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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 57 (2014) 206211

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Electrical Power and Energy Systems


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

Indirect rotor eld oriented control based on fuzzy logic controlled


double star induction machine
Salima Lekhchine a,, Tahar Bahi b, Youcef Sou c
a
Electrotechnic Department, Badji Mokhtar University, PBox 12, Annaba 23000, Algeria
b
Research Laboratory of Mechanics of Materials and Industrial Maintenance (LR3MI), PBox 12, Annaba 23000, Algeria
c
Department of Electrical, Tebessa University, Tebessa 12000, Algeria

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The difculty of control in the induction machine is due to the coupling of the torque and ux since the
Received 29 January 2013 load torque change induces unavoidably the ux variation. So, to ensure separately the control of these
Received in revised form 16 November 2013 two variables, the eld oriented control is often used. Also, the efciency of the latter technique is closely
Accepted 25 November 2013
related to the conventional proportional integral controller parameters. Evidently, it is suitable to use
controllers which are independent of the parameters variations as an alternative solution. For this pur-
pose, fuzzy logic controllers associated to the indirect eld oriented control (IFOC) of a double star induc-
Keywords:
tion machine (DSIM) are then used and the performance of the system is nally tested under different
DSIM
IRFOC
operating conditions. The results obtained in MatLab/Simulink environment are presented and show that
Fuzzy logic controller the proposed structure of control is more robust and non-sensitive versus the rotor resistance variation of
PI controller the machine.
Drive 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simulation

1. Introduction implementation. But, this control is inuenced by the motor


parameters variations, essentially the rotor resistance of the ma-
The eld oriented control (FOC) has been widely used for the chine [8,9]. In fact, the main drawback of the classical PI controllers
electrical variable speed drive. The use of an FOC aims to ensure is the sensitivity of their performance versus the parameters vari-
a decoupling control of the ux and the torque in order to obtain ations of the system and their usability to reject the internal
an independent control like DC motors [1,2]. However, the ef- disturbances.
ciency of control depends on the variation of motor parameters Recently, fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been successfully used
[3]. This kind of control has been used to three-phase induction for a few number of non-linear and complex processes [10,11]. In
machine for a long time. Nevertheless, multiphase machines are the design of FLC, the mathematical model is not necessary. Conse-
very suitable for high power systems because of their several quently, they are robust and their efciencies are not sensitive to
advantages [46]. The multi-phase machines could be an interest- the parameter variations compared to the conventional controllers.
ing alternative for variable speed control drive because they pos- So, in this study, a robust control method based on fuzzy logic is
sess several advantages over three phase machine. In the proposed. For this reason, the fuzzy logic controllers have been
multiphase machine windings are housed in the same stator and suggested to obtain robust performance of indirect eld oriented
the current per phase is thereby reduced. The double star induction control.
motor (DSIM) is a typical example of the above mentioned This work presents a comparative study between a conven-
machines. It has two windings whose phases are spatially shifted tional PI controllers and fuzzy logic controllers used in the associ-
by a = 30 electrical degrees with isolated neutrals [7]. These ated to the indirect eld oriented control. The results obtained by
windings are generally fed by two voltage source inverters (VSI) MatLab/Simulink are discussed. The simulation results show that
in variable speed drive. the proposed method can yields very satisfactory performances.
The indirect eld oriented control (IFOC) method is the most The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, mod-
commonly used because of its relative simplicity and low cost of eling of de machine is given. Sections 3 present the eld control.
The structure proposed is given in Section 4, and the results are
presented and discussion in Section 5. Finally, conclusion is
Corresponding author. presented in Section 6.
E-mail address: slekhchine@yahoo.fr (S. Lekhchine).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.11.053
S. Lekhchine et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 57 (2014) 206211 207

8 
2. Double star induction machine modeling >
> V Rs1 ids1 Ls1 didtds1  xs Ls1 iqs1 T r Ur xsl
> ds1
>
>
< V  Rs1 iqs1 Ls1 diqs1 x Ls1 ids1 U
qs1 dt s r
Each winding of a double star induction motor contains three 7
phases distributed and their magnetic axes are displaced by 120 >
> V ds2 Rs2 ids2 Ls2 didtds2  xs Ls2 iqs2 T r Ur xsl
>
>
apart. In the synchronous reference frame (d, q), the electrical >
:  di
V qs2 Rs2 iqs2 Ls2 dtqs2 xs Ls2 ids2 Ur
equations of DSIM are given by following system [7,12,13].
8 The torque expression shows that the reference ux and stator
> d
>
> Uds1 V ds1  Rs1 ids1 xs Uqs1 currents in quadrate are not perfectly independents, for this, it is
>
> dt
>
> necessary to decouple torque and ux control of this machine by
>
>
>
> d introducing new variables:
>
> U V qs1  Rs1 iqs1  xs Uds1
> dt qs1
>
>
> 8
>
>d > V Rs1 ids1 Ls1 didtds1
>
> >
> ds1
< Uds2 V ds2  Rs2 ids2 xs Uqs2 >
>
dt <V Rs1 iqs1 Ls1
diqs1
1 qs1 dt
>
> d 8
>
> Uqs2 V qs2  Rs2 iqs2  xs Uds2 >
> V Rs2 ids2 Ls2 didtds2
>
> dt >
> ds2
>
> >
:
>
> V qs2 Rs2 iqs2
di
Ls2 dtqs2
>
> d
>
> Udr V dr  Rr idr xa Uqr
>
> dt
>
> To compensate the error introduced at decoupling time, the
>
>
: d Uqr V qr  Rr iqr  xa Udr
> voltage references (V ds1 , V ds2 , V ds1 , V ds2 ) at constant ux are given
dt by:
Where the expressions for stator and rotor ux are: 8 
> V ds1 V ds1  V ds1c
8 >
>
> Uds1 Ls1 ids1 Lm iD < V V qs1 V qs1c
>
> qs1
9
>
> Uqs1 Ls1 iqs1 Lm iQ > V ds2 V ds2  V ds2c
>
> >
>
>
> : 
< Uds2 Ls2 ids2 Lm iD V qs2 V qs2  V qs2c
2
>
> Uqs2 Ls2 iqs2 Lm iQ
>
> With
>
>
>
> Udr Lr idr Lm iD 8
>
: > V ds1c xs Ls1 iqs1 T r Ur xsr
Uqr Lr iqr Lm iQ >
>
<V xs Ls1 ids1 Ur
qs1c
With 10
>
>
> V ds2c xs Ls2 iqs2 T r Ur xsr
iD ids1 ids2 idr ; iQ iqs1 iqs2 iqr and xa xs  xr :
V qs2c xs Ls2 ids2 Ur
The mechanical equation is expressed by (3), where the equa-
   
tion of the electromagnetic torque is given by (4): Accepting that : ids1 ids2 and iqs1 iqs2 11
d In order to obtain a perfect decoupling, stator currents regula-
J X T em  T l  kf X 3
dt tion loops are added and at their respective output, stator voltages
are obtained. Fig. 1 shows internal structure of the IFOC bloc. The
pLm control scheme consists mainly of four fuzzy logic controllers.
T em Udr iqs1 iqs2  Uqr ids1 ids2  4
Lr Lm The actual currents ids1, iqs1, ids2 and iqs2 are compared with their
   
reference currents ids1 , iqs1 , ids2 and iqs2 respectively. The resulting
error and error variation for each current are the inputs variables
3. Field oriented control
of FLC. Furthermore, the outputs of these controllers are Vds1,
Vqs1, Vds2 and Vqs2.
The objective of space vector control is to assimilate the operat-
ing mode of the induction machine at the one of a DC machine with
separated excitation, by decoupling the torque and the ux control. 4. Fuzzy logic controller
Therefore, decoupling the control scheme is required by compen-
sation of the coupling effect between d and q axis current dynamic. In this section, the principles of fuzzy controllers, their design
The indirect eld oriented control (IRFOC) [3,14,15] consists in and their use in indirect eld oriented control of the DSIM are
making Uqr 0 while the rotor direct ux (Udr ) converges to the illustrated. The fuzzy logic theory is based on the techniques of
reference ux (Ur ). articial intelligence and was rst proposed and investigated by
By applying this principle (Uqr 0 and Udr Ur ) into (1), (2), Zedeh [16]. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is an appropriate method
and (4) equations, the nals expressions of the electromagnetic for designing nonlinear controllers via the use uf heuristic infor-
torque and slip speed are respectively: mation and operates in know ledge-based way and is expressed
 
T em pLUr iqs1 iqs2 5 by means of roles with human language know ledge relies on a
set of linguistic if. . .then rules. The bloc diagram of FLC is shown
 
LRr iqs1 iqs2 in Fig. 2. It is composed from the following blocs: fuzzication
xsr  6 interface, knowledge base, inference. The fuzzication module
U
r
converts the crisp values of the control inputs into fuzzy values.
With The data base and the rules the knowledge base which is used to
obtain the inference relation. The data base contains a description
Lm
L of input and output variables using fuzzy set. The rule base is
Lr Lm
essentially the control strategy of the system. The mathematical
The voltage stators compensation are expressed by the follow- procedure of converting fuzzy values into crisp value is known
ing equations: as defuzzication [1719].
208 S. Lekhchine et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 57 (2014) 206211

NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
1

0.5

-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Fig. 4. Membership functions for output du.

Table 1
Rules base for FLOU control.

de e NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE
NM NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS
NS NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM
ZE NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
PS NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB
PM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB
PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB

Vds1
Tem*
PI -1
Park P =
Fig. 1. Decoupling bloc with fuzzy logic controllers.
Speed
r*
Field V qs2 DSIM
Field ref
reference
Weakening Oriented W
r
Control V
ds2 -1
Park M =
Vqs2

Fuzzy Logic Controller r
de Fuzzification Fig. 5. Structure of speed regulation.
Z-1 +
- interface Xout
Defuzzification
Inference
e interface
Xref Fuzzification
+
- interface 3,4

3.18
DATA BASE CONTROL
Rotor resistance

Fig. 2. Bloc diagram of a fuzzy logic controller.


2,65

NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
1
2,12

0 3 9 15 21 24
Time (s)

0.5
Fig. 6. Variation of rotor resistance.

10
0

-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2


5
Fig. 3. Membership functions for inputs e and de.
Load torque

The FLC is made up of parameters such as rules base, database, -5


membership functions, input and output scaling factor (SF). The SF
is very important parameter because it is directly related to the
-10
stability of the controller system [1622].
0 5 10 15 20
In order to apply the vector control of DSIM, the error (e) and Time (s)
the error variation (de) of the variable to be controlled are dened
by following equation: Fig. 7. Variation of load torque.
S. Lekhchine et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 57 (2014) 206211 209

200 200
Motor speed Motor speed

Reference speed 150 Reference speed


150

100
100
50
50
0
0
-50
-50
-100

-100 -150

-150 -200
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
Time (s)
-200
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 40
Motor torque
Time (s) Load torque
30
40
Motor torque
20
30 Load torque

10
20
0
10
-10

0 -20

-10 -30

-20 -40
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
Time (s)
-30 1.8

1.6
-40
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
1.4
Time (s)
1.8 1.2
Phi rd

1
1.6
0.8
1.4
0.6
1.2
0.4
1
Phi rd

0.2
0.8 0
0 5 10 15 20
0.6 Time (s)
1
0.4
0.8
0.2
0.6
0
0 5 10 15 20 0.4
Time (s)
1 0.2
Phi rq

-0.2

0.5 -0.4

-0.6
0 5 10 15 20
Phi rq

Time (s)

0 Fig. 9. Speed, torque and ux with FL controllers.

the output of the fuzzy controller is considered an incrementation


-0.5 of the control, controller is the Proportional Integral type (PI).
0 5 10 15 20
Time (s)
Therefore, PI are widely used in practice because of their advanta-
ges of inherent stability of the proportional controllers and the off-
Fig. 8. Speed, torque and ux with PI controllers. set elimination capability of integral controllers [22].
About the denition of membership function. This controllers
( has too inputs (e(k) , de(k)) and a single output (Sx). The member-
ex k xref k  xk ship functions represent the degree to which the specied concen-
12
dexK ex k  ex k  1 tration belongs to the fuzzy set. The membership degrees of
assessment indices at each level can be described quantitatively
where x presents the current components ids1, iqs1, ids2, iqs2. through a set of formulae of membership functions [23,24]. To con-
The corresponding outputs (Sx) are Vds1, Vqs1, Vds2, Vqs2 vert these numerical variables in the linguistic variables, the fol-
respectively. However, if the input is directly applied to the pro- lowing seven membership functions are chosen for the input and
cess, the controller is Proportional Derivative (PD), by against, if output: NB: Negative Big, NM: Negative Medium, NS: Negative
210 S. Lekhchine et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 57 (2014) 206211

Small, ZE: Zero Equal; PS: Positive Small, PM: Positive Medium, PB: Appendix B. Principal symbols
Positive Big. Figs. 3 and 4 show respectively triangle and trap-
ezoidal membership functions of input and output variables.
The fuzzy rules that dened the output of the controllers
according to inputs [14]. Where Table 1 present two linguistics s Index stator
variables of inputs e and its variation de and the change of r Index rotor
error du . Vds1, Vqs1, Vds2, Vqs2 Stator voltages dq axis components
The speed regulation scheme using the indirect eld oriented ids1, iqs1, ids2, iqs2 Stator currents dq axis components
control of double star induction motor drive is given in Fig. 5. Vdr, Vqr Rotor voltages dq axis components
As show in this gure, the speed loop uses a PI controller. The bloc idr, iqr Rotor voltages dq axis components
eld oriented control produce the quadrature-axis stators voltage Uds1, Uqs1, Uds2, Stator ux dq axis components
reference. Bloc Park1 is used to convert voltage reference into Uqs2
reference voltage for introduce in pulse with modulation (PWM) Udr, Uqr Rotor ux dq axis components
for inverter control. Rs1, Rs2 Stators resistances
Rr Rotor resistance
Ls1, Ls2 Stators inductances
5. Simulation results Lr Rotor Inductance
Lm Mutual inductance
In this section, the simulation results obtained in MatLab/Simu- xs Speed of the synchronous reference
link are presented and discussed. The parameters of the double star frame
induction machine used in the simulations are given in Appendix xr Rotor electrical angular speed
A. In order to compare the performances of the IFOC upon the ma- xsl Slip speed
chine parameters variations. The proposed structure is tested un- J Moment of inertia
der various operating conditions namely speed reference reversal P Number of pole pairs
(150, -150 rad/s) reference speed, load torque and rotor resistance X Mechanical speed
variations. For each non-zero level of the load torque, the value of Tem Electromagnetic torque
the rotor resistance is increase at 25% of nominal value in the rst Tl Load torque
stage and at 50% in after stage. Figs. 6 and 7 show the imposed kf Friction coefcient
temporary evolution of the load torque and rotor resistance.
The latter conditions allow to test the machine under the vari-
ous and possible operating regimes.
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