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Inspection of AC-Systems

II 2 Cooling
II.2
Distribution

Author:
Prof.(FH) DI Dr. J. Geyer
Enertec Naftz&Partner OG
Graz, Februar 2012

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Place of Cooling generation (Chiller) is generally not the place of


coolingg demand (room
( to be chilled))

heat must be transported from the place of cooling demand to the


pplace of Cooling
g ggeneration
Chiller

- - -
Cooling demand

- - -
Cooling demand

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Refrigerant medium: (at direct cooling systems)

+ No additional medium, no additional pumping effort

Bad controllability, refrigerant medium in living zones

Air: (ventilation and air conditioning system with air distribution)

+ Good controllability
controllability, central chilling generation,
generation air is easy to
handle (no problem with leakages), automatic ventilation

Huge volume flow,


flow huge cross-sections of air ducts

Additional energy effort for transportation of air

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Water: (indirect cooling with cold water)

+ Good controllability, small volume flow, small cross sections of


pipes

No ventilation, water damage in case of leakage, in endangered


areas frost protection required

B i (indirect
Brine: (i di cooling
li with
i h brine)
bi )

Same as with water

+ No frost protection required

Smaller heat capacity and higher pressure drop (higher viscosity)


than water
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Ethylene Propylenglycol/
medium Air Water glycol/Water Water
(30%/70%) (30%/70%)
Densiy (1bar, 10C) [kg/m] 1,19 1.000 1.052 1.034
Specific heat capacity [kJ/kgK] 1,005 4,186 3,718 3,864
Mass flow rate per kW at
[k / ]
[kg/s] 0 1658
0,1658 0 0398
0,0398 0 0448
0,0448 0 0431
0,0431
t=6K
Volume flow rate per kW at
[m/h] 501,7 0,143 0,153 0,150
t=6K
Pressure drop [Pa/m] 15
1,5 130 **) 166 **) 178 **)
*) at di=300mm, w=6m/s, t=18C

**) at di=50mm, w=0,7m/s, t=6C

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

transportable heat energy (cooling energy)

Q& = m& c p T & heat capacity [kW]


Q
&
m ........mass
mass flow [kg/s]
or &
V
volume flow [m/s]
& = V& c T
Q .density [kg/m]
p
cp........specific
specific heat capacity [kJ/kgK]
DT....... temperature difference [K]

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Monoethylenglycol
concentration vol% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
1.140

1.120

1.100

1.080
density [kg/m]]

1.060

1.040

1.020

1.000

980

960
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
t [C]

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Monoethylenglycol
concentration vol% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
4,50

4,30

4,10

3,90

3 70
3,70
cp [kJ/kgK]

3,50

3,30

3,10

2,90

2,70

2,50
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
t [C]

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

E
Example:
l
Cooling capacity to be transferred: 50 kW
medium: water (cp=4,186 kJ/kgK, =1000 kg/m)
temperatures: 6C/12C
asked: required mass flow rate? required volume flow rate?

from:Q& =m & c p T
Q& 50 kg
& =
m = = 1,99
c p T 4,186 (12 6) s

from:
& = V& c T
Q p

Q& 50 m m
V& = = = 0,00199 = 7,17
c p T 1000 4,186 (12 6) s h

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

E
Example:
l
Cooling capacity to be transferred: 50 kW
medium: monoethylenglycol/water30%/70% (cp=3,718 kJ/kgK, =1053 kg/m)
temperatures: 6C/12C
asked: required mass flow rate? required volume flow rate?

from:Q & =m & c p T


&
Q 50 kg
& =
m = = 2,24
c p T 3,718 (12 6) s

from:
& = V& c T
Q p

Q& 50 m m
V& = = = 0,00213 = 7,66
c p T 1053 3,718 (12 6) s h

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Example:
Cooling capacity to be transferred: 50 kW
Medium: air (cp=1,005 kJ/kgK, =1,2 kg/m)
temperatures: 18C/24C
asked: required mass flow rate? required volume flow rate?

from:Q& =m & c p T
Q& 50 kg
& =
m = = 8,29
c p T 1,005 (24 18) s

from:
& = V& c T
Q p

Q& 50 m m
V& = = = 6,91 = 24.876
c p T 1,2 1,005 (24 18) s h

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure D
Drop
During the flow through pipes or air ducts occurs a flow pressure drop caused by friction and
turbulence which has to be compensated by pumps or ventilators 1pressure
p dropp pipe
pp
2pressure increase Ventilator
3pressure drop pipe
4pressure drop bend
5pressure drop pipe
6pressure drop bend
7pressure drop pipe
8 ambient pressure
pressure

4
3

5 6
2 7
1
8

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrop

general:


p = w2 p.......pressure drop [Pa]
2 .. pressure loss coefficient [-]
.density [kg/m]
[kg/m ]
w.flow speed[m/s]
..friction factor of pipes [-]
llength of pipe [m]
d..inner diameter of the pipe (hydraulic
diameter) [m]

l
For pipes and air ducts: =
d

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure llosses
friction factor of pipe from Moody-Diagram according to
Reynolds
y number ((Re)) and relative roughness
g of ppipes
p ((k))

w d Re.......Reynolds number [-]


Re = w
w..flowflow speed [m/s]

.. kinematic viscosity of the flowing
medium [m/s]
d.inner diameter of the pipe (hydraulic
di
diameter)
t ) [[m]]

kinematic viscosity of:


until Re < 2300: laminar flow
water (10C): ca. 1,3 . 10-6 m/s
ab Re > 2300: turbulent flow air (20C): ca. 15,2 . 10-6 m/s

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Moody Diagram

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrops
The Moody-Diagram is valid for all media (e.g. air, water, brine, oils etc.)
With non-circular flow-cross sections ((e.g.
g rectangular
g air duct)) the so called
hydraulic diameter has to be used in the formula

w dh 4A
Re = dh =
U dh.......hydraulic diameter [m]
A.flow cross section [m]
U.perimeter of flow cross section [m]

e.g. rectangular cross section:


h
4A 4hb 2hb
dh = = =
U 2 (h + b) (h + b) b

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrops: pipes,
i air
i ducts
d t

for fittings, armatures: according to the shape

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

Determination of ppressure dropp with diagrams:


g

Nominal
diameter of
pipe

Fl
Flow speed
d

Pressure
drop

V l
Volume fl
flow

Friction diagram for cold water pipes

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrop: P
Pumping
i effort,
ff t ventilation
til ti effort
ff t

theoretical drive power:

Pth = V& p

actual drive power:

Pth V& p
P= =
Pththeoretical drive power [W]
P..actual drive power [W]
V& ..volume flow [m/s]
p
p.......pressure
pressure drop [Pa]
.......... overall efficiency [-]
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrop: P
Pumping
i effort,
ff t ventilation
til ti effort
ff t

Drive power:
Pththeoretical drive power[W]
Pth V& p P..actual drive power [W]
P= = & ..volume flow [m/s]
V

p.......pressure drop [Pa]

..........overall
overall efficiency[-]
efficiency[ ]
because: p = w2 A..flow cross section [m]
2
w..flow speed [m/s]
V& p V& ... p pressure loss coefficient [[-]]
P= = w2
2 density [kg/m]

V&
with: w=
A
V& V& V& 2
P= w =
2
= V& 3
2 2 A2 2 A 2

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Basics: cooling or heat transfer medium

P
Pressure ddrop: P
Pumping
i effort,
ff t ventilation
til ti effort
ff t

Drive power:

P= V& 3
2 A 2

P increases in a given medium and air-duct or pipe system with V

On doubling the volume flow the drive power increases eight times!

Halving the volume flow reduces the drive power to 12,5%!

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Direct Cooling

Evaporator is situated directly at the place of cooling demand


(Small AC-Device):

Regarding the situation of the chiller (compressor of cooling


medium, condenser) you can distinguish:

AC-devices with internal chiller

p
AC-devices with separate ppositioned chiller ((split-system)
p y )

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Air: (Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System with Air Distribution)

Central air-conditioning (heating, cooling, de-humidify, humidify)

Distribution through air-duct-system

Insertion through air inlets

Generally supply and return-ducts are required

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Air: (Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System with Air Distribution)

central air-conditioning

distribution via air ducts

recommended air velocity

air duct convenience systems industrial systems

main ducts 4 to 6 m/s (to 8 m/s) 6 to 10 m/s (to 12 m/s)

distribution ducts in storeys 3 to 5 m/s 5 to 8 m/s

flexible tubes 2 to 4 m/s 4 to 6 m/s

Hi h air
Higher i velocity
l it results
lt in:
i
+ smaller cross sections of ducts
Higher pressure drops (driving power of ventilators)
Higher noise level (flow noise)
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai (Ventilation
Air: (V til ti andd Air-Conditioning
Ai C diti i System
S t with
ith Air
Ai Distribution)
Di t ib ti )

The air flow should always be as small as possible because the effort for the
transportation can be reduced considerably (smaller pressure drops)

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

E
Example:
l
Which driving power is required by the following air duct system?
air flow rate = 30.000 m/h
overall pressure drop= 1.200 Pa
efficiency of fan = 75%
Efficiency of driving engine = 90%

1 1
P = p V& = p V&
ges vent eng

30.000 1
P = 900 = 11.111W = 11,1 kW
3.600 0,75 0,90

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Example:
What is the driving energy demand per year at an operating time of 6000 hours per year?

W = P t = 11,1kW 6.000 h = 66.600 kWh

Which cooling capacity can be transported at a temperature difference of 6K?

& =m
Q & c p T = V& c p T with:
cp......spec.
p heat capacity1,005
p y , kJ/kgK
g
density of air ca. 1,2 kg/m

& = 30.000 1,2 1,005 6 = 60,3 kW


Q
3.600

Regarding the transported cooling capacity the required driving power is


much too high!
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai vents
Air t
According to application and requirements many different air vents are used

Examples for ceiling vents

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai vents
Air t

Examples for wall-vents

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

F
Fans
According to application and
requirements different fan-types are used

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

F
Fan
Different types have considerable different efficiency
Both efficiency of fan and the combination of fan and driving engine (possibly belt
transmission) are significant

a) High performance blade wheel with


6 to 12 backward-curved blades

b) Drum impeller with ca. 40 Forward-


curved blades

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)
Fan with forward-curved blades Fan with backward-curved blades

max. max.
67% 81%

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Example: performance map of fan

F
Fan

Depending on the operating point


the same fan shows different
efficiencies
The right dimensioning (close to
the highest efficiency) is very
important for efficient operating

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai (Ventilation
Air: (V til ti andd Air-Conditioning
Ai C diti i System
S t with
ith Air
Ai Distribution)
Di t ib ti )

Normally that mass flow of air is supplied to the conditioned room in a stationary state which
is also dissipated,
p , because otherwise there would be an over- or underpressure.
p Because of
leakages a part of the supply mass flow can run out or can flow into the room. So the mass
flow of supply and return has not to be the same.
If the supply flow is higher than the return flow the excessive air must run out through leakages.
Therefore there must be an overpressure in the room compared to the atmosphere.
atmosphere
If the mass flow of the return duct is higher than the supply flow the difference must be
recovered from outside. This means that there is an underpressure in the room .
So you ca
can depe
dependent
de t oon tthee leakages
ea ages of
o the
t e room
oo generate
ge e ate an
a overpressure
ove p essu e or
o an
a u
underpressure
de p essu e
through the difference between supply flow and return flow.

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai (V
Air: (Ventilation
til ti andd Air-Conditioning
Ai C diti i System
S t with
ith Air
Ai Distribution)
Di t ib ti )

Thermal insulation
According to temperature differences between the air in the ducts and the ambient the ducts
have to be thermal insulated.
Beside the heat loss through not insulated ducts there could be problems due to condensing
water If the temperature at the surface of the duct falls below the dew
water. dew-point
point this can lead to
moisture penetration and corrosion.
The temperature can fall below the dew-point both at the inner and the outer surface of the
duct (but always on the warmer side). Usually the thermal insulation is mounted on the
outside
t id off the
th duct
d t due
d tot hygienic
h i i andd fluidic
fl idi reasons.
If there is a risk of shortfall of temperature below the dew-point at the side of the thermal
insulation a vapour barrier must be installed because otherwise the vapour would diffuse to
the surface of the duct and would condense there.
Because the temperature differences in ventilation and air-conditioning system are usually
small the thermal loss is very small even with very small thickness (20mm 40 mm) of the
thermal insulation .

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai (Ventilation
Air: (V til ti andd Air-Conditioning
Ai C diti i System
S t with
ith Air
Ai Distribution)
Di t ib ti )

System Calibration, Adjustment:


IIn air
i duct
d systems with i h more than
h one vents theh volume
l flow
fl forf every vent
must be adjusted. The pressure at Vents near the fan is higher (the pressure drop
is smaller) and therefore there is a higher volume flow. In this case the pressure
ddrop
op has
as to
o be increased
c eased (e.g. with
w a throttle
o e flap).
ap).
In each path of the air flow from the fan until behind the vent the pressure drop
must be exactly the same to get the desired amount of air. If this condition is not
met other volume flows as desired will necessarily arise to meet the physical
conditions.

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Air: (Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System with Air Distribution)

30 m

B (desired: 1.000 m/h)

d=350mm
30 m
d=230mm 20 m

d=350mm

d=230mm
d 230mm d 230
d=230mm
20 m

A (desired : 1.000 m/h) C (desired : 1.000 m/h)

50m 10m

Gy_GT1_01_02_26

At these
th points
i t the
th flow
fl mustt be
b throttled
th ttl d otherwise
th i a higher
hi h flow
fl would
ld arise.
i

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air
Air--based System (solely
(solely--air
air--based system)

Ai (V
Air: (Ventilation
til ti andd Air-Conditioning
Ai C diti i System
S t with
ith Air
Ai Distribution)
Di t ib ti )

1
1. filter
2. preheater
3. air cooler
4
4. air washer with demister
5. supplementary heater
6. fan
7
7. Sound absorber

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air/
Air/Water
Water-based Systems
Water-

In such systems a central air-conditioning is done only for that amount of


air which is necessary for ventilation of the rooms

Generally this amount of air (external air for ventilation) is considerably


smaller than the amount which is necessary for cooling.

The necessary additional heat dissipation is carried out by additional


cooling units which are supplied with cold water.

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air/
Air/Water
Water-based Systems
Water-

Advantages:

+ smaller amounts of air

+ smaller AC-units for and smaller air ducts

+ smaller energy effort for transportation of air

+ ggood controllability
y ((distributed))

Disadvantages:

many single units

additional cold-water piping (with required diffusion resistant thermal


insulation)

Dissipation system for condensate (in case of temperature shortfall


below dew point at the local units)
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air/
Air/Water
Water-based Systems
Water-

Locally cooling with:

Induction units

Fan-coil-devices *)

cooling ceiling*)

Cooling of structural components *)

*) These devices are primarily used with solely water systems

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Air/Water
Air/Water--based Systems

Ai /W t b d Systems
Air/Water-based S t with
ith induction
i d ti devices
d i

1. filter
2. preheater
3
3. air cooler
4. air washer with demister
5. supplementary heater
6
6. f
fan
7. sound absorber
8. inductiojn unit

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Water
Water--based Systems

No central conditioning (cooling) of the air

The necessary additional heat dissipation is carried out by locally installed


cooling units which are supplied with cold water.

If necessaryy additional measures for ventilation must be provided


p (e.g.
( g
natural ventilation or separate ventilation system)

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Water
Water--based Systems

Locally cooling with:

Fan
Fan-coil-devices
coil devices

cooling ceiling

Cooling of structural components

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

To supply the different units with cold water a piping network and an
appropriate system to control the amount of water for the adjustment of
the capacity of the air-cooling units are required.

Depending on the purpose (cooling, dehumidifing) different hydraulic


circuits are required

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Basic possibilities of control of air-cooling units

GEJO01_037

GEJO01 026
GEJO01_026

volume control: temperature control:


variable volume flow through the constant volume flow through the
cooling unit cooling unit,
unit admixing of return-flow
return flow
water
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Ch
Change off air
i property
t iin a cooling
li unit
it

On volume-controlled cooler units the water at the inlet has always the
minimum temperature of the supply flow (e.g. 6C)

Even with slight opening of the control valve emerges a de-


humidification of the air!

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Ch
Change off air
i property
t iin a cooling
li unit
it

On temperature
temperature-controlled
controlled cooling units the temperature of the
supply-flow at the inlet is close to the temperature of the return flow

At first no de-humidification emerges. If the control-valve is wide


opened the temperature falls below the dew point and the de-
h idifi ti begins!
humidification b i !

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

B i possibilities
Basic ibiliti off control
t l off air-cooling
i li units
it

If air coolingg without de-humidification is desired always


y a
temperature controlled cooling unit should be used.

If air cooling with de-humidification is desired always a volume


controlled cooling unit should be used.

Otherwise emerges particularly at part load additional cooling


energy demand!

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Ch
Change off air
i property
t - cooling
li (without
( ith t desired
d i d de-humidification)
d h idifi ti )
Target value: temperature of air at vent t2

Cooling volume-controlled
t1
cooling temperature-controlled

t2

power demand
without de-humidification

additional power demand


for de-humidification

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Change of air property - cooling (with desired de-humidification)


Target value: humidity of air at vent x2

de-humidificate volume controlled de-humidificate temperature-controlled


t1

power demand
volume-controlled

additional power demand


with temperature-controlled system

x2 x1

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

P ibiliti off control


Possibilities t l off an air-cooling-unit
i li it (temperature-controlled)
(t t t ll d)

M M M
M

GEJO01_026 GEJO01_027 GEJO01_028 GEJO01_029

3-way mixing valve 3-way deviding valve Injector Injection circuit


(throttle-valve
(throttle valve in
supply-flow)
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

P ibiliti off control


Possibilities t l off an air-cooling-unit
i li it (temperature-controlled)
(t t t ll d)

M
M M

GEJO01_030 GEJO01_031 GEJO01_032

injection circuit injection circuit with 3-way- admixing cicuit


(th ttl
(throttle-valve
l ini return-flow)
t fl ) mixing-valve
i i l (
(pressure-less)
l )

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

P ibiliti off control


Possibilities t l off an air-cooling-unit
i li it (volume-controlled)
( l t ll d)

M M

GEJO01_033
GEJO01_034

admixing valve deviding valve

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

P ibiliti off control


Possibilities t l off an air-cooling-unit
i li it (volume-controlled)
( l t ll d)

M M M

GEJO01_035 GEJO01_036 GEJO01_037

Straight-way valve (with Straight-way valve in Straight-way valve


bypass) supply flow (with bypass)
supply-flow

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I t
Interaction
ti off distribution
di t ib ti system
t andd chiller
hill (water
( t chiller)
hill )

In some circuits occurs a variable volume flow in the cold-water-


circuit
As a result the water volume at the evaporator in the chiller is
changing
g g
Reducing the water-volume at the evaporator has a great impact on
the cooling-coefficient of performance !

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Schematic view on a chiller ((cold water chiller))

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Performance of the evaporator at reduced cold water volume

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )

Thee reduction
educ o ofo thee water
w e volume
vo u e through
oug thee water
w e chiller
c e iss
necessarily followed by a reduction of the evaporation temperature
(except for continuously adjustable chillers)

Reduction of cooling capacity


Reduction of the cooling cop = rising of energy demand
Danger of freezing in the evaporator!
The required volume flow through the chiller must be observed
without fail!

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )
Right volume flow through cold water chiller
safety installations
installations, measures

frost guard
Flow
Fl guardd
Installation for checking the flow rate (e.g. flow control valve)
Right dimensioning and adjustment of the cold water piping

With volume-variable consumer circuit:


Hydraulic separator for separation of cold water chiller and
cold water piping

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )

Consumer with throttle control ((volume variable))


Connection to chiller with hydraulic separator

compensatting
water volume
M M

Constant volume flow


(cold water chiller)
Variable volume flow (consumer)

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )
hydraulic separator
I
Important: right
i h dimensioning
di i i andd adjustment
dj off water flows
fl
If the flow rate in the distribution piping (e.g. at full load) is greater
than the flow rate through the evaporator,
evaporator the supply flow
temperature rises through the hydraulic separator
The maximum power of the cooling units will not be obtained !!
Reduced flow rate in the cold water piping ( at part load) results in a
back flow through the hydraulic separator from the outlet of the
chiller
hill tot the
th return
t flow.
fl
This results in a reduction of the return-flow temperature to the
chiller

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Interaction of distribution system and chiller (water chiller)


Consumer with diverting circuit (volume constant)
Connection to chiller without hydraulic separator

M M

GEJO01_043

constant flow rate


(chiller and consumer piping)

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Interaction of distribution system


y and chiller ((water chiller))
diverting circuit (diversion switching)
+ Ove
Overall flow
ow ratee ccan be kept
ep nearly
e y constant
co s
+ Piping net is used as buffer storage!
+ Cold water is ppresent at the valve even with switched off coolingg
unit
Short reaction time even with long piping systems
solid control
With diverting circuit the return flow temperature is decreasing in
partt load
l d operation
ti
Even in part load or null load operation the whole flow is pumped
through
g the net ((higher
g ppumping
p g effort compared
p with variable flow
rate!)
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Interaction of distribution system and chiller (water chiller)

Operation with buffer storage (opt. stratified storage tank)


equates
q to hydraulic
y separator
p with huge
g volume

M M

GEJO01_044

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )

cold water storage: most effective with volume variable systems

high
g return flow temperature
p (if
( combined with throttle control))
with good stratification in buffer storage:
high return flow temperature out of buffer storage to chiller
high temperature at evaporator
high COP
small energy demand

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )

O
Operation
i with
i h buffer
b ff storage (full
(f ll load)
l d)

12C 12C
12 C

VK = VKN M M

6C
6C

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

I
Interaction
i off distribution
di ib i system andd chiller
hill (water
( chiller)
hill )

O
Operation
i with
i h buffer
b ff storage (part
( load,
l d loading
l di storage))

12C 12C
12 C

VK VKN=V
VK/2
M M
loading
storage

6C
6C

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Interaction of distribution system and chiller (water chiller)

Operation with buffer storage (part load, unloading storage)

12C
12 C
M M

VKN=VK/2
unloading
storage

GEJO01 044
GEJO01_044

6C

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Di
Dimensioning
i i off cold
ld water
t buffer
b ff storage:
t
Dimensioning with:
a) Cooling capacity and desired running time of chiller
b) Power demand and desired running time without chiller

1) amount of energy to be stored: Q =P.t

2) Storage capacity of a defined amount of Q = V . . c .


water:
Qenergy [kJ]
P.power [kW]
Q
V= V.volume [m]
3) Required volume of storage: . c . .........density [kg/m]
...... temperature difference[K]
c..heat capacity [kJ/kgK]

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

E
Example:
l Dimensioning
Di i i off Buffer
B ff Storage
S
cold water piping: 6/12C

cooling capacity: 300 kW

disered running time of chiller: 15 minutes

1) amount off energy to be


b stored:
d

Q = 300 kW . (15 . 60 ) s = 270 000 kWs = 270 000 kJ

2) Required volume of storage (thermal effective volume!)

2 0 000 kJ
270
V= = 10,75 m3
kg kJ
1 000 . 4,186 . (12 6) K
m kg K

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

C ld water
Cold t piping
i i with
ith variable
i bl cold
ld water
t flow
fl rate
t

With variable flow rate in cold water piping the installation of a pump
with rev regulator is recommended
Better controllability of different cooling units
Energy saving (pumping)

to insure the supply of every cooling unit use of control with constant
pressure

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

C ld water
Cold t piping
i i with
ith variable
i bl cold
ld water
t flow
fl rate
t

Keeping constant pressure with rev regulated pump

M M

GEJO01_044


p f

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Cold water piping with variable cold water flow rate

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Cold water
ater piping system
s stem

The cold water chiller can only provide the planned cooling capacity
if it
i is
i operatedd with
i h the
h amount off water specified
ifi d by
b the
h producer.
d

A system can only work right if the right amount of water (through
right dimensioning and adjustment) comes to the (right dimensioned)
cooling units.

Instable controls lead to higher energy demand for the chiller and in
some cases to a dramatically reduced service life.
life

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Cold water
ater piping system
s stem

The cold water piping system must have a diffusion resistant thermal
insulation.
Avoiding of thermal losses (chilling losses)
Avoiding of condensate
Avoiding of corrosion at the piping system
Damaged
D d iinsulation
l ti mustt be
b repaired
i d immediately!
i di t l !

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Cold water
ater piping system
s stem
Corrosion as a consequence of damaged thermal insulation

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Di
Dimensioning
i i off cold
ld water
t piping:
i i

1. Hydraulic scheme, piping plan, instruments, armatures


2. Mass flow rates in sections of the piping
3. Definition of diameter of pipes
4 Calculation of pipe friction in sections
4.
5. Calculation of different single resistances in sections
6. Calculation of ppressure dropp in each consumer circuit
7. Dimensioning of controlling armature for the worst consumer circuit
8. Dimensioning of pump
9. Dimensioning of controlling armature for all consumer circuits resp.
of adjustment resistances

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Di
Dimensioning
i i off cold
ld water
t piping:
i i

Typical values:

flow speed of cold water: 0,5 ... 1,5 m/s

pressure drop: ca. 150 Pa/m

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

E
Example:
l dimensioning
di i i off cold
ld water
t piping
i i

Cooling capacity: 800 kW

temperature: 6/12C

Length of main line route: 350m

dimensioning of pipes?

pressure drop
p p?

Required pumping capacity ?

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

E
Example:
l dimensioning
di i i off cold
ld water
t piping
i i

Q&
Cold water flow rate: V& =
. c p .

kJ
800
s m m
V& = = 0,03185 = 114 ,7
kg kJ s h
1000 4,186 (12 6 ) K
m kgK

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Example: dimensioning of cold water piping

DN150:
R=220 Pa/m
w = 1,8 m/s

or
DN200:
R=50 Pa/m
w=1,0 m/s

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

Example: dimensioning of cold water piping


version DN150:

R=220 Pa/m

w = 1,8 m/s

ptot= 220 x 2 x 350 = 154.000 Pa = 1,54 bar

note: 2 x ength of pipeline for supply- and returnflow, (only pipes without
fittings,
g instruments, armatures etc.))

version DN200:

R 50 Pa/m
R=50 P /

w=1 m/s

ptot= 50 x 2 x 350 = 35.000 Pa = 0,35 bar


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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Hydraulic Circuits

E
Example:
l dimensioning
di i i off cold
ld water
t piping
i i
1
Pumping capacity: P = V& p
ges

version DN150: pptot= 154.000 Pa = 1,54 bar

m 1
P = 0,03185 154 000 Pa = 6 540 W = 6,54 kW
s 0,75

version DN200: ptot= 35.000


35 000 Pa = 00,35
35 bar

m 1
P = 0,03185 35 000 Pa = 1 468 W = 1,47 kW
s 0,75
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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Agenda
Basics
Direct Cooling
Air-based Systems
Air/Water-based Systems
Water-based Systems
Hydraulic circuits
Checklist, Advices

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Checklist,
Checklist Advices

Ai b d Systems:
Air-based S t

adequate dimensioned distribution system (pressure drops, flow


noises)

smallest possible amount of air (meeting the demands)

right adjustment of distribution system

efficient fans

run fans at optimal operating points

rev regulation (combined with need-based volume flow control)

minimize pressure drops (e.g. changing filter)

thermal insulation of cold/warm air ducts

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Inspection of AC-Systems
II.2 Cooling distribution

Checklist,
Checklist Advices

C ld Water-based
Cold W t b d Systems:
S t

adequate
q dimensioned distribution system
y (pressure
(p drops)
p)

As far as possible volume variable distribution system (meeting the


demands)

Right adjustment of distribution system

Use of highest possible cold water temperature

Right hydraulic circuit at air cooling units (cooling, de-


humidification)

Rev-regulated cold water pumps

Diffusion
iff i resistant
i thermal
h l insulation
i l i
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