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Sandeep Parajuli

Dr. Sterling

ENGL 1302

April 14, 2017

Artificial Intelligence and Robots

Stephen Hawking stated, "Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution,

couldn't compete and would be superseded" (Rory). Since, the dawn of the modern computer

science, there have been debates over the issue whether the A. I. will help or destroy humanity.

Some people feel threatened by the idea of the existence of A. I., while others seem optimistic. It

is now the time where the concept of Artificial Intelligence and robots can become a reality any

minute. Even though many critics are against the idea, more people are working to make the

dream of Artificial Intelligence and robots possible. Nobody knows what the future holds, but

giving robots the ability to think like humans, will surely also provide them with the capacity to

change as per the need, which might take an unfortunate turn at any time.

The Idea of Artificial Intelligence started long before the development of computers, but

John McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" in 1956("AITopics"). Norbert Weiner

was one of the first people who theorized that the human behavior was a result of feedback

mechanisms. With these mechanisms, the machines can be able to replicate human behavior.

Later, researchers made a further step when they created the program Logic Theorist. Designed

by Newell and Simon in 1955, the Logic Theorist can be considered the first A. I. program

(1950s: The Beginnings). After the Logic Theorist, hundreds of A. I. program have been

developed which are designed to communicate as a person would. By the time developers
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created the first A. I. program, most industries were already using robots. In fact, robots have

been taking the jobs of people since the start of the mechanical era.

In an article in Wired Magazine, Kevin Kelly, the founding executive editor of Wired

Magazine, wrote It will enliven inert objects, much as electricity did more than a century ago"

(Kelly). He believes that A. I. will be a utility that will revolutionize all the electronics. Many

people are as optimistic about the idea as Kelly is. With A. I.s existence, Everything that we

formerly electrified we will now cognitize (Kelly). There are millions of things that can be

better with Artificial Intelligence. Imagine, the robots working in the fields for farming. In some

sectors where human resources are scarce, robots can fill the void. Problems such as world

hunger might end. The sector that will get the most benefit from A. I. might be the medical field.

Through the help of A. I., humans can make many breakthroughs. A. I. could help humanity find

the cure for diseases that take thousands of lives each year. One day, people might not even die.

A.I. and robots could assist people in exploring outer space and find new planets that are

habitable. Doing so would open new opportunities without taking any risks with human life.

Through the help of A.I., humans could better themselves and gain new advancements in

intelligence and abilities that are not possible today. There are a million reasons to develop A.I,

and there are only a few reasons not to, but those reasons are of such significance that they might

over weight all the reasons for developing it.

People who are losing jobs to A. I. and robots will be the first problem that will strike.

"Thirty-eight percent of jobs in the U.S. are at high risk of being replaced by robots and artificial

intelligence over the next 15 years, according to a new report by PwC" (Petroff). Robots will be

more efficient and cost-effective, which employers prefer. There already have been many debates

going on about this issue. People fear that they will lose jobs, which might be true. Recently,
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different companies have been developing new technologies that make a car able to drive itself.

First of this kind of project was launched by Google. Some believe that soon this technology will

replace drivers for better safety of people, but the people who make their living by driving, might

get unemployed if it happens. However, people losing jobs is probably not the biggest concern.

Bill Gates, Stephen Hawking, and many others, whom people revere as keen intellectual

humans, have been warning about the consequences of developing A. I. Artificial Intelligence

does not possess the limitations of a person. With unlimited storage capacity and learning ability,

humans will be super seceded by A. I. Humans will not be the dominating race anymore. People

have argued that there is mere chance that A.I will be as intelligent as people, but people will

keep developing it until that time. No one can tell if A. I. will try to dominate humans or help

them achieving incredible accomplishments. There is a chance for both. The weight of the

negative seems extensively more than the good that could come from it. The movie "2000: The

Odyssey" has always made the viewers concerned about the A. I. Directed by Stanly Kubrick,

the film explicitly shows how an A. I. can act to complete its accomplishments and to defend its

existence. There is a good probability that the depictions of A.I in the movie could become a

reality in some similar way.

A.I. and humans can both exist in harmony only if the developers give intelligence to A. I.,

but with limitations. The benefits that humans can gain by the help of A. I. are unimaginable.

Humans can better themselves in intelligence. They can use A.I to accomplish grandeurs that are

not possible with the tools in hand. But, if people create A. I. without limitations, there is always

a risk for humanity. Like any human, A.I wouldn't like to be dominated by the people. It would

want to be the controller rather than being controlled, so there is a significant chance of conflict.
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To make peace and advancements simultaneously, people should develop A. I. with restrictions

to its full abilities.

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Works Cited

1950s: The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research. World-Information.Org,

World-Information.org, world-

information.org/wio/infostructure/100437611663/100438659360. Accessed 16 Apr. 2017.

AITopics. A Brief History of AI, AITopics.org, aitopics.org/misc/brief-history. Accessed 17

Apr. 2017.

Alanna Petroff. U.S. Workers Face Higher Risk of Being Replaced by Robots. Here's Why.

CNNMoney, Cable News Network, 24 Mar. 2017,

money.cnn.com/2017/03/24/technology/robots-jobs-us-workers-uk/. Accessed 9 Apr.


Cellan-Jones, Rory. Stephen Hawking Warns Artificial Intelligence Could End Mankind. BBC

News, BBC, 2 Dec. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/technology-30290540. Accessed 9 Apr.