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For Educational Purposes Only

Dear Dr. Heidi Gurdo, Ed.D, MArch,

Thank you for choosing Capstone Consulting 2017 and allowing us to


propose a wastewater treatment design report that provides technical
information, as well as recommendations and considerations aimed
towards what we believe is a best choice for a wastewater treatment
system for the proposed Smart Growth community to be developed on the
Lums Pond State Park Campground site in Bear, Delaware. The model
chosen to best suit your needs has been selected and a wastewater
treatment report has been provided for you. A technical treatment report
has also been provided by the manufacturers and may be found in the
references portion of the following report as well.

We hope you are pleased with our findings and recommendations


and if you need any further assistance please call Capstone Consulting
2017 for further assistance at (302) 743-8305.

Very Respectfully,

Dana Tomczak, George Strosnider, and Jacob Capodanno


of Capstone Consulting 2017.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT DESIGN REPORT

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FOR
Dr. Heidi Gurdo, Ed.D, MArch

Prepared By:
Capstone Consulting
400 Stanton-Christiana Road
Newark DE, 19703
13, April 2017

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Engineering
Report
FOR
Lums Pond Campground
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

Table of Contents

Sections

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 DESIGN WASTEWATER FLOW


2.1 Population and Service Area
2.2 Wastewater Flow and Characteristic Forecast
2.2.1 Physical and Chemical Characteristics
2.2.2 Wastewater Flow Patterns
2.2.3 Projected Flows and and Characteristics Forecast

3.0 FACILITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


3.1 General
3.2 Stormwater management
3.3 Environmental Effect of the Project
3.3.1 Odor
3.3.2 Noise
3.3.3 Public Accessibility
3.3.4 Proximity to Residential Areas
3.3.5 Flood Protection
3.4 Disposal Method

4.0 TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND DESIGN CRITERIA


4.1 Hydraulic and Organic Loadings
4.2 Flow Metering Sampling

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4.3 Recycle Flows


4.4 Chemicals Used
4.5 Removals/Treatment Efficiencies:
4.5.1 BOD
4.5.2 TSS
4.5.3 Nitrogen
4.6 Chlorine Doses, Residuals and Contact Time
4.7 Residuals Treatment, Management and Disposal
4.8 Process Diagrams
4.9 Summary of system flow and treatment

5.0 OUTFALLS
5.1 Pipe Flow

6.0 EFFLUENT REUSE DISPOSABLE SYSTEM


6.1 Project Land Use
6.2 Local Water Wells
6.3 Site Soils/Hydrologic Group

7.0 Other Options Considered


7.1 Further recommendations for a wastewater treatment plant over
other applications

8.0 Conclusion
9.0 References

Appendix A
Ratio of Peak Hourly Flow to Design Average Flow, figure 6.0
Appendix B
Plan view of the Treatment Plant
Appendix C
Profile view of the Treatment Plant

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ENGINEERING REPORT

1.0 INTRODUCTION

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The proposed Wastewater Treatment Facility has been reviewed by


the consultants at Capstone Consulting 2017 and is believed to be best
fitted to suit your needs of a 57,800 gallon per day wastewater treatment
facility. Capstone Consulting believes that a packaged plant designed by
the company Smith and Loveless is best suitable for the required
wastewater parameters specific to the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES).

The model that Capstone Consulting 2017 has chosen that shall best
suit your proposed sites needs is the Model R Oxigest Wastewater
Treatment System by Smith and Loveless. This treatment is the best option
for the site because it is a packaged plant and it comes with all the required
components. A package plant was determined to be the best option for this
site, rather than a septic or land application due to the soils on the property.
The soils on the property are frequently flooded within the specific area that
effluent will be discharged.The proposed stormwater management plan set
forth by Capstone Consulting 2017s Civil and Environmental Engineering
department will aim the stormwater towards the southwest side of the
property to account for flooding and stormwater management in this area.
A packaged plant was chosen over septic because the soils are not
suitable for septic. Septic tanks are buried underground tend to leach out
effluence over time which may cause groundwater contamination. Septics
also empty into drainfields which may be effective for some time, however
they ultimately collect toxins such as chemical additives, heavy metals,
fats, oils, greases, paints, and paint thinners. Theses toxins may eventually
render the drainfield ineffective and may provide further risk of
contamination (Simply Septics,DNREC 1996). This plant shall be
designed to treat the water above ground and then discharge treated
effluents back into the canal. With this design, water is already treated to a
specific standard before going back into the environment and the surface-
water body of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The specific standard
that the treated water shall adhere to is the pre-existing National Pollution
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Lums Pond and
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal watersheds.

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The plant is also field-erected, meaning the contractor will bring in the
parts and build it on-site. A pump station equipped with a will be provided
by the manufacturer Smith and Loveless. There will also be a fence
included to surround the perimeter of the plant in order to keep tenants and
small children at a distance during operator adjusting times. The system
removes biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids
(TSS), nitrogen, phosphorus and or potassium (NPK), or total potassium
and nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus and nutrients. It also requires minimal
maintenance. There is an existing permit at the current Lums Pond
Wastewater Treatment Facility that sets the limitations of the quality of
effluent being discharged into the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. For
good engineering practice, it is recommended that two operators, rotating
between a nine to five schedule, check the effluent levels and keep them in
a record log on a bi-weekly basis, as well as work within the standard
procedures within an operation and maintenance plan to ensure general
upkeep of the facility.
According to the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Control (DNREC), the permittee must take all steps
necessary to minimize any adverse impact to the Waters of the State which
may potentially result from operation under the issued permit. In order to
operate under the limitations of an issued permit and ensure that there is
minimal adverse impact, it is required that an Operation and Maintenance
Plan (O&M Plan) be submitted to the department (DNREC) for review
following the construction of the wastewater treatment facility. The general
requirements for the O&M plan may be found under section 6.7.2.2.1 of the
State of Delaware Regulations Governing the Design, Installation and
operation of On-site Wastewater Treatment Facilities and Disposal systems
on the DNREC website. The Model R Oxigest system has been chosen
because the treated effluent from the model will minimize adverse impact to
the waters, and the system will meet the limitations and requirements
specified by the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) permit.

2.0 DESIGN WASTEWATER FLOW

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The maximum capacity that the Model R Oxigest wastewater


treatment facility has been designed for is 231,200 Gallons Per Day. This is
based on calculations from Capstone Consulting 2017s Civil Engineering
Department, as well as the recommendation by the Environmental
Department. It was calculated that the total wastewater that the proposed
Smart Growth community will produce will be an average of 57,800 gallons
per day. Capstone Consulting has determined that a safety factor of 4 will
be needed to account for peak flow. This safety factor was recommended
by the 10 State Standards Great Lakes Upper Mississippi River Board
Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities. A graphical
representation of how safety factor was determined has been provided in
Appendix A of this report, figure 6.0. With a safety factor of four, the
proposed wastewater facility is designed to handle a maximum flow of
231,200 gallons per day.

2.1 Population and Service Area

The proposed service area for the wastewater treatment facility is the
proposed Smart Growth community to be developed on the Lums Pond
State Park Campground Property, located at 1060 Howell school Rd, Bear
DE 19701, tax parcel #11-047.00-005, Deed Record E-126-247.
Population in units for the proposed community and converted to
gallons per day (GPD) is displayed by the table and figures below, figure
1.0a, set forth by the Capstone 2017 Civil and Environmental Engineering
Technology Departments:

Table 1: Wastewater Load Calculations

Building # of Unit Number of Wastewater Total


Description Units Of Occupants Generation Volume
Measure per home in Gallons in
per person Gallons
per Day per Day

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(GPD) (GPD)
Single Family 87 # of 3 100 26,100
Homes Houses
Townhomes 63 # of 3 100 18,900
Houses
Apartments 30 # of 3 100 9,000
Houses
School/College 1 # of 100 15 1,500
Buildings
Commercial 11,500 Square 0 0.2 2,300
Feet
Average 57,800
Hydraulic Load

Figure 1.0a Population in units for the proposed community

GPD stands for gallons per day. The total volume of water coming
into the wastewater treatment plant is approximately 57,800 Gallons Per
Day. The calculations as to how this total was reached are as follows:
An average use of 100 gallons per person per day was determined.
This average use is defined by the 10 State Standards Great Lakes Upper
Mississippi River Board Recommended Standards for Wastewater
Facilities. This decision was determined based upon the fact that the 100
gallons of wastewater per person day is more stringent for calculation
purposes, than the gallons per day based upon dwelling units by building

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type as defined by the New Castle County sewer use design flows. ( New
Castle County, Sewer, July 2007).
Since there are 87 single family homes, each with 3 occupants, at a
design rate of wastewater usage of 100 gallons per person per day, this
results in an average volume of 26,100 gallons per day (GPD). There are
63 townhomes, each holding 3 occupants, with an average use of 100
gallons of wastewater per person per day. This results in an average
volume of 18,900 GPD. For the apartments, there are 30, with 3 occupants
per apartment, and an average use of 100 gallons of wastewater per
person per day. This results in an an average volume of 9,000 GPD. There
is only 1 proposed school/college for the site, with 100 occupants and an
average use of 15 gallons of wastewater per person per day. This will result
in an average volume of 1,500 GPD for the school/college. There are also
proposed commercial buildings for the site.
The Civil Engineers of Capstone Consulting 2017 have proposed that
an area of 11,500 square feet will be taken up on the site for commercial
use. A factor of 0.2 is used to calculate the average daily volume of flow
coming from proposed commercial buildings on the site which shall result in
an average volume of 2,300 GPD. This is based upon building type so the
calculation came from the New Castle County sewer use design flows
(New Castle County Delaware, Sewer, July, 2007).
In summary, the total average volume of influent waste; or waste
coming into the plant, calculated based upon the predicted average flow
volumes for each type of dwelling; is 57,800 Gallons Per Day.

2.2 Wastewater Flow and Characteristics Forecast

The wastewater treatment facility will handle a daily average flow of


57,800 Gallons Per Day of influent coming into the plant. Since we are
using a safety factor of 4, this will increase our influent four-fold. When we
calculate this, it comes out to be 231,200 gallons per day. The wastewater
characteristics are of typical domestic wastewater from residents on the
site. If for any reason the plant shall need to handle flows above this

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predicted amount, the plant will have flow equalization for excess flow
storage and will regulate the excess flow. It has been determined that the
ratio for the proposed plant is approximately 4:1. According to the
recommendations from the 10 State Standards Recommended Standards
for Wastewater Facilities, flow equalization is recommended when the ratio
is greater than 3:1; If the ratio of design peak hourly flow to design
average flow is 3:1 or more, flow equalization shall be considered. This
may be accomplished by either building a wet weather retention basin and
gradually returning the excess flow to the treatment plant during off-peak
periods or by providing a plant large enough to handle all
flows.(Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities,2014, p.15).
This flow equalization included in the design will be the basin accounting
for peak flows, as well as times of lesser flow, so that the pumps being
used dont become overworked or damaged.
The pumping rate shall be infinitely adjustable between these limits
and shall be adjusted by a throttling valve in the air supply line. All openings
and passages shall be large enough to permit the passage of a sphere 3"
(75 mm) in diameter. S&L MULTIFUSER diffuser(s) shall be provided and
all necessary air control valves(S & L).

2.2.1 Physical and Chemical Characteristics

In order to design this wastewater treatment plant, we must consider


physical and biological aspects of what is going through our wastewater
treatment process such as biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended
solids, and nitrogen and nutrients that may or may not have adverse affects
on the wastewater and must be addressed through the treatment
processes.
BOD stands for biochemical oxygen demand. The 5-day Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD5) is defined as the amount of oxygen required to
stabilize biodegradable organic matter under aerobic conditions within a
five day period in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination
of Water and Wastewater as defined by 10 State Standards.
(Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities, 2014, pg. 13). In

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simple terms, if oxygen demand is is high in a natural water body, it has


potential to use up all of the oxygen and kill the fish and other organisms.
This is why the BOD effluent, or the BOD coming out of the plant after it is
treated, should be a very low amount.

TSS stands for total suspended solids. Total suspended solids are
simply the solid materials of the influent that do not settle out to the bottom
of the settling tanks during the wastewater treatment process.

For the treatment of the wastewater throughout the plant, NPDES


requirements were examined to determine the levels at which parameters
of effluent should be reduced. These parameters include Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and BOD effluent flowing back into the C&D canal to allow a
safe concentration returning to the surface-water body. Smith and Loveless
representatives were contacted to ensure that these effluent concentration
requirements were met. There is an existing NPDES permit for the current
Lums Pond State Park Campground wastewater treatment facility and that
is what this design proposal was based off of. Current discharge effluent
limitations for the Lums Pond sub watershed and the Chesapeake and
Delaware Canal per the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Control are as follows:
Effluent BOD: 13 lbs/day
Effluent TSS: 26 lbs/day
Effluent Nitrogen: 9 lbs/day
Effluent Phosphorus: 2 lbs/day

The following are tables which were used to calculated the total
average influents that will be coming into the plant from the residents:
Figure 1.2a shows Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) influent. Figure
1.2b shows Total Suspended Solids influent. Figure 1.2c shows Nitrogen
influent, and figure 1.2d shows Phosphorus influent.

Influent coming into the plant from residents:


BOD Generated Influent:

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Waste Numbe BOD BOD BOD


Generation Building # of Unit of r of Loadin Concentration Concentration
Rate(GPD) Description Units Measure People g Rate Units (lbs/day) (mg/l)
Single number
Family of lbs/person/
100 Homes 87 houses 3 0.22 day 57.42 263.29
number
Townhome of lbs/person/
100 s 63 houses 3 0.22 day 41.58 263.29
number
of lbs/person/
100 Apartments 30 houses 3 0.22 day 19.8 263.29
number
of lbs/person/
15 College 1 buildings 100 0.22 day 4 323.09
Commercia 1150
0.2 l 0 sq ft 0 3.84 259.7
Total=
126.64 Total=159.7
Figure 1.2a Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) influent.

Total Suspended Solids Generated Influent (TSS)

Wastewater TSS TSS Unit of Number


Generation TSS Concentration Concentrations Load Building # of Measu of
Rate (GPD) (lbs/day) (mg/l) Rate Units Description Units re People
numbe
Single r of
(lbs/person/ Family house
100 65.25 299.2 0.25 day) Homes 87 s 3

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numbe
r of
(lbs/person/ Townhome house
100 47.25 299.2 0.25 day) s 63 s 3
numbe
r of
(lbs/person/ house
100 22.5 299.2 0.25 day) Apartments 30 s 3
numbe
r of
(lbs/person/ buildin
15 25 359.04 0.25 day) College 1 gs 100
(lbs/person/ 1150
0.2 4.61 240 0.25 day) Com. 0 sq ft 0

total=144.11 total=299.2
Figure 1.2b Total Suspended Solids influent.

Nitrogen Generated Influent:

Nitrogen Nitrogen
Waste Concentrations Concentration Loading Buildng # of Unit of Number
(GPD) (lbs/day) (mg/l) Rates Units Desciption Units Measure of People
(lbs/person Single Family
100 12 55.05 0.046 /day) Homes 87 #houses 3
(lbs/person
100 8.69 55.05 0.046 /day) Townhomes 63 # house 3
100 4.14 55.05 0.046 (lbs/person Apartments 30 number 3

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of
/day) houses
College
(lbs/person/day)b
ased on
Wastewater N% number
recommendation of
15 0.828 66.06 .046*.18 from H&H book 1 buildings 100
Commercial
(lbs/person/day)b
ased on
Wastewater N%
recommendation 1150 sq ft of
0.2 0.673 35 .046*.18 from H&H book 0 building 0

total=26.33 total=53.85
Figure 1.2c Nitrogen influent.

Phosphorus Generated Influent

Wastewater Phosphorus Phosphorus Number


Generation Concentrations(lbs/day Concentrations Building # of Unit of of
Rate ) (mg/L) Description Units Measure People
Single number
Family of
100 1.66 7.6 Homes 87 houses 3
number
of
100 1.2 7.6 Townhomes 63 houses 3

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number
of
100 0.57 7.6 Apartments 30 houses 3
number
of
building
15 0.095 7.6 College 1 s 100
0.2 0.15 7.6 Commercial 11500 sq ft 0

total=3.68 total=7.61
Figure 1.2d Phosphorus influent.

The Smith and Loveless Manufacturer and General Manager was


contacted to ensure that the system was capable of meeting the existing
National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.
The manufacturers simply rounded up the influent parameters for more
conservative calculations and to prove that the effluent would meet the
required standard.

Figure 1.3 displays what the Model R Oxigest Systems characteristics


summary. The characteristics summary table shows what the system is
capable of:

Figure 1.3 Model R Oxigest Systems wastewater characteristics

The effluent that the manufacturer provided Capstone Consulting 2017 with
was in milligrams per Liter or mg/L. To be sure that the effluent meets the
standard in pounds per day the universal loading equation from Hammer &

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Hammer was used to convert into pounds per day. (Water and
Wastewater, 2012).

The universal loading equation is the total flow in Million Gallons per
Day (MGD), Multiplied by the effluent in milligrams per Liter, multiplied by a
constant of 8.34.

For example, to convert the total effluent of Biochemical Oxygen


Demand in mg/L, coming out of the plant to pounds per day (lbs/day),
Calculate:

.0578 MGD X 26 mg/L X 8.34 = 12.53 lbs/day.


This means that 12.53 pounds per day of BOD will be discharged as
the effluent into the canal and will meet the 13 pounds per day limitation set
forth by the existing permit.

The following Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total


Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were
calculated the same way:

Total BOD: 12.53 lbs/day or 26 mg/L


Total TSS: 25.5 lbs/day or 53 mg/L
Total Nitrogen: 8.68 lbs/day or 18 mg/L
Total Phosphorous: 1.93lbs/day or 4 mg/L

Effluent standards to meet based upon the effluent limitations that the
lums pond sub watershed and the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal can
handle according to the Delaware Department Natural Resources and
Environmental Control and the existing National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System ( NPDES) permit for the watershed:
BOD: 13 lbs/day
TSS: 26 lbs/day
Nitrogen: 9 lbs/day
Phosphorus: 2 lbs/day

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Conclusion of National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)


permit limitations:

Based upon theses calculations, the Model R Oxigest recommended


system will meet the required limitations set forth by the existing National
Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the
Chesapeake and Delaware canal watershed.

Characteristics summary
The plant shall adhere to all requirements set forth by the National
Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and the effluent may be
discharged into a water system such as the C&D canal.
Advantages of the Smith & Loveless MODEL R Oxigest System include:

Reduced tank complexity and piping

Package plant reduces contractor time spent on installation

Maximized space efficiency

Separate process zones that can be individually adjusted and/or


evaluated

Customized process zone size/configuration

Fine or Coarse bubble diffusers for aeration and odor control purposes

2.2.2 Wastewater Flow Patterns


The maximum flow of wastewater that the proposed Model R Oxigest
system may handle is 231,200 gallons per day (GPD). This was
determined based upon a safety factor of four, found in Appendix A of this
report. Since there is a an average GPD of 57,800, the safety factor was
chosen due to the recommendations from the chart for safety factors for

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wastewater treatment facilities from the 10 State Standards Great Lakes


Upper Mississippi River Board Recommended Standards for Wastewater
Facilities.(Recommended Standards for Wastewater,2014,sec 10-6,
p.12). The implementation of flow equalization shall allow the plant to keep
running without starving the pumps. The plant was also designed with an
engineering safety factor. The safety factor has been used to account for
peak flow and shall allow the plant to handle an excess of up to 173,400
GPD (231,200 GPD - 57,800 GPD = 173,400 GPD). Since the average
volume of wastewater coming into the plant at 57,800 GPD will be met, the
plant will operate at 25% capacity, or 57,800 GDP/231,200 GPD= .25 or
25%. The plant will operate at a design average flow of 57,800 GPD and
the total maximum average flow it can handle is 231,200 (GPD).

2.2.3 Projected Flows and characteristics Forecast

Planning for this plant is designed to handle a population that will


create to 57,800 GPD on average. The Smith and Loveless plant that we
believe best suits the site for this parameter has a max capacity of up to
231,200GPD. This means that the plant will be performing at 25% capacity
during average flow days.

3.0 FACILITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

3.1 General

The existing wastewater treatment plant will be demolished. A new


Smith and Loveless Model R Oxigest Wastewater treatment system will be
installed in the far east part of the site where the existing facility is currently.
All new sewage flow will be diverted to the new treatment plant. All effluent
from the site will discharged through the existing, permitted discharge (C&D
Canal).

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3.2 Stormwater Management

Please refer to section 3.3.5 Flood Protection for information on


proposed stormwater management due to the site being located in a
heavily flooded area.

3.3 Environmental Effects of Project

3.3.1 Odor

The plant itself will be relatively far away from the residents and odor
from this treatment system is expected to be minimal. The Smith and
Loveless Model R Oxigest system includes an aeration process in which
the final effluent will have no considerable odor. A cap will be placed on the
system by Smith & Loveless in order to eliminate any potential odor issue.

3.3.2 Noise

There will not be significant noise coming from the new treatment
plant. Due to the distance between the location of the facility and the rest
of the residential/commercial development on site, noise will not be a
considerable issue.

3.3.3 Public Accessibility

No public access will be allowed to the wastewater treatment system.


The entire plant will be surrounded with a concrete circle with a step-path
for operator purposes. A fence will be provided with posted signage
informing tenants, civilians, and parents with small children to stay at a safe
distance during operating hours. There will also be posted signage included
educational information provided for how the treatment plant works for the
students that are attending the proposed college in the Smart Growth
community.

3.3.4 Proximity to Residential Areas

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The proposed wastewater treatment facility will be located on the far


east side of the site, away from any residential or commercial units. There
will be an area of trees between the wastewater plant and the rest of the
site forming a boundary between the two.

3.3.5 Flood Protection

Due to the wastewater entering the facility at five feet below ground a
pump station will need to be implemented in the design. The Smith and
Loveless Model R Oxigest plant is to be constructed above ground to
ensure no stormwater entry into the treatment system. The proposed
design will be constructed in the same area as the existing plant, which is
the the south-east portion of the property. According to the United States
Department of Agriculture's Web Soils Survey, the existing plant location
contains longmarsh and indiantown soil types and is a frequently flooded
area. The proposed stormwater management plan set forth by Capstone
Consulting 2017s Civil and Environmental Engineering department will aim
the stormwater towards the southwest side of the property to account for
flooding and stormwater management in this area. A stormwater
management bioswale and large infiltration basin will be provided on the
southeast end of the site which will cause 100% infiltration of the Resource
protection event, (RPv), as well convey and control stormwater runoff and
potential flooding within the area. Please refer to Capstone Consulting
2017s stormwater management plan for further details.

3.4 Effluent Disposal Method


The method of effluent disposal will be to discharge into the
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (C&D Canal) in accordance with an
existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit.
Most of the flow during a flood occurrence will make its way towards the
south-west side of the property. That being said, there will not be a
significant impact to our area of interest from pollution of stormwater or
wastewater.

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3.3.6 Lighting
Lighting at the wastewater treatment plant will be limited to only when
service is needed to ensure no disturbance to nearby residential areas. We
will be following the guidelines for the previous permit on the property.

4.0 TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND DESIGN CRITERIA

4.1 Hydraulic and Organic Loadings


We expect that our current projections will remain consistent, due to
no further allowable development of the area. A peak safety factor has
been accounted for, however the plant is expected to maintain a steady
average flow since flow equalization will be installed on the front end of the
plant.A summary of the projected design and loading conditions is as
follows:
Calculated influent from the residents:
Organic
Total BOD: 126.64 pounds/day
Total Nitrogen: 26.33 pounds/day
Total Suspended Solids (TSS): 144.11pounds/day
Phosphorus: 3.68 pounds/day

Hydraulic Total Wastewater Flow Rates:


Design Annual Average Flow 21.4 Million Gallons Per Year
(57,800GPD*365 Days/Year)
Design Seasonal 3 Month Average 5.20 Million Gallons Per Year.
(57,800GPD*90 Days/Year)
Design Average Monthly Flow 1.7 Million Gallons Per Month.
(57,800GPD*30Days/Month)

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Organic loadings on the individual unit processes and an evaluation


of the overall efficiency of the process in terms of certain criteria, goes into
further detail in section 4.5.

4.2 Flow Metering Sampling

Flow meter samplings and reports and documents are the ultimate
responsibility of the Chief Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. The flow
metering will be controlled by a manual valve and have a body constructed
with tough machined acrylic meter, and highly polished to a clear finish with
a direct reading permanent scale. The float and guide rod shall be
constructed of 316 stainless steel. The F/NPT adaptors shall be
constructed with a high grade Viton-O ring seals and aluminum stress ring
thread supports, and is operable in direct sunlight(Wastewater, 2012).

4.3 Recycle Flows

One recycled flow occurs within the system and is displayed in the
diagram in section 4.8.

4.4 Chemicals Used

Chlorine is used for the chlorine contact tank.

Chemical precipitation is used to remove the inorganic forms of


phosphate by adding a coagulant and mixing it with the wastewater. The
multivalent metal ions most commonly used are calcium, aluminum and
iron.

4.5 Removals/Treatment Efficiencies


Removal efficiencies were calculated and the following removal
efficiencies will be met after the influents are processed through the Model
R Oxigest System since the plant may handle waste up to 6000 mg/L.

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The design average flow is 57,800 gallons of wastewater per day (GPD),
therefore, on average, the plant may handle wastes up to 33,992.71pounds
per day (lbs/day) on average.
This is based on the universal loading equation:
.0578 MGD X 6000 mg/L X 8.34 = 33,992.71 pounds of total waste per day
(lbs/day total).

These removal efficiencies were based upon the effluent standards


that the NPDES permit allows into the watershed and the influent coming
into the plant from the residents:

The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal efficiency is 90%.


The Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal efficiency is 82%
Nitrogen removal efficiency is 67%, and the
Phosphorus removal efficiency is 40%.
The Smith and Loveless Model R Oxigest System will meet these removal
efficiencies.
4.5.1 BOD

BOD stands for biochemical oxygen demand. Keeping a low BOD


content in water systems is very vital to the ecological systems on the
planet. The 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) is defined as the
amount of oxygen required to stabilize biodegradable organic matter under
aerobic conditions within a five day period in accordance with Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater as defined by 10
State Standards. (Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities,
2014, pg. 13.)

Human sewage BOD is 200-275 mg/L.(Mark J. Hammer, Mark J.


Hammer, Jr. (2012), Water and Wastewater Technology). We have 57,800
GPD of wastewater entering the plant.

Model R Oxigest Wastewater Treatment Plant System parameters


entered for their calculations based on the plants treatment ability:

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The BOD influent that the new plant will have from the residents is 126.64
lbs/day. The effluent will be 12.53 lbs/day. Therefore the removal efficiency
will be 90% or:
(126.64lbs/day-12.53lbs/day)/126.64lbs/day x 100 = 90%

4.5.2 TSS

TSS stands for total suspended solids. Total suspended solids are
simply the solid materials of the influent that do not settle out to the bottom
of the settling tanks during the wastewater treatment process. The TSS
influent that the new plant will have from the residents is 144.11 lbs/day.
The effluent will be 25.5 lbs/day. Therefore the removal efficiency will be
82% or:
(144.11lbs/day-25.5lbs/day)/144.11lbs/day x 100 = 82%

4.5.3 Nitrogen

Nitrogen is different from BOD and TSS in terms of removal as it


changes forms as it morphs into different versions of nitrogen as it
undergoes treatment. Nitrogen may enter the plant in forms of ammonia
and organic nitrogen, together, these are referred to as TKN.

Nitrification is the process in biological wastewater treatment when


TKN is converted into nitrite, and then eventually nitrate nitrogen. Since the
wastewater treatment plant is operated for nitrate removal, nitrate may be
converted into nitrogen gas through a process called denitrification.
The Nitrogen influent that the new plant will have from the residents is
26.33 lbs/day. The effluent will be 8.68 lbs/day. Therefore the removal
efficiency will be 67% or:
(26.33lbs/day-8.68 lbs/day)/26.33 lbs/day x 100 = 67%

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4.5.4 Phosphorus
The Phosphorus influent that the new plant will have from the
residents is 3.68 lbs/day. The effluent will be 1.93 lbs/day. Therefore the
removal efficiency will be 45% or:
(3.68lbs/day-1.93 lbs/day)/1.93 lbs/day x 100 = 47%

4.6 Chlorine Doses, Residuals and Contact Time

Chlorine is the most economically feasible and widely used chemical


for disinfection purposes of wastewater in wastewater treatment facilities.
Chlorine contact involves rapid initial mixing of the chlorine and waste in
the design for the disinfection. Applications of 8-15 mg/L provide adequate
disinfection in well-designed units, as well as a minimum of 20-30 minutes
of contact time. The rapid mixing chamber within the system uses a
mechanical mixing device to disperse chlorine solution throughout the
wastewater. The Model R Oxigest System will be operated with 15 mg/L
chlorine for disinfection and at least a 30 minute chlorine contact time for
the wastewater. (Mark J. Hammer, Mark J. Hammer, Jr. (2012), Water and
Wastewater Technology).

4.7 Residuals Treatment, Management and Disposal

The plant Capstone Consulting 2017 is recommending has primary,


secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment refers to
sedimentation, the physical process used to remove settleable suspended
solids from wastewater. Secondary treatment is the waste water treatment
that removes organic material from wastewater using biological treatment
processes. Tertiary treatment is the final cleaning process that improves
wastewater quality before it is reclaimed or discharged into the
environment. The treatment removes any remaining inorganic compounds

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and substances such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Tertiary treatment can


include nutrient removal, additional removal of organic matter and
suspended solids, and removal of toxic materials. The full treatment
process produces a cake-like sludge that remains as a residual and may
be disposed of via the discretion of the client. Most facilities usually sell it to
landfills as landfill cover. Another option would be to sell the sludge as
milorganite fertilizer for farming uses.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Size:

Diameter: 44-5, Height: 16-6 . See appendix B for other plant


sizing and schematics.

4.8 Process Diagram

A process flow diagram with flow arrows has been provided and shows the
overall process of where the wastewater flows within the system in a linear
fashion. This representation is displayed in figure 6.1

Influent Anoxic Aeration Clarifier DGF Filter Effluent


RAS
Sludge Holding Tank
Figure 6.1: Process Flow Diagram

4.9 Summary of system flow and treatment

The Smith and Loveless model R Oxigest System design is equipped


with complete aeration, clarification, and advanced treatment, within a
concentric tank. The Oxigest system maximizes space efficiency in its
footprint. This aids in land preservation practices. This design was made
with concepts in mind of minimizing the use of steel, ultimately lowering raw
material cost, and minimizing surface area exposure to the elements.

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Minimizing surface area elemental exposure saves heat, and protects the
biological processes occurring in the tank for treatment of the wastewater.
The system comes with electrical operation switches that allow the
operators to control how they want the zones or tanks within the system to
operate. Influent wastewater that is fed into the system flows into a
moderately aerated flow equalization zone for stabilization of flow and
organic loading, before it is sent into one of two anoxic zone tanks. In the
anoxic tanks, the wastewater is mixed with return activated sludge solids
( RAS) through a pipe known as the RAS line. This mixing of the influent
and RAS waste yields short periods of low dissolved oxygen for the
purposes of preventing any undesirable bacteria that may harm to the
tanks or their biological processes.
The influent then passes through the aeration zone. This includes
state-of-the-art air diffusion equipment. This equipment is used for oxygen
transfer, effective mixing, and has minimal energy usage. Diffusion zones
within the system may be adjusted by the operator within the aeration zone
to help optimize treatment. The aeration zone also contains instrumentation
for process monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended
solids (MLSS), and temperature levels. This allows the wastewater
treatment operator to easily control the plant from the remote operations
control system that will be included in this plant

Example of a Model R Oxigest Wastewater Treatment Facility Process


shown by figure 2.0.

Figure 2.0, Example of a Model R Oxigest Wastewater Treatment Facility Process

The design flexibility is displayed in figure 2.1a. The flexibility of what


the Model R Oxigest system may do is variable depending on the flow or

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kind of materials within the waste from the population. Smith and Loveless
considers flow equalization, advanced nitrification and or denitrification, and
tertiary treatment when evaluating design models. This is displayed in
figure 2.1a. If you look closely at figure 2.0, you can see that the
recommended model is a combination of all three design considerations. In
the design in figure 2.0, flow equalization is on the end where the influent
comes in, and then the process is followed up by two anoxic tanks included
in this system. The two anoxic tanks provide treatment by biological
processes that aid in the removal of nitrogen. In the tanks, nitrogen is
broken down into nitrate, and then exposed to environment that lacks free
oxygen. Organisms then use the nitrate as an electron acceptor, and
release nitrogen in the form of nitrogen gas or oxides. This process is also
known as denitrification. The flow of wastewater then continues into the
aeration chamber where the waste is aerated. After aeration the
wastewater flows into the clarifier for clarification processes to take place
with chemical treatment. From then on the water continues into a tank
where there is filtration, disinfection, and re-aeration of the wastewater.
After that, the treated water exits the whole system and is discharged into
the Chesapeake and Delaware canal under the permit limitations. The
excess sludge is then sent to the sludge holding tank. The leftover sludge
and grit will be minimal and the client may choose to dispose of it through
the recommended disposal methods discussed in section(s) 3.4 and 4.7 of
this report. The flow design figure of how the wastewater treatment process
will occur is shown in figure 2.0. A sample of how the treatment plant may
look on the site is shown in figure 3.0.

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Figure 2.0, Example of a Model R Oxigest Wastewater Treatment Facility Process

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figure 2.1a, Design flexibility

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Figure 3.0 Sample: Model R Oxigest Installation


(Brochure 1225) Smith &Loveless Inc, 2014,retrieved from https://smithandloveless.com/products/treatment/model-r-oxigest-
wastewater-treatment-system ).

5.0 Outfalls:

The outfall of the current wastewater treatment plant system is


where the effluent goes back into the a small tributary that leads back
into the C&D Canal at coordinates: Latitude: 39 DEG 32 MIN 52SEC
North, and Longitude: 75DEG 42MIN 12SEC West. The following
slope is the current slope in feet per feet for nominal sewer size for
the current outfall discharge location: .125ft/ft. Therefore the new
discharge pipe to be installed may stay at the current slope and the
new proposed wastewater facility will indeed handle up to
231,200GPD without causing damage to the pipes. In regards to pipe
flow, there is a chart located in the section A appendix of this report
as well as on page 12, Chapter 10-6 in the 10 State Standards
manual for Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities, with

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a chart that refers to calculating the ratio of peak hourly flow to design
daily average flow.

5.1 Pipe Flow:


The size of the discharge pipe of the current system is 8.0 inches in
diameter or .66 feet. The flow will be an average flow of .058 MGD or .108
cubic feet per second.
Q=AV, determines flow where,
Q= flow in cubic feet per second (cfs)
A= Area (square feet)
V= velocity. (feet/second).
Therefore: Q= .108cfs
A=.34square feet.:
Q/A=.32 feet per second.

According to 10 State Standards All sewers shall be designed and


constructed to give mean velocities, when flowing full, of not less than 2.0
feet per second (0. 6 m/s), based on Manning's formula using an "n" value
of 0.013. (Recommended Standards,2014, p.36).

The current pipe size does not meet the 10 State Standards
Recommendations for pipe size. For this reason, Capstone Consulting
2017 recommends that the outfall sewer shall be modified to meet the
standard. The discharge pipe to the receiving stream at the same location
of the existing outfall location (C and D canal) will be decreased to a
diameter to 3.0 inches for nominal pipe size. This decrease will create a
flow of 2.16 feet per second and will be within the recommended standard
for pipe size and pipe flow.
Calculation:
Q= .108cfs
A=.05
V required=2.0 feet per second

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Q/A=V,
.108cfs/.05 square feet= 2.16 feet per second.
Capstone Consulting recommends that a topological berm or fill of
grade be provided to allow a form of cascade aeration to take effect and
take place before effluents reach the final body of water. This is much like a
miniature waterfall; as the water trickles down the grade and through
vegetation and soil before entering the stream, to allow for an increase in
dissolved oxygen. This will achieve a form of limited cross-stream
dispersion in order to protect aquatic life movement, wildlife, and growth
within the immediate area of the receiving stream.

A manhole shall be provided at the shore end of the gravity sewer


system that extends into the receiving water body. For sampling purposes,
the outfall shall be designed so that a sample of the effluent can be
obtained at a point after the final treatment process and before discharge
into the canal. Since disinfection is provided, a sampling point also should
be located immediately prior to disinfection, or in this case, in the clarifier
tank. These samplings may be done on a recommended bi-weekly basis
from the two rotating wastewater facility operators.

Summary of Outfalls

Outfalls may be designed in numerous ways as to how the discharge


is received back into the natural stream body. For reference, the current
outfall discharges below the frost line into the C and D canal after the
treated water is received into an existing sampling pond that is currently on
the Lums Pond State Park property. Capstone Consulting recommends that
a topological berm or fill of grade be provided to allow a form of cascade
aeration to take effect and take place before effluents reach the final body
of water. This is much like a miniature waterfall as the water trickles down
the slope and through vegetation before entering the stream to allow for a
final aeration and disinfection through filtration through the natural soils in
order to protect aquatic life movement, wildlife, and growth within the
immediate area of the receiving stream.This process will also mitigate
pollution even after secondary treatment has occurred The current outfall

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discharge pipe is below the frost line. Capstone Consulting 2017 highly
recommends that the same depth of the discharge pipe currently on site be
used for the newly installed discharge pipe to ensure that the effluent does
not freeze over or provide any other technical liabilities.

5.2 Pump Station:

A pump station will be provided by the manufacturer Smith and


Loveless with a variable speed pump to allow the pumping of the
wastewater from the sewer line into the influent section of the Model R
Oxigest system. The total dynamic head coming from the changes in
topography of the site is approximately 20 feet. This was calculated based
on the change of height from the difference in contours on the wastewater
treatment plant to the highest contour on the site closest to the proposed
houses on the site. This difference of contours is 69.77-50.0= 19.77
feet.The sewer line is on a .005 foot by foot slope and it is gravity fed so the
pipe frictional losses are negligible. The pump will be rated to handle 40
gallons per minute, which was calculated based on the average gallons per
day coming from the plant, divided by how many minutes are in a day:
57,800GPD/1440 Minutes in one day= 40 Gallons per Minute (GPM).
The pump that will handle these design parameters is the Smith and
Loveless EVERLAST Series 1000 with Relay Logic Controls and Tip-up
Hood. A picture of the pump and its parameters have been provided as
figure 3.0ab. In order to be able to tie in to the 3 inch diameter pipe a
coupling reducer will be provided by the Smith and Loveless manufacturer
since the pump diameter is 4 inches.
The pump station will be a small pumphouse such as the one
displayed in figure 3.0 and will take up minimal land space.

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Figure 3.0ab EVERLAST Series 1000 Pump


Smith &Loveless Inc, 2014,retrieved from https://smithandloveless.com/products/everlast-above-
ground-pump-stations/everlast-series-1000-relay-logic-controls-tip-hood

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6.0 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL OR REUSE SYSTEM

6.1 Project Area Features and Land Use

Land Use

The area proposed for the wastewater treatment plant is presently a


campground for Lums Pond State Park. Prior to being developed as a
campground it was used as agricultural land. The current wastewater
treatment system at the Lums Pond State Park campground is relatively
small, however the polishing pond for the treatment system is very large
and takes up an extreme amount of land cover. This new proposed system
will be even smaller and take up less ground cover, thus providing more
green land space.

Topography

The terrain at site where the wastewater treatment system is


proposed to be built is relatively level. An overhead image from GIS
topographic mapping it shows that the elevation varies between 60 and 70
feet. Refer to figure 4.0 for reference. "GIS Topographic Historical Map."
Historical USGS Topo Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.
Vegetative Community

The area of the proposed wastewater system is currently cleared and


mostly covered in grass.

Wetlands

There are no wetlands within the project area that would be affected
by the proposed wastewater treatment system as demonstrated in the
following figure,

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Figure 4.0 Overhead image of site

(National Wetlands Inventory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service November 2016)

6.2 Local Water Wells

According to the Delaware Department of National Resources and


Environmental Controls (DNREC) Environmental Navigator Map there are
no water wells close enough to the vicinity of the site that would be affected
by the proposed wastewater treatment system.

6.3 Site Soils/Hydrologic Group

The soil on site is a mixture of sand and clay. Overall the soil on site
is a mixture of acidic and alkaline with the majority being acidic.

The soil of the area on site where the waste water treatment system
is proposed to be built on is of Longmarsh and Indiantown soils (frequently
flooded) with a soil infiltration rate of 600 micrometers per second.
Longmarsh and Indiantown soils have a hydrologic rating of B/D from the

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United States Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. A rating of B (for


drained areas) indicates the soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. A rating of D (for undrained areas) indicates soils having a
slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wet. This is displayed in figure 5.0.

Due to these soils having a high potential for runoff and flooding,
there is a recommend a stormwater management facility slightly west of
this area to protect the wastewater treatment plant. A large bioswale, as
well as an infiltration has been included to infiltrate 100% of the runoff from
rain and stormwater. This is also one of the main reasons a package plant
is highly recommended over a land application or septic; because the soils
are not suitable for septic.

Figure 5.0: Soils

(National Resource Conservation Service, 2017)

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7.1 Further recommendations for a wastewater treatment plant over other


applications

The main reason this specific kind of treatment with a wastewater


treatment facility is recommend is due to the fact that several other
treatment processes were taken into consideration, and this is the best
option for the proposed Smart Growth community site. Considerations for
uses by other applications were evaluated based upon the Bren School of
Environmental Science and Management Guidance for Using
Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems.

Capstone Consulting 2017 has viewed other options such as land


application through spray irrigation, building a wetland for treatment, septic
systems, or tying into the New Castle County sewer system.

Decentralized wastewater treatment through a leach field technology


by treating effluent through a series of septic tanks on the site would mean
using gravity to move water through the pipes and soil, which would allow
the soil to treat the water. This would take up a significant amount of land
and the water would not be available for reuse on the site. Leach fields also
have the tendency to clog and break over time. This is an environmental
concern for potential groundwater contamination.

A mound system was also considered. A mound system allows


wastewater to travel through a constructed mound and porous media
above the surface of the topsoil. This allows biological and physical
treatment to occur in the mound. This is not the best fit option for the site
because there is a requirement for a substantial amount of land and above
surface construction means that the treatment would be visible. This would
be visually displeasing to the client and the Smart Growth community
tenants. Since it is subject to the open air, it would also have a noticeable
odor, which is another reason why a mound is not the best option.

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Evapotranspiration systems were looked into. They are not the best
option because they are subject to climate and weather patterns, and they
also require a significant amount of land coverage.

Another consideration was constructing free water surface wetlands.


In free surface wetlands, water surface is exposed to the atmosphere, then
the wastewater flows through the wetland soil surface that contains wetland
plant species. Through the wetland, microbiological activity occurs and
breaks down the waste for treatment. Building a wetland would require a
significant amount of land use. This would also cause the waste to be
exposed to various wildlife and the elements. There is also a significant
odor. A cap will be installed on a packaged wastewater treatment plant to
eliminate odor sources. There will also be significant mosquito
management required if a wetland is built. A packaged-plant will not
contribute to the addition of mosquitos.
Recirculating vertical flow wetlands were considered and they may
have a smaller land footprint than other wetland treatment; however, there
is no nitrogen removal, a high amount of energy is used as well as a high
amount of labor use, and they do not provide preservation options for
existing habitats or wildlife on the site. Horizontal subsurface flow wetlands
were another consideration. The reason a horizontal subsurface flow
wetland would not be a practical option is because they also require
substantial land use. Grading requirements also may not allow use of
subsurface wetlands in certain areas of land.
Another option was a Tidal Flow Living Machine, but they were also
deemed unfavorable for the site. Tidal flow living machines come with a
high construction cost, use large amounts of energy, and require highly
trained operators.
Land application through spray irrigation was even considered as an
option, but the spraying of wastewater on land requires enormous amount
of land as well as farming to disperse the treated wastewater. The Lums
Pond site does not have several acres of land where the existing
wastewater treatment facility resides; therefore, land application through
spray irrigation would be an impractical use for the site.

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Tying into the New Castle County sewer system makes sense, but
the tie in to the sewer system is very far on the other side of the Lums Pond
State park and would be prohibitively expensive.

8.0 Conclusion

Capstone Consulting 2017 has chosen the Smith and Loveless Model
R Oxigest packaged plant as the new wastewater treatment system for this
site.The proposed Smart Growth community is expected to produce an
average of 57,800 gallons of wastewater per day (GPD). With the
installation of flow equalization, the plant may handle up to 207,200 GPD
before overflow on peak flow days due to the safety factor. This treatment
system will be able to properly treat all influent from the community and
adhere to the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Controls (DNREC) environmental standards and limitations
for wastewater effluent disposal into the Chesapeake and Delaware canal
watershed. According to Capstone Consulting 2017s final research
findings, the Smith and Loveless Model R Oxigest wastewater treatment
facility is the best option for the proposed Smart Growth community over
other wastewater treatment applications and technologies. This is because
the model R Oxigest system will only be 40 feet, 4 inches in diameter
therefore, taking up a very small amount of land space. Preserving land
area will allow preservation of the existing habitats within the area as well
as contribute to the ideals of the new Smart Growth community by
providing an educational opportunity for its tenants.

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9.0 References

Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University


of California Santa Barbara, Guidance For Using Decentralized
Wastewater Treatment Systems, retrieved

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from :https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?
url=https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20110928111055_949.pdf

Department of Public Works, City of Wilmington DE, revised (July


2015), Combined Sewer Overflow Final Long Term Control Plan. Retrieved
from: http://www.ci.wilmington.de.us/home/showdocument?id=728

DNREC,Title 7 Natural Resources and Environmental Control


7400 Watershed Assessment Section, 7431 Total Maximum Daily Load
(TMDL) for the Lums Pond Sub-Watershed, Delaware, (November 2014).
retrieved from
http://regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title7/7000/7400/7431.sht )
ml

DNREC, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and


Environmental Control Simply Septics, A Guide for Delaware
Homeowners, (DNREC 1996) retrieved from
http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/wr/Information/GWDInfo/Documents/Simply
%20Septics.pdf
"GIS Topographic Historical Map." Historical USGS Topo Maps. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.
http://historicalmaps.arcgis.com/usgs/

Lenntech. (n.d.) March 16, 2017, Retrieved from


http://www.lenntech.com/phosphorous-removal.htm

Model R Oxigest Wastewater Treatment System, Smith & Loveless,


(2016). Retrieved from
https://smithandloveless.com/products/treatment/model-r-oxigest-
wastewater-treatment-system, S&L representative model package:
Model R Oxigest System
& Skid Mounted Headworks Delaware Technical Community College
Project February 9, 2017.
https://drive.google.com/open?
id=0B_LBXm9x6ZZeUkJjVmpTLThSVDQ

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Mark J. Hammer, Mark J. Hammer, Jr. (2012), Water and Wastewater


Technology, seventh edition,Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, and
Columbus, Ohio.

National Flood Insurance Plan. (2015). FEMA.

National Resources Conservation Service. (2017). National


Cooperative Soil Survey. Retrieved from
https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0BziYHf5ExMstNk0zRU5kcTdfS2s

New Castle County Delaware ( July, 2007). Department of Special Services


Sewer Use Design Flows. Retrieved from New Castle County, Delaware
website: http://www.nccde.org/DocumentCenter/View/506

10 State Standards Great Lakes Upper Mississippi River Board (GLURM).


(2014).Recommended Standards for Wastewater Facilities.Retrieved from
http://10statesstandards.com/wastewaterstandards.pdf

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. (2016). National Wetlands Inventory.


Retrieved from https://www.fws.gov/wetlands/

Department of Public Works, City of Wilmington DE, revised (July 2015),


Combined Sewer Overflow Final Long Term Control Plan. Retrieved from:
http://www.ci.wilmington.de.us/home/showdocument?id=728

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Appendix A

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Figure 6.0:Ratio of Peak Hourly Flow to Design Average Flow

(10 State Standards (GLURM), 2014).

Appendix B

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Plan view of the treatment plant

(Smith & Loveless, 2017)

Appendix C

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Profile view of Plant

(Smith & Loveless, 2017)

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