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A Compact Dual-Band Orthogonal Circularly Polarized Antenna

Array With Disparate Elements


Impact Factor: 2.18 DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2389811



Junping Geng Xian-Ling Liang

122 PUBLICATIONS 596 CITATIONS Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Y. Jay Guo Ronghong Jin

University of Technology Sydney Shanghai Jiao Tong University


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A Compact Dual-Band Orthogonal Circularly

Polarized Antenna Array with Disparate
Sheng Ye, Junping Geng, Member, IEEE, Xianling Liang, Member, IEEE, Y. Jay Guo, Fellow, IEEE,
Ronghong Jin, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract A dual-band orthogonally and circularly polarized Upper
antenna array with disparate elements is presented. By using Upper patch patch
U1 Lower
corner-truncated stacked patches as elements, both left hand
circular polarization (LHCP) in 12GHz band and right hand patch
circular polarization (RHCP) in 14GHz band are realized in a L1
shared antenna aperture. Furthermore, by employing disparate (LHCP)
elements, the coupling between the two bands is suppressed L2
effectively inside the feed network, hence improving isolation. The U2 Feed line
measured results of a 4-element array agreed well with the
simulated ones, achieving isolation better than 20dB in the dual Lower patch
bands, and a maximum gain of 13.2dBic for the LHCP and
13.9dBic for the RHCP. The proposed array can find applications Port1 (RHCP) Substrate
in satellite communications.
Fig. 1. The configuration of the antenna element.

Index Termsdual band, orthogonal and circular polarization,

antenna array, disparate elements, satellite communications.
weight and easy integration. Owing to the requirements of high
antenna gain and low losses in the feed network, however, the
I. INTRODUCTION aperture of the receiving and transmitting antennas have to be
large, which may take up too much space. If the receiving and
Circularly polarized (CP) antennas have been employed in
transmitting planar antenna arrays can share the same aperture,
many broadcasting and communicating satellites due to the
the total space occupied by the antenna will be halved, thus
advantages of insensitivity to antenna orientations, reduced
resulting in a huge improvement in the utilization of the system
effect of multipath fading and resistance to bad weather
conditions. For example, the ABS-7 satellite located at 116E
Many new configurations have been proposed to realize
has a circular polarization footprint in Pakistan, in which the
dual band orthogonal CP antenna elements, including
uplink frequency is 14.5-14.8GHz, and the downlink frequency
metamaterial spiral antennas [1], CPW-fed slot antennas with
is 11.7-12.0GHz. For a two-way satellite communications
some kinds of slots or strips loaded [2], [3], and annular slots
system, the receiving and transmitting antennas should provide
integrated with a cross slot or just a monofilar spiral slot with a
radiations at different frequencies and with orthogonal
microstrip feed [4], [5]. However, these configurations tend to
polarizations. Although reflector antennas can meet the
have only a single port, which is not suitable for systems with
requirements, their size and weight may make it difficult to
separate transmit-receive antennas. A promising structure is the
achieve system miniaturization. On the other hand, microstrip
cavity-backed slot antenna element using inverted
antenna arrays are widely adopted in satellite communications
configuration proposed in [6], in which dual polarization
systems due to their unique advantages of low profile, light
operations are realized by two closely placed sub-arrays. The
achieved 3dB axial ratio bandwidths are 3.8% and 3.9% for the
Manuscript received 2014. This work was supported by the National
two bands, and the corresponding gains are 7.06dBic and
Science and Technology of Major Project under Grant 2011ZX03001-007-03, 4.87dBic, and the port isolations are -13.7dB and -17.6dB,
the National Natural Science Foundation under Grant 61201058, the Research respectively. Circular polarization can also be generated by
and Innovation Project of Shanghai Education Commission under Grant applying proper phase shifts to sequentially rotated linearly
12Z112030001, the State Quality Inspection Administration of Science and
Technology Project (2013QK127), and the Project of SMC Excellent Young
polarized (LP) antenna elements, and this technique is extended
Faculty. to construct a dual band orthogonal CP antenna by reusing the
Sheng Ye, Junping Geng, Xianling Liang and Ronghong Jin are with the patch in [7]. The isolation between both bands is larger than 26
Department of Electronics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, dB and the gain of each individual LP antenna element is about
Shanghai 200240, China (email: gengjunp@sjtu.edu.cn).
Y. Jay Guo is with University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia
(email: yjguo@ieee.org). In this paper, a compact antenna array which can provide

I outPort2
1 In phase combination ground plane to reduce mutual coupling.
The challenge in designing a dual-band CP antenna array
based on the proposed element is that, as the dual mode
radiations share the same aperture, the mutual coupling
between the two ports becomes serious in the operation bands.
The reason is that, noting from Fig. 1, the power fed from Port1
is divided into two parts, one being radiated by the patches, and
the other being coupled into Port2 since TM01 and TM10 modes
Iin exit simultaneously in the patches. The situation is the same
(a) when power is fed from Port2. Such coupling not only reduces
the radiation efficiency, but also causes interference between
I out 2 Out of phase combination the transmitting and receiving parts of the system. A traditional
method to suppress the coupling is to integrate filters into the
microstrip line, but these filters will add complexity to the
In the proposed design, instead of suppressing the coupling
between the dual ports inside the elements, the coupling is
reduced by employing disparate elements. For simplicity, a
2-element array fed with identical amplitude and phase is taken
Iin as an example, as shown in Fig. 2(a). Suppose a current signal
Port1 in is fed into the feed network of RHCP through Port1 and it is
(b) split equally into 2 paths by the power divider. Then each path
Fig. 2. The current paths in (a) the conventional and (b) the proposed array.
passes across the corresponding patch with a coupling
coefficient , and the two paths merge in the feed network of
both dual band and orthogonal circular polarizations in a shared LHCP, where the currents flow to the output at Port2. The
aperture is presented. Based on the element of stacked patches current paths are indicated with solid line in Fig. 2.
with corner truncation, disparate elements are introduced to Lets consider the phase variation in each path. Suppose the
construct the array to improve the port isolation. electrical length of the total feed lines in each path is .
This paper is organized as follows. The working principle of Then the current in each path is . Owing to
the antenna is briefly described in Section II, and in Section III, symmetry, the magnitude of the combined current in Port 2 in
a prototype 4-element array is designed and fabricated, with Fig. 2(a) becomes
simulation results verified by experiments. Based on the
4-element array, the simulation results of a 256-element array 1
|out1 | = | 2| | | (1)
are reported in Section IV. Finally, concluding remarks are 2
given in Section V. where the loss in the feed network is not considered. This
simple analysis shows that the coupled power from the division
II. ANTENNA CONFIGURATION AND ARRAY DESIGN of the feed network in one polarization will be combined in
Owing to its broad bandwidth [8], the stacked patch antenna phase at the port of feed network in the other polarization.
is selected as the antenna element as shown in Fig.1, which To suppress |out | inside the array, we exploit the design
consists of three substrate layers. Two patches, the upper square freedom of coupling coefficient . Note that is identical in
patch with a side length of PU and the lower square patch with a each element only under the condition that the sizes of all the
side length of PL, are printed on the upper substrate and the elements are the same. In this design, disparate antenna
middle substrate, respectively. Both patches have their corners elements are employed in the array where the side lengths of the
truncated in the same diagonal. The truncated sizes are patches, including the upper and lower patches, are no longer
indicated as U1 , U2 , L1 , L2 , respectively. Two orthogonal identical. This new configuration is shown in Fig. 2 (b) in
modes, TM01 and TM10, are excited by the perturbation, and contrast to the conventional approach shown in Fig. 2 (a). The
when these two modes have the same amplitude and 90o phase size of the right element is larger than that in a conventional
difference, CP radiation is generated. Fig. 2 shows the method array, while the left element is smaller. Owing to the difference
of feeding a pair of such antenna elements to achieve two in , (1) is now rewritten as:
orthogonal polarizations, with Fig. 2(a) depicting the
conventional method and Fig. 2(b) the proposed method to be 1 1
explained later. Two microstrip lines, printed on the bottom |out2 | = | + |
2 2
side of the lower substrate and the upper side of the middle 1 1 1 2
| 1 + 2 | | | (2)
substrate, are employed to excite LHCP radiation by probe 2 2

feeding from the back and RHCP by side feeding, respectively. where and are the coupling coefficient of the left and
The feed lines for the two polarizations are separated by the right elements, and 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are the corresponding

Element1 Element2
-10 -100 U1
Magnitude of A / dB

Phase of A / degree
-20 L1
-300 PU L1 PL
-30 PL=6.5mm
PL=6.5mm PL
U L2
-400 PU
U2 L2
-40 PU=6.8mm -500
PU=7.5mm PU=7.5mm
-50 -600
11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15
Frequency / GHz Frequency / GHz

(a) (b) LHCP RHCP

Fig. 3. The effect of PU on the (a) magnitude and (b) phase (a)
of coupling coefficient

0 100

Magnitude of A / dB

Phase of A / degree

-20 PU=7.5mm PU=7.5mm
PL=6.0mm PL=6.0mm
PL=6.2mm -200 PL=6.2mm
-30 PL=6.4mm PL=6.4mm
PL=6.6mm PL=6.6mm
11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15
Frequency / GHz Frequency / GHz
(a) (b)
Fig. 4. The effect of PL on the (a) magnitude and (b) phase (b)
of coupling coefficient Fig. 5. The 4-element array (a)the half part of the prototype and (b) the
fabricated one
magnitudes and phases, which are determined by the sizes of
the patches. If 1 2 , the currents will be combined out of Table I. The parameters of the elements (mm)
phase, as indicated in Fig. 2(b), where the direction of the left PL PU L1 L2 U1 U2
path is changed after it passes through the element to emphasize Element1 6.985 6.953 1.341 1.948 1.250 2.097
the phase difference. This may yield a suppressed coupling
Element2 6.788 7.484 1.300 0.759 2.540 1.840
power |out2 | < |out1 | , which means that less power is
coupled to the other port and more power is radiated.
To evaluate how much change the magnitude and phase of multi-parameters. The object function used in our design is
can be achieved by varying the patch size, the antenna written as follows:
element with dual ports in Fig. 1 is simulated in CST
microwave studio (MWS). As an example, the target high and 2

low bands are chosen 14-14.5GHz and 12.25-12.75GHz, f min S21 (i) S goal (dB) AR(i) ARgoal (dB)
i 1
respectively, which is the uplink and downlink frequency
assigned in China for FSS and BSS. The simulation is Gain(i) Ggoal (dBic) (3)
conducted as follows: when Port1 is excited, Port2 is connected
with a matched load and the magnitude and phase of are where i the band concerned, , , are the weighting factors,
regarded as the magnitude and phase of S21 . The truncated andS , AR , G are the expected value of isolation,
corners are adjusted to maintain a minimum axial ratio. The
axial ration(AR), and gain of the array, respectively.
results are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.
Both the Fig. 3 and Fig.4 show that, at certain frequency fc,
the magnitude has a minimum value, while the phase is
changed significantly and the maximum change can be as large To verify the analysis in Section II, a 4-element array is
as 180o. In Fig. 3, it is observed that tuning PU makes fc shift to constructed first. All the substrates are from Arlon AD series,
other frequencies, while it is shown in Fig. 4 that tuning PL and have the same thickness of 0.762mm and the same
makes the magnitude and phase fluctuate but fc remains dielectric coefficient of 2.55. The element spacing is 18mm.
unchanged. The explanation is that the resonant frequency of For the sake of simplicity, a 2-element sub-array is first
the antenna is determined primarily by the upper patch. Thus, it constructed as shown in Fig.5(a), and then the sub-array is
can be concluded that the elements with different sizes can duplicated and rotated to construct the 4-element array. Also,
provide the coupling coefficients with a magnitude from about the 4 elements in the array are sequentially rotated with 0o, 90o,
-5dB to a minimum of less than -30dB and a phase from 0o to 180o, and 270o phase shifts to further enhance the AR of the
more than 180o . array as well as the gain. The feed network is comprised of a
It should be noted that the actual antenna design is an number of T-junctions, quarter wavelength transformers and
optimization problem with multiple objectives and bent feed lines, the feeding phase of each element can be

0 6

-5 5 13
Reflection coefficients / dB

-10 4

Axial Ratio /dB

Gain / dBic
-15 3

-20 2
Measured for LHCP
-25 Simulated for LHCP 1 Measured
Measured for RHCP Simulated
Simulated for RHCP
-30 0 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5
Frequency / GHz Frequency / GHz
Fig. 6.The measured reflection coefficients (a)

Axial Ratio / dB

Gain / dBic
S21 / dB

2 10
-30 Simulated
Measured 1 9
Simulated 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
-35 Frequency / GHz
11 12 13 14 15 16 (b)
Frequency / GHz Fig. 9.The measured gain and axial ratio of 4-element antenna array in the (a)
Fig. 7.The measured isolation 12GHz and (b) 14GHz bands

0 dimensions of the patches, the lengths of the bent lines and the
0 330 30

330 30
-10 widths of the transformers. For each iteration in the
300 60
300 60 optimization process, MWS first calculates the S21, the gain,

and the AR of the array in each required band with one set of
-50 270 90
-50 270 90 parameters values. Then the value of the object function f is

evaluated and recorded before moving to the next iteration.

240 120 -20
240 120 The final parameters of the elements corresponding to the
Measured Measured
Simulated minimum f are listed in Table I.
=0o 210 150 0 =90o 210 150
180 180
Based on the optimal parameters, a prototype antenna array
0 0
was fabricated as shown in Fig. 5(b). The S parameters were
0 0

330 30

330 30
measured with an Agilent 8722ES vector network analyzer
300 60
300 60
(VNA) and the results are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. Good


agreement is observed between the computed and measured
-50 270 90 -50 270 90 results. The slight discrepancy may be due to the imperfect
-40 -40
fabrication and connections such as the SMA connector. In the
-30 -30

240 120
240 120 12GHz band, the reflection coefficient is less than -15dB from
Measured Measured
Simulated -10
Simulated 11.21 to 13.22GHz (16.4%), while in the 14GHz band, it is
o 210 150
210 150
180 from 13.1 to 15.5GHz (16.7%). The isolation is greater than
(b) 20dB from 11.8 to 15.25GHz, and it is better than 22.5dB
Fig. 8.The measured far field patterns of the antenna array at (a) 12.5GHz and across most of the band. The far-field patterns are given in Fig.
(b) 14.25GHz
8, which agree well with the simulated ones, where =
0o /90o correspond to the XOZ/YOZ planes in Fig. 5(b). The
adjusted by the length of the bent feed lines, while the feeding gains and axial ratios are summarized in Fig. 9. It is seen that, in
magnitude can be adjusted by the width of the transformers. the 12GHz band, the bandwidth for AR3dB is from 11.55 to
Since the feed networks and the patches all affect the 13.2GHz (13.3%), and the gain is 13.0-13.2dBic from 12.25 to
performance of the array simultaneously, the 4-element antenna 12.75GHz. In the 14GHz band, the bandwidth for AR3dB is
array is constructed in MWS and optimized using the object from 13.65 to 14.7GHz (7.4%), and the gain is 13.4-13.9dBic
function (3). The parameters to be optimized include the

adequate for practical antennas, a 256-element array with dual

band orthogonal polarization is designed based on the verified
4-element array, and the simulated results are provided as a
reference. The design process is as follows: first, a 16-element
array is designed using the parallel feeding technique. As more
Feed port Feed port microstrip lines are added, the mutual coupling between the
feed lines and elements is increased, which may alter the
well-tuned magnitude and phase of for each element. Next,
the dimension parameters are all fine-tuned in MWS again to
improve the design, and finally, the 256-element array is
finished by duplicating the 16-element array several times
(a) (b) together with the corresponding parallel feed network. The
Fig. 10.The configuration of the 256-element array in the layout of the designed array is shown in Fig.10.
(a)14GHz band and the (b)12GHz band
The simulated S parameters are given in Fig. 11, in the
0 targeted bands, the reflection coefficients are almost below
S11 for 14GHz band -15dB. The isolation is further improved to 25dB, due to the
S11 for 12GHz band adjustment in the 16-element array, and to the losses in the feed
-10 S21
network of a larger array. The simulated gain and axial ratio are
given in Fig. 12. The highest RHCP gain in 14GHz band is
S parametes / dB

-20 30.9dBic, while in 12GHz band the highest LHCP gain is

29.2dBic. The axial ratios are all below 3dB in the band, which
shows good CP radiation performance.

12 13 14 15
A compact dual band orthogonal circular polarized antenna
Frequency / GHz array is presented. The LHCP in 12GHz band and RHCP in
Fig. 11.The simulated S parameters of the 256-element array 14GHz band are realized in the same aperture. The isolation
between the dual ports is improved by employing disparate
6 31
elements. The measured and simulated results of a 4-element
array agree well, which shows the effectiveness of the design
technique. Also, as an illustration, the simulated result of a
30 256-element array is provided. The antenna proposed is
14GHz band
12GHz band suitable for receive/transmit satellite communications systems.
Axial Ratio / dB

Gain / dBic

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28 counter circularly polarized radiation from a single-Arm
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61, no. 6, pp.29382947, Jun. 2013.
27 [2] C. Chen and E. K. N. Yung, Dual-band dual-sense circularly-polarized
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0 26 [3] Y. Y. Chen, Y. C. Jiao, G. Zhao, F. Zhang, Z. L. Liao, and Y. Tian,
11 12 13 14 15 Dual-band dual-sense circularly polarized slot antenna with a C-shaped
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915918, 2011.
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[7] A. B. Smolders, R. M. C. Mestrom, A. C. F. Reniers, and M. Geurts, A
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To illustrate the feasibility of achieving a higher gain

Sheng Ye received the B.S. degree in information served on the organizing and technical committees of numerous national and
engineering from South China University of Technology, international conferences. He was Chair of the Technical Program Committee
Guangzhou, China, in 2006 and both the M.S. degree and (TPC) of 2010 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference
the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetic and microwave (WCNC) and 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Communications and
technology from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Information Technologies (ISCIT), and is the TPC Chair of IEEE ISCIT2012.
China, in 2009, 2014, respectively. He has been the Executive Chair of Australia China ICT Summit since 2009.
His main research interests are in high gain planar He was a Guest Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND
antennas for wireless communications, especially high PROPAGATION , Special Issue on Antennas and Propagation Aspects of 6090
efficiency array antennas for satellite communication. GHz Wireless Communications. Currently, he is serving as a Senior Guest
Special Issue on Challenges and Dynamics for Unmanned Autonomous
Junping Geng (M08) received the B.S. degree in plastic Vehicles.
working of metals, the M.S. degree in corrosion and
protection of equipment, and the Ph.D. degree in circuit and
system from the Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xian, Ronghong Jin (M09-SM13) received the B.S.degree in
China, in 1996, 1999, and 2003, respectively. electronic engineering, the M.S. degree in
From 2003 to 2005, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher electromagnetic and microwave technology, and the Ph.D.
with Shanghai Jiao Tong University. In April 2005, he joined degree in communication and electronic systems from
the faculty of Electronic Engineering Department, Shanghai Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1983,
Jiao Tong University, where he is currently an Associate Professor. He has 1986, and 1993, respectively.
authored or coauthored over 150 refereed journal and conference papers, two In 1986, he joined the Faculty of the Department of
book chapters, and one book. He holds 34 patents with over 30 pending. He has Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
been involved with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for high altitude where he has been an Assistant, a Lecturer, an Associate
platform station (HAPS), multiantennas for terminals, smart antennas, and Professor, and currently a Professor. From 1997 to 1999, he was a Visiting
nanoantennas. His main research interests include antennas, electromagnetic Scholar with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo
theory, and computational techniques of electromagnetic and nanoantennas. Institute of Technology. From 2001 to 2002, he was a Special Invited Research
Dr. Geng is a member of the Chinese Institute of Electronics (CIE). He was Fellow with the Communication Research Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan. From
the recipient of a Technology Innovation Award of the Chinese Ministry of 2006 to 2009, he was a Guest Professor with the University of Wollongong,
Education in 2007 and a Technology Innovation Award of the Chinese Wollongong, N.S.W., Australia. He is also a Distinguish Guest Scientist with
Government in 2008. the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),
Sydney, Australia. He has authored or coauthored over 200 papers in refereed
journals and conference proceedings and coauthored two books. He holds 38
Xianling Liang (M11) received the B.Sc. degree in patents in antenna and wireless technologies. His main areas of research interest
electronic engineering from Xidian University, Xian, are antennas, electromagnetic theory, numerical techniques of solving field
China, in 2002, and the Ph.D. degree in electric problems, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
engineering from Shanghai University, Shanghai, China, Dr. Jin is a Senior Member of the Chinese Institute of Electronics. He was
in 2007. the recipient of a National Technology Innovation Award, a National Nature
From 2007 to 2008, he was a Postdoctoral Research Science Award, and a Shanghai Science and Technology Progress Award.
Fellow with the Institut National de la Recherche
Scientifique (INRS), Universitdu Quebec, Montral, QC,
Canada. In December 2008, he joined the Department of Electronic
Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, as a Lecturer. He has authored or
coauthored over 80 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings. His
current research interests include microwave and millimeter-wave antennas,
integrated antennas, wideband and active antennas, phased arrays.
Dr. Liang was the recipient of the 2008 Award of Shanghai Municipal
Excellent Doctoral Dissertation, the 2009 Nomination of National Excellent
Doctoral Dissertation and the 2010 Best Paper Award presented at the
International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative
Structures, and Materials.

Y. Jay Guo (SM96) received the Bachelor Degree and

Master Degree from Xidian University, Xian, China, in
1982 and 1984, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from
Xian Jiaotong University, China, in 1987. He was awarded
an honorary Ph.D. degree in 1997 by the University of
Bradford, U.K., for his world leading research in Fresnel
Currently, he is the Research Director of Advanced
Broadband Networks and Services Theme, CSIRO ICT
Centre, Australia, and the Director of the Australia China Research Centre for
Wireless Communications. From August 2005 to January 2010, he served as
the Research Director of the Wireless Technologies Laboratory, CSIRO ICT
Centre. Prior to joining CSIRO, he held various senior positions in a number of
international companies including Fujitsu, Siemens and NEC, managing the
development of advanced technologies for the third generation (3G) mobile
communications systems. He is an Adjunct Professor at Macquarie University,
Australia, and a Guest Professor at the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) and
Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He has published three technical books Fresnel
Zone Antennas, Advances in Mobile Radio Access Networks, and
Ground-Based Wireless Positioning, 59 journal papers and over 80 refereed
international conference papers. He holds 18 patents in wireless technologies.
Dr. Guo is a Fellow of IET. He was the recipient of the Australian
Engineering Excellence Award and the CSIRO Chairmans Medal. He has