Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 83

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam

The grammatical characteristics of the individual words along with the original text, meaning in Sanskrit and
English and other grammatical aspects are provided here. The intention is not to teach Sanskrit grammar. But this
information will be useful for Sanskrit students to revise the basic concepts that they would have studied.
Compiled and posted by Nivedita in nivedita2015.wordpress.com during Dec 2015.
Important Note: The content might undergo changes. This doc was last updated on 26th Oct 2016. For updates,
check https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/ bhaja-govindam-moha-mudgara. <TODO> The taatpaaryaartham in
Sanskrit will be replaced with a new set.

Notations followed in this work...........................................................................................3


1. .............................................................................................................7

2. ........................................................................................9

3. ..............................................................................................11

4. ....................................................................................13

5. ............................................................................................15

6. ............................................................................................17

7. ...............................................................................................19
:

8. .............................................................................................................22

9. .........................................................................................24

10. ...........................................................................................................26

11. .........................................................................................28

12. ............................................................................................30

13. ..............................................................................................................33

14.
.............................................................................................................35
15. ........................................................................................37

16. ...............................................................................................39

17. ...........................................................................................41

18. .............................................................................................43

19. ................................................................................................................47

20. .........................................................................................50

21.

.....................................................................................52

22. ............................................................................................54

23. ..........................................................................................56

24. .....................................................................................................58

25. ....................................................................................................61

26. ...............................................................................................63

27. .................................................................................................65

28.
............................................................................................67
29. ............................................................................................69

30. .................................................................................................71

31.

.........................................................................................73
Appendix 1 - Paadaakulakam Chandas (meter) ...................................................76
Appendix 2 The 10 ganas or classes of verbs & List of Verbs .........................78
Appendix 3 Set, Vet, Anit Inflection Patterns ................................................81
Appendix 4 Suffixes Pratyayas ...........................................................82

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 2


:



* - * - *
Salutations and thanks to my teachers and friends !

Notations followed in this work

(Abbreviations)
. = . = . = . = . = . =
. = . = . = . = . =

. = . = . = . =

. = . = . = . =

. = . = . = . =

. = . = . =

. = . = . =
. = ( ) . = ( , , ) . = .
( ) . = . ( )
. = . = . =

(Format)
= < > [ < > < > < > < > <
>
< >
: = [ . . . . ]
< > = < > [ ] ( ) [ <> <> <> < > ]
= [ . . . . ]
The words included in the anvaya by the process of are mentioned within brackets.
The intendation indicates the association of the words.
For some of the uncommon terms, the different forms in other Lakaara for verbs and other vibhaktis for nouns
are given under - and - .

Terms used in classifying the word


Explanation of the terms used to classify the words.
# Term Usage Examples

1. = Verb

2. = adverb including (negation) |


and (emphasis) and () |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 3


:

3. = Object wherein the action |


involves the creation of the

object
4. = Object wherein the action ()
involves the transformation
of the object into this new
form.
5. = Object wherein the action ()
does not involve creation or
transformation of the object
6. - Sub-heading for the |
secondary sentence which
is the object in the main
sentence
7. The word which makes |
the secondary sentence
become the object in the
main sentence
8. - The word which makes
() ()
a phrase become the object
in the main sentence
9. = adjective of object +

10. = Describes the object without () |


being used as a direct
-- adjective. Used in those
sentences which describe
how the object is or has
become.
11. -xxx- Questioning term ?
?

12. - Questioning term used in () ?


-xxx- = the sense of denial
?
13.
= Subject who does the action |
independently without being

prompted by anyone

14.
= The subject who causes the () |
action to be done by another
-
|
|
15.
= The subject who is made to () |
do the action
-
| |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 4


:

16. = Adjective of subject



17. = Describes the subject
without being used as a
- - direct adjective. Note that
the genders may or might
not match in this case. Used
in those sentences which
describe how the subject is
or has become.
18. = Conveys the purpose of the
action

19. = Vocative Case for calling |
out or addressing someone
20. - - Exclamation expressing
grief

=
21. = Instrumental case (truteeya ()
vibhakti) term indicating
agent
22. = Term in Instrumental case () ( ) |
(truteeya vibhakti) or
ablative case (panchamee () + +
vibhakti) indicating cause



23. = Dative case (caturtee () |
vibhakti) term indicating the
receiver
24. = Ablative case (panchamee
+ ()
vibhakti) term indicating the
source of separation
25. - = Genitive case (shashtee
vibhakti) term indicating ?
relationship which is
something other than the
relationships indicated by
the other Kaarakaas. It
would be associated with
one of the kaarakaas.
26. - = Term indicating relationship
which is something other + () ++
than the relationships
indicated by the other
Kaarakaas and the ()
association is not with the
kaarakaas.
27. = Term not in instrumental + () ++
and ablative case (3rd and
5th vibhakti), yet indicating
the cause

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 5


:

28. = Locative case (Saptamee


vibhakti) term indicating
| subject matter
|
29. = Locative case (Saptamee () ()
vibhakti) term indicating
place - only a part
( )
30. = Locative case (Saptamee
vibhakti) term indicating

place - all-pervading
( )
31. = Locative case (Saptamee

++ () |
vibhakti) term indicating time
|
only a part

32. = An adjective for Locative
, , ()
case (Saptamee vibhakti)
- term ( ) |
33. = Indeclinables that connects , , , , , , ,
different words or phrases
, ,
34. = Indeclinables indicating the |
time

35. = Indeclinables indicating the


subject matter eg. ,

36. = Indeclinables indicating the ()


place eg. , ,

37. - Sub-heading for the ()


Satisaptami phrase which
-- indicates the time of the ()
main action through another
secondary action
38. - -- The object of the secondary ()
action in Satisaptami
-
- =
39. - -- The subject of the ()
secondary action in
-
- = Satisaptami
40. - -- Adjective for the subject of ()
the secondary action in
-
- Satisaptami
=
41. - -
- The secondary action in ()
Satisaptami which indicates
= the time of the main action ()
42. - = Satisaptami term , , ,

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 6


:

43.

- sub-heading for ktvaa


clause

44.

- = ktvaa word indicating the

action that was done prior to
the current action
45. The word has an inherent
action and some other word
will be related to this
inherent action.
46.
- Another sentence that is |
closely associated with the
main sentence by some
relationship like cause-
effect.
47. - - The word which provides a ++
comparison

()
* - * - *

1.


, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

= [ . . . . ]

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= [ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 7


:

= [ ] ~~ |

= [ * |


] ~~ |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - --- - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- -- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |

() () () ()
()



= +



- ( )
( )

+ + + - ( - )
++ + - ( - ) -
|
= + + - ()
(Etymology, i.e., derivation of the word)
( )

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 8


:

( )

Bhaja gvinda bhaja gvinda


gvinda bhaja mhamat
samprpt sannihit kl
nahi nahi rakati kr kara 1

O thou ignorant! Repeat the name of Lord Govind as many times as possible. None of thy
vast learning comes to thy rescue, to shield thee against the pangs of death.

2.


, , , , , , , , , , , ,
,

= [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . . ]
- -
, /,
, /, /
, /, /
- -
/ , / ,
// , / , /
, ,
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 9


:

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= ( ) ~~ |



= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= [ + + - . ( ). . . . ]
- -

,
,


,
,

-- -



= ( ) ~~ - |
|

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - | |
= [ . . . . ]

() () () ,
()



( )



= +

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 10


:

=
= -
=

= -

= -
=


= + + + - ( - )
= + + - ()

Mha jah hi dhangamatr


kuru sadbud'dhi manasi vitrm
yallabhas nijakarmptta
vitta tna vindaya cittam 2

Thou ignorant! Get over thy desire for earning wealth. Cherish in Thee, the divine ideals,
eliminating desire. Rejoice with what is obtained by honest means, being content always.

3.


, , , , , , , , , ,

= [ . . . . ] ( - )

= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 11


:


= [ ] ~~
- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= [ + + - ( ) . . .
. ]
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= () ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= ( ) ~~ |

, ()
() ()


, - -



= +

=


= -
=
= -

= -

= -


=

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 12


:

= -
= -

= + -

Nr stanabharanbh da
drv mgmhvam
tanmnsavasdi vikra
manasi vicintaya vra vram 3

At the sight of the breast and navel of a woman be not thou deluded. Every time thou see
them, consider that they are but lumps of flesh and fat covered under skin.

4.


, , , , , , , ,
, ,


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
= [ ] ~~ - - |


= [ . . . . ]

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 13


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= [ ] ~~ |
= () ~~ - |

= ( ) ~~ |

() ()
()




+ = + -
+ = + -
Note: should be applied before


= -
=
=


-
= -


= -



= + - ( - )
= ( ) + - ( - )
= +
-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 14


:


= + - ( )

Nalin dalagatajalamatitarala
tadvajj vitamatiayacapala
vid'dhi vydhyabhimnagrasta
lka kahata ca samastam 4

Earthly existence is as unsteady as a drop of water on lotus leaf. It is nothing but ego and a
bundle of diseases. The world is hooded with dark grief and ends in destruction.

5.


, , , , , , , , , , , ,
,


= ()

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |
= [ ] ~~ | |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |
= [ ] ~~ | |
= ( ) ~~ | |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 15


:


=
[ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ ] ~~ |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - --- - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |

() (), ( ) ()
()



-
-- , ,




= -
= +
= + -
= + ,

+ =
+ = + -
= +
+ , ,


=
= -
= -

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 16


:

= | |
Note: Another option is to consider this as a simple sentence without Satisaptami -
= - In that case, the anvaya
will be this ( ) , ()

The padaparichaya will be done this way:
= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= + - ( - )
= + - ( - )
= + + -
= + -

Yvadvittprjanasakta-s
stvannijaparivr rakta
pacjj vati jarjaradh
vrt kpi na prcchati gh 5

So long as thou possess wealth, thou hast all kith and kin and all paraphernalia about you. But when
thou attain old age and live a sinecure, none enquires about your health even in your own house.
(sinecure: one who has revenue without employment).

6.


, , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 17


:



= [ + . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

=
[ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= [ (
) . . . . ]
- -
- , / , |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - --- - |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- -- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |


()

- ,
(
)

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 18


:

= + ,

= + -

= -

=
+ - () |

= + - -

Yvatpavan nivasati dh
tvatprcchati k ala gh
gatavati vya dhpy
bhry bibhyati tasminky 6

So long as thou has life breath in thee thou art anxious about the welfare of thy family. But when thou
breath thy last, even thy wife who kissed and hugged thee shuns thy corpse.

7.


, , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,


( )
= ()
= ( ) ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 19


:


= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |

= ()
= [ ] ~~ | |

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

( )
= ()
= ( ) ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |

= ()
= [ ] ~~ | |

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |


( )
= ()
= ( ) ~~ | |

=
[ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |

= ()
= [ ] ~~ | |

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |


= ()
= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 20


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |

( ) ( ) () () ()

() ()



= + ,
= + ,

=
+ - ,
= +
= + , ,
+



= ,

= ,

= ,


= + - ( - )

Blastvatkr sakta
taruastvattar sakta
rd'dhastvaccintsakta
param brahmai kpi na sakta 7

Thy mind is engaged in games when thou art a boy, and in youth in courting thy lady
love. When thou art old, it is crowded with thoughts and worries. In short thou hast no
time to devote unto God or divine ideals.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 21


:

8.

= [ . . . . ]
-
= , ,
= , ,
= , ,

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~
| -
|
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
- = () [ . . . . ]

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~
| -
|
=
[ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
- = () [ . . . . ]


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
--
- = |
- = |
- = |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 22


:

= [ ] ~~ - -- |


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ - - |
- = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |

= ()

= ( ) ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |
= ( ) [ ] ~~ - |

= [ . . . . ]

= ( ) ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= () [ ] ~~ |

( ) ?
? () ? () ? ()
? ()

? ? ? ? ?



= ,
= , ,
|
= - ,
= - ,
=

= + + - ( - ) |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 23


:

K t knt kast p tra


sansryamat va vicitra
kasya tva ka k ta yta-
stattva cintaya tadiha bhrta 8

Who is thy wife and who is thy son? O brother! The so called family of yours is mysterious.
Wherefrom art thou? Where do thou go? Trace thy existence in this world and understand the
truth.

9.


= ()

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= ()

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |


= ()

= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |


= ()

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 24


:


()



=
=

( ) ()

( - ) -


( - ) -



= ( () - ) ( ) -


=
= -
-
- - -
-

( ) ()

Satsagatv nis'sagatva
nisagatv nirmhatvam
Nirmhatv nicalatattva
nicalatattv j vanm kti 9

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 25


:

Obtain the company of the good. Thou art rid of fear. In the absence of fear, ignorance is
lost. In the loss of ignorance, thy mind is steady. In the steadiness of thy mind is centered
salvation.

10.


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -
|
|
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - ---
- |
--
, ,
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -
| |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
---

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 26


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - --- - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -
| |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - --- - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= () ~~ - |


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -
| |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
---
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - ---
- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -
- |
= () ~~ - |

() ? () ? () ?
() ?

?
?



= - , ,

= -

= + - ( - - ) -
= + - ( - ) -

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 27


:

= + - ( - ) - /
= + - ( - ) -

ayasi gat ka kmavikra


k n r ka ksra
K vitt ka parivr
j t tattv ka sansra 10

Just as the tremor of lust in youth automatically disappears in old age; just as a lake is only
a stretch of land when water is dry; just as a wealthy man, when reduced to poverty is
devoid of servants; so one who attains self-knowledge is rid of ephemeral pleasures.

11.

... ...


+++


= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= +++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= [ . ( .) . . . ]

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 28


:

= . . . . ] ~~ ( ) - |
- just after a minute, or - without even losing a
minute | - lyabanta is deleted, and the karma or
adhikarana is given panchami vibhakti.
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= [ + . . . .]
= ( ) ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|


-


- =
[ ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

-

- = [ ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |



( )

-
- |
,



= - ,


=

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 29


:

= |
= |

= + -
= + -

= + -

kuru dhanajanayauvanagarva
harati nimtkla sarvam
Mymayamidamakhila b d'dhv
brahmapada tva pravia viditv 11

The silent mill of Time is grinding thee every moment. So be not proud of thy wealth, kith
and kin or thy youth. Cut asunder the cords that bind thee to this unreal world and enter the
blissful world of reality through proper course, understanding thy self.

12.


= ( )

= + [ . . . . ] ~~
|

= ( )

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 30


:


= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= () [ ] ~~ |


= [ + . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
-
= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~
|


= [ . . . . ] |
[ ] ~~ |

( ) () ( ) |




=
-
=
=

=


=

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 31


:

=
= - -
-

Dinaymin'ya sya prta


iiravasanta p naryta
kla kr ati gacchatyy
tadapi na m catyvy 12

Night follows the day, the day closes in the evening and dawns afresh on the next morning.
The cheerless winter is succeeded by the pleasant spring. Thus Time, the wizard, is playing
his Death dance and conjures thee. Yet thou do not want to part with life that is transitory.

Additional Information:
Extract from Bhaja Govindam with Swami Chinayanandas Commentary published by The
Chinmaya Publication Trust in 1962.
This is the twelfth stanza, with which the bouquet of 12-verse-flowers (Dwadasa-
Manjarika-Stotra) concludes. These are the twelve-stanzas directly given by Acharya
Sankara, although, in truth, we cannot say it with any amount of finality, since we find
in various publications, the stanzas are interchanged. In some publications, we find the
bunch of these dozen-stanzas are concluded with a stanza describing the author and
the circumstances under which the poem came to be composed.



The following fourteen-verses together form the companion bouquet of 14-verses


flowers called chaturdasasa-manjarika-stotra. Each one of them is traditionally found to
have been attributed to the fourteen followers of Sankara who had accompanied him on
that day in Benaras. (Most names are provided in the appropriate stanzas).

After these 14 verses, again Sankara concludes the work with his final remarks. There are
also additional concluding shlokas.

Extract from http://sanskritdocuments.org/

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 32


:





Thus a silly grammarian lost in rules cleansed of his narrow vision and shown the Light
by Shankara's apostles.



Worship Govinda, worship Govinda, worship Govinda, Oh fool ! Other than chanting the
Lord's names, there is no other way to cross the life's ocean.

13.

( +++ ) ...

= [ . . . . ]


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ | -
|
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
- = () [ . . . . ]

= ()
= ( ) [ ] ~~ - |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 33


:


= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= [ ] ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = [ ]


= [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . .] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= + [ . . . .] ~~ | |


? ( ) ? ?

( / )



= -


=
= -
- - -
-
= -

= - -
-
= -

= - -
-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 34


:

=

= + -

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Padmapada.

K t knt dhanagatacint
vt la ki tava nsti niyant
Trijagati sajjanasagatirk
bhavati bhavravatara na k 13

O mad man! Why do thou go after thy wife or wealth? Is there none to control and lead
thee? Get into the association of the (Sants) Good for a moment, but for which there is no
boat that can take thee across the turbulent ocean of (samsara) worldly existence.

14.


++++ +
++


= [ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ++++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 35


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= [ ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

= ()
- = + [ . . . . ] ~~ | (
) - - |

= () ~~ |
= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

( )
( ) ( ) ++++ ( )
,
+ () ++

, , ,



= - , ,
=
= - , ,

=

= -
-
=

-

= -
= |

= + -
= + " " + - ( )

= + - | ()

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 36


:

= + - | ()
= + -

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Totakacharya.

Jail m l citaka
kymbarabah krtava
payannapi ca na payati mh
hy dara nimitta bah krtava 14

Godliness does not mean self-mortification. Some shave their head bald, some cluster the
hair, some pluck the hair one by one and some clothe themselves in saffron robes. They put
on the air of saintliness all for the sake of their belly. They think that they are nearer to God,
but are farther from Heavens.

15.


+

+


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 37


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |


= [ . . . . ]

-

- =
[ ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

=
[ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= [ . . . . ] |
[ ] ~~ |

+ ( )


+




=
- , ,
=
=

=


= + - ( - ) (
)
= + - ( ) (
)
= +
-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 38


:

= + + - ( ) ()
=
+ - ( ) ()

= + -
(Etymology, i.e., derivation of the word)

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Hastamalaka.

Aga galita palita mua


daanavih na jta tuam
rd'dh yti grh tv daa
tadapi na m catypiam 15

Even though the limbs grow weak, the teeth fall down from the mouth, the hair grows white,
and the body be supported by a prop, one does not throw away the bundle of his desires
even at the very old age, at the gate of death.

16.



++ ++ ++
+


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
- = ()

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 39


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
- = ()

= ()

=
++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] | |

= ()

= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= () ~~ |

= ()

= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= () ~~ |

=
[

. ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= ( ) ~~ |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~
|


= [ . . . . ] |
[ ] ~~ |

() (), () (), ()
++ (), ()
++ (), () ++ (), + ()

, ,
,



= ,

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 40


:

=
=


=
-


=

= -

= -

= -

= + ( )

This stanza is believed to have been written by Sri Subodha.

Agr vahni prh bhn


rtra c b ka samarpita jn
karatalabhikastar talavsa
tadapi na m caty pa 16

The beggar roams about with his bowl in his hand. He is scorched by the heat of the sun all
day long. He has no place to stretch his body and sits all night long with his head leaning
upon his folded arms. Yet he does not want to part with his life or lifes desires.

17.

...

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 41


:


+ + + + + +


= [ . ( .) . . . ]

= + + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

= () ~~ |

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |

= () ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

() + +, + , () + ( ) + +
()



= ,
= + -
= + -

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 42


:

=
( )
= ( )
=


= + -
= + -
= + -
= + + - ( - )

This stanza is attributed to Vaartikakaara.

K r t gagsgaragamana
vratapariplana mathav dna
j navih nas'sarvamatna
mukti na bhajati janmaatna 17

No amount of pilgrimage or bath in holy rivers, nay the severe austerity nor immense charity
leads one to salvation if he does not realize the self. Myriads of births will be of no avail
unto him. (Viveka Choodaamani: Vadantu shaastraani yajantu devaan, kurvantu karmaani
bhajantu devataa, Aatmaikya bodhena vinaapi muktir na sidhyati brahmashataantarepi.Let
people quote the Scriptures and sacrifice to the gods, let them perform rituals and worship
the deities, but there is no Liberation without the realization of ones identity with the Atman,
no, not even in the lifetime of a hundred Brahmas put together).

18.


++++ +++

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 43


:


()
= ()

= () ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
()
= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = ()
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
()
= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = ()
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
()
= ()

= () ~~
|
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
()
= ()
= ( ) ~~ |
- = ()

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 44


:

( - Yogi Ramsuratkumar)

() +++
+ , ()
, () , () +++ ,
(
)
?

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 45


:


-

-

= + - ( )
= + - ( )

= + - ( )

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Nityananda.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 46


:

S ramandira tar mlanivsa


ayy bhtala majana vsa
Sarva parigraha bhgatyga
kasya sukha na karti virga 18

The one who resigns from the world, may he be living in temples or the shade of a tree,
may he be rolling in the dust of the naked earth and may he be in the robes of dear skin,
he enjoys the real bliss of renunciation.

19.


+ + + +


= ( )

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
= [ ] ~~ |


= [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
- = [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
()
= [
. . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 47


:


= () ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

+ + + + ( ) , () |
() () | ()

( )



= - , ,

= - , ,

= - , ,

=

= -

(Since saptami-tatpurusha samaasa vidhaayakam
sutram does not accommodate this, these are not taken to be saptami).
= -

= -

= -


= + - ( - )
= + + - ( - )

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 48


:

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Anandagiri.

Ygarat v bhgarat v
sagarat v sagav h na
yasya brahmai ramat citta
nandati nandati nandatyva 19

If one centres his thoughts on God, by deep meditation or by good deeds, either in company
or alone, indeed he drinks the honey of Divine-hood.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 49


:

20.


+ +++ +


()

() = + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- | --
|
= [ ] ~~ |
()
= () ~~ |
()
() = +++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
()
= () ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 50


:

()
() = ()
() = + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
()
= () ~~ |

() = [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = [ . . . . ]
()
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

() + , () +++ , +
(),

, ,
,




=
=

=

-
-
-

-

-


= +
-
= + - ( - ) ()
This stanza is traditionally attributed to Dridhabhakta.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 51


:

Bhagavadg t ki cidadh t
gagjala lavakaik p t
sakrdapi yna m rrisamarc
kriyat tasya yamna na carc 20

He does not fight with (Yama) Death at his last hour, if one chants awhile the celestial songs
of the Lord, Bhagavat Geeta and drinks a drop of the waters of Holy Ganga, praising the
glory of the Lord. (Gangaa Jal = Bhakti)

21.

= [ . . . . ]


= ()
=
[ ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|


= ()
=
[ ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |



= ()

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 52


:

= [ ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ | |


= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ ] ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
=
[ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= [ ] ~~ -- |


= ( ) ~~ |

( ) !
, ,
() ( )



= -
= -


= + -
= + -
= +
-


=

=

This stanza is attributed to Shri Nityanaatha.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 53


:

Punarapi janana punarapi maraa


p narapi janan jahar ayanam
Iha sansr bah d str
krpaypr phi m rr 21

O Lord Murari! Save me from the clutches of the unending cycle of birth, death and struggle
in the womb of a mother. Bless me with thy grace. The worldly existence is very hard for
me.

22.







....

+++ +++ ++ ++


= [ . . . . ]
= ++ [ ] ~~ - - | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= +++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= +++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 54


:

+++ +++ ++ ++



= +
= -
= ++ - ,


= -
= -






=




=

-




=

-

=


= -


= +

+ - ( - ) |
= + + - ( - )

= + ()


= -
-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 55


:

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Nityanaatha.

Rathycarpaaviracitakantha
puyp yavivarjitapantha
Yg yganiyjitacitt
ramat blnmattavadva 22

The meditative, centred always in meditation, roams carefree like a child, wearing the rags
picked up from streets, without the duality of even sin or virtue in his mind.

23.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 56


:



= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- - |


= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- - |



= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= ( ) [ ] ~~ - |




= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
- = () [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- - |


= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
- = () [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- - |

= [ + + - ( ) . . . . ]

= ( )
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= [ ] ~~ - |

-
= [ ] ~~
- |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 57


:


= ( ) ~~ |

? ? ? ? ? +
( )

? ? ? ? ?



= ,
=
, + , ,
= , ,

= -

= + -
= + + - ( - ) |
This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Surendra.

Kastva kha k ta yta


k m janan k m tta
Iti paribhvaya sarvamasram
viva tyaktv svapnavicram 23

Think deep who thou art and who am I. Where-from do we come? Who is thy mother and
who is thy father? Thou will understand that every one is evanescent. Hence give up these
dreamy ideas about the world renouncing all.

24.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 58


:


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |



= [ . . . . ]

= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
= [ ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 59


:

()
= [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
= [ ] ~~ |
= () ~~ |

( )
()



= -
= -
= - ,

= - ,
=
=
=

=

= ()
(Etymology, i.e., derivation of the word)
= |

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Medhaatithira.

Tvayi mayi cn'yatraik viu-


rvyartha kupyasi mayyasahiu

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 60


:

Bhava samacitta sarvatra tva


v chasyacirdyadi viutvam 24

In thee, in me and in all dwells the Lord. Why do thou impatiently hate me in others? See
me in all and leave off the ideas of I and you.

25.


= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= ( ) ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |
= [ ] ~~
|

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 61


:

=
[ +

. . . . ]
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |


,
,



=

=
-
=

- ()
=

= -
Note: In samaahara dvandva samaasa, we would find the samastapadam in neuter
genter singular form. That is applicable only for akaaraanta words.


= + -

This stanza is traditionally attributed to Shri Medhaatithira.

atra mitr p tr bandha


m k r yatna vigrahasandhau
sarvasminnapi paytmna
sarvatrtsrja bhdj nam 25

Be impartial to thy friend, foe or son. Do not make distinction of them. With equal mind in all,
thou attain the state of bliss very soon.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 62


:

26.

... ...


+ + +


= [ . . . . ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
-
= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~
|
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
= () ~~ - |

= () ~~
|


-

- = [ ]
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ()

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |


() = [ . ( .) . . . ]
() = + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 63


:

() = [ . . . . ] ~~ |

() = ( ) ~~ |

() , () +
+ ( )

-

( )
,



= -

= -
, + , ,
= -

=
-


= -

= -


=
-

saptami tatpurusha not applicable as there is no saptami
tatpurusha vidhaayakam sutram for this.

= + -
= + " " + - ( - )
= + + - ( - )

This stanza is attributed to Bhaarativamsha.

Kma krdha lbha mha


tyaktvtmna payati sham
tmaj navih n mh-
st pacyant narakanigh 26

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 64


:

When thou get thyself clear of lust, anger, greed and ignorance, thou understand thy real self.
Without self-realization, the ignorant marches towards hell, i.e., he whirls round in the cycle of
birth and death.

27.


+ + + ++ +


= ()

() = + + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |

() = + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- | |
= [ ] ~~ | |

() = [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- | |
= ++ [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

() = [ . . . . ] ~~ |
() = [ . . . . ] ~~ -- | |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ - |
= [ ] ~~ |
()
= ( ) ~~ |

( ) , , , ()

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 65


:




=

= -
Note: In samaahara dvandva samaasa, the samastapadam is in neuter genter
singular form for akaaraanta word.

= -
= -

= - -
-
= -
= -


+ - -
+ - -
+ - -
+ - -

This stanza is attributed to Shri Sumatir.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 66


:

Gya g tnmasahasra
dhyya r patirpamajasram
nya sajjanasag citta
dya d najanya ca vittam 27

Repeat the thousand names of the Lord. Contemplate on the divine personality of the Lord.
Concentrate thy thoughts on the association of the Good. Give off thy possessions to the
needy.

28.

() = [ . ( .) . . . ]

= [ ] ~~ |

() = [ . . . . ] ~~ |

()
= () ~~ |

= [ ] ~~ - - |

= ()

- = [ ] ~~ |


= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 67


:

= ()


= [ . . . . ] ~~
|

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ | |

= + [ ] ~~ |

= [ . ( .) . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |
= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= () ~~ |


= [ . . . . ] |
[ ] ~~ |

!
() , (
)
+



= -
= -

= + + -
= + -
:
= + -
(Etymology, i.e., derivation of the word)

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 68


:

Sukhata kriyat rmbhga


pacd'dhanta ar r rga
yadyapi lk maraa araa
tadapi na m cati ppcaraam 28

Thou enjoy all conjugal pleasures so long as thou art strong and when thou attain old age
thou art victim to diseases. Death is inevitable unto thee. Despite being aware of all these
thou do not desist from sins.

29.


+ +


= [ + - ( ) . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ -- |
= () ~~ - |

= ( ) ~~
|

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
-
= [ . . . . ]
= [ ] ~~ | |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 69


:


= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ]
= () ~~ - |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
- = + [ . . . . ]

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ ] ~~ |


= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - |
= [ . . . . ] ~~ - -- |
= [ ] ~~ |


+ ()
+ ()
()



= + -
= + -

= + -

+ = -
+ = - ( )

Arthamanartha bhvaya nitya


nsti tata s khala satyam

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 70


:

p trdapi dhanabhj bh ti
sarvatrai vihit r ti 29

Be assured that wealth is a source of danger. There is not a bit of real happiness. Even the
son is suspected by one who possesses wealth. He is ever in a state of terror. There is no
exception to this state of affairs.

30.


+++ ++ +

= [ . ( .) . . . ]

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= +++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= ++ + [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ ] ~~ |

= ( ) ~~ |

= ()

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 71


:

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - |


= ( ) ~~
|

+++ ++ +
()



=
= -


-

-


= |
= -
|
=
| |

= + + -
= + + -

=

Pryma pratyhra
nitynityavivkavicram
jpyasamtasamdhividhna
k rvavadhna mahadavadhnam 30

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 72


:

Thou hast discharged the duty of thy existence in this world if thou attain the very difficult
state of (samaadi) tranquility, controlling the breath and food and cognizing the real from the
unreal.

31.


++++ + +
+

= [ . . . . ]

= [ ] ~~ |

- = + + [ . . . . ] ~~ - (
) -- |


= ( ) ~~ |

=
++
++ [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ - - | |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ]

= [ ] ~~ |

= [ . . . . ] ~~ |

= + [ . . . . ] ~~ |


= ( ) ~~ |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 73


:

++++ () + + ()
+



= +
= +
= +


- -
- -
-
=

= |
= |
= -




-

|

- + + - |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 74


:

= + - ( - ) |
= + - ( - ) |

Gurucaramb janirbharabhakta
samsrdacirdbhava m kta
sndriyamnasaniyamdva
drakyasi nijahrdayastha dvam 31

With increasing devotion surrender thyself at the feet of thy Guru (the Lord). Thou attain
salvation, relieved from the bondages of the world. Thou perceive the Lord in thy heart when
thou bring under control thy body and mind. Thus thou cut down the tree of transmigration.

* - * - * - * - * - *

Source for the purport in Sanskrit , Sanskrit Commentary by Dr. S.


Geethamani Amma and Dr. S. Sobhana (Teachers, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit,
Kalady, Kerala) published by Parimal publications Delhi. TODO Purport in Sanskrit to be replace!

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 75


:

English Translation by my grandfather, Sri S.R. Venugopalan. Source: Tattva Darsana


(http://sribharatamatamandir.org/word/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/TATTVA-DARSANA-32-1-
January-June-2015.pdf)
Click Bhaja Govindam for the entire text in nivedita2015.wordpress.com with word-to-
word English meaning by Sri Veeraswamy Krishnaraj of www.bhagavadgitausa.com

Dhaaturoopanandinee A collection of all lakaras of all dhaatus with grammatical notes by


Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]

Krudantaroopanandinee A collection of nineteen krudanta roopas of all dhaatus with


grammatical notes by Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]

Gita Praveshah prathamabhaaga by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]

Geetadhaturupavalih A collection of all verb-declensions used in Bhagavad Geeta by H.R.


Vishwasa, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]

* - * - * - * - * - *

Appendix 1 - Paadaakulakam Chandas (meter)

The chandas of the Bhaja Govindam song is which comes under The metre
( ) of this song is moraic ( ). Maatraachandas is the meter according to quantities. Note

that this is different from the meters like Anushtub that are based on syllables. In the syllable based
meters, the arrangement is based on short (laghu light) or long (guru heavy) where in a syllable is
metrically short only if it contains a short vowel and is not followed by consecutive consonants in the
same pada; and all other syllables are long, by quality (having a long vowel or diphthong) or by position
(being followed by a consonant cluster).

The maatra chandas is a meter in which it is not the number of syllables that determines the
arrangement, but the sum of the syllabic quantities per verse (short = 1 quantity, long = 2 quantities).

There are 4 quarters ( ) in each shloka. Each paada has 16 maatraas in this Paadakulakam
( ) variety under Maatraachandas. In total 16 quantities much occur and it does not matter at

all how they are divided up.

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 76


:

The Maatra-chandas is rare in Sanskrit; but in modern Indian languages there is usually only this
particular meter. Owing to the freer choice of melody, the performance comes much closer to singing
than the other meters. This meter is especially suitable for being integrated into musical
accompaniments and being accompanied by drums and other percussion instruments (due to the layaa
aspect).

In Bhaja Govindam, apart from the first verse, all other verses have 16 mAtrAs ( ), as per the
description of the pAdakulakam variety of mAtrAsamaka ( ) described in the
work, vRttaratnAkara ( ) by Kedaarabhatta ( ).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 # 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Count 2 maatraas for long vowels (, , , , , , ) and short vowel+consonent (e.g., )

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhaja_Govindam

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_meter

http://www.sriaurobindoandmother.com//Chhandas/-23_Padakulakam.htm

Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 77


:

We can see here that the first verse does not completely fit in the chandas.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Appendix 2 The 10 ganas or classes of verbs & List of Verbs

The verb i.e., is arrived at based on the root, the specific gana and the specific
lakaara.

= + < for the roots gana> + < for the lakaara>

i.e., + (for ) + (for -- is elided as it get the ) -->

There are 10 ganas of dhaatus. - = , ,


, , ,
, ,
, ,

1 ( ) , are the roots. + + =

2 ( ) + + is not It is due to the by the sutra



in the Vedas, it could come
differently.

3
( ) + + This means that the goes out
and the letter doubles ( ) itself in --> -->

Due to a different sutra, the jaa changes to ha. The

letter is repeted. means repetition. This kind of repetition of

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 78


:

the first word is referred to as

4 -->
-->
+ + =

5 --> --> + + =

6 --> --> + + =

7 --> --> + (before the last consonant) + =

8 --> --> = + + -->


9 --> = + + -->

10 ( ) = + + + ... ...

< > < > <> <> < > <.. > </>
1-
2-
5-
2-
4-
8- -
1-
1-
1-
1-

3-


1-
-
10- -
9-
-

1-
10- -
,
3-

4-
1-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 79


:

9-
1-
1-
1-
3-
-
1-
3- -
1-

1-
1- -

6-

-
1- -
1-
1-
2-
10- -

1-
6-




1-
1- -
1- -
10- -
4-

1-



6-

-
9-

2-

7-
/

1-
1- -
1-
1-
1-
2-
1-

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 80


:

2-
/ 6-
-
6-



10- -
2-


4-
1-


6-


1-
2-
3-
1- -

Appendix 3 Set, Vet, Anit Inflection Patterns


Patterns of Inflection - Set, Vet and Anit classifications in Bhaja Govindam

Verbs are classified into , and based on whether there is - i.e., For
example, consider the root Its

form is
We notice that it is + +
This
inclusion of is called If a gets , then it is a ( + ) . If a does not get
, then it is ( + ). Where is optional, it is ( + ).

Here are some examples from Bhaja Govindam !

<> < > <> <



> < >
-->

-->

-->

-->

-->

-->

-->
-- -->

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 81


:

--> +


/ --> /


( ) -->

-->


--> ( --> )
--> --

-->
--> --

-->

References:

https://grammarofsanskrit.wordpress.com/category/-- /
/
-
/

Appendix 4 Suffixes Pratyayas


( )
-

| . -

- | . -
|
- - | . -

- - | . -

- -
| . - |

-
| . -

- - | . - |
- - |
| . -

(
)

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 82


:

- | . + - =
- ( ) | . + - = |

- ( ) | . + - = |

- - | . + - =
- | . + - =

- | . + - = |

- | . + - = |

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam 83