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RAFFLES INSTITUTION

Higher 1 Biology Paper 1,2 &3 Answers


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Paper 1 answers:

1. D 11. B 21. A
2. B 12. B 22. B
3. B 13. C 23. D
4. C 14. A 24. A
5. D 15. D 25. B
6. D 16. C 26. D
7. B 17. B 27. B
8. D 18. C 28. D
9. A 19. C 29. A
10. B 20. C 30. D

Paper 2 answers:
Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.

1
In an experiment to study ATP synthesis in plants, chloroplasts are isolated, and the pH levels
in the various compartments are monitored. The graph below shows the results of the
experiment.

pH

Light

Fig.1.1

(a) Explain the changes in pH seen in Fig.1.1 upon illumination. [3]


Illumination of chloroplasts causes the excitation of the electrons from the
reaction centre.
This initiates the electrons flow down the ETC, energy lost is used to pump H+
from the stroma into the thylakoid.
Hence the increase in pH in the stroma and the decrease in pH (increase in H+)
in the thylakoid space

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(b)
Describe a similarity and a difference in the production of ATP in chloroplasts and in
mitochondria. [2]

Similarity
1. Flow of electron down the electron transport chain of progressively
increasing electronegativity.
2. Generation of proton motive force / electrochemical / H+ gradient
3. Diffusion of H+ from through ATP synthase complex, energy used for the
phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (ref to chemiosmosis, but R:just
chemiosmosis without description)
Difference

Photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation

Electron Reaction centre chlorophyll a Reduced coenzyme, NADH/FADH


donor / water

Final NADP Molecular Oxygen


electron
acceptor

Source of Light Oxidation of glucose / NADH / FADH


energy (to be discussed)
for
phosphor
ylation

*Direction Pumped from stroma to Pumped from matrix to


of H+ thylakoid space intermembranal space
pumped

*Direction from thylakoid space to from intermembranal space to matrix


of H+ stroma
diffuse

(c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally
prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell.
State two structural features of the two organelles that provide evidence to support this
theory. [2]
Circular DNA
70S ribosomes
double membrane
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Molecule X forms a pore in the phospholipid bilayer of mitochondria as shown in the Fig.1.2.
Molecule X

Fig.1.2

(d)
Explain how the presence of molecule X might affect the synthesis of ATP in isolated
mitochondria. [3]

no ATP synthesis
Allows H+ to diffuse down a concentration gradient through the pore
and prevents the generation of H+ / electrochemical gradient
(e) In plants, yeasts and bacteria, anaerobic respiration results in the production of alcohol
and carbon dioxide, a process that is exploited by both the brewing and the baking
industries.
Describe how ATP is generated under anaerobic conditions in yeast. [3]
a) pyruvate is decarboxylated to ethanal which is reduced to ethanol by alcohol
dehydrogenase while removing H+ from NADH
b) NAD+ is regenerated
c) for glycolysis to proceed/continue
d) Producing 2 net ATP per glucose

2 When a red flowered, three-leaved clover plant was crossed with a white flowered,
five-leaved plant the following offspring were produced:

red-flowered, five leaved 36


red-flowered, three-leaved 41
white-flowered, five-leaved 40
white-flowered, three-leaved38

The alleles for red flowers and five leaves are dominant.

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Red flowered,
Parental
three-leaved White flowered, five-leaved plant
phenotype
clover plant
Genotype Rrll rrLl;
meiosis
Rl rL

Gametes
rl ;
rl

meiosis

rl
Rl
Gametes

rL RrLl
rrLl
Red flowered, five -leaved
White flowered, five -leaved

rl Rrll rrll;
Red flowered, three -leaved White flowered, three -leaved

F1
1 RrLl 1 Rrll 1 Rrll 1 rrLl ;
genotype
F1 1 White 1 White
1 Red flowered, 1 Red flowered,
phenotyp flowered, three flowered, five
five -leaved three -leaved
e -leaved -leaved ;

(a)
(i) Using the symbols R for red flowers, r for white flowers, L for five leaves and l for
three leaves, draw a genetic diagram to explain these results.
[4]

(ii) When these plants were self-pollinated, explain why only the white-flowered, three-
leaved plants bred true.

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white-flowered, three-leaved plants were double homozygous recessive;


All the other plants would have been heterozygotes;
[2]

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3 One way of investigating relationships between different primate groups is to study
differences in the amino acid sequences of proteins such as haemoglobin.

(a) Explain the origin of differences in the amino acid sequences in a protein.
caused by point mutation;
changes the sequence of DNA bases / changes nucleotide / codon;
new triplet codes for a different amino acid;
codes for new polypeptide; [2]

The chain of haemoglobin has been investigated and shown to have only four
points of difference in all primate groups. The amino acids found at these
positions in certain primates or primate groups are shown in the table below.

Primate or Amino acid at Amino acid at Amino acid at Amino acid at


primate group position 80 position 87 position 109 position 125
Chimpanzee Aspartic acid Threonine Arginine Proline
s
Gibbons Asparagines Lysine Arginine Glutamine

Old World Aspartic acid Glutamine Lysine Glutamine


monkeys
New World Aspartic acid Glutamine Arginine Glutamine
monkeys
Lemurs Aspartic acid Glutamine Threonine Alanine

Table 3.1

(b) (i) With reference to Table 3.1, state the two groups that seem to be closely
related and give a reason for your answer.

Old World monkeys and New World monkeys;


Only one difference / three common amino acids;
[2]
[1 mark each]

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(ii) Gibbons are usually classified with the chimpanzees as apes, in the
Hominoidea.
Explain why the results shown do not support this classification.

Gibbon more like New World monkey;



Gibbon chain has only one common amino acid (arginine) with

chimpanzee;
2 common amino acids with New World monkeys;
Chimpanzee has only common amino acid with / 3 different from
each of the other groups; [3]
[Any 3 - 1 mark each]

(c) Describe two ways, other than differences in amino acid sequences, in which
evolutionary relationships between hominids can be investigated.
ref to homology / skeletal / skull / dentition details;
carbon dating of fossils allows us to determine the age of a
formerly living thing;
anatomical comparisons of fossil primates;
anatomical comparisons of the skeletons of modern species;
sequencing / profiling DNA / DNA hybridization / ref. to PCR / DNA
fingerprinting
antibody-antigen / immunological / serum studies;
use of antibodies / agglutination/ immuno-precipitation;
comparison of early stages of animal development reveals additional
anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms;
[Any 4 - 1 mark each]

4 (a) A particular region of a gene has the following nucleotide sequence in the template
strand:
5 TAC TTA GAA TCT CAG CCA ATT ACT CAT 3
(i) Transcribe the above sequence into mRNA
5 AUG AGU AAU UGG CUG AGA UUC UAA GUA 3

(ii) How many amino acids does the protein encoded by this section of the gene
have?
7 (UAA is a stop codon)
Mutations in tumour suppressor genes can increase the chances of a person getting
cancer.
(i) Explain why mutations in tumour suppressor genes are considered to be
recessive.
a) even though one allele may produce a non-functional protein
b) the other allele can still produce a protein that can mask the effect of
the non-functional protein
(ii) Suggest why most skin cancers are considered non-hereditary?
a) Due to environmental effects, e.g. exposure to UV light, resulting in
mutation
b) most skin cancers are associated with somatic mutations not
germ-line mutation

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5 In the process of cloning a eukaryotic gene, bacterial cells that contain the gene of interest
can be identified by a double selection process using two antibiotic resistance markers. The
cloning vector can be made from two plasmids (pAMP and pKAN) shown below.
Both pAMP and pKAN contain one BamH1 site, one HindIII site and one origin of replication
each. pAMP contains the ampicillin resistance gene while pKAN contains the kanamycin
resistance gene.
Legend
ampr: ampicillin resistance gene
kanr: kanamycin resistance gene

kanr

MCS

ampr

To form the desired cloning vector, both pAMP and pKAN are treated BamHI and HindIII. The
resulting four restriction fragments are allowed to ligate to form several possibilities of circular
plasmids, among which, only one of them is the desired outcome which consists of two
antibiotic resistance genes.
(a) Draw and annotate the desired cloning vector formed from pAMP and pKAN. Annotate
with the origin of replication, both marker genes, and the BamHI and HindIII sites [3]

Drawing showing a cloning vector with 2 resistance genes and origin of


replication;
Labelling origin of replication, kanr, ampr, BamHI site, HindIII site ;;; gene
marker
- mk for one mistake, -1 for two mistakes, -1 for three mistakes
kanr
(b) Discuss the significance of the following in gene cloning :
(i) 2 selectable markers

AmpR
marker gene codes for ampicillin resistance which allows for selection
of transformants, since only cells containing plasmid will grow
in media containing
ampr ampicillin.
KanR codes for kanamycin resistance, which is used to distinguish
between bacterial cells that are not transformed and those that are
transformed with recombinant and non-recombinant plasmids when
grown on a medium containing kanamycin.
(ii) origin of replication

Origin of replication allowed the plasmid (and foreign gene


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inserted) to be replicated independently / autonomously of


bacterial chromosome to increases copy number / creates
multiple copies of the plasmid and gene within one bacterium.
This increases copy numbers ensures that during each
subsequent division of E. coli, every bacterial cell will contain
the plasmid. [1]
(iii) multiple cloning site

allows the plasmid to be used to insert / contain a wide


range of different foreign genes. [1]

(c) Describe the steps involved in the formation of a recombinant plasmid.

Cut the vector DNA and gene of interest with the same restriction
enzyme.
Generate complementary sticky ends on both DNA molecules which
can anneal via hydrogen bonds by complementary base pairing
when they are mixed.
Ligase is added to seal nicks by forming covalent phosphodiester
bonds between adjacent nucleotides.
Thus a recombinant DNA molecule is formed which is made up of
DNA form 2 different sources.
[3]

Section B
Answer EITHER 8 OR 9.

Write your answers on the separate answer paper provided.


Your answers should be illustrated by large, clearly labeled diagrams, where appropriate.
Your answers must be in continuous prose, where appropriate.
Your answers must be set out in sections (a), (b) etc., as indicated in the question.
6 (a) Explain how glucagon differs from glycogen. [6]
Point of glucagon glycogen
Comparison

a) Type of Glucagon is a globular Glycogen is an extensively


macromolecul protein. branched polysaccharide
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e made of helical chains.
(R: spherical/enzyme)
b) Type of Monomers are amino Monomers consists of
monomer acid residues with alpha glucose only.
different R groups.
c) Type of Amino acid residues Alpha glucose joined by
bonds joined by peptide alpha 1-4 glycosidic
between bonds. linkages with branched
monomer alpha 1-6 glycosidic
linkages.

d) Number of Fixed number of amino Variable number of glucose


monomer per acid per molecule. per molecule.
molecule
e) Solubility in Soluble in water as it is Insoluble in water as it has
water globular in structure. a large molecular weight.

f) Synthesis Glucagon is produced Glycogen is synthesized in


by alpha cells in the liver and muscle cells
pancreas in the islets of when blood glucose is
Langerhans. high.
g) Function Glucagon is a Glycogen provides an
hormone/signal protein energy store in muscle and
that regulates blood liver.
glucose.
(b) Describe the process of DNA replication. [6]
1. Replication begins at a specific site called origin of replication.
2. Helicase unzips and separates the two parental strands of
DNA double helix by disrupting the hydrogen bonds between
complementary base pairs.
3. Single-strand binding proteins bind to single DNA strands &
keep the strands apart, so that they can serve as templates for
the synthesis of new complementary DNA strands.
4. On each of the parental DNA strands, a short RNA primer is
added by an enzyme called primase.
5. DNA polymerase adds DNA nucleotides (in the form of dNTPs)
to the growing new strand in the 5' to 3' direction.
6. DNA polymerase uses the parental strand as a template and
aligns the free activated dNTPs (deoxyribonucleoside
triphosphates)
7. Through complementary base-pairing with bases on the
parental strand.
a. Adenine base pairs with thymine, and vice versa
b. Guanine base pairs with cytosine, and vice versa
8. DNA polymerase catalyses the formation of phosphodiester
bonds between adjacent DNA nucleotides of the newly
synthesised strand.
9. A different DNA polymerase then removes the RNA primer and
replaces it with DNA nucleotides. *
10. one of the daughter strands known as the leading strand will be
synthesised continuously from the 5 to 3 direction;
11. the other strand known as the lagging strand is synthesized
discontinuously by combining short fragments called Okazaki
fragments;
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12. DNA ligase catalyses the formation of phosphodiester bond


between the Okazaki fragments, sealing the nick.
13. replication of DNA is semi-conservative where the original
strands of the double helix separates and act as templates for the
synthesis of two new strands and each daughter cell inherits a
DNA molecule that is a hybrid consisting of one original and one
newly synthesised strand;
(c) Explain how gel electrophoresis can be used to provide evidence of molecular [8]
homology.

1. DNA polymorphism exists between organisms ;


2. DNA fragments from the different organism was cut with the
same restriction enzyme ;
3. DNA sample is loaded into wells together with loading dye.
The loading dye is dense thus it helps the DNA sample sink
into the wells OR
a. (Teacher may want to point out that the dyes will
travel along the gel with the DNA but does not bind to
the DNA.)
b. DNA sample is loaded into wells together with loading
dye which contains 2 loading dyes to help monitor the
progress of electrophoresis, since DNA bands are not
visible.
4. The fragments of DNA are pipetted into the wells at the top of
the gel in a position furthest from the positive
electrode/anode OR nearer the negative electrode / cathode
5. Gel electrophoresis is carried out in a buffer solution which
allows conduction of electricity to generate an electric field.
6. DNA subjected to a electric current/field where negatively-
charged DNA migrates out of well towards direction of
positive electrode/anode
7. Fragments of DNA migrate through agarose gel matrix, made
up of a meshwork of polysaccharides Meshwork impedes
movement of longer DNA fragments more than shorter DNA
fragments
8. Longer DNA fragments migrate slower compared to shorter
fragments

The banding pattern between the organisms were compared,


9. similar banding patterns- presence of molecular homology;
10. different banding patterns no evidence molecular
homology in DNA seq;
Points 3-8 (max 6 marks)

7 (a) Explain, using two named examples, how environmental forces act as forces of [8]
natural selection.
Example 1:
1. There are two types of peppered moths (Biston betularia). The
lighter form (white with black spots) and the melanic form
(black with white spots).
2. Before 1848, the lighter form of moths had a selective
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advantage/ were well-camouflaged from predator on light
coloured, lichen-covered tree barks and were selected for and
hence they increased in frequency.
3. With the industrial revolution lichens on bark of trees were
killed and barks were covered with soot & thus appeared
darker.
4. The lighter forms of moths were selected against / lighter form
of moth became more visible and easy prey to birds. Thus, their
numbers declined.
5. The darker forms of moth however, were well camouflaged and
thus proliferated.
6. Hence there was differential reproductive success i.e.
individuals with the favourable characteristic survived.
(max 4)
Example 2:
7. Antibiotic resistant and non-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
bacterial strains i.e. variation, exists naturally.
8. Resistant strains usually arise by spontaneous mutations.
9. Vancomycin kills most non-resistant bacteria. Thus the non-
resistant bacterial are selected against in the presence of
antibiotics in the environment.
10. Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria however
have a selective advantage in the presence of antibiotics.
11. Thus they are selected for and pass on the allele for antibiotic
resistance to subsequent generations. Hence the antibiotic-
resistant allele frequency increases population.
12. Hence differential reproductive success occurs due to a change
in the environment.
(max 4)

AVP:
13. Named example (Galapagos finches)
14. Original phenotype with selective advantage (medium ground
finch which fed on small tender seeds)
15. Change in environment (drought, only large hard seeds
available)
16. Selection pressure and choice of new phenotype (finches with
large, more powerful beaks fed on the large hard seeds were
selected for)
17. Differential reproductive success change in allele frequency
(max 4)
(b) Describe the structural features of an enzyme molecule. [6]
1. Enzymes are globular proteins in nature;
2. They are macromolecules with unique 3-D conformation;
3. They possess an active site that is a groove on the surface of
protein, that is complementary in shape and charge to the
substrate;
4. Formed by few amino acids, Ref to catalytic and contact
residues ;
5. The structural residues provide framework that reinforces
conformation of active site;
6. Induced fit entrance of substrate induces enzyme to change
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its shape slightly to wrap around substrate / better fit;


7. Bring chemical groups of active site into positions that enhance
their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction;
Some enzymes contain another site (apart from active site) for
another molecule to bind to (cofactors/allosteric
activators/inhibitors) must make ref to the correct types of
molecules; (max 6)
(c) Discuss the ethical and social implications of genetically modified organisms. [6]
1. BENEFITS OF GROWING GM
CROPS MAX 2
(WE LOOK AT THE BENEFITS FIRST SO WE CAN WEIGH THESE
AGAINST THE PROBLEMS)
i. Benefits to both farmer and consumer
ii. Increased disease resistance
iii. Increased tolerance to unfavourable conditions
2. SAFETY OF GM CROPS: THE ENVIRONMENT MAX 2
i. Pest Resistance
ii. Effects on Non-Target Organisms
iii. Gene Flow and Superweeds
iv. Biodiversity

III) SAFETY OF GM FOODS: HUMAN HEALTH MAX 2


1. Toxicity of foodstuffs
2. Allergies to new proteins synthesized
3. Nutritional qualities of genetically engineered food
4. Antibiotic Resistance Markers
IV) ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING MAX 2

1. Exploitation of animals for genetic engineering


There is concern over the way animals are exploited for food
and medical research.
2. Cloning
3. Religious implications in food choices
[Total: 20]

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