lacquer.

Self-pr£lecting'smoke candles (~creep.inl3)

E~petimental self-Erojectlns smoke candles:' UnpaIntod Grey body, with bhe markin~ on top. Length, a.~ inches, diameter 2,,1 Lriche s , Stool spike strapped to the body.

..

Dimensions sarnO as ove. A longitudinal distinguishing markln~s.

La.chrirnatory an£.._!..£~~c Smoke Candles

Type 89 Lacnrimatory Candle: ~ tear-gas type of candle. Grey b ody with a green band, 7.2 inches in length, 2.2 ins in diameter.

TypD 98 Small_Stornute.1e£Y Smoke- Candla: Same dimonsions as tho Type 89 Luchrimatory Candlo, Gut·with.a rod band around tho.body, The filling cnusos coughln0, gaggin~, and irritation of the nose and throut.

I

Type 9 7 Hc_c'!.i_~_~ to rnutn. tory Smoke bnndle s : Brown body, rod band, 9.8 inchos in len~th, 4.4 inches in dl~meter.

Typo. 99 ~lediurn Sternutatory"Smoke Candle: Same us

Typo 91 Stornutatory cand1o, excopt tEat it Is an inch shorter and has a short spike hinged to the body_

Typo' 98 S ol!':.l2!o [e c t Lnr; sternutator~ Smoke C2ndlo: Brown bodYI red bnnd;-7;s-rnches in ~ongt , 2 inches In diametor,

with a steel ap i ke strapped to the body. T~lPOS 99 and 100.

closely resembles this model in appearance and v2ry only slightly in weight and length.

~...;;;c..~l~P.:.r..;:e:..;;c.;;;;:l..;;;;u;..=t.;.i.:.o::.n.:.s

A rod band appears to indicate that the smoko is toxic,

,::.1 thou3h o.ny of the se candles will caUSQ suffoC.:l Hon 1f bur-nod in 0. oonfinod space.

Only the Type 94, Floating Candia and tho Smoke Float have mechanioo.l fuzes, which can be rendered snfo by insortion of the safety pin, or a suitable wire. The othor candles are all

isnl tad by strlkln~ a ma t ca-heud with a scratch-block. The simplost wa.y to get rid of this typaof smoke generator 1s to immorso it'in water and leave it thero. It the candle 1s to

bo ignitod, hold the match-head away 'from the body. ' Attar striking tho mo.tch·hend rotiro about fIfty t50} foet, as thero is do.ngor of oxplosion.

CHEMICAL GRENADES

Smoke Gren~

Rifle Smoke 'Grenade: A projeotile SE- inches long with a finnod tall. Special firing ca.rtridgo in the ta.il under a pull-out plug. Usos regular rifle adaptor.

50 rom. Grenade DischarfarSrnokc Granade: A oylindrical projectile 5.9 inches ong and 2 inches 1n d1am~ter.

In extornal appearanCeS it 1s an exact replica of the

50 rom. Incendiary Grenade. A typical propollant container and cap is fixed in the baso. Packed in a cylindrical steel container.

50 mm. Smoke Grenado: This grenado haa a nose fuze and propellant unit simIlar to the Japanese typo 91 HE grenade and can be pr,o-jected from a dischurgor of 50 mm , calibre Such a grenade is also suitable for throwlns by hand as tho fuzo can be initiated by a blow on the fu.!§e hoad

as well 0.13 by shock of discharge from 0. proJootor.

Frangible Smoke Grenade; A spherioo.l glass flask 2.6 ins in diameter, packed in a 'cylindrical tin. Tho smoke is irr~tatlng to skin and lungs.

Incendiary Granados

Frangible Incendiary Grenade: Tho Ja~~nese vorsion of tho Molotov Cooktail, utIlizing a 12-oz beer bottle as tho containor. Tho filler is gasolino, which Is ienited 3nd scattered by tho explosive in the percussion fuze scrowed in the neck of tho bottle. The fuze has a safoty pin.

i_Kg. Incendiary Grenado: A yellow pbopphorus-f111edl smooth-sidod grenade rired by U 'percussion fuzo similar

to the Type 97 hand grenade fuzo. A propellant containor is fixod to the base for use with 50 rom. Type 89 grenade discbarger. Total length, 5.7 inchasj diamoter, 2 inches •

.

Incondiary Stick Gronado: filling in a stick grenade pcraussion nose fuzo which Incendiary Granade.

Yellow phosphorus pellet typo 13.1 .i.ncho e lone, with a

is simllo.r: to that in tho .~ Kg,

..

- 30 -

e

50 mm , Incendiar'y_ Gren'~de: A cylindrical streamlined miss1le fi~W!th a propeIIafit-charge in n metal container sorewed 1n

tho ba ao s Lengt.h , 5.9 inches; d1nmotor, 2 inches. Motal

roil discs nrould tho bu~e of the projectile cover the emission ho Lo s , Tho incendiary mixture is ignited, a.f'ter 0. doray,

by tho fla.sh of tho proJlcl1[l,~t. There is no fuzo in this weapon.

Chomica.l Gron~.

"CIl_~l2Q tachl'lmato:;:>y Greri'1de: A shalt-shapod missilo pac1roil.lnatTilconto.ino!', 5.2 inches in length and 2 ~l inchos in diameter. The grennde is oxplodod by a match-hea.d ignitor which contains 11 four to fivo-soc·ond dala.y.

Hydr~c~~nic.Acld Frnnsible Grenades; Tho acid 1s contalnQd in sphtJrical light groan or l1ghtyollow gluss flaSkS! abo\$

4 inchos in diamoter? Extending round tho flask on ts uppor

half may be found eithor one or two moulded glass rings.

A mcba L cup and. gaskot closo the nock of tho flask. Tho.' acid filling, both us a liquid nnd a gas, 1s dendlr poison, rapid in actl~n) nnd 0.11 th0 mora lethal becauso 1 s

pr o aonco is e cmet Imo a diffi.cult to dotect.

F::JARES AND S IGNf!L ROCKETS

50 nUll. Tii1?£.Jl_£_Q!£11r~9P Dlscharpor Flares

.!!2.£2.S.~!.~ioE.,:,,· :Tho ca s cs of tho·f'lO.ros. at inohes 1n longth,

arclOavy tun-coloured ca r-db oar-d , Tho colour. of.' the bo.nds

indicatus, tho color of the flare I wl1lle tho numbor of' stars . is indlc.c.tarl by tho numbor of bands. .Tho base of tho flarot with tho attachod propellant contain~r, 1$ constructod or yol!ow brn s s with tinfoil covered emission hol.e a in the

propollnnt container. Tho initiating cap is in the caso of

the propellant container. The top surfacos of the caac s

0.1"0 pnintou the characteristic colour of the flares and

save in tho cn ac of the black arid yellow dragon (Flaros),

havo raised symbols characteristic of the different typos glued or.; snnll squares 1'01' white fl~res, triangles for gI'oen flares and. circles for red. flares.

Precauttons;- It should be remo~bered that these miSSiles conta'in b"Oth expl.os lv o and incendiary compositions. Nover s~rilce tho base of tho flares or attompt to dismantlo thom.

81 mm. Mortal'.,8 ig_nnl.LL~

Green tYI1o: A light iron cylindrical projectilo :3 inches-

in diamoter and with eight (8) raised boarln3 surfaces on

the tipper a~ld lower portions of tho case. The top has five

(5) groon c ot cur cd circles on it,. Attachod to the base

is a pr opo Ll.anf con tc Lne r similar to tho 50 rrnn. flaros. Over-all length of tho flni'c is 7.4 Lncho e ,

Par'a chut o Srn'JkJ Cylinder! Idol1t;lcal to 81 mm , greon typo in o.~)pcnronco~c;j"iY~--:-:b ita br-oken ring painted yellow is the idontlficrt t i.on mark on tho top of tho r tar-o,

Nnval Signal Fl~ro!

Japanoso Dynnmite

Mado In individual dark brown sticks wrappod in pnpor. It is plastic and Is capable of being moulded. When hundlod it resembles an oily mass of putty.

Each stick is 1.06 inches 1n diameter nnd 4 ins long. Tlie carton In which tho sticks arc packed measures

8,25 ins in leneth 4.5 ins 1n width and is ~ ins in hoight.

..

A cylindrical cardboard container filled with rod burning flaro mixture and fixed on a woodon hundle, Tho Signal is ignited by twisting and pullins off tho cardboard cap on tho cnd of

tho container. A lubol with both English and Jllpanos;::

writing on it is pasted on the containor.

Simal Rocket, Mark..l:

This projoctile is vory similar to the common vnrioty of commercial fireworks "rocket. Tho brown cardboard rocket cylinder is attached to a stick, to the end of which Is fixod n 6i-inch length of rope. Length of the rockot without tho rope is about 25 inches. A pull-tab in"the b~se of the rocket container covors a longth of fuzo1

which is.lit with n match to fire the rockot, .

50 Mm. Tonth Year Type A Flare

Tho flare consists of a brass case, nose containing the flare filling, caso is closed by a baso plate, into cylindrical propellant attachment.

hemispherical at the The lowor ond at tho which screws a

----000----

--_--, .. - ..

..

\ , I

'" " I ,

" , I , I

" , t I ,

\ ' , I "

\' ; I ,

\\ 1:/

\\,., ... tI,'

~- Match comp. icrl~'"

6Pms

-Explosiw

( r.l) (b) (c) (d) (e) (1') (g) (id

Maroon

\'lhite

Blue GrayGreen

Red

Black (Yellow Black

Common

A.P. Illuminating Shrapnel Target

Smoke tracer nose) - Practice Drill

APPENDIX 1 to SlR"'::COGNITION AND ~O~~liQ_QE_l!!:A~§.~_~~!l_!NI~!'Q~"

_______________ ........ _a .• • - .______ -

Ex'Grae t from U. S. N. M. E. I. U. No.1. II J apane se Expl osi ve Ordnance" Revisod Edition 1 Jan 45.

"Information on larg~ calibre Japanese Navy Ammunition is very incompJeto 'b ec auae of the small amount of runmuni tion that has been

recovered. ~1e colour scheme for this ~ununition is listed below :

Q.y.~£§.l~._Q9.1Q.1l:r_ (indicates type of projectile)

!~~~~'£.I_£~_t~~l::~ .

(a) Band b.t centre of gravity (optional). Yellow - on Maroon or Blue

projectile. ~ed - on whHe :?r,ojeotile. \'lhite - on black projectile.

(b) GrGen band on nose - HE filled,

(0) Red tip on Gl'een Nose - base fuzed - (does not apply'to fixed o.mmuni t,l on •

..

(d) 'l'\'io rewa of White dots on og Lve of practice projectile - time fuzed. (c) Projec tiles cunvertod r oi- prac tice from service types bear original mar-kt.ng s , execp t for nose painted yellow.

(f) Shipping plugs in nose are painted partially Black to prevent confusion wit!:l rusee.,

Markings on Na.val Ammunition will usually be found in four places on th':' projectile body above the driving band, on the base plug, on the

dr'ivlng band, and on the base of the cartridge case. Stencilled on the

body and on i;h(J base' plug will be information about the explosive charge: '1:;:16 dace of manufacture, casting and filling, and possibly the place of' na'lting. On the driving b and will be the date of manufacture

of tiho pr-o j cc tile, the weight empty 1 and arsenal marks. On the base of

tho c~rtridge Case will be the arsenal and inspeotion marks and the

da t o of manurac cunev "

"A211:;Y BOMBS II

U.S.A. M.E.r.U. No.1 Supplement tp "Japanese

Explosive Ordnance ,I 1 May 45.

iJx:;ruct from

In add I ti Q:1 '..,0 tine mar-kf ng s formel'ly observed, Japanese Army bombs are now also marked with the Type number and the nature of the filling, ',fholihor "spaCial'! or not. Tbese markings appear aft of the we1ght r:1al'klngLl. ;r

11 !!A.Y.!_ ~9,I!£:~}YI 'llJ __ A~Wf:~~~!\;l!@'~

A lhvy 1'ype 9'; No. 6 Land Bomb with Army Arsenal markings was found in ar •. Lb.'rny crate in an Army dump , The case was manufac tured by the navy and. pain ted the Na.vy grey wi tih a brown nose band. The

e aa e wa a ~illed at an Army Ar-aeria L 'lith .T.N.T. (an Army filling), and bore the Army reel nose ring indicating I'filled". llie date and place of fil1~.ng wore po.lnted 1n white~ as is customary with Army bomb

IDCl.rkings. flhis is the first known instance of Japanese inter-service

co-ordination in the manufacture of ordnance.n