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GreenandPurpleSulfurBacteria
BY:SonaliBhawsar|Category:Biology|Submitted:2011030301:45:12


Article Summary: "H2S produced by sulfur reduction is highly toxic to aquatic flora
and fauna, often associated with fish mortality. In waterlogged anaerobic soils such as
paddy fields, H2S may damage vegetation. H2S produced by reduction is important
source of reducing power to support the growth of H2S aerobic chemoautotrophs or
anaerobic photo.."

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GreenandPurpleSulfurBacteria

SulfurbacteriaareGramnegative,anaerobic,filamentousphotosyntheticbacteria.Duringphotosynthesis,carbondioxidereductiontocarbohydrates
doesn'tutilizewateraselectrondonorbuthydrogensulfide(H2S)hencetheyarecalledassulfur(S)bacteria.Dependingupontheircarotenoidcontent,
Sbacteriaareidentifiedasgreenandpurplebacteria.Purplebacteriaappearpurpleorreddishbrown,greenbacteriaappearasyellowgreen,green
orangeorbrown.Thecolorofmajorphotosyntheticpigment,bacteriochlorophyllisnottakenintoaccountashumaneyecannotdetectitsabsorption
spectrumininfraredregion.Bothpurpleandgreenbacteriaareimportantbiologicalconstituentsofatmosphericsulfurcycle.Itismandatorytoknow
reactionsofsulfurcycle,tounderstandtheroleofthesebacteria.Sulfurispresentinthenatureinaminoacidscysteineandmethionine,freeand
combined,organicandinorganicstatesitstransformationsbetweenoxidizedandreducedstatesareaccomplishedbySbacteria.TheyoxidizeH2Sto
sulfatewhichisthemostsuitableformofessentialsulfurutilizedbyplants.AnaerobicoxidationofsulfurwithnitratereductionisalsofoundinsomeS
bacteria.Sulfateisreducedandassimilatedbyplantsandmicrobesinthesoil.Assimilatedsulfateisincorporatedintoproteinsunderaerobicconditions.
DissimilatorysulfatereductionoccurswiththeproductionofH2S.HydrogenisusedinthereductionofsulfatetoH2Sviasulphitethatmeanssulfateis
utilizedasterminalelectronacceptor.PurpleandgreenSbacteriacoexistinilluminatedsulfiderichanaerobicaquaticenvironments

GreenSbacteria:Greenbacteriaarenotcyanobacteriaorbluegreenalgaeasonemayassumetheydifferentgroupofphototrophicbacteriafrom
familyChlorobiaceae.Photosyntheticpigmentsarebacteriochlorophyllsc,dorecarotenoidschlorobactene,hydrochlorobactene,isorenierateneand
isorenieratene.TheyuseH2S,otherreducedinorganicsulfurcompoundsandH2aselectrondonors.Oneinterestingthingisthattheycannotusesulfate
assulfursource,theyrequiresulfidetomeetbiosyntheticneedswhengrowingwithH2aselectrondonorandalsovitaminB12.Elementalsulfur
producedfromH2Soxidationisdepositedextracellularlyassulfurglobulespriortoitsoxidationtosulfate.Theycannotgrowphotoheterotrophically
usingorganiccompoundsastheirprincipleorsolecarbonsourceinabsenceofinorganicreductant.Theycanphotoassimilateorganiccompoundslike
acetateorpyruvatebutonlyifH2SandCO2arepresentatatime.Theyareuniqueandonlybacteria(exceptsomeArchaebacteria)thatusereductive
tricarboxylicacidcycle(TCA)forCO2fixationotherbacteriauseCalvinBensoncycle.ImportantgeneraofgreenSbacteriaare:Chlorobium,
Chloropseudomonas(Prosthecochloris),Pelodictyon,Clathrochloris(Acalochloris)andChlorobacterium(Chloroherpeton).Greenbutnonsulfur(nonS)
bacteriaoffamilyChloroflexaceaearealsopresentinanaerobichabitats.TheyaredifferentfromgreenSbacteriainstructure,nutrition,metabolism
andecologybutlikegreenSbacteriacontainbacteriochlorophyllcordandasmajorandminorpigmentsrespectively.Theyarephotoheterotrophs,
facultativephotoautotrophsorchemoheterotrophsusuallyinhabithotspringscontainingloworganicmatter.Theyderiveorganicnutrientsfrom
cyanobacteriaandfoundalwaysinassociationwithcyanobacteria.PrinciplegeneraincludeChloroflexus,Oscillochloris,ChloronemaandHeliothrix.
HeliothrixisfoundonlyinhotspringsofYellowstoneNationalParkandWesternOregon.

PurpleSbacteria:PurpleSbacteriaarefromfamilyChromatiaceae,strictlyanaerobic,obligatephotoautotrophicinhabitsulfiderichwaters.Sulfideis
generatedbysulfatereducingbacteriasuchasDesulfovibrio,Desulfococcous,Desulfomonas,Desulfosarcina,Desulfolobus,Desulfobacterand
Desulfococcusspp.Photosyntheticpigmentsarebacteriochlorophyllaorb,carotenoidsofgroup1,3and4.H2S,sulfur,thiosulfate,molecularhydrogen
andorganiccompoundsactslikeelectrondonors.AllpurpleSbacteriafixnitrogenphotosynthetically.Theycangrowonpyruvateheterotrophicallyin
dark.H2SisoxidizedviaelementalsulfurtosulfatebyCalvinBensoncycle.Italwaysleadstotransientaccumulationofelementalsulfurassulfur
globules,gasvacuolesinsidethecytoplasm.Theyalsosynthesizepolyhydroxybutyrate(PHB)granules.Thesebacteriaalsohavespecialcell
membraneintrusionsorinfolding.Thisresultsinenlargedmembraneareatoaccommodatemorecentersofrespiratoryandphotosyntheticactivity.Principlegeneraare:
Thiospirillum,Chromatium,Ectothiorhodospira,Thiocystis,Thiocapsa,Lamprocystis,Thiodictyon,ThiopediaandAmoebobacterspp.PurplenonSbacteriaarealsopresenta
theysensitivetoH2S.TheyrepresentprinciplegeneraRhodospirillum,Rhodopseudomonas,Rhodomicrobium,Rhodopila,RhodocyclusandRhodobacterfromfamily
Rhodospirillaceae.Theyoxidizesulfideanaerobicallyatverylowconcentrationinpresenceoflight.Theyoccurtypicallyinfreshwaterhabitatswheresulfideisabsentorpr
inextremelylowconcentrationandorganicmatterisabundant.Theycanphotoassimilatewiderangeoforganiccompoundslikefattyacids,primary/secondaryalcohols,o
acids,carbohydrates,proteinsandaromaticcompounds.Somespeciesalsocarryoutsimultaneousprocessesofdenitrificationandnitrogenfixationtoproducereducedand
combinedformofnitrogentosupportcellgrowth.

Ecologicalimportanceofsulfuroxidationandreduction:Sulfurisabundantinnaturebutitsoxidationproductslikesulfateistheutilizableformforplants.Sulfateanion
solubilizeinorganicsaltscontainingnutrientssuchasphosphorousforplantuse.Sulfatealsopreventsexcessivealkalinityduetoammoniaformationbymicroorganisms.
Anaerobicoxidationofsulfuralongwithnitratereductionissometimesdetrimentalprocesswhichresultsinlossofsoilfertility.H2Sproducedbysulfurreductionishighlyt
toaquaticfloraandfauna,oftenassociatedwithfishmortality.Inwaterloggedanaerobicsoilssuchaspaddyfields,H2Smaydamagevegetation.H2Sproducedbyreductio
importantsourceofreducingpowertosupportthegrowthofH2Saerobicchemoautotrophsoranaerobicphotoautoandphotoheterotrophs.Sulfurreducingbacteriaand
phototrophicbacteriaarepredominantinSulfuretahabitatssuchassulfaterichstagnantlakes.Thesebacteriapromoteformationofelementalsulfurfromsulfatesgeolog
sulfurdepositsareformedfromactivitiesofthesebacteria.Sbacteriaalsocontributetocorrosionofmetalpipes.
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Commentsonthisarticle:(8commentssofar)

CommentBy Comment
ochucyndi Allthecontentsareperfectlywritten.thereisnootherlikeit,congratulationstoyouallthatcontributedinmakingthis
2011051618:40:20166 wondefuloutpiece
SonaliBhawsarAuthor
thanksOchu!
2011053121:18:08176
John YourarticlewasextremelyhelpfulbecauseIwasdoingaScienceExperimentandThisgavemeaHUGEboostofhel
2013020214:13:12418 Keepitup!
SonaliBhawsarAuthor
ThanksJohn!
2013020402:29:32421
Pradeep
ItsAnAWonderfulforAStudent
2015033005:27:08922
Sam Reallynicearticle,collectionofsomanyinformationinasinglepage,Ireallyappreciateandwishyouforyour
2016091402:58:151110 upcomingarticles.
SonaliBhawsarAuthor
ThanksalotSam!
2016102902:10:261128
kailasmuurthy
iamafarmerdyprofessioninwhichmediayouusedtogrow.wetherhelpfultofarmers
2017020515:59:141169

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