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18.

S66 PROBLEMS #5
Spring 2003

Let us define the nth Catalan number Cn by


 
1 2n
Cn = , n 0. (5)
n+1 n
Thus (C0 , C1 , . . .) = (1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, 132, 429, . . .). There are a huge number
of combinatorial interpretations of these numbers; 66 appear in Exercise 6.19
of R. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, vol. 2. This exercise (as well as
some related ones) is available at www-math.mit.edu/rstan/ec, and an ad-
dendum with many more interpretations may be found at the same website.
We give here a subset of these interpretations that are the most fundamental
or most interesting. Problem 143 is perhaps the easiest one to show bijec-
tively is counted by (5). All your other proofs should be bijections with
previously shown Catalan sets. Each interpretation is illustrated by the
case n = 3, which hopefully will make any undefined terms clear. Needless
to say, you should not hand in a problem whose solution you have obtained
from an outside source (except reasonable collaboration with other students
in the course).

132. [1.5] triangulations of a convex (n + 2)-gon into n triangles by n 1


diagonals that do not intersect in their interiors

133. [1.5] binary parenthesizations of a string of n + 1 letters

(xx x)x x(xx x) (x xx)x x(x xx) xx xx

134. binary trees with n vertices


r r r r r
@ r r @ @r r r @ @r
@ @
@r @r r r

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135. [1.5] plane binary trees with 2n + 1 vertices (or n + 1 endpoints) (A
plane binary tree is a binary tree for which every vertex is either an
endpoint or has two children.)

136. [2] plane trees with n+1 vertices (A plane tree is a rooted tree for which
the subtrees of every vertex are linearly ordered from left to right.)
r r r r r
r r r @ @r r @ @r r r@@r
r r @ @r r r
r

137. [1.5] lattice paths from (0, 0) to (n, n) with steps (0, 1) or (1, 0), never
rising above the line y = x
r r r r r
r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r

138. [1] Dyck paths from (0, 0) to (2n, 0), i.e., lattice paths with steps (1, 1)
and (1, 1), never falling below the x-axis

139. [2.5] (unordered) pairs of lattice paths with n + 1 steps each, starting
at (0, 0), using steps (1, 0) or (0, 1), ending at the same point, and only
intersecting at the beginning and end
r r
r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r

32
140. [1.5] n nonintersecting chords joining 2n points on the circumference
of a circle
r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r AA @ @r r @ @r r 
 r
r r @ @r r @@r Ar r r r r

141. [2] ways of drawing in the plane n + 1 points lying on a horizontal line
L and n arcs connecting them such that () the arcs do not pass below
L, () the graph thus formed is a tree, () no two arcs intersect in their
interiors (i.e., the arcs are noncrossing), and () at every vertex, all the
arcs exit in the same direction (left or right)

142. [2.5] ways of drawing in the plane n + 1 points lying on a horizontal


line L and n arcs connecting them such that () the arcs do not pass
below L, () the graph thus formed is a tree, () no arc (including its
endpoints) lies strictly below another arc, and () at every vertex, all
the arcs exit in the same direction (left or right)

143. [1] sequences of n 1s and n 1s such that every partial sum is non-
negative (with 1 denoted simply as below)
111 111 111 111 111

144. [1] sequences 1 a1 an of integers with ai i


111 112 113 122 123

145. [2] sequences a1 , a2 , . . . , an of integers such that a1 = 0 and 0 ai+1


ai + 1
000 001 010 011 012
146. [1.5] sequences a1 , a2 , . . . , an1 of integers such that ai 1 and all
partial sums are nonnegative
0, 0 0, 1 1, 1 1, 0 1, 1

33
147. [1.5] sequences a1 , a2 , . . . , an of integers such that ai 1, all partial
sums are nonnegative, and a1 + a2 + + an = 0

0, 0, 0 0, 1, 1 1, 0, 1 1, 1, 0 2, 1, 1

148. [1.5] Sequences of n 1 1s and any number of 1s such that every


partial sum is nonnegative

1, 1 1, 1, 1 1, 1, 1 1, 1, 1, 1 1, 1, 1, 1

149. [2.5] Sequences a1 a2 an of nonnegative integers such that aj = #{i :


i < j, ai < aj } for 1 j n

000 002 010 011 012

150. [2.5] Pairs (, ) of compositions of n with the same number of parts,


such that (dominance order, i.e., 1 + + i 1 + + i
for all i)

(111, 111) (12, 12) (21, 21) (21, 12) (3, 3)

151. [2] permutations a1 a2 a2n of the multiset {12 , 22 , . . . , n2 } such that:


(i) the first occurrences of 1, 2, . . . , n appear in increasing order, and
(ii) there is no subsequence of the form

112233 112332 122331 123321 122133

152. [2.5] permutations a1 a2 an of [n] with longest decreasing subsequence


of length at most two (i.e., there does not exist i < j < k, ai > aj > ak ),
called 321-avoiding permutations

123 213 132 312 231

153. [2] permutations a1 a2 an of [n] for which there does not exist i <
j < k and aj < ak < ai (called 312-avoiding permutations)

123 132 213 231 321

34
154. [2] permutations w of [2n] with n cycles of length two, such that the
product (1, 2, . . . , 2n) w has n + 1 cycles

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)(1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6) = (1)(2, 4, 6)(3)(5)


(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)(1, 2)(3, 6)(4, 5) = (1)(2, 6)(3, 5)(4)
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)(1, 4)(2, 3)(5, 6) = (1, 3)(2)(4, 6)(5)
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)(1, 6)(2, 3)(4, 5) = (1, 3, 5)(2)(4)(6)
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)(1, 6)(2, 5)(3, 4) = (1, 5)(2, 4)(3)(6)

155. [2.5] pairs (u, v) of permutations of [n] such that u and v have a total
of n + 1 cycles, and uv = (1, 2, . . . , n)

(1)(2)(3) (1, 2, 3) (1, 2, 3) (1)(2)(3) (1, 2)(3) (1, 3)(2)

(1, 3)(2) (1)(2, 3) (1)(2, 3) (1, 2)(3)

156. [2] noncrossing partitions of [n], i.e., partitions of [n] such that if a, c
appear in a block B and b, d appear in a block B 0 , where a < b < c < d,
then B = B 0

123 123 132 231 123

(The unique partition of [4] that isnt noncrossing is 1324.)

157. [2.5] noncrossing partitions of [2n + 1] into n + 1 blocks, such that no


block contains two consecutive integers

1374625 1357246 1572436 1724635 1726354

158. [2.5] nonnesting partitions of [n], i.e., partitions of [n] such that if a, e
appear in a block B and b, d appear in a different block B 0 where
a < b < d < e, then there is a c B satisfying b < c < d

123 123 132 231 123

(The unique partition of [4] that isnt nonnesting is 1423.)

35
159. [2.5] nonisomorphic n-element posets (i.e., partially ordered sets) with
no induced subposet isomorphic to 2 + 2 or 3 + 1, where a + b denotes
the disjoint union of an a-element chain and a b-element chain

r
r r r r
r r r
r
r @ @r r @ @r
r
r

160. [2] relations R on [n] that are reflexive (iRi), symmetric (iRj jRi),
and such that if 1 i < j < k n and iRk, then iRj and jRk (in the
example below we write ij for the pair (i, j), and we omit the pairs ii)

{12, 21} {23, 32} {12, 21, 23, 32} {12, 21, 13, 31, 23, 32}

161. [1.5] ways to stack coins in the plane, the bottom row consisting of n
consecutive coins
m
m m mm mm
mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm

162. [2.5] n-tuples (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) of integers ai 2 such that in the sequence


1a1 a2 an 1, each ai divides the sum of its two neighbors

14321 13521 13231 12531 12341

163. [3] n-element subsets S of N N such that if (i, j) S then i j and


there is a lattice path from (0, 0) to (i, j) with steps (0, 1), (1, 0), and
(1, 1) that lies entirely inside S

{(0, 0), (1, 0), (2, 0)} {(0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1)} {(0, 0), (1, 0), (2, 1)}

{(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 1)} {(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2)}

164. [3] positive integer sequences a1 , a2 , . . . , an+2 for which there exists an

36
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 3 2 1 5 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 5
2 5 1 4 4 1 5 2 2 5 1 4
3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3
1 5 2 2 5 1 4 4 1 5
2 3 1 3 2 1 5 1 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Figure 1: The frieze pattern corresponding to the sequence (1, 3, 2, 1, 5, 1, 2, 3)

integer array (necessarily with n + 1 rows)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
a1 a2 a3 an+2 a1 a2 an1
b1 b2 b3 bn+2 b1 bn2



r1 r2 r3 rn+2 r1
1 1 1 1
(6)
r
such that any four neighboring entries in the configuration s t sat-
u
isfy st = ru + 1 (an example of such an array for (a1 , . . . , a8 ) =
(1, 3, 2, 1, 5, 1, 2, 3) (necessarily unique) is given by Figure 1):

12213 22131 21312 13122 31221

165. [3] n-tuples (a1 , . . . an ) of positive integers such that the tridiagonal
matrix
a1 1 0 0 0 0
1 a2
1 0 0 0
0 1
a3 1 0 0









0 0 0 0 an1 1
0 0 0 0 1 an

37
is positive definite with determinant one
Note. A real matrix A is positive definite if it is symmetric and every
eigenvalue is positive; equivalently, A is symmetric and every leading
principal minor is positive. A leading principal minor is the determi-
nant of a square submatrix that fits into the upper left-hand corner of
A.
131 122 221 213 312

166. [2] Vertices of height n1 of the tree T defined by the property that the
root has degree 2, and if the vertex x has degree k, then the children
of x have degrees 2, 3, . . . , k + 1

167. [2.5] Subsets S of N such that 0 S and such that if i S then


i + n, i + n + 1 S

N, N {1}, N {2}, N {1, 2}, N {1, 2, 5}

168. [2] Ways to write (1, 1, . . . , 1, n) Zn+1 as a sum of vectors ei


ei+1 and ej en+1 , without regard to order, where ek is the kth unit
coordinate vector in Zn+1 :

(1, 1, 0, 0) + 2(0, 1, 1, 0) + 3(0, 0, 1, 1)


(1, 0, 0, 1) + (0, 1, 1, 0) + 2(0, 0, 1, 1)
(1, 1, 0, 0) + (0, 1, 1, 0) + (0, 1, 0, 1) + 2(0, 0, 1, 1)
(1, 1, 0, 0) + 2(0, 1, 0, 1) + (0, 0, 1, 1)
(1, 0, 0, 1) + (0, 1, 0, 1) + (0, 0, 1, 1)

169. [1.5] tilings of the staircase shape (n, n 1, . . . , 1) with n rectangles


such that each rectangle contains a square at the end of some row

38
170. [2] n n N-matrices M = (mij ) where mij = 0 unless i = n or i = j or
i = j 1, with row and column sum vector (1, 2, . . . , n)

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 2
0 0 3 1 0 2 0 1 2 0 2 1 1 1 1

This concludes the list of objects counted by Catalan numbers. A few


more problems related to Catalan numbers are the following.

171. (*) We have


n
X
C2k C2(nk) = 4n Cn .
k=0

172. (*) An intriguing variation of Problem 170 above is the following. A


bijective proof would be of great interest. Let g(n) denote the number
of n n N-matrices M = (mij ) where mij = 0 if i > j + 1, with row
and column sum vector 1, 3, 6, . . . , n+1
2
. For instance, when n = 2
there are the two matrices
   
1 0 0 1
.
0 3 1 2
Then g(n) = C1 C2 Cn .
173. [2] (compare with Problem 168) Let f (n) be the number of ways to
write the vector
  
n+1
1, 2, 3, . . . , n, Zn+1
2
as a sum of vectors ei ej , 1 i < j n + 1, without regard to
order, where ek is the kth unit coordinate vector in Zn+1 . For in-
stance, when n = 2 there are the two ways (1, 2, 3) = (1, 0, 1) +
2(0, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 0) + 3(0, 1, 1). Assuming Problem 172, show
that f (n) = C1 C2 Cn .

39
174. [2.5] The Narayana numbers N (n, k) are defined by
  
1 n n
N (n, k) = .
n k k1

Let Xnk be the set of all sequences w = w1 w2 w2n of n 1s and n


1s with all partial sums nonnegative, such that

k = #{j : wj = 1, wj+1 = 1}.

Show that N (n, k) = #Xnk . Hence by Problem 143, there follows


n
X
N (n, k) = Cn .
k=1

One therefore says that the Narayana numbers are a refinement of


the Catalan numbers. There are many other interesting refinements of
Catalan numbers, but we wont consider them here.

40
 
 
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