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# Grids Definition Effects Example

Grid Ratio The ratio of the -Higher grid If lead strips are 6mm
Height (h) of the ratios allow less high and separated by
distance to pass through mm what would the
between the their interspace ratio be?
strips. material to
reach image A: 6/0.50= 12
Grid Ratio= h/D receptor. 12:1 grid
h= height of lead -If the height of
strips grid remains the
D= width of same decreasing
interspace the distance
between the
(g/in^2) result in an
increase of grid
ratio (vice versa)
Grid Frequency The number of -Grids with A
grid lines per higher
inch or cm. frequencies
have thinner
1/t+D smaller
interspaces. B
t= thickness of -lead content is
lead strips greater in a grid
D= distance that has a higher
between lead grid ratio & Grid A & B have the
strips lower grid same ratio but A has a
frequency. higher frequency then B.
factor in grids greater in a grid
efficiency at that has higher
cleaning up the grid ratio and
scatter lower grid
frequency.
increases, the
removal of
scatter increases
so contrast
increases
Linear Pattern Grid Lines run in one If the beam is Long dimension- lead
direction and are angled into the runs along the long axis
Good for an excessive Short dimension- lead
angulation amount of runs perpendicular to
-Can be angled primary long axis so 14x17
axis of the grid that causes cut
-You can angle off.
the tube toward

## Parallel Grid Made with the Parallel linear B

lead interspace grids absorb a If the grid lines were
strips that run large amount of extended into space,
parallel to one the primary they would never
another beam which can intersect
It would best be cause some cut
used at longer off.
SIDs because
the beam will be
straighter
Focused Grid Made so the The angle of A
central grid strips divergence Lead lines are angled or
are parallel and as allows more canted to match the
the strips move photons to approximant angle of
away from the reach the the divergent beam
center axis they image receptor Long- chest x-rays
become more Long, medium, Short- mammography
inclined. short focal
For the grid to be ranges
properly focused long- 60-72
the x-ray tube inches
must be located short- 14-18
along the inches
convergence line
Crisscross or Cross Hatched There are 2 No tube tilt is C
linear grids permitted Short axis grids are good
placed on top of because to use when taking a
one another so angulation can portable chest x-ray to
the lines are at result in grid cut decrease the change of
right angles off due to the grid cut off when
strips going in cassette is crosswise.
both directions

Off Level Grid Occurs when the There can be a Example is when you are
tube is angled cut off when the doing a portable
across the long beam is angled abdomen x-ray, patients
axis of grid strips across the long weight in the bed can be
which can result axis of the grid unevenly distributed on
from bad tube or This can also the grid which causes
grid positioning cause a decrease the grid to be unaligned.
as well as the CR in exposure
that is directed along the entire
across long axis. image.

Off Center Grid The center grid The diverge Can look like a loss of
strips can be beam cannot exposure on the grid.
perpendicular align with a
and become focused grid
more and more The grid strips
inclined the are
farther away perpendicular
they go from the and are inclined
center. more as they
move farther
and farther
away.
Off Focus Grid When a grid is There will be cut Ex: if grid has a focal
used at a off along the range of 35-45 inches
distance other peripheral edges and its used at 72
than the specific of the image. inches, then a severe cut
focal range then Less or more off will occur
an off-focus recommended
error occurs distances then
the grid will
cause a cut off
and look as un
underexposed
image.
Upside-Down Grid When the grid is Radiation will If the grid is parallel,
used upside pass through the then there would not be
down there can grid along the any effect. The photons
be severe central axis will pass through the
peripheral cut where the grid is center because the
off due to the perpendicular middle is denser.
divergent rays and the
of the focused absorbed away
grid. from the center.
Air Gap Technique This is an -There will be a There will be improved
alternative grid loss of sharpness contrast without use of
use that also from increased a grid
reduces a lot of OID. 10-15cm is the same as
scatter that -The same 8:1 grid
amount of
reaches the scatter will be 10 airgap is the same
image receptor. created but as a clean-up of 15:1
-You place the there will be less grid
patient at a scatter reaching mAs must be increased
greater OID so the IR if the 10% for each 1cm of air
the scatter going patient is moved gap
towards the IR farther away
will be reduced. -increased OID
- increase causes less
contrast and less recorded detail
fog on the image and spatial
which is less resolution and
scatter. to overcome this
you will need
more SID which
increases the
dose.
Grid Conversion Factors GCF= mAs with Grid conversion When converting from
grid/ mAs factors increase one grid ratio to another
without grid with higher grid you will have to use this
ratios and an formula:
increasing kVp. mAs1/mAs2=GCF1/GCF2
References
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