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PRAGMATICS

Because Understanding needs to open


so many layers
PRAGMATICS
The term 'Pragmatics' was introduced by Charles Morris, a philosopher,
and he contrasted it with Semantics and Syntax.

Syntax Semantics Pragmatics


The Study of The Study of the relation The Study of the Relation
Grammatical Relations of of linguistic units to the of linguistics units to
Linguistic Units to one objects they denote people who communicate
another and the
grammatical structures of
phrases and sentences

So, Linguistic Pragmatics is


The Study of the ability of language users to pair sentences with the
context in which they would be appropriate.
SENTENCES vs UTTERANCES

A Sentence: An Utterance

A string of words put together by the It is the use of a sentence, in a particular


grammatical rules of a language. The context. Utterances can derive meaning
meaning of a sentence is usually derived from context which they cannot derive
from the meaning of its words. from their abstract form as sentences.

So, how do you understand or interpret Utterances?


It is USUALLY based on:
Knowledge of the meaning of the word
Knowledge about the context
SENTENCES vs UTTERANCES
And INTENDED meaning of whole exchanges depend on:
Context
Intentions
Shared Knowledge
Cultural Implications
If the speakers do not share the same knowledge of a situation, the
meaning can be "INVISIBLE"
How do you Dissect this?
A : There is a bookstore over there
B : No
A : Why not
B : Im tired.

Lets Try to add some possible phrase and sentence.

A : There is a bookstore over there. Lets go inside.


B : No. I dont want to go inside.
A : Why not? (Why do you not want to go inside?)
B : Im tired. I dont want to because Im tired.
EXAMPLES
A : I have two toddlers, 3 and 5 years old sons.
B : Oh, That's okay.
A : I also have three dogs
B : Oh, I'm sorry
What context can possibly be covering this piece of conversation?

A : Have you seen Joss?


B : Well, the red car is over there
What context can possibly be applied?
Some Basic Pragmatic
Principles
Utterance and Context Entailment

It is a logical implication -
It is a complete unit of talk,
deductions and inferences for
sometimes bounded by the
utterances that need proper
speakers silence (breaths and
interpretation.
pauses). Every utterance is made
For Example:
within some specific context (every
The President was assassinated
component that surrounds the
yesterday.
making of utterance like cultural
The Word assassin entails
context, social context, epistemic
murder or terminating someones
context, and linguistic context)
life Die
Some Basic Pragmatic
Principles
Implicature Deixis

It is something meant, implied, or It means 'pointing', or the words


suggested as distinct from what is said. that cannot be interpreted alone
According to Paul Grice, An implicature without being put in a context.
is anything that is inferred from an
Words that are considered deictic
utterance, but is not necessarily a
condition for the truth of the utterance include I, you, now, here, that,
Ex: John is meeting a woman this there, etc.
evening. Therefore, Deixis deserves another
From this sentence, the speaker usually slide.
means that the woman here is NOT
John's mother, his sister, or his wife.
DEIXIS
Types Definition Example
Discourse Deixis It refers to the CURRENT I hope you enjoyed that
context. story. THAT refers to the
story that is probably told
earlier.
Personal Deixis It refers to the participant roles Tola can come this
First person deixis (I, me, we, evening. She must make
us, mine, myself, ourselves, sure she sees me before
etc), leaving.
Second person deixis (you,
your, yours, yourself, Can you see that book
yourselves), with him? The book is
Third person deixis (he, she, mine.
they)
Place Deixis It refers to LOCATION of a Please bring the box here.
participants in the speech event. (the location of the
eg: this, that, here, there. speaker)

I used to live in this story.


DEIXIS
Types Definition Example
Time Deixis It refers to the moment of the In 1969, my uncle
utterance. graduated from the
Examples are now, then, university as a medical
tomorrow, yesterday, etc. doctor. I was very young
These are also called temporal then.
adverbs. Please come to my office
tomorrow.(determined by
the time the speaker
uttered the statement)

Social Deixis It refers to the social Your excellency, we


characteristics or distinctions welcome you to this
between the participants in a historic occasion.
discourse. Examples are Your
Highness, Mr. President, His
Excellency, His Royal Highness,
our mentor, etc.
Some Basic Pragmatic
Principles
Presupposition

A presupposition is generally based on


implicit assumptions that are appropriate in
the context, which are arrived at through the
process of inference. Presupposition is a
common daily occurrence in language use -->
Meaning: Making Assumption is Common
Examples of Presupposition
UTTERANCE PRESUPPOSITION
Nobody in their right senses would talk 1. The utterance of someone is bad
that way 2. Anyone who disagrees in the
speakers opinion is not in his right
senses
How close are you to Surabaya? 1. The addressee is close to
Surabaya.
2. The addressee is on his way to
Surabaya.
She has stopped smoking. 1. _______________.
2. _______________.
My dog ate my bag 1. _______________.
2. _______________.
DONT FORGET!
What is meant

What is said What is implicated

Conventionally Non-conventionally

Conversationally

Generally Particularly

Non-conversationally
Cooperative Principles
It occurs when the listener's reaction meet the speaker's
expectation.
The involved parties in communication will NORMALLY seek to
cooperate with each other to establish agreed meaning.
Remember Four Grices Maxims in order to recognize this principle!
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
Now, Look at this propositions and try to understand this.
Cooperative Principles
Cooperative Principles
THANK YOU