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Notebook # 6

Terms Definition Example

Histogram Generated by dividing a -Wide histogram
scanned area into pixels demonstrates higher
and determining the contrast
signal intensity for each -Narrow histogram
pixel. demonstrates lower
Identifies all densities on contrast
the imaging plate in the -Lower comparative- image
form of a graph appears dark or dim
X axis- amount of -Higher comparative- image
exposure appears bright or light
Y-axis- displays # of pixels
for each exposure
Pattern varies for each
body part.
LUT (look up table) A histogram that takes the There is an LUT for every
raw data retrieved from anatomic part and it can be
the exposure made and graphed by plotting the
elevates to the correct original values from 0-255
values. Data that is stored on horizontal axis & new
to substitute new values values on vertical axis
for each pixel during (contrast can be increased
processing. or decreased by changing
Proper LUT provides the slope of graph)
proper grayscale no brightness (density) can be
matter the kVp and mAs changed by moving line up
resulting in consistent or down the y-axis
Rescaling Correction of an exposure -Makes data output and
that is outside the range image display consistent
from underexposure or even with error or
overexposure by shifting exposure.
the histogram to the -It takes data and displays it
correct area tries to fix it for you.
Spatial resolution Geometric property of -phosphor layer determines
image quality. It is the resolution in film
degree of sharpness or -thickness and pixel size
accuracy of structural determines resolution in
lines actually recorded in PSP
the image and can also be
referred to as detail,
definition, sharpness, and (the thinner the phosphor
recorded detail. layer the higher the
3 dimensions of the resolution)
image (digital *smaller pixels=higher
radiography) (better) spatial resolution*
Contrast resolution Ability of digital systems
Higher contrast resolution-
to display subtle changes difference between
in shade of gray densities are more
enhanced More shades of
*Directly related to bit
depth of pixels in image
Modulation transfer function Ability of a system to Spatial frequency-
(MTF) record available spatial descriptor of spatial
frequencies. resolution and is the
Measurement of recorded strength of the signal
detail, sharpness, and measured by sine waves.
resolution; measures the Its a post processing
resolving ability of a function and used when
film/screen combination you need to increase image
sharpness. They have a
direct relationship with
spatial resolution.
Windowing Point processing Window width- controls
operation that changes the ratio of black and white,
contrast and brightness or contrast which is range
(density) of the image on of densities that are
the monitor. displayed. How many grays
Window level-is the are displayed in the image.
center of the WW and -Narrow width- few
controls how bright or densities- high contrast
dark the screen image is. -large width- a lot of
Brightness is opposite of densities- low contrast
window level. Low end of scale- light
High end of scale - darker
(SNR) Signal to Noise Ratio The quantity of incoming -Image noise is inversely
information compared to related to contrast
the level of random -Increased noise decreases
background information image contrast
-High S/N is good noise -Increased image contrast
decreases image contrast tends to decrease noise
-increase in mAs used
during exposure results in
an increase SNR.
Imaging Sampling -The plate is scanned and
the image location and
orientation are
-The size of the signal is
-Value is placed on each
-A histogram is generated
from the image data.
Detective Quantum Efficiency -Measure of the sensitivity 100%= perfect = DQE of 1
(DQE) and accuracy by which the 30-70%= 0.3-0.7 = < DQE
image receptor converts DQEs are lower than one
the incoming data to the -High DQE lowers patient
output viewing device. dose because you dont
-DQE is a measure of % of have to use as much
x-rays absorbed by the IR technical factors
and DQE describes how -DQE .3= bad!
efficiently the IR captures (D)A.Selenium=highest DQE
x-rays and converts them (ID)A.Silicon= second to
to an image signal highest
CR (PSP)= least DQE
Exposure index (EI) -provides information The EI indicates the amount
regarding the exposure to of radiation that was
the image receptor that is absorbed by the IR.
useful to indirectly -Fuji,Konica, and Phillips has
determine patient an S# ranges (150-250) and
exposure. Exposure is inversely proportional to
factors will deliver and plate exposure so low # =
exposure indicator that is overexposure.
within an acceptable -Agfa (1.9-2.1) Carestream
range and will give the (1800-2200) = EI # - directly
best image quality proportional to plate
exposure so high #=
high/over exposure
Deviation Index (DI) The difference between It helps determine whether
the actual exposure and the image has been
the target exposure, but underexposed or
expressed in a logarithmic overexposed.
fashion. DI value of 0.0 is perfect
If DI is increased +1 then anything in the negatives is
increase tech. by 20% underexposure and if
If DI needs to be -1 then positive then overexposure
decrease tech. by 25%
High pass filtering Amplifies or deletes all but High pass is applied to
the high frequencies. Edge remove low spatial
enhancement or frequency and produce a
sharpness. sharper output image.
*increases contrast and
Low pass filtering Amplifies or deletes all but Blurs the image, reduces
low frequencies. noise and displayed
Smoothing- gets rid of brightness level of pixels.
noise and contrast Lower frequencies is
emphasized so decreases
image detail.

Image Processing
1. Point Processing- performed between the receipt of the input image from the IR and the
output image viewed on the monitor. You have to adjust the value of an input pixel
(point) to the corresponding output pixel and are the most common.
-grayscale processing operation allows adjustments to image brightness and contrast
involving the creation of a histogram, LUT and windowing.
The histogram allows the digital system to find the useful signal by locating the
minimum and maximum signal within the anatomical region of interest of the image.
Then the scanned area is divided into pixels and intensity of signal for each pixel is
determined. Then a histogram analysis is done to determine the value of interest and
the exposure index. VOI locates the minimum and maximum exposure for the body
part. If exposure was out of range like underexposed or overexposed, then the
computer will adjust and correct the image by shifting or rescaling the histogram to
correct exposure. Next step is to adjust the contrast so LUT is applied to the data and
provides the proper grayscale.
-Then windowing operation- changes the contrast and brightness on the monitor. The
brightness (density) and contrast of image is depended upon shades of gray thats
controlled by varying numerical values of each pixel. WW is the range of densities that
is displayed.

2. Local Processing- (area or group processing) are mathematical calculations that are applied
to only a small group of pixels and continue till the pixels are subjected to it.

-Kernel is a processing code that is mandatory and common and is applied over and over to the
entire set of data that is being processed.
-Spatial frequency is a type of local processing and is used sharpen, smooth, blur, reduce noise,
or pull elements from image. This occurs in the spatial location domain or spatial frequency
domain. When frequency is done in spatial location the pixel values are used. Small structures-
high frequency, high contrast. Large structures- low frequency, low contrast.
-high pass filtering (edge enhancement/ sharpness)- uses an algorithm to convert image into
the spatial frequency domain. Its applied to remove low spatial frequency and produce sharper
output image. greatly increased contrast occurs. Causes high signal and no noise.
-low pass filtering (smoothing)- blurs the image reducing the noise and the displayed
brightness level of pixels. This process decreases image detail which is no good! Unsharp
masking subtracts a low pass filter image from original image producing a new sharper image.

-Spatial location filtering is a type of local processing and it occurs when a kernel is applied
repeatedly to each pixel in a matrix in order to weigh values or apply across matrix.
3. Geometric Processing Operations- used to change position or orientation (magnify,
rotate, or flip) the pixels in the image.