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71-83, 1996

Copyright @ 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

ELSEVIER 0301-679X/%/$15.00 +O.Otl

SClENCEi 0301-679X(95)00037-2

surface pitting and wear on the

vibration of a gear

transmission system

F. K. Choy*, V. Polyshchuk*, J. J. Zakrajsek+, R. F. Handschuh* and

D. P. Townsendi

in a gear transmission system with surface pitting, wear, and

partial tooth fracture of the gear teeth is presented. An analytical

model was developed where the effects of surface pitting and

wear of the gear tooth were simulated by phase and magnitude

changes in the gear mesh stiffness. Changes in the gear mesh

stiffness were incorporated into each gear-shaft model during the

global dynamic simulation of the system. The overall dynamics of

the system were evaluated by solving for the transient dynamics

of each shaft system simultaneously with the vibration of the

gearbox structure. In order to reduce the number of degrees-of-

freedom in the system, a modal synthesis procedure was used in

the global transient dynamic analysis of the overall transmission

system. An FFT procedure was used to transform the averaged

time signal into the frequency domain for signature analysis. In

addition, the Wigner-Ville distribution was also introduced to

examine the gear vibration in the joint time-frequency domain for

vibration pattern recognition. Experimental results obtained from a

gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center were used to

evaluate the analytical model.

inefficient and uneconomical.

Over the last two decades, problems arising from

excessive wear and gear tooth surface pitting in gear Vibration signature analysis methodologies are being

transmission systems have been of increasing concern developed to examine non-intrusively the health and

for a variety of gear users. At increased power and wear of gear transmission systems. Using spectral

higher speeds, gear wear and fatigue failures are major analysis, the amplitude of the frequency spectrum of the

concerns in aerospace applications. Although regular measured vibration signal is calculated and displayed in

visual inspections and preventive maintenance can a continuous manner. However, the spectral analysis

help to reduce the failure rate of gear systems, the technique is difficult to apply in a highly complex

system where the large number of spectral lines often

makes it difficult to detect significant changes in

*The University of Akron, Akron, USA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA

the spectrum. Another methodology is the joint

Vehicle Propulsion Directorate. U.S. Army Research Laboratory, time-frequency approach which applies the Wigner-

Lewis Research Centre. USA Ville distribution (WVD)- on the time vibration

Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 77

Effects of surface pitting and wear: F. K. Choy et al.

transform process, the WVD provides an instantaneous

frequency spectrum of the system at any instant = {Fbi(t)) + {Fgi(t)) + {Fui(t)) (1)

throughout the sampling period (while FFT provides where [M] and [K,] are respectively the mass and

an averaged frequency spectrum of the total sampling shaft stiffness matrices of the rotor, { Wi} is the general

period). The spectral density of the fundamental displacement vector of the ith rotor in its local

exciting frequency and its sidebands change as the coordinate system, and { Fbi( t)} , { F,J t)} , and { Fui( t) }

shaft rotates through a complete revolution. Some are respectively the force vectors acting on the

success has been achieved in applying the WVD ith rotor system due to bearing forces, gear mesh

concept in the health monitoring of gear transmission interactions, and mass-imbalances.

systems 3- 6. However, a complete vibration signature

database is needed for development of an effective The equations of motion of the gearbox with p rotor

pattern recognition scheme. In order to populate such systems can be expressed as

databases, the development of an accurate analytical

procedure to predict vibrations in gear systems due to

wear and fatigue failure is necessary. i=l

The objective of this paper is to develop a comprehen- where [ Tci] represents the coordinate transformation

sive procedure to simulate and analyse the vibration between the ith rotor and the gearbox.

in a gear transmission system with effects of surface

pitting and wear of the gear teeth under normal Evaluation of bearing forces

operating conditions. The effects of changes in magni-

tude and phase of the mesh stiffness at one particular The bearing forces { F,i(t)} for the ith rotor can be

tooth or a number of consecutive teeth were evaluated evaluated as:

in order to simulate the effects of surface pitting and

wear. The effects of these localized changes in the {Fbi(t)I = [C,il({@il - [Ticl{*cil)

gear mesh were incorporated into each gear-rotor +[Kbil({WiI - [TicI{iVcil) (3)

model for the dynamic simulation7-9. The dynamics

of each gear-rotor system were coupled with each where [ Cbi] and [Kbi] are respectively the damping

other through the gear mesh interacting forces. The and stiffness of the bearing, [ Tj,] is the coordinate

coupling between the rotors and the casing structure transformation matrix for the gearbox with respect to

was generated through the bearing support forces. the ith rotor, and Wci are the casing displacements at

The global vibrations of the system were evaluated by the rotor locations.

solving the transient dynamics of each rotor system

simultaneously with the vibration of the casing. In Evaluation of gear forces

order to minimize the computational effort, the number

of degrees-of-freedom of the system were reduced by The gear forces generated from the gear mesh interac-

using a modal synthesis procedure7,8. Experimental tion12 can be written as:

vibration results obtained from a gear fatigue test rig

at NASA Lewis Research CenteP were used to verify {Fg,(t)) = {Fri(t)) + {Fti(t)) (4)

the analytical procedure. where { Fri( t)} is the vector containing the gear forces

and moments resulting from the relative rotation

Solution procedures between the two mating gears and { Fti(t)} is the

vector containing gear forces and moments due to the

Dynamics of the gear-shaft configuration and translational motion between the two gears.

the gearbox system

The dynamics of the ith individual gear-shaft system Modal synthesis procedure

can be evaluated through the equations of motion for

the vibrations of an individual rotor-bearing-gear In order to calculate the transient and steady state

system as shown in Fig 17s8, given in matrix form, as: dynamics of the system, the coupled rotor and casing

equations of motion must be solved simultaneously.

To minimize the computational effort, the modal

transformation7,8 procedure will be applied to reduce

the degrees of freedom of the global equations of

motion. Using m undamped mode shapes of the ith

rotor system [&i, $i2, $i3, . . . , &,,J and m, undamped

mode shapes of the gearbox [&, &i, +c3r . . . ,

&,J, the rotor displacement for the ith rotor can be

written as:

Bearing forces Bearing forces

{WiI =,$lAij{+ijl (5)

ft

Gear forces and, similarly, the gearbox displacements as:

Fig 1 Schematic of the rotor-gear bearing system {WC>= [&I{&) (6)

78 Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996

Effects of surface pitting and wear: F. K. Choy et a/.

where {Ai} and {A=} are the model time functions of S(t) =x(t) + jH[x(t)] (12)

the ith rotor and the gearbox respectively. Using the where H[x(t)] is the Hilbert transform of x(t).

expansion in Equation (5), the equations of motion

for the ith rotor in Equation (1) can be written as: In order to avoid a repetition in the time domain

WVD, a weighting function4 is added to the time data

[Ml[+cl{Ai> + [KsI[+iI{AiI before the evaluation process. Such a process may

= {Fbi(t)) + lFgiCt)) + IFuiCt>l (7) decrease the resolution of the distribution, but it will

eliminate the repetition of peaks in the time domain,

Premultiplying by [ +ilT and using the orthogonality and thus the interpretation of the result will be

conditions of the mode shapes, the ith rotor equations substantially easier.

of motion can be written as:

{Ai} + [A]{Ai} = {Fbi} + {Fgi} + {Fui} (8) Description of experimental study

where [A*] is the diagonal matrix of the squares of

the natural frequencies of the system. The experiment was performed on the spiral bevel

gear fatigue test rigl, as illustrated in Fig 2, at the

For the gearbox system, a similar transformation is NASA Lewis Research Center. The primary purpose

carried out as Equation (2) can be written as: of this rig is to study the effects of gear tooth design,

gear materials, and lubricants on the fatigue strength

{&I + [CI{A,) = @cd (9) of aircraft quality gears. Because spiral bevel gears

For a system of k rotors, Equation (8) can be repeated are used extensively in helicopter transmissions to

k times and solved with the casing equation (9) transfer power between non-parallel intersecting shafts,

simultaneously for the modal accelerations {Ai} and the use of this fatigue rig for diagnostic studies

{A,}. A numerical integration scheme is used to is practical. Vibration data from an accelerometer

integrate the accelerations to obtain velocities and mounted in the pinion shaft bearing housing was

displacements at each time step for transient calcu- captured by an analogue to digital conversion board.

lations. The 1Ztooth test pinion, and the 36tooth gear have

a 35 spiral angle, a 1 in. (25.4 mm) face with a 90

shaft angle, and 22.5 pressure angle. The pinion

Signature analysis of vibration signal transmits 720 hp at a nominal speed of 14400 rpm.

The test rig was stopped several times during the test

Frequency domain analysis

for gear damage inspection. The test was concluded

The frequency spectrum analysis is used by applying at 17.8 operational hours when a broken tooth was

a discrete Fourier transform on the average time signal detected visually during one of the shutdowns.

x(r) such that the spectral components are: Pictures of tooth damage on the pinion at various

stages in the test are shown in Fig 3. At the first rig

X(k) exp( Fj

= Ttx(r) (10) shut-down, at about 5.5 h into the test, a small pit

i=o was observed on one of the teeth on the test pinion,

where x(t) is the time average of the vibration signal as illustrated in Fig 3A. The test was stopped again

B(t) and T is the sampling interval. The frequency at approximately 12 h and the pitted area spread to

components are examined in the frequency domain cover approximately 75% of the face of the pinion

and compared with those obtained at various stages tooth, as seen in Fig 3B. In addition, pitting started

of the fault development in the experimental gear test to appear on the adjacent teeth. Figure 3B shows the

rig. pinion at the end of the test, at 17.8 h. It was found

that one of the three heavily pitted pinion teeth had

Joint time-frequency analysis: the Wigner-Ville experienced a tooth breakage, losing one third of the

distribution tooth, as shown in the figure.

frequency domain, the Wigner-Ville method1-3 is used

in this study. The Wigner-Ville distribution will provide

an inter-domain relationship between time and fre-

quency during the period of the time data window.

The WVD (Wigner-Ville distribution) can be written

as:

the time domain t and the frequency domain f. To

allow sampling at the Nyquist rate and eliminate the

concentration of energy around the frequency origin

due to the cross product between negative and positive

frequency 1.2, the analytic signal was used in evaluating Fig 2 Picture of the bevel gear test rig in NASA Lewis

the WVD. The analytic signal s(t) is defined as: Research Center

Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996 79

Effects of surface pitting and wear: F. K. Choy et al.

Fig 3 Pictures of the damaged pinion teeth: (a) 5.5 h; (6) 12 h; (c) 17.8 h

Discussion of results examined, i.e. the phase changes, shown in Fig 4A,

and the amplitude changes, shown in Fig 4B. Figures

To study the effects of gear tooth pitting and wear on 5 and 6 show the time, frequency, and joint

the dynamics of the rotor system, the numerical

time-frequency analysis (WVD) of the pinion gear

simulation procedure described above was used to vibration signals with the approximated changes in

model the vibrations of the pinion gear in the test rig.

gear mesh stiffness.

During the experimental study, vertical direction

vibration signals from the pinion gear are time Figure 5 shows the effects of mesh stiffness phase

synchronously averaged for spectral analysis and analy- changes in the WVD representation of the predicted

sis using the joint time-frequency distribution (WVD). vibration signal. As seen in Fig 5, a phase change in

In order to perform an accurate comparison, the the mesh stiffness at the sixth tooth of the 12-teeth

averaged time signal from the vertical vibration of the pinion resulted in a temporary increase of amplitude

pinion gear is also generated using the numerical

and phase of the pinion vibration time signal during

model. During these simulations, approximate gear the sixth tooth pass location. As the phase shift in the

mesh stiffness models are developed to simulate the mesh stiffness increases, from 1.5 to 4.5, the changes

effects of wear and pitting of the pinion tooth on the in amplitude and phase in the vibration signal become

dynamics of the system. more pronounced. In the frequency spectra, this

As has been established, the changes due to gear change in mesh stiffness will result in the increase of

tooth wear or failure can be represented by the the amplitude in the sideband frequencies. However,

amplitude and phase changes in vibration, which, in as discussed earlier, although the frequency spectrum

turn, can be represented by magnitude and phase provides good indications of the existence of the non-

changes in mesh stiffness5,6. To demonstrate the effects synchronous components, it cannot distinguish the

of mesh stiffness change on gear vibration, the variation time locations of their occurrences. The joint time-

of the mesh stiffness model used for this study is given frequency analysis using WVD shows the existence of

in Fig 4. The undamaged configuration of the mesh various frequency components as the pinion rotates

stiffness is given by 0 phase change (Fig 4A), and through a complete revolution of 360. Note that, in

0% amplitude reduction (Fig 4B). During the wear this case, the WVD shows a continuous excitation of

and pitting process, two types of stiffness changes are the mesh frequency (12 x rotational speed) throughout

25%

2-

Zi- 50%

E. I

Gj:

6 (4 : (bl :

I

0 20 40 0 20 40

Angle of rotation Angle of rotation

80 Tribology International Volume 29 Number 1 1996

Effects of surface pitting and wear: F. K. Choy et al.

0.4 OS1

v 0:

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

(4 Order of running speed (a) Order of running speed

r I

0 1 A h

1

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

lb) Order of running speed @I Order of running speed

I

12.30 Hz) 12.30 w

V va

VVL A h

0

I I

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 so

(cl Order of runningspeed (c) Order of runningspeed

Fig 5 Simulated pinion vibration signature due to phase Fig 6 Simulated pinion vibration signature due to

change in the gear mesh stiffness: (a) 1.5; (b) 3.0; amplitude change in the gear mesh stiffness: (a) 0%

(c) 4.5 reduction; (b) 25% reduction; (c) 50% reduction

the complete 360 revolution while subsynchronous Figure 6 shows the effects of reductions in mesh

components of eight times, four times, and one times stiffness at the sixth gear location. With the reduction

rotational speed are occurring at the sixth and seventh of mesh stiffness. a substantial change in the vibration

tooth pass locations. at the sixth tooth pass location (150-180) is observed.

Tribology international Volume 29 Number 1 1996 81

Effects of surface pitting and wear: F. K. Choy et al.

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Order of running speed lb) Order of running speed

Fig 9 Numerically simulated pinion vibration signature due to damage on pinion teeth due to wear and pitting:

(a) single tooth; (b) three teeth

large cross pattern at the sixth tooth pass location due References

to tooth break-off. However, some discrepancies have

been detected between the experimental and the 1. Boashash B. and Black P.J. An efficient real-time implementation

of the Wigner-Ville distribution. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech

numerical time signal at the fourth and fifth tooth Sig. Proc., November 1987, ASSP-35. 11

pass locations. The experimental time signal consists

of some higher frequency, smaller amplitude vibration 2. Claasen T.A.C.M. and Mecklenbrauker W.F.G. The Wigner

distribution-A tool for time-frequency signal analysis, Part I.

modulation, which is not being numerically simulated. Philip J. Res. 1980, 35

This additional modulated signal resulted in the

excitation of the 14 times rotational speed component, 3. Shin Y.S. and Jeon J.J. Pseudo Wigner-Ville time-frequency

as shown in the frequency spectrum in Fig 7B, and, distribution and its application to machinery condition monitor-

ing. J. Shock Vibr. 199.311994, 1, I. 65

also, in turn, is responsible for the small differences

created in the WVD. 4. Mcfadden P.D. Examination of a technique for the early

detection of failure in gears by signal processing of the time

domain average of the meshing vibration. Mech. Syst. Sig.

Summary and conclusions Proc. 1987, 1, 2, 173-183

A numerical procedure has been developed to simulate 5. Mcfadden P.D. and Wang W.J. Time-frequency domain analysis

the dynamics of gear transmission systems with the of vibration signal for machinery diagnostics (II) the weighted

effects of gear tooth damage due to wear and pitting. Wigner-Ville distribution. Report No. OUEL 1891, University

The work presented in this paper can be summarized of Oxford, 1991

as follows: 6. Forrester, B.D. Analysis of gear vibration in the time-frequency

domain. Proc. 44th Meeting of the Mechanical Failure Prevention

(1) A modal synthesis methodology has been

Group, February 1990

developed to simulate the dynamics of gear

transmission systems. While the computational I. Choy F.K., Tu Y.K., Savage M. and Townsend D.P. Vibration

effort has been greatly reduced by modal trans- signature analysis of multistage gear transmission. J. Franklin

Inst. 1991, 328, 213

formation, the numerical results generated main-

tain good accuracy. 8. Choy F.K., Ruan Y.F., Zakrajsek J.J. and Oswald F.B. Modal

(2) Gear tooth damage due to wear and pitting can simulation of gearbox vibration with experimental correlation.

be simulated by amplitude and phase changes in AIAAJ. Propul. Power, March 1993. 9, 2

the gear mesh stiffness model. The gear mesh 9. Kabraman A., Ozguven H.N., Houser D.R., and Zakrajsek J.J.

model developed can easily be incorporated Dynamic analysis of geared rotors by finite element. NASA

into the global transmission system for dynamic TM-102349. AVSCOM-TM-89-C-006, 1990

predictions. 10. Stewart R.M. Some useful data analysis techniques for gearbox

(3) Using the time averaging technique, frequency diagnostics. Paper MHM/R/10/77 Institute of Sound and

spectrum analysis, and the Wigner-Ville distri- Vibration Research, 1977

bution, a signature analysis scheme can be 11. Zakraisek J.J., Handschub R.F. and Decker H.J. Application

developed to examine and characterize the of fault detection techniques to spiral bevel gear fatigue data.

vibration signal of the gear system. NASA TM-106467. nresented in the 48th Mechanical Failures

Prevention Group Meeting, Wakefield, MA. April 19-21 1994

(4) A parametric study of the effects on the vibration

signal due to various changes in the gear mesh 12. Cboy F.K., Townsend D.P. and Oswald F.B. Dynamic analysis

stiffness model, simulating various degrees of of multimesh-gear helicopter transmissions. NASA TP-2789.

pitting and wear damage, could provide a compre- 1988

hensive database for gear fault detection and 13. Boyd L.S. and Pike J.A. Epicycle gear dynamics, AIAA J. May

damage estimation research. 1989. 27. 5

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