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Create a chart using the Table below to compare Digital Fluoroscopy Equipment and Image Intensified
Fluoroscopic Equipment. Include information related to patient dose, contrast resolution, spatial
resolution, size of the component, distortion, tube mAs.

Digital Fluoroscopy Equipment Components Image Intensified Equipment Components

(stationary) (mobile)
High sensitive x-ray detector so the # of photons Curved input phosphor leading to peripheral field
detected is greater of view distortion
Large or wide dynamic range of x-rays detected X-ray detector is not sensitive
and is 60 times greater than image intensifiers
Magnification requires loss of x-ray exposure Small dynamic range of x-rays are detected
meaning less # of photons are detected
Digital technology is used Magnification requires higher x-ray exposure
Flat detector with maintained spatial resolution System developed using analog technology
in periphery
Flat panel designs require less radiation and are Image intensifiers have
more sensitive to x-rays 2.5-3.2 lp/mm V.S. 1-2 lp/mm
CCD- Charged Coupled Device is a replacement CCD can act like an image intensifier or be part of
for camera tube. It operated under vidiocom, the output window to collect light photons
Flat panel has either direct capture with x-ray photons are captured and made into light
amorphous selenium or indirect capture that photons by the phosphor on the input window,
uses cesium iodide (CSL) that is used as a the photocathode changes the light photons into
scintillator, amorphous silicon that is the electrons. The charged electrostatic lenses
photodetector and painted on as substrate compress the electrons and the potential
material. difference between the anode and cathode have
energy that move the electrons to the
fluorescent screen to the fiber optic and to the
TFT- operates the same way as static digital
imaging. The array includes the readout, charge
collector, and light sensitive elements and deals
with DELS. Each pixel has its own photodetector
or photodiode that absorbs the light and converts
it to an electrical charge. The electrical charge is
captured by the TFT and transmitted to display
ASIC is used to minimize does and to amplify the
Spatial Resolution- for digital is better than
image intensifiers
50% lower dose to patient in digital due to pulse
beam being used and higher mAs
Digital has better contrast and higher DQE
Distortion is not see and the FOV is smaller than
image intensifier

-Image receptor is 20cmX20cm or 40cm X 30cm

and there can be 30 frames per second

The use of equipment to protect patients is fluorescent screens, mirrors and optics, lead
protection devices, image intensifiers, charge coupled devices, and flat panel detector all of
which improve image quality.
A fluoroscopy exam using an image intensifier on a male, would use a 3 mA current, for 10
minutes, the ESE to the patient would be about 30 R. so, the total rate of exposure would be
lower using the small current and the total exposure to the patient would be higher. (1-5 mA
should be use to see a bright enough image).
The x-ray tube under the table protects your eyes and chest as best as possible. The middle area
is high no matter which way the tube is and the x-ray tube has protective lead shielding around
it to limit radiation leakage. This type of image, with a lead curtain attached to the carriage
would lessen the middle dose.
Protective equipment should always be worn such as thyroid shield, lead aprons, lead glasses,
etc. and these should be examined for cracks annually recommended by the Joint Commission
and the American College of Radiology.
Standing next to the patient exposes the operator to 3 mGy/hour or 300 R/hour.