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Immune System (43.3-43.

4): Key Terms

Humoral Immune Response: the activation of B cells, which secrete antibodies that circulate
in the blood and lymph
Cell-Mediated Immune Response: activation of cytotoxic T cells, which identify and destroy
the target cells
CD4: a surface protein on helper T cells that helps the T cell and antigen-presenting cell stay
stuck together
CD8: a surface protein on cytotoxic T cells that enhances the interaction between the T cell and
a target cell
Polyclonal Antibodies: products of many different clones of B cells
Monoclonal Antibodies: products of one B cell, grown in culture
Neutralization: one of the ways antigen-antibody bonding can interfere with pathogen
functionality; antibodies bond to the surface of proteins of a virus or bacterium which prevents
the pathogen from infecting the host cell
Opsonization: one of the ways antigen-antibody bonding can interfere with pathogen
functionality; antibodies bound to antigens present a recognizable structure for macrophages
and therefore increases phagocytosis
Membrane Attack Complex: a complex of complement proteins that assemble together to form
a pore across the membrane of the cell; the MAC allows the entrance and exit of various ions
and substances, resulting in the death of the cell
Active Immunity: long-lasting immunity developed as a result of natural infection or
immunization; resulting in B and T memory cells specific for a pathogen
Passive Immunity: short-term immunity conferred by the transfer of antibodies, as occurs in
the transfer of maternal antibodies to a fetus or nursing infant
Immunization (Vaccination):the process of generating a state of immunity by artificial means

Allergens: antigens that cause exaggerated immune responses (allergies)
Degranulation: when mast cells release histamines and other inflammatory agents from
granules (vesicles)
Anaphylactic Shock: an acute allergic response that can occur within seconds of exposure to
an allergen
Autoimmune Disease: a disease that causes the immune system to turn against particular
molecules of the body
Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (Lupus): autoimmune disease in which the immune system
generates antibodies against histones and DNA; causes skin rashes, fever, arthritis, and kidney
Rheumatoid Arthritis: antibody-mediated autoimmune disease; leads to damage and painful
inflammation of the cartilage and bone of joints
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: autoimmune disease in which the autoimmune cytotoxic T-cells
target insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas
Multiple Sclerosis: autoimmune T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system leading to
destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds parts of many neurons
Immunodeficiency: disorder in which an immune system is no longer able to protect against
pathogens effectively
Inborn: results from a genetic or developmental defect in the immune system
Acquired: develops later in life following exposure to chemical or biological agents
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): late stages of HIV infection when there a
specified reduction in the number of T-cells and the appearance of secondary infections
Antigenic Variation: the mechanism by which an infectious agent alters its surface proteins in
order to evade a host immune response
Latency: when a virus in a host is in an inactive state