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# Sizing

## Pressure Regulators &

Control Valves
Sizing the Pressure Regulators

Sizing of regulators is usually made on the basis of Cg valve and KG sizing coefficients. Flow rates at fully open
position and various operating conditions are related by the following formulae where:

## Q = flow rate in Stm3/h

Pu = inlet pressure in bar (abs)
Pd = outlet pressure in bar (abs).

A > When the Cg and KG values of the regulator are known, as well as Pu and Pd, the flow rate can be calculated
as follows:

## A-1 in sub critical conditions: (Pu<2xPd)

Q = KG x Pd x ( Pu - Pd ) Q = 0 . 526 x Cg x Pu x sin K 1 x ( Pu - Pd
Pu
(
A-2 in critical conditions: (Pu 2xPd)
KG
Q = x Pu Q = 0 . 526 x Cg x Pu
2
B > Vice versa, when the values of Pu, Pd and Q are known,the Cg or KG values, and hence the regulator size,
may be calculated using:

## B-1 in sub-critical conditions: (Pu<2xPd)

Q Q
KG = Cg =
Pu - Pd
Pd x ( Pu - Pd ) (
0 .526 x Pu x sin K1x
Pu
(
B-2 in critical conditions (Pu 2xPd)
2xQ Q
KG = Cg =
Pu 0,526 x Pu

## CAPACITY REDUCTION TABLE:

REGULATOR INTEGRAL INTEGRAL INTEGRAL
SLAM SHUT MONITOR SILENCER
APERFLUX 851 -5% -5% -5%
REFLUX 819 -7% -7% -5%
REFLUX 819/FO -7% -7% -5%
APERVAL SA SB -5% -5%
-10% -5%
REVAL 182 SA SB -7% -5%
-10% -7%
DIXI -3% Not applicable Not applicable
DIVAL 600 0% Not applicable 0%
NORVAL -7% Not applicable Not applicable
NORVAL 608 -7% Not applicable -10%
The above formulae are applicable to natural gas having a relative density of 0.61 w.r.t. air and a
regulator inlet temperature of 15C. For gases having a different relative density d and temperature
tu in C, the value of the flow rate, calculated as above, must be multiplied by a correction factor
Fc, as follows:

175.8
Fc =
S x ( 273.15 + tu )
Correction factors FC

## Type of gas Relative density Fc Factor

Air 1.0 0.78
Propane 1.53 0.63
Butane 2.0 0.55
Nitrogen 0.97 0.79
Oxygen 1.14 0.73
Carbon dioxide 1.52 0.63

## Lists the correction factors Fc for anumber of gases at 15C.

CAUTION:

in order to get optimal performance, to avoid premature erosion phenomena and to limit noise
emissions, it is recommended to check gas speed at the outlet flange does not exceed the values
of the graph below.

450
Gas speed at the outlet flange [m/sec]

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Outlet pressure [bar]

The gas speed at the outlet flange may be calculated by means of the following formula:

where:
Q 1 - 0 . 002 x Pd
V = 345 . 92 x x V = gas speed in m/sec
2 1 + Pd
DN Q = gas flow rate in Stm3/h
DN = nominal size of regulator in mm
Pd = outlet pressure in barg.
Cg and Kg valve coefficient Tables

Aperflux 101

## Nominal diameter (mm) 50 80

Size (inches) 2 3
Cg flow coefficient 1682 4200
KG flow coefficient 1768 4414
K1 body shape factor 103 108

Aperflux 851

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
Cg flow coefficient 480 1550 3790 5554 11112 17316 24548
KG flow coefficient 505 1627 3979 5837 11678 18199 25850
K1 body shape factor 113,9 113,9 113,9 113,9 113,9 113,9 113,9

Reflux 819

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
Cg flow coefficient 575 2220 4937 8000 16607 25933 36525
KG flow coefficient 605 2335 5194 8416 17471 27282 38425
K1 body shape factor 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78

Reflux 819/FO

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
Cg flow coefficient 575 2220 4937 8000 16607 25933 36525
KG flow coefficient 605 2335 5194 8416 17471 27282 38425
K1 body shape factor 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78
Dixi AP Dival 160 AP

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 Nominal diameter (mm) 25

Size (inches) 1" Size (inches) 1"
Cg flow coefficient 159 Cg flow coefficient 140
KG flow coefficient 167 KG flow coefficient 147
K1 body shape factor 99,5 K1 body shape factor 93,5

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 Nominal diameter (mm) 25

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" Size (inches) 1"
Cg flow coefficient 439 1681 3764 Cg flow coefficient 130
KG flow coefficient 462 1768 3960 KG flow coefficient 136
K1 body shape factor 106,78 106,78 106,78 K1 body shape factor 106,78

Aperval 101

## Nominal diameter (mm) 50 80 100

Size (inches) 2 3 4
Cg flow coefficient 2091 4796 7176
KG flow coefficient 2199 5045 7546
K1 body shape factor 108 108 108

Aperval

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 65 80 100

Size (inches) 1" 2" 2"1/2 3" 4"
Cg flow coefficient 584 1978 3530 4525 6719
KG flow coefficient 613 2077 3706 4751 7055
K1 body shape factor 90 101 101 101 101
Cg and Kg valve coefficient Tables

Reval 182

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 65 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 2" 1/2 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
Cg flow coefficient 575 2220 3320 4937 8000 16607 25933 36525
KG flow coefficient 605 2335 4197 5194 8416 17471 27282 38425
K1 body shape factor 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78

Terval

## Nominal diameter (mm) 50 65 80 100

Size (inches) 2" 2"1/2 3" 4"
Cg flow coefficient 1706 2731 3906 5490
KG flow coefficient 1796 2875 4112 5775
K1 body shape factor 108 104 100 100

Terval/R

## Nominal diameter (mm) 50 65 80 100

Size (inches) 2" 2"1/2 3" 4"
Cg flow coefficient 1667 2793 4099 5660
KG flow coefficient 1755 2940 4315 5954
K1 body shape factor 104 104 106 106

Dixi

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 40 50

Size (inches) 1" 1"1/2 2"
Cg flow coefficient 540 983 1014
KG flow coefficient 567 1034 1066
K1 body shape factor 96 96 96
Dival 600
Head 280 Head 280/TR
Nominal diameter (mm) 25 40 50 25 40 50
Size (inches) 1" 1"1/2 2" 1" 1"1/2 2"
Cg flow coefficient 269 652 781 315 692 770
KG flow coefficient 283 685 821 331 727 809
K1 body shape factor 94 94 86 97 95 97

Dival 700
See the capacity Table

Norval

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200

Size (inches) 1" 1"1/2 2" 2"1/2 3" 4" 6" 8"
Cg flow coefficient 331 848 1360 2240 3395 5100 10600 16600
KG flow coefficient 348 892 1430 2356 3571 5365 11151 17463
K1 body shape factor 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78 106,78

Norval 608

## Nominal diameter (mm) 50 80

Size (inches) 2" 3"
Cg flow coefficient 1700 3500
KG flow coefficient 1788 3681
K1 body shape factor 106 106
Cg and Kg valve coefficient

## Sizing the Control Valve Reflux 919 - Syncroflux - VLM

Choise of the valve is usually on the basis of Cg valve and Cg flow rate coefficients.Cg coefficient corresponds
numerically to the value of air flow in SCF/H in critical conditions with full open valve operating with an upstream
pressure of 1 psia at a temperature of 15C.KG. coefficient corresponds numerically to the value of natural gas
flow rate in Stm/h in critical conditions with full open valve operating with an upstream pressure of 2 bar abs at a
temperature of 15C. Flow rates at full open position and various working conditions, are bound by the following
formule where:

## Pu = inlet pressure in bar (abs) Q = flow rate in Stm/H

Pd = outlet pressure in bar (abs) KG, Cv, Cg = valve coefficent

1 > When the Cg and KG values of the control valve are known, as well as Pu and Pd, the flow rate can be
calculated as follows:

Q = KG (Pu - Pd) Pd Pu - Pd
1.1 > in non critical conditions: Q = 16,8 x Cv x Pu x sin (106,78 (
Pu

## Pu - Pd (valid for Pu < 2 x Pd)

Q = 0,526 x Cg x Pu x sin (106,78 (
Pu
KG
1.2 > in critical conditions: Q = x Pu Q= 16,8 x Cv x Pu Q= 0,526 x Cg x Pu (valid for Pu 2 x Pd)
2

2 > Vice versa, when the values of Pu, Pd and Q are known, calculate the values of Cv, Cg or KG with:
(valid for Pu < 2 x Pd)
Q Q Q
KG = Cv = Cg =
Pu - Pd Pu - Pd
Pd ( Pu - Pd ) 16,8
. (
x Pu x sin x 106,78
Pu
( 0,526
. (
x Pu x sin x 106,78
Pu
(
2.2 > in critical conditions: 2xQ Q Q (valid for Pu 2 x Pd)
KG = Cv = Cg =
Pu 16,8 x Pu 0,526 x Pu

A oversizing of 20% on calculated values is raccomanded. Cg formulae give flow rate values more correct while
KG formulae give values 5% higher than real ones only in noncritical conditions. In the case of noise limitation level
a speed at the outlet flange of 130 m/sec. it is also raccomanded. Above formulae are valid for natural gas with a
relative specific gravity of 0,61 compared to air and temperature of 15 C at inlet. For gases with different relative
specific gravity (S) and temperature t (in C) ), value of flow rate calculated as above, must be adjusted multiplying
by:
175.8
Fc =
S x ( 273.15 + tu )

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
Cg flow coefficient 575 2200 4937 8000 16607 25933 36525
KG flow coefficient 605 2335 5194 8416 17471 27282 38425
Cv flow coefficient 18 69 154 250 519 810 1141
Sizing the Control Valve Deltaflux

## A. Subcritical conditions A. Subcritical conditions

(when P < 0.5F2 P1) (when P < 0.5F2 P1)

Volume flow rate (gas and vapor) Constant liquid/gas mixture ratio (liquid containing
non condensable gas or liquid containing high title
P (P1+P2)
Q = 290 Cv vapor)
GT

## Weight flow rate (gas and vapor) W = 19,1 Cv P (w1+w2)

GP (P1+P2)
Q = 355 Cv Variable liquid/vapor mixture ratio (liquid containing
T
low title vapor, less then 0.5)
Weight flow rate (saturated steam)
W = 27,1 Cv P w1
W = 13,55 Cv P (P1+P2)
B. Critical conditions
Weight flow rate (overheated steam) (when P 0.5F2 P1)

## Cv P (P1+P2) Constant liquid/gas mixture ratio (liquid containing

W = 13,55 non condensable gas or liquid containing high title
(1+0,00126t)
vapor)
B. Critical conditions
(when P 0.5F2 P1)

## Volume flow rate (gas and vapor) W = 13,5 F Cv P1 (w1+w2)

262 F Cv P1
Q= Variable liquid/vapor mixture ratio (liquid containing
GT low title vapor, less then 0.5)

## Weight flow rate (gas and vapor)

G
W = 321 F Cv P1 W = 19,1 F Cv P1 w1
T

100
Weight flow rate (saturated steam) w1 =
Xg (Vg1-Vf) + 100 Vf
W = 11,73 F Cv P1
100
w2 =
Weight flow rate (overheated steam) Xg (Vg2-Vf) + 100 Vf
F Cv P1
W = 11,73
(1+0,00126 t)
Cg and Kg valve coefficient Deltaflux

LIQUIDS

## A. Subcritical conditions B. Critical conditions

(when P < F2 Pc) (when P F2 Pc)

## Volume flow rate Volume flow rate

Cv P
Qf = F Cv Pc
1.17 Gf Qf =
1.17 Gf
Weight flow rate
Weight flow rate
W = 855 Cv GfP
W = 855 F Cv Gf Pc

Pc = P1-Pc

Pv
Pc = Pv (0,96-0,28 )
Pk
Pk = Kc (P1-Pv)

Note:
For values of P Pk the
valve works under cavitation
conditions.

Glossary
Cv = valve flow rate coefficient: US gpm of water with Pc = vena contracta critical pressure: bar abs
P = 1 psi Pk = thermodynamic critical point pressure: bar abs
P = valve pressure drop P1-P2: bar Pv = vapor pressure at operating temperature: bar abs
Pc = maximum dimensioning differential pressure: bar T = upstream gas absolute temperature (273+C): K
Pk = cavitation differential pressure: bar t1 = overheated steam upstream temperature: C
t = overheating temperature delta t1 - ts: C ts = saturated steam temperature at upstream pressure: C
F = valve recovery factor: non dimensional Q = volume flow rate at 15 C and 1.013 bar abs: Sm3/h
G = gas relative density (air=1): non dimensional Qf = volume flow rate: m3/h
Gf = liquid relative density at operating temperature W = weight flow rate: Kg/h
(water at 15C=1) W1 = upstream mixture density: kg/m3
Kc = valve incipient cavitation factor: non dimensional W2 = downstream mixture density: kg/m3
Xg = weight percentage of gas or vapor in the mixture at Vf = specific volume of liquid: m3/kg
upstream pressure: % Vg1 = specific volume of gas or vapor at upstream pressure: m3/kg
P1 = valve upstream pressure: bar abs Vg2 = specific volume of gas or vapor at downstream pressure: m3/kg
P2 = valve downstream pressure: bar abs
Cv coefficient Deltaflux

## Deltaflux Liquid control application

Dn Cv coefficient
at 100% opening
2" 82
3" 215
4" 405
6" 1080
8" 1750
10" 2860
12" 3980
14" 5000
16" 6800
18" 8400 Liquid trim
20" 10600
24" 16100

## Deltaflux Gas control application

Dn Cv coefficient
at 100% opening
2" 60
3" 150
4" 290
6" 650
8" 1225
10" 1975
12" 2825
14" 3475
16" 4675
18" 5950 Gas trim
20" 7500
24" 11100

Note: To verify the dimensioning and, in detail, for the dimensioning of Deltaflux control
valves bigger than 24, always refer to Pietro Fiorentini S.p.A.
Sizing the Slam Shut Valves

## Calculation of the pressure drop

The following formula can be used to calculate pressure losses of the slam shut valve in fully
open position:

2 2 2
p = KG x Pu - (KG x Pu ) - 4Q
2 x KG

## p = pressure loss in bar

Pu = absolute inlet pressure in bar
Q = flow rate Stm3/h
KG = flow coefficient

Pressure loss calculated as above is referred to natural gas with specific gravity of 0.61 (air=1)
temperature of 15 C at valve inlet, for gases with different specific gravity S and temperatures t
C, pressure loss can still be calculated with the above formula, replacing the value of the flow
coefficent in the table with:

175 .8
KG1 = KG x
S x ( 273 . 15 + t )
SBC 782

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 65 80 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 1" 2" 2"1/2 3" 4" 6" 8" 10"
KG flow coefficient 510 1970 3550 4390 7120 14780 23080 32506

SCN

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200

Size (inches) 1" 1"1/2 2" 2"1/2 3" 4" 6" 8"
KG flow coefficient 549 1116 1788 2603 4086 6122 13680 21700

HBC 975

## Nominal diameter (mm) 100 150 200 250

Size (inches) 4" 6" 8" 10"
KG flow coefficient 8416 17471 27282 38425

Dilock 108

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 40 50

Size (inches) 1" 1"1/2 2"
KG flow coefficient 500 860 976
Sizing the Safety Relief Valves

## The flow rate is calculated by the following formulae:

M q
q = (0.9 Kc) (394.9 x C) P1 A Q = 23.661
Z1 T1 M

## q = maximum flow rate to be discharged, in Kg/h

Q = maximum flow rate (Stm3/h)
A = minimum area (cm2) (see table)
Kc = outflow coefficient
P1= setting pressure plus a 10% overpressure (bar abs)
T1= temperature in K of the fluid at the valve inlet during
the discarge, reported by user or by designer.
0,9 = safety coefficient
M = molecular mass of the fluid in Kg/Kmol (see table)
Z1 = compressibiliti factor of the fluid under the P1
conditions to be considered approximately equal to
one if the actual values is not known.
Cp exponent of equation of the isentropic expansion
k=
Cv under the P1 and T1 conditions.
Cp = specific heat at consistant pressure
Cv = specific heat at consistant volume

k+1
2
C = coefficient of expansion = C = k( )
k-1

PVS 782

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200

Size (inches) 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8"
Calculation area (cm2) 4,71 20,03 43,01 74,66 168,56 259,59
Outflow coefficient K 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56

## Molecular mass M Coefficient of expansion C

Relative density 28,97 0,685
Carbon dioxide 44,01 0,668
Hydrogen 2,02 0,686
Methane 16,04 0,669
Natural gas* 18,04 0,669
Nitrogen 28,02 0,685
Oxigen 32,00 0,685
Propane 44,09 0,635
* Medium value

## Nominal diameter (mm) 25 50 80 100 150 200

Size 1" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8"
2 barg 332 2144 4604 7991 18043 27788
10 barg 1885 8016 17214 29881 67462 103894
Pressure

## 20 barg 2472 15357 32976 57242 129235 199028

30 barg 5337 22697 48738 84603 191008 294161
40 barg 7063 30038 64500 111964 252781 389295
Flow rate (Kg/h)
DA SISTEMARE !!!!!!!!

## Pietro Fiorentini S.p.A. Tel. +39 0444 968.511

via E.Fermi 8/10 Fax. +39 0444 960.468
I-36057 Arcugnano (VI) Italy

## The data are not binding. We reserve the

right to make eventual changes without
prior notice.

## CT-s 570-E July 13

www.fiorentini.com