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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : Idefinite & Definite Integration
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Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)

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Indefinite Integration
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1. If f & g are functions of x such that g (x) = f(x) then,


d
f(x) dx = g(x) + c
dx
{g(x)+c} = f(x), where c is called the constant of integration.

page 2 of 89
2. Standard Formula:
ax bn 1 dx 1
(i) (ax + b) n
dx =
a n 1
+ c, n 1 (ii) = ln (ax + b) + c
ax b a
1 ax+b 1 a pxq
(iii) eax+b dx =
a
e +c (iv) apx+q dx =
p n a
+ c; a > 0

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1 1
(v) sin (ax + b) dx = cos (ax + b) + c
a
(vi) cos (ax + b) dx = sin (ax + b) + c
a
1 1
(vii) tan(ax + b) dx = ln sec (ax + b) + c
a
(viii) cot(ax + b) dx = ln sin(ax + b)+ c
a
1 1
(ix) sec (ax + b) dx =
a
tan(ax + b) + c (x) cosec(ax + b) dx = cot(ax + b)+ c
a
1
(xi) sec (ax + b). tan (ax + b) dx = sec (ax + b) + c
a
1
(xii) cosec (ax + b). cot (ax + b) dx = cosec (ax + b) + c
a
x
(xiii) secx dx = ln (secx + tanx) + c OR ln tan + c
4 2
x
(xiv) cosec x dx = ln (cosecx cotx) + c OR ln tan
2
+ c OR ln (cosecx + cotx) + c

dx x dx 1 x
(xv) = sin1 +c (xvi) 2 2
= tan1 + c
a
a2 x2 a a x a
dx 1 x dx x
(xvii) 2
x x a 2
= sec1
a a
+c (xviii)
2
x a 2
2
= ln x x a
2
OR sinh1
a
+c

dx x
(xix) 2
x a 2
= ln x x a
2 2
OR cosh1
a
+c

dx 1 ax dx 1 xa
(xx) 2
a x 2 =
2a
ln ax + c (xxi) 2
x a 2 =
2a
ln xa + c

x a2 x
(xxii) 2
a x 2
dx =
2
2
a x 2
+
2
sin1
a
+c

x x2 a2
x a2
(xxiii) 2
x a dx = 2

2
2
x a 2
+
2
n

a + c

x x2 a 2
x a2
(xxiv) 2
2
x a 2
2

x a dx =
2
2
n

a +c

ax
e
(xxv) eax. sin bx dx = 2 (a sin bx b cos bx) + c
a b2
e ax
(xxvi) e cos bx dx = 2
ax.
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + c
a b2
3. Theorems on integration
(i) c f (x).dx = c f ( x).dx (ii) (f ( x) g( x)) dx = f (x)dx g(x) dx
g(ax b)
(iii) f (x)dx g( x) c f (ax b)dx = a + c
Note : (i) every contineous function is integrable
(ii) the integral of a function reffered only by a constant.
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f (x).dx
= g(x) + c
= h(x) + c
g(x) = f(x) & h(x) = f(x)
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g(x) h(x) = 0
means, g(x) h(x) = c
5
Example : Evaluate : 4x dx

page 3 of 89
5 4 6 2 6
Solution. 4x dx =
6
x +C=
3
x + C.

3 7 2
5x 2 4
Example : Evaluate : x x
dx
x
3 7 2
5x 2 4

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Solution. x x
dx
x
3 2 7 2
= x dx + 5x dx 4dx + x dx + x dx
3 2 1 1 / 2
= x dx + 5 . x dx 4 . 1 . dx + 7 . dx + 2 . x
x
dx

x4 x3 x 1/ 2
= +5. 4x + 7 log | x | + 2 1/ 2 + C
4 3
4 5
x
= + x 3 4x + 7 log | x | + 4 x + C
4 3
Example : Evaluate : e x log a e a log x e a log a dx

Solution. We have,
x log a
e e a log x e a log a dx
log a x a a x
x a a a ) dx
= e e log x elog a dx = (a
x ax x a 1
= a dx + x a dx + a a dx = + + aa . x + C.
log a a1
2x 3x
Example : Evaluate : 5x
dx

2x 3x
Solution. 5x
dx

2x 3 x 2 x 3 x ( 2 / 5) x (3 / 5 ) x

=

5 x 5 x dx

= dx =
5 5 loge 2 / 5
+
loge 3 / 5
+C

3
Example: Evaluate : sin x cos3 x dx
1
Solution. = (2 sin x cos x )3 dx

8
1 1 3 sin 2x sin 6 x
sin 3 2x dx
=
8 =
8 4
dx

1 1 3 1
=
(3 sin 2 x sin 6x ) dx = cos 2x 6 cos 6 x + C
32 32 2

x4
Example : Evaluate : x 2
1
dx

x4
Solution. x 2
1
dx

x 4 1 1 x4 1 1 1 x3
( x 2 1) dx + x
= x2 1
dx = x 2
1
+
x2 1
dx = 2
1
dx =
3
x + tan1 x + C

1
Example: Evaluate : 4 9x 2 dx
1
Solution. We have 4 9x 2

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1 1
=
9 4x 2
dx
9
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1 1 1 1 x 1 3x
=
9 ( 2 / 3) 2
x 2 dx = .
9 ( 2 / 3)
tan1 +C=
2/3 6
tan1 + C
2
Example : cos x cos 2x dx

page 4 of 89
Solution. cos x cos 2x dx
1
2
= 2 cos x cos 2x dx

1 1 sin 3 x sin x
(cos 3x cos x) dx
= =
2 3 1
+c

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2
Self Practice Problems
2
1. Evaluate : tan x dx Ans. tanx x + C
1
2. Evaluate : 1 sin x dx Ans. tanx sec x + C
4. Integration by Subsitutions
If we subsitute x = (t) in a integral then
(i) everywhere x will be replaced in terms of t. (ii) dx also gets converted in terms of dt.
(iii) (t) should be able to take all possible value that x can take.
3
Example : Evaluate : x sin x 4 dx
Solution. We have
3
= x sin x 4 dx
1
Let x 4 = t d(x 4) = dt 4x 3 dx = dt dx = dt
4x 3
( n x ) 2
Example : x
dx

( n x ) 2
Solution. x
dx
1
Put nx = t dx = dt
x
2 dx 2
= t .
x
= t dt
t3 ( n x ) 3
= +c = +c
3 3
2
Example :
Evaluate (1 sin x) cos x dx
Solution. Put sinx = t
cosx dx = dt
t3 sin3 x
(1 t 2 ) dt = t +
3
+c = sin x +
3
+c
x
Example : Evaluate :
x 4 x2 1
dx
Solution. We have,
x x
=
4 2
x x 1
dx =
(x ) x 2 1
2 2 dx
dt
Let x 2 = t, then, d (x 2) = dt 2x dx = dt dx =
2x
x dt 1 1 1 1
= 2
t t 1
.
2x
=
2 2
t t 1
dt =
2 2
3
2
dt
1
t

2 2

t 1
1 1 2 +C
= . tan1
2 3 3

2 2

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1 2t 1 1 2x 2 1

= tan1 +C=
tan1 + C.
3 3 3 3
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( f ( x))n 1 f ( x) ( f ( x))1n
Note: (i) [ f(x)] n f (x) dx =
n1
(ii) f ( x ) n
dx =
1 n
dx

page 5 of 89
(iii) x (x n 1)
nN Take x n common & put 1 + x n = t.

dx
(iv) ( n 1) n N, take x n common & put 1+x n = t n
2
x x 1 n
n

dx
take x n common as x and put 1 + x n = t.

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(v)
n 1/ n
Self Practice Problems
n
x 1 x
sec 2 x
1. dx Ans. n |1 + tan x| + C
1 tan x
sin(nx )
2. dx Ans. cos (n x) + C
x

5. Integration by Part :
d
f ( x) g(x) dx g(x) dx dx f (x) g(x) dx dx
= f(x)

(i) when you find integral g( x) dx then it will not contain arbitarary constant.

(ii) g( x) dx should be taken as same both terms.


(iii) the choice of f(x) and g(x) is decided by ILATE rule.
the function will come later is taken an integral function.
Inverse function
L Logrithimic function
A Algeberic function
T Trigonometric function
E Exponential function
1
Example : Evaluate : x tan x dx
1
Solution. x tan x dx

x2 1 x2
= (tan1 x)
2

1 x 2 .
2
dx
x2 1 x 2 1 1 x2 1 1
=
2
tan1 x
2 2
x 1
dx =
2
tan1 x
2 1 x 2
1
dx
2
x 1
= tan1 x [x tan1 x] + C.
2 2
Example : Evaluate : x log(1 x) dx
Solution. x log(1 x) dx
x2 1 x2
= log (x + 1) .
2

x 1
.
2
dx
x2 1 x2 x2 1 x2 1 1
=
2
log (x + 1)
2 x 1
dx =
2
log (x + 1)
2 x 1
dx

x2 1 x2 1 1
=
2
log (x + 1)
2 x 1
+
x 1
dx
x2 1 ( x 1) 1 dx
=
2
log (x + 1)
2 x 1

2
x2 1 x x log | x 1 |
= log (x + 1) +C
2 2 2

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2x
Example : Evaluate : sin 3 x dx
e
2x
Solution. Let = e sin 3 x dx. Then,
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2x
= e sin 3 x dx

cos 3 x cos 3 x 1 2x 2
= e2x 2e 2 x
dx = e cos 3x + e 2 x cos 3x dx

page 6 of 89
3 3 3 3
1 2 2 x sin 3 x sin 3 x
= e2x cos 3x + e 2e 2 x dx
3 3 3 3
1 2 4
= e2x cos 3x + e2x sin 3x e 2 x sin 3 x dx

3 9 9
1 2 4 4 e 2x

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= e2x cos 3x + e2x sin 3x + = (2 sin 3x 3 cos 3x)
3 9 9 9 9
13 e2x e2x
= (2 sin 3x 3 cos 3x) = (2 sin 3x 3 cos 3x) + C
9 9 13
Note : (i) ex [f(x) + f (x)] dx = ex. f(x) + c (ii) [f(x) + xf (x)] dx = x f(x) + c
x x
Example : e ( x 1)2
dx

x 1 1 1 1 ex
ex ex dx
Solution.
( x 1)2
dx ( x 1) ( x 1)2 =
( x 1)
+c

x 1 sin x
Example : e dx
1 cos x
x x
1 2 sin cos
2 2
Solution. ex

2 x dx
2 sin
2
1 x x
e x cos ec 2 cot dx
= ex cot +c
2 2 2
1
Example : n (nx ) dx
( nx )2
Solution. put x = et
1 1 1 1 1
e t nt dt e
t
nt 2 dt = et nt + c
t2 t t t t
1
x n (nx ) +c
nx
Self Practice Problems
1. x sin x dx Ans. x cosx + sin x + C
2 x
2. x e dx Ans. x 2 ex 2xex + 2ex + C
6. Integration of Rational Algebraic Functions by using Partial Fractions:
PARTIAL FRACTIONS :
f( x)
If f(x) and g(x) are two polynomials, then g( x ) defines a rational algebraic function of a rational function of x.
f( x)
If degree of f(x) < degree of g(x), then g( x ) is called a proper rational function.
f( x)
If degree of f(x) degree of g(x) then g( x ) is called an improper rational function
f( x) f( x)
If g( x ) is an improper rational function, we divide f(x) by g(x) so that the rational function g( x ) is expressed in the
( x )
form (x) + where (x) and (x) are polynomials such that the degree of (x) is less than that of g(x).
g( x )
f( x)
Thus, g( x ) is expressible as the sum of a polynomial and a proper rational function.

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f( x)
Any proper rational function can be expressed as the sum of rational functions, each having a simple
g( x )
factor of g(x). Each such fraction is called a partial fraction and the process of obtained them is called the
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f( x)
resolutions or decomposition of into partial fractions.
g( x )
f( x)
The resolution of into partial fractions depends mainly upon the nature of the factors of g(x) as

page 7 of 89
g( x )
discussed below.
CASE I When denominator is expressible as the product of non-repeating linear factors.
Let g(x) = (x a1) (x a2) .....(x an ). Then, we assume that
f( x) A1 A2 An
= + + ..... +
g( x ) x a1 x a2 x an
where A1, A2, ...... An are constants and can be determined by equating the numerator on R.H.S. to the

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numerator on L.H.S. and then substituting x = a 1, a2, ........,an .
3x 2
Example : Resolve 3 into partial fractions.
x 6 x 2 11x 6
3x 2 3x 2
Solution. We have, 3 2 =
x 6 x 11x 6 ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
3x 2 A B B
Let = + + . Then,
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) x 1 x2 x3
3x 2 A( x 2)( x 3) B( x 1)( x 3 ) C( x 1)( x 2)
=
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
3x + 2 = A(x 2) (x 3) + B (x 1) (x 3) + C(x 1) (x 2) ...........(i)
Putting x 1 = 0 or x = 1 in (i), we get
5
5 = A(1 2) (1 3) A = ,
2
Putting x 2 = 0 or, x = 2 in (i), we obtain
8 = B (2 1) (2 3) B = 8.
Putting x 3 = 0 or, x = 3 in (i), we obtain
11
11 = C (3 1) (3 2) C = .
2
3x 2 3x 2 5 8 11
3 2 = = +
x 6 x 11x 6 ( x 1)( x 2 )( x 3 ) 2( x 1) x2 2( x 3)
Note : In order to determine the value of constants in the numerator of the partial fraction corresponding to the non-
repeated linear factor px + q in the denominator of a rational expression, we may proceed as follows :
q
Replace x = (obtained by putting px + q = 0) everywhere in the given rational expression except in the
p
factor px + q itself. For example, in the above illustration the value of A is obtained by replacing x by 1 in
3x 2
all factors of except (x 1) i.e.
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
3 1 2 5
A= =
(1 2)(1 3 ) 2
Similarly, we have
3 2 1 33 2 11
B= = 8 and, C = =
(1 2)(2 3) (3 1)(3 2) 2
3 2
x 6 x 10 x 2
Example : Resolve into partial fractions.
x 2 5x 6
Solution. Here the given function is an improper rational function. On dividing we get
x 3 6 x 2 10 x 2 ( x 4)
2 =x1+ 2 ...........(i)
x 5x 6 ( x 5 x 6)
x 4 x 4
we have, 2 =
x 5x 6 ( x 2)( x 3)
x 4 A B
So, let = + x + 4 = A(x 3) + B(x 2) ...........(ii)
( x 2)( x 3) x2 x3
Putting x 3 = 0 or, x = 3 in (ii), we get
1 = B(1) B = 1.
Putting x 2 = 0 or, x = 2 in (ii), we get
2 = A (2 3) A = 2
x 4 2 1 x 3 6 x 2 10 x 2 2 2
= + Hence =x1 +
( x 2)( x 3) x2 x3 x 2 5x 6 x2 x3
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CASE II When the denominator g(x) is expressible as the product of the linear factors such that some of
them are repeating.
1 1
Example g( x ) = k this can be expressed as
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( x a) ( x a1 )( x a 2 ).......( x ar )
A1 A2 A3 Ak B1 B2 Br
+ 2 + 3 + ....+ k +
( x a1 )
+ (x a2 )
+ ...... + (x ar )
xa ( x a) ( x a) ( x a)
Now to determine constants we equate numerators on both sides. Some of the constants are determined

page 8 of 89
by substitution as in case I and remaining are obtained by
The following example illustrate the procedure.
3x 2 (3 x 2)dx
Example : Resolve 2
( x 1) ( x 1)( x 2)
into partial fractions, and evaluate ( x 1)2 ( x 1)( x 2)
3x 2 A1 A2 A3 A4
Solution. Let = + 2 + +
( x 1)2 ( x 1)( x 2)

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x 1 ( x 1 ) x 1 x2
3x 2 = A1 (x 1) (x + 1) (x + 2) + A 2 (x + 1) (x + 2)
+ A3 (x 1)2 (x + 2) + A4 (x 1)2 (x + 1) .......(i)
Putting x 1 = 0 or, x = 1 in (i) we get
1
1 = A2 (1 + 1) (1 + 2) A2 =
6
Putting x + 1 = 0 or, x = 1 in (i) we get
5
5 = A3 (2)2 (1 + 2) A3 =
4
Putting x + 2 = 0 or, x = 2 in (i) we get
8
8 = A4 (3)2 (1) A4 =
9
Now equating coefficient of x 3 on both sides, we get 0 = A1 + A3 + A4
5 8 13
A1 = A3 A4 = =
4 9 36
3x 2 13 1 5 8
2 = + 2 +
( x 1) ( x 1)( x 2) 36( x 1) 6( x 1) 4( x 1) 9( x 2)
(3 x 2)dx
and hence
( x 1)2 ( x 1)( x 2)
13 1 5 8
= n |x 1| n |x + 1| + n |x + 2| + c
36 6( x 1) 4 9
CASE III When some of the factors of denominator g(x) are quadratic but non-repeating. Corresponding to
Ax B
each quadratic factor ax 2 + bx + c, we assume partial fraction of the type 2 , where A and B are
ax bx c
constants to be determined by comparing coefficients of similar powers of x in the numerator of both sides.
A(2ax b) B
In practice it is advisable to assume partial fractions of the type 2 + 2
ax bx c ax bx c
The following example illustrates the procedure
2x 1 2x 1
Example : Resolve 2
( x 1)( x 2)
into partial fractions and evaluate ( x 1)( x 2 2)
dx

2x 1 A Bx C
Solution. Let 2 = + 2 . Then,
( x 1)( x 2) x 1 x 2
2x 1 A( x 2 2) (Bx C)( x 1)
=
( x 1)( x 2 2) ( x 1)( x 2 2)
2x 1 = A (x 2 + 2) + (Bx + C) (x + 1) ...(i)
Putting x + 1 = 0 or, x = 1 in (i), we get 3 = A(3) A = 1.
Comparing coefficients of the like powers of x on both sides of (i), we get
A + B = 0, C + 2A = 1 and C + B = 2
1 + B = 0, C 2 = 1 (Putting A = 1)
2x 1 1 x 1
B = 1, C = 1 = + 2
( x 1)( x 2 2) x 1 x 2
2x 1 1 1 x
Hence 2
( x 1)( x 2)
dx = n |x + 1| +
2
n |x 2 + 1| +
2
tan1
2
+c
CASE IV When some of the factors of the denominator g(x) are quadratic and repeating fractions of the
A (2ax b) A2
A 0 (2ax b) A 1
form 2 2 1 + 2
ax bx c ax bx c
ax bx c
2

2
ax 2 bx c

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A
2k 1( 2ax b) A 2k
+ .......+ k
ax 2 bx c k

ax 2 bx c
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The following example illustrates the procedure.


2x 3
Example: Resolve into partial fractions.
( x 1)( x 2 1)2

page 9 of 89
2x 3 A Bx C Dx E
Solution. Let 2 2 = + 2 + . Then,
( x 1)( x 1) x 1 x 1 ( x 2 1)2
2 2 2
2x 3 = A(x + 1) + (Bx + C) (x 1) (x + 1) + (Dx + E) (x 1) ......(i)
1
Putting x = 1 in (i), we get 1 = A (1 + 1) 2 A =
4
Equation coefficients of like powers of x, we have
A + B = 0, C B = 0, 2A + B C + D = 0, C + E B D = 2 and A C E = 3.

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1
Putting A = and solving these equations, we get
4
1 1 5
B= = C, D = and E =
4 2 2
2x 3 1 x 1 x5
2 2 = + 2 +
( x 1)( x 1) 4( x 1) 4( x 1) 2( x 2 1)2
2x
Example : Resolve 3 into partial fractions.
x 1
2x 2x
Solution. We have, 3 =
x 1 ( x 1)( x 2 x 1)
2x A Bx C
So, let 2 = + 2 . Then,
( x 1)( x x 1) x 1 x x 1
2x = A (x 2 + x + 1) + (Bx + C) (x 1) .......(i)
2
Putting x 1 = 0 or, x = 1 in (i), we get 2 = 3 A A =
3
2
Putting x = 0 in (i), we get A C = 0 C = A =
3
Putting x = 1 in (i), we get 2 = A + 2B 2 C.
2 4 2
2= + 2B B=
3 3 3
2x 2 1 2 / 3 x 2 / 3 2x 2 1 2 1 x
3 = . + 2 or,, 3 = + 2
x 1 3 x 1 x x 1 x 1 3 x 1 3 x x 1
Self Practice Problems
1 x2
1. (i)
( x 2)( x 3)
dx Ans. n
x3
+C

dx 1 1 1
(ii)
( x 1)( x 2 1)
Ans.
2
n |x + 1|
4
n (x 2 + 1) +
2
tan1 (x) + C

dx dx
7. Integration of type ax 2 bx c
, ax 2 bx c
, ax 2 bx c dx

Express ax 2 + bx + c in the form of perfect square & then apply the standard results.

Example : Evaluate : x 2 2x 5 dx
Solution. We have,

x 2 2x 5 = x 2 2x 1 4 dx
1 1
= (x + 1) ( x 1)2 22 + . (2)2 log |(x + 1) + ( x 1)2 2 2 | + C
2 2
1
= (x + 1) x 2 2x 5 + 2 log |(x + 1) + x 2 2x 5 | + C
2
1
Example : Evaluate : x 2
x 1
dx

1 1 1
Solution. x 2
x 1
dx = 1 1
dx = ( x 1/ 2) 2
3/4
dx
x2 x 1
4 4
1 1 x 1/ 2
= ( x 1/ 2)
2
3 /2
2 dx =
3 /2
tan1
3 /2
+C

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2 2x 1
= tan1 + C.

3 3
1
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Example : Evaluate :
9 8x x 2
dx

1
Solution. dx

page 10 of 89
9 8x x 2
1 1
= 2
{ x 8 x 9}
dx = 2
{ x 8 x 16 25}
dx

1 1 x4
= {(x 4) 2 2
5 }
dx = 5 ( x 4) 2
2 dx = sin1 +C
5
Self Practice Problems

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
1 1 2x 1
1. 2
2x x 1
dx Ans.
3
n
2x 2
+C

1 1 3 2 3
2. 2
2x 3 x 2
dx Ans.
2
log x 4 x 2 x 1 + C

8. Integration of type
px q px q
ax 2
bx c
ax bx c
dx, 2
dx, (px q) ax 2 bx c dx

Express px + q = A (differential coefficient of denominator) + B.


2x 3
Example : Evaluate : 2
x 4x 1
dx
2x 3
Solution.
x 2 4x 1

dx

( 2x 4) 1 2x 4 1
=
x 2 4x 1
dx =
x 2 4x 1
dx x 2 4x 1
dx

dt 1
=
dx, where t = x 2 + 4x + 1
t ( x 2 )2 3
2

=2 t log | (x + 2) + x2 4x 1 | + C
= 2 x 2 4 x 1 log | x + 2 + x 2 4x 1 | + C
Example : Evaluate : ( x 5) x 2 x dx
d
Solution. Let (x 5) = . (x 2 + x) + . Then,
dx
x 5 = (2x + 1) + .
Comparing coefficients of like powers of x, we get
1 11
1 = 2 and + = 5 = and =
2 2
2
(x 5) x x dx
1 11
= (2x 1) x 2 x dx
2 2
1 11
= 2 (2x 1) x 2 x dx x 2 x dx
2
1 11
x 2 x dx
2
(2x 1) x 2 x dx
=
2
2 2
1 11 1 1
=
2 t dt
2 x
2 2
dx where t = x 2 + x

2 2
1 t3 / 2 11 1 x 1 x 1 1
= . 2 2
2 3/2 2 2 2

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2
2 2
1 1 x 1 x 1 1
. log
2 2 2 2 2 + C

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1 3/2 11 2x 1 x 2 x 1 n x 1 x 2 x
= t +C
3 2 4 8 2

page 11 of 89
1 2 11 2x 1 x 2 x 1 n x 1 x 2 x
(x + x)3/2 = +C
3 2 4 8 2
Self Practice Problems
x 1 1 1 2x 1
1. x 2 dx Ans. log |x 2 + x + 3| + tan1 + C
x3 2 11 11
6x 5

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2. 3x 2 5x 1
dx Ans. 2 3x 2 5x 1 + C

3. (x 1) 1 x x 2 dx
1 2 3 9
Ans. (x + x + 1)3/2 (2x + 1) 2
3 8 1 x x 2 16 log (2x +1 + 2 x x 1 ) + C
9. Integration of trigonometric functions
dx dx dx
(i) a b sin x 2
OR
a b cos x 2 OR asin x bsinx cos x c cos 2 x
2

Multiply Nr & Dr by sec x & put tan x = t.

dx dx dx
(ii) a b sinx
OR
a b cosx
OR a b sinx c cos x
Hint: Convert sines & cosines into their respective tangents of half the angles and then,
x
put tan = t
2
a.cos x b.sinx c d
(iii) .cos x m.sinx n
dx. Express Nr A(Dr) + B
dx
(Dr) + c & proceed.

1
Example : Evaluate : 1 sin x cos x dx
1
Solution. = 1 sin x cos x dx
1
=
2 tan x / 2 1 tan 2 x / 2 dx
1
1 tan 2 x / 2 1 tan 2 x / 2
1 tan 2 x / 2 sec 2 x / 2
= 1 tan 2
x / 2 2 tan x / 2 1 tan x / 2 2 dx = 2 2 tan x / 2
dx

x 1 x
Putting tan = t and sec2 dx = dt, we get
2 2 2
1 x
= dt = log | t + 1| + C = log tan 1 + C
t 1 2
3 sin x 2 cos x
Example : Evaluate : 3 cos x 2 sin x dx
3 sin x 2 cos x
Solution. = 3 cos x 2 sin x dx
d
Let 3 sin x + 2 cos x = . (3 cos x + 2 sin x ) + (3 cos x + 2 sin x)
dx
3 sin x + 2 cos x = (3 sin x + 2 cos x) + (3 cos x + 2 sin x )
Comparing the coefficients of sin x and cos x on both sides, we get
12 5
3 + 2 = 3 and 2 + 3 = 2 = and =
13 13
(3 sin x 2 cos x ) (3 cos x 2 sin x )
= 3 cos x 2 sin x
dx
3 sin x 2 cos x
= 1 . dx +
3 cos x 2 sin x
dx

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dt
=x+
t
, where t = 3 cos x + 2 sin x
5 12
= x + n | t | + C = n | 3 cos x + 2 sin x | + C
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x+
13 13
3 cos x 2
Example : Evaluate :
sin x 2 cos x 3
dx

page 12 of 89
3 cos x 2
Solution. We have, =
sin x 2 cos x 3 dx
Let 3 cos x + 2 = (sin x + 2 cos x + 3) + (cos x 2 sin x) +
Comparing the coefficients of sin x, cos x and constant term on both sides, we get
2 = 0, 2 + = 3, 3 + = 2
6 3 8
= , and =
5 5 5

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
(sin x 2 cos x 3 ) (cos x 2 sin x)
= sin x 2 cos x 3
dx
cos x 2 sin x 1
= dx
sin x 2 cos x 3
dx +
sin x 2 cos x 3
dx
= x + log | sin x + 2 cos x + 3 | + 1, where
I

1
1 =
sin x 2 cos x 3
dx

2 tan x / 2 1 tan 2 x / 2
Putting, sin x = 2 , cos x = we get
1 tan x / 2 1 tan 2 x / 2
1
1 =
2 tan x / 2 2(1 tan 2 x / 2)
dx
3
1 tan 2 x / 2 1 tan 2 x / 2
1 tan2 x / 2
= 2 tan x / 2 2 2 tan 2
x / 2 3(1 tan2 x / 2)
dx

sec 2 x / 2
= tan 2
x / 2 2 tan x / 2 5
dx

x 1 x x
Putting tan = t and sec2 = dt or sec2 dx = 2 dt, we get
2 2 2 2
2dt
1 =
t 2 2t 5
x
2 dt t 1 tan 1
2
=2
( t 1)2 22
=
2
tan1
2
= tan1
2




x
tan 1
2
Hence, = x + log | sin x + 2 cos x + 3 | + tan1 +C
2


6 3 8
where = , = and =
5 5 5
dx
Example : 1 3 cos x 2

2
sec x dx 1 tan x
Solution.
tan x 4
= 2 =
2
tan1
2
+C

Self Practice Problems


4 sin x 5 cos x 40 9
1. 5 sin x 4 cos x dx Ans.
41
x+
41
log |5sinx + 4cosx| + C

m
1 0 . Integration of type sin x. cos n x dx
Case - If m and n are even natural number then converts higher power into higher angles.
Case - If at least m or n is odd natural number then if m is odd put cosx = t and vice-versa.
Case - When m + n is a negative even integer then put tan x = t.
5
Example: sin x cos 4 x dx
Solution. put cos x = t sinx dx = dt
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2 2 4
= (1 t ) . t 4 . dt = (t 2t 2 1) t 4 dt
8 6
= (t 2t t 4 ) dt
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t9 2t 7 t5
= + +c
9 7 5
cos9 x cos7 x cos5 x

page 13 of 89
= +2 +c Ans.
9 7 5
1/ 3 7 / 3
Example : (sin x) (cos x) dx
1/ 3 7 / 3
Solution. (sin x) (cos x) dx
1 1/ 3
= (tan x ) dx

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2
cos x
put tanx = t sec2x dx = dt
1/ 3 3 4/3
= t dt =
4
t +c
3
= (tanx)4/3 + c Ans.
4
2 4
Example : sin x cos x dx
1 2
8
Solution. sin 2x(1 cos 2x )dx

1 2 1 2
=
8 sin 2x dx +
8 sin 2x cos 2x dx

1 1 sin3 2 x

=
16 (1 cos 4 x ) dx
16 3

1 sin 4x sin3 2x
= + +c
16 64 48
x2 1
1 1 . Integration of type: x 4 Kx 2 1 dx where K is any constant.

1
Divide Nr & Dr by x & put x = t.
x
1 x2
Example : 1 x2 x 4
dx

1
1 2 dx
x 1 dt
Solution. 2 1
x 2 1
x+
x
=t 2
t 1
x
1 t 1
n +C
2 t 1
1
x 1
1 x
n 1 +C
2 x 1
x
1
Example : Evaluate : x 4
1
dx
Solution. We have,
1
=
4
x 1
dx
1 2
x 2 1 x2
= x 2

1
dx =
2 x 2

1
dx

x2 x2

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1 1 1 1
1 2
1 2 1 1
2
1 x x 1 x 1 x2
=
2
x 2

1
x2 2

1 dx =
2 x 2 1 dx 2 x 2 1 dx
2 2
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x2 x x x
1 1
1 2 1
1 x x2 1
= 2 dx
2 dx

page 14 of 89
2 1 1 2
x 2
x 2
x x
1 1
Putting x = u in 1st integral and x + = in 2nd integral, we get
x x
1 du 1 d
= 2
2 u 2
2
2
2 2
2

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
1 u 1 2
= tan1 1 log +C
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x 1/ x
1 1 x 1/ x 2
tan1
= log +C
2 2 2 4 2 x 1/ x 2
1 x 2 1 1 x2 2 x 1
1
= tan 4 2 log x 2 x 2 1 + C
2 2 2x
Self Practice Problem :
1
x 3
2
x 1 1 x
1.
x 4 7x 2 1
dx Ans.
6
n 1
x 3
+C
x
1 y 1 y 2 1
2. tan x dx Ans. tan1 + n + C where y = tan x
2 2 2 2 y 2 tan x
1 2 . Integration of type
dx dx
b) px q
OR ax 2

bx c px q
; put px + q = t 2.
a
x
(

1
Example: Evaluate : ( x 3) x 1
dx
1
Solution. Let = ( x 3)
x 1
dx
Here, P and Q both are linear, so we put Q = t 2 i.e. x + 1 = t 2 and dx = 2t dt
1 2t
= 2
( t 1 3) t 2
dt

dt 1 t2 1 x 1 2
=2 t 2
2 2 =2.
2(2)
log
t2
+C =
2
log
x 1 2
+ C.

x2
Example : Evaluate : (x 2
3 x 3) x 1
dx

x2
Solution. Let = ( x 2 3 x 3) x 1
dx

( t 2 1) 2t dt
2
Putting x + 1 = t , and dx = 2t dt, we get = {(t 2
1)2 3( t 2 1) 3} t 2
1
2
1
( t 1) t2
=2 t 4 2
t 1
dt = 2 t 2

1
1
dt
2
t
1
du u t t
1 2 2
=2 u 3
2 2 where t
t
= u. =
3
tan1

3
+C=

3
tan1
3 +C


2 t 2 1 2 x
1 1 +C
= tan t 3 + C = 3 tan
3 3 ( x 1)
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1 3 . Integration of type
1 dx 1
dx
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, put ax + b = ; , put x =
t
2
b) px 2 q t

a
x
(
b) px 2 qx r
a
x
(
dx
Example :

page 15 of 89
1 x2 x 1
x
(

)
dt dt
Solution = 1 1 1
2 = 1 1
t 2 1 t 1
t t t t2 t
dt dt
= 2 =

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
t t 1 1 3
t
2 4
2
1 1 3
= n t t +C
2 2 4

dx
Example : (1 x 2
) 1 x2
1 dt
Solution. Put x =
t
= (t 2
1) t 2 1
2 2
put t 1=y
y dy 1 y
= (y 2
2) y
=
2
tan1
2
+ C

1 x2
1 1

tan = +C
2 2x
Self Practice Problems :
dx
1.
( x 2) x 1
Ans. 2 tan1 x 1 + C
dx x 1
2. 2
( x 5x 6) x 1
Ans. 2 tan1 x 1 2 tan 1



2
+C

3
dx 1
3. ( x 1) 1 x x 2
Ans. sin1
2 x 1
5
+C

2
dx 2


1 1 x
4. Ans. tan1 2 + C
(2x 2 1) 1 x 2 3 3 x
dx x 2 2x 4 6 ( x 1)
1
5. ( x 2 2x 2) x 2 2x 4
Ans.
2 6
n 2 +C
x 2x 4 6 ( x 1)
1 4 . Integration of type
x
dx or x x ; put x = cos2 + sin 2
x
x
dx or x x ; put x = sec2 tan 2
x
dx
put x = t2 or x = t2.
x x
;

n n n
1 5 . Reduction formula of tann x dx , cot x dx , sec x dx , cos ec x dx
n 2 n 2 2
1. n = tan x dx = tan x tan x dx = (sec x 1) tann 2x dx

2 n2 tann1 x
sec x tan + dx
n = =
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n2
1 "I Will". Ineffective People don't. n n2
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n 2
2. n = cot x dx = cot . cot n2 x dx = (cos ec
2
x 1) cot n2 x dx

cot n1 x
n = cos ec 2 x cot n 2 x dx n 2 n = n 2
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n 1
n 2
3. n = sec x dx = sec x sec n2 x dx

page 16 of 89

n = tanx secn 2x (tan x)(n 2) secn 3 x. secx tanx dx.
n = tanx secn 2 x dx (n 2) (sec 2 x 1) secn 2x dx
(n 1) n = tanx secn 2x + (n 2) n 2
tan x sec n2 x n2
n = +
n 1 n 1 n 2
n 2
4. n = cos ec dx = cos ec x cosecn 2 x dx

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
(cot x)(n 2) ( cosec x cosec x cot x) dx
n = cotx cosec n 2x + n3

2 n2
cotx cosec x (n 2) cot x cos ec x dx
n2

2
= cotx cosec x (n 2) (cos ec x 1) cosec
n
n2
x dx n2

n2
(n 1) n = cotx cosec x + (n 2) 2n 2
n2
cot x cos ec x n2
n = +
n 1 n 1 n 2
Example : Obtain reducation formula for n = sin x dx. Hence evaluate sin x dx
n 4

Solution. n = (sin x) (sin x) n 1 dx



= cos x (sin x) n1 + (n 1) (sin x) n2
cos2x dx

= cos x (sin x) n1 n 2
+ (n 1) (sin x)
(1 sin2x) dx
n1
n = cos x (sin x) + (n 1) n2 (n 1) n
cos x(sin x)n1 (n 1)
n = + n2 (n 2)
n n
cos x(sin x )3 3 cos x(sin x) 1 x
+C
Hence 4 = +
4 4 2 2
Self Practice Problems :
x 3
1. x4
dx Ans. ( x 3)( x 4) + n x3 x4 + C
dx x 1 2 x

2. 3/2 Ans. 8 2 x x 1 + C
[( x 1)(2 x)]
1/ 7
dx x 1
3. [(x 2) (x 1) ]
8 6 1/ 7 Ans. 7
x 2
+C

dx dx
4. Deduce the reduction formula for n = 4 n
(1 x )
and Hence evaluate 2 = (1 x 4 2
)
x 4n 5
Ans. n = +
4(n 1)(1 x 4 )n 1 4(n 1) n1
1 1
x 3 1 x
1 x 1 x
x
2
2 = 4 + tan n + C
4 (1 x ) 4 2 2 2 4 2 1
x 2
x

5. If m,n = (sin x) m
(cos x)n dx then prove that
(sin x )m 1(cos x )n1 n 1
m,n = + . m,n2
mn mn

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