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# (FINAL REPORT)

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this course is to study about high voltage in power system. In this course
we take a study tour in Energypac, which is a very well known name in the electrical
power generation and distribution equipment market in Bangladesh.

THEORY:
To study about High voltage engineering at first we have to understand …

## 1. What is high voltage and its range?

2. Different types of high voltage?
3. Fields of applications of high voltage?
4. What we learn in High Voltage Engineering?

## 1. What is high voltage and its range?

Ans:
A mobile phone is operated from a 4V battery. It may be destroyed if anyone attempts to
operate it from a 12V car battery. Therefore 12V is quite a high voltage for a mobile
phone.

##  Below 11kV : Low voltage

 11kV – 100kV : HV (high Voltage)
 100kV – 400kV : VHV (Very high voltage)
 400kV and above : EHV ( Extra high voltage)
 UHV : Ultra high voltage

## 2.Different types of high voltage?

Ans:
Different types of high voltages are:

 High DC voltages.
 High AC voltage of power frequency.
 High AC voltage of high frequency.
 High transient or impulse voltages of very short duration, such as lightning over
voltages.
 Transient voltages of longer duration, such as switching surges.
3.Fields of applications of high voltage?
Ans:
Fields of applications of high voltage are..

##  Power system engineering.

 Research laboratories.
 Industries.
 Nuclear research, particle accelerators.
 Electrostatic precipitators.
 Automobile ignition coils.
 Medical applications like X-ray machine.
 Insulation testing of various components in power system.

## 4. What we learn in High Voltage Engineering?

Ans:
From high voltage engineering we learn following technique_

##  Testing of HV equipments like power transformers, bushings, CB, insulators,

cables etc.
 Usually tests are done at a voltage much higher than the operating voltage.
 Generation, measurement and control of different types of HV.
 Failure mechanism of HV equipments caused by HV stress.
 Breakdown mechanism of different types of insulating materials ( solid, liquid,
gas, vacuum) under different types of voltages (ac, dc, li, si).
 Provide technical assistance toward designing HV equipments to be operated at
further higher voltages.

Here also we see different types of protection system like, Current and voltage
transformers, Relays, Circuit breakers, Batteries, Communication channels.
REPORT ON ENERGYPAC:
INTRODUCTION:
To study about high voltage engineering and protection of power system, we take a study
tour in energypac at saver .which is a very well known name in the electrical power
generation and distribution equipment market in Bangladesh.

COMPANY PROFILE:

Energypac an ISO 9001: 2000 & 14001: 2004 certified leading manufacturer of Electro
mechanical goods in Bangladesh. Energypac produces quality products by ensuring
modern design and international testing facilities.

## Energypac is the largest Power Engineering Company in Bangladesh. Energypac, today,

is Bangladesh's largest private sector entrepreneur in power engineering equipments &
extensively engaged in designing, manufacturing and marketing high technology
electrical products and services related to power generation, transmission, distribution as
well as executing turnkey projects.They are operating their business in this field for the
last 25 years and now they are the largest and strongest manufacturer in this field.
Energypac provide a full range of support including regular advance product information
and shared promotional material, quality products, safety and reliability. They feel an
extra commitment to providing quality care & their prices are very much competitive.

## Since 1982, Energypac Engineering Limited provided professional engineering and

management services to a wide variety of satisfied clients. During this time, Energypac
has earned a reputation for stability and longevity .
THEIR VISION :

Energypac is a very well known name in the electrical power generation and distribution
equipment market in Bangladesh. Since 1982 Energy Pac has already placed as number
one choice for its products and service to the customers countrywide. Besides serving
their existing customers in Bangladesh, They have extend their range of products and
services to the largest range of products and services to the largest range power market in
Government or private owned utility enterprises and customers at home and abroad .

## Their vision is to be leading electro-mechanical company in southeast Asia and put a

solid footing in the export market by virtue of their continual development process, Their
defecation to earn satisfaction of customers and their commitment to serve quality
products and services.

## Energypac produce different types of electrical power generation and distribution

equipment. The main products and service are…..

1. Transformer.
2. AC/DC distribution boards/panel..
3. ACB (Air circuit breakers).
4. VCB (Vacuum circuit breaker).
5. PFI (Power factor improvement).
6. Relay panel.
7. LT switchgear.
8. HT switchgear.
9. 11 KV load break switch.
10. 33 KV control panel for in/out feeder.
11. 11 KV incoming generator feeder-7(Generator BAY).
12. Lightning Arrester.

## Although we observe their production procedure…such as…

1. CNC machine.
2. DIP-Pretreatment system.
3. Insulation division.
4. Assembly section.
5. Seam welding machine.
6. Testing area.
1.Transformer:

For the purpose of production & distribution there are two types of transformer..

1. Distribution transformer.
2. Power transformer.

1. Distribution transformer.
Distribution transformers are generally used in electrical power distribution and
transmission systems. This class of transformer has the highest power, or volt-ampere
ratings, and the highest continuous voltage rating. The power rating is normally
determined by the type of cooling methods the transformer may use. Some
commonly-used methods of cooling are by using oil or some other heat-conducting
material. Ampere rating is increased in a distribution transformer by increasing the size
of the primary and secondary windings; voltage ratings are increased by increasing the
voltage rating of the insulation used in making the transformer.Distribution transformer is
used to convertelectrical energy of higher voltage (usually 11-22-33kV) to a lower
voltage (250 or 433V) withfrequency identical before and after the transformation.

2. Power transformer:
Power transformers are used in electronic circuits and come in many different
types and applications. Electronics or power transformers are sometimes considered
to be those with ratings of 300 volt-amperes and below. These transformers normally
provide power to the power supply of an electronic device, such as in power amplifiers in
But for protection purpose there are another two types of transformer.
1. Instrument potential transformer (PT)
2. Instrument current transformer (CT)

## 1.Instrument Potential Transformer:

The instrument potential transformer (PT) steps down voltage of a circuit to a low value
that can be effectively and safely used for operation of instruments such as ammeters,
voltmeters, watt meters, and relays used for various protective purposes.

## 2.Instrument Current Transformer :

The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower
value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. This is done
by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire, around the primary
coil, which contains only a few turns of wire. In this manner, measurements of high
values of current can be obtained. A current transformer should always be short-circuited
when not connected to an external load. Because the magnetic circuit of a current
transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load, this large
increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit
and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer, inducing an excessively
high voltage in the secondary when under no load.
2. AC/DC distribution boards/ panel:

AC/DC Distribution Boards: The distribution board shall be self standing sheet
steel cubicle, single front construction front wired and front connected and
suitable for mounting against the building wall. The AC distribution board shall
be designed for operation at 415 V + 10%, 3 Phase, 4 wire, 50 Hz, solidly
grounded system. The DC distribution board shall be suitable for operation at
110V + 10% unearthed system.
The main buses and connections shall be of high conductivity aluminum
/aluminium alloy sized for specified current rating. Maximum temperature of the
bus limited to 85 deg. C. All the bus bars shall be provided with heat shrunk
insulating sleeves with suitable phase identification marking. The bus bar support
shall be flame retardant track resistant type with high creep age surface. The
switches and fuse units shall have a quick make and quick break mechanism
operated by a suitable external handle complete with on/off position indicator.
The fuses shall be HRC link type with the fuse base and fittings of such design as
to permit easy replacement of fuse element. The outgoing switch fuse feeder shall
be provided with current transformer for metering purpose. The current
transformer shall be cast resin type of class 10P10 for protection and class 1ISF
less than 5 for metering. The wiring shall be done with flexible 650 grade PVC
insulated with stranded copper conductor of 2.5 mm2 for control and current
circuit and 1.5mm2 for voltage circuit. All power and control cables shall enter
the DBs from top of the panel, cable support and removable type gland plate at
least 4 mm thick shall be provided. A galvanized steel ground bus rated to
carrymaximum fault current shall be furnished along the full length of ACDB/DCDB.

## 3. ACB (Air circuit breakers):

Figure: ACB

Air circuit breakers can be used both as circuit-breakers for general protection (of plants,
of user complexes, of electric lines) and as protection circuit breakers of electrical
machines (generators, motors, transformers, capacitors).

These can be used both as circuit-breakers for general protection (of plants, of user
complexes, of electric lines) and as protection circuit-breakers of electrical machines
(generators, motors, transformers, capacitors). They are used in all types of plants (civil,
industrial, and in the service sector) as well as in the equipment on-board ships, in mines,
in prefabricated substations, and for primary and secondary distribution in general.

## 4. VCB (Vacuum circuit breakers):

Figure: VCB

The Vacuum Circuit Breaker is designed to protectively disrupt an electrical circuit upon
signal. The breaker may also be closed by operating the switch handle. It may be opened
manually or electrically by optional under voltage and/or shunt trip devices. The standard
visible disconnect is a visual means of circuit interruption and also a means of grounding
the output terminals. The Vacuum Circuit Breaker closes into a load versus the Vacuum

## 5. PFI (Power factor improvement):

Motor, Transformers and other inductive loads require reactive power. PFI Plant is used
to improve the power factor of the inductive loads in the electrical network by Capacitor
Banks. The capacitors are of low losses and with inbuilt discharge resistor. The use of
appropriate rating of PFI Plant reduces undesirable wastage of power.

## Figure: PFI(power factor improvement)

All control & indicating devices are located on the front door of the panel for easy
viewing by the operator.
Why do I need Power factor correction?

## Capacitive Power Factor correction (PFC) is applied to electric circuits as a means of

minimising the inductive component of the current and thereby reducing the losses in the
supply.
The introduction of Power Factor Correction capacitors is a widely recognised method of
reducing an electrical load, thus minimising wasted energy and hence improving the
efficiency of a plant and reducing the electricity bill.
It is not usually necessary to reach unity, ie Power Factor 1, since most supply companies
are happy with a PF of 0.95 to 0.98.

6. Relay panel:

## A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a

switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Relays find
applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal. A type of relay that can handle the high
power required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor.Relays with
calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to
protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these
functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protection relays".

There are different types of relay, we only see here Buchholz relay.
Buchholz relay:

A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the accumulation of gas in large oil-filled
transformers, which will alarm on slow accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer
if gas is produced rapidly in the transformer oil.

## 7. LT (LOW TENSION) SWITCHGEAR:

Sheet steel cladded with modular systems for assembly of cubicles intended to take heavy
equipments, dust and vermin proof, free standing, floor mounting indoor/outdoor type
with heat proof, powder coated painting, with TPN & E copper bus bar. It is equipped
with different type of Circuit Breakers such as Air Circuit Breaker (ACB), Molded Case
Circuit Breaker (MCCB), Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB), Motor Control Circuit
Breaker etc., relay, Control & indicating. All control and indicating devices are located of
the front of upper low voltage compartment for easy checking by the operator.
8. HT (HIGH TENSION) SWITCHGEAR:

Sheet Steel Clad, dust and vermin proof, free-standing, floor-mounting & indoor/outdoor
type, completely factory assembled with heat proof, powder coated painting, HT
Switchgears are designed with VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker)/LBS (Load Break
Switch)/Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker (MOCB)/Hexa-Fluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker,
Voltage Transformer and Current Transformer with metering and protection panel as to
IEC.All control and indicating devices are located of the front of upper low voltage
compartment for easy checking by the operator.

## 9. 11 KV load break switch:

Energypac has developed an 11 kv three-pole load break switch which can be applied in
unitised substations, for transformer control, switching of cables, overhead lines, etc.
These load break switches have special features of arc quenching by puffer action and
manual and fuse blown tripping facility. The scattering of arc is prevented retaining
insulation level and prevents flashover during tripping operation. The switch incorporate
a high speed make and break mechanism, ht hrc fuse and is also provided with an
earthing switch interlocking with main mechanism. The lbs cannot be operated when
earthing switch is on and vice versa. The company is also provided with optional
auxiliary switch and shunt release. These load break switch is rated for 11 kv, 630 a and
26.3 ka/1 sec.Short time current.
10. 33 KV control panel for in/out feeder:

## • Protection and Control for Transformers.

• Protection and Control for Transmission and distribution lines.
• Protection and Control for Bus Section and Bus Coupler.

## figure : 11 KV incoming generator feeder-7

The switchgear has two incoming lines equipped with VCB's and one bus-coupler. The
incoming VCB's will be N.C and the bus-coupler will be N.C in normal operation. In the
absence of voltage on any incoming the dead incoming VCB will be switch-off and the
bus-coupler VCB Will be switched-on automatically. By voltage restoration the
returnwill be done manually not automatically. There is not any 11kV motor as outgoing
feeder, only 11KVtransformers and downstream switchgears exist as outgoing.
12. Lightning Arrester:

## Figure: Different types of lightning arrester.

A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation
on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have
been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester
also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a
lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester, the
current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

So we can say that lightning arrester is a protective device for electrical equipment that
reduces excessive voltage resulting from lightning to a safe level by grounding the
discharge.

## Types of lightning arrester:

There are several types of lightning arrester in general use. These differ in constructional
details but operate on the same principle.

##  Rod gap arrester.

 Air gap arrester.
 Horn gap arrester.
 Multigap arrester.
 Expulsion type lightning arrester.
 Valve type lightning arrester.

Now I explain some production procedure what we have seen in Energypac study tour.
1. CNC machine.
2. DIP-Pretreatment system.
3. Insulation division.
4. Assembly section.
5. Testing area.

1. CNC machine:

## In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using

CAD/CAM programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract
the commands needed to operate a particular machine, and then loaded into the CNC
machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a
number of different tools—drills, saws, etc.—modern machines often combine multiple
tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different machines are used with an
external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from
machine to machine. In either case, the complex series of steps needed to produce any
part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD
design.

2. DIP-Pretreatment system:
DIP-pretreatment system is use to prepare the iron sheet for the production of different
electrical equipment.

3. Insulation division:

## Figure: Insulation division.

In insulation division CT,PT core & different types of insulation procedure are
completed.

4. Assembly section:

## In assembly section different types of transformer are finally produce.

5. Testing area:
In this area transformer are tested so is they are able to work properly at high voltage.
DISCUSSION:
In this high voltage Engineering lab tour in energypac, we can clearly observe different
types of electrical device such as_ different types of protective device, transformer etc.
But when we read it in our text book we can not clear It .If our university take this type of
industrial study tour then it will be most effective as an engineer student.
Finally, I can say so proudly that this tour is a great achievement in my engineering
student life.

Prepared by:
Dipok Chandra pal.
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering (EEE)