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A Framework for Black Start and Power System Restoration

D. Lindenmeyer H. W. Dommel A. Moshref P. Kundur

The University of British Columbia Powertech Labs Inc.
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 12388-88th Avenue
2356 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 124 Surrey, BC, Canada V3W 7R7
Daniel. Lindenmeyer @ieee.org

Abstract However, several problems encountered during practi-

cal restoration procedures were found to be related to
This paper introduces the concept of a n e w frame- dynamic effects [l,31.
work for power system restoration. I t s objective is
t o minimize the large number of time-domain simula- This paper introduces the concept of a new framework
tions that is usually necessary in order t o find a suit- for black start and power system restoration. It is
based on frequency domain analysis and its purpose is
able restoration sequence. T h e new method is based
o n rules that deal with specific problems encountered to quickly evaluate the feasibility of restoration steps,
during restoration and that are formulated an the fre- and if necessary, to suggest remedial actions. This lim-
its the number of time-consuming time-domain simu-
quency and Laplace domain. Once a suitable restora-
lations, based on the trial-and-error principle.
tion sequence is found, it can be verified by a single
set of time-domain simulations. As a n example for a As an example for the proposed approach, the fea-
specific rule, the assessment of motor starts during a n sibility of auxiliary induction motor start-ups during
emergency and black start procedure for thermal power emergency and black start procedures, as is common in
plants is investigated. Simple analytical rules are de- the beginning of system restoration, is assessed. The
veloped that help to predict m o t o r start-up times, cur- case study represents the emergency start of a group
rents, and voltage drops. T h e validity of the results of induction motors in a thermal power plant by a hy-
is confirmed by time-simulations carried o u t with the dro generator. The frequency scan feature of the Elec-
Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) . tromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP)[2] is used to
determine the electrical system's Thevenin impedance, '
that is the basis for the feasibility evaluation using an-
1 Introduction alytical rules.
The problem of restoring power systems after a com- The, validity of the results obtained by this algorithm
plete or partial blackout is as old as the power industry is verified by carrying out an EMTPtime-domain sim-
itself. In recent years, due t o economic competition ulation. For this purpose, the generator and its con-
and deregulation, power systems are operated closer trollers, as well as the electrical system and the induc-
and closer to their limits. At the same time, power tion motors are modeled.
systems have increased in size and complexity. Both
factors increase the risk of major power outages. Af- 2 Structure of Framework
ter a blackout, power needs t o be restored as quickly
and reliably as possible, and consequently, detailed Each restoration case is highly complex and unique,
restoration plans are necessary. which makes it difficult to develop systematic restora-
In recent years, there has also been an increasing de- tion procedures, and to find methods that can be gen-
mand in the power industry for the automation and eralized in order to be applied to other systems and
integration of tools for power system planning and op- scenarios. However, restoration cases can be consid-
eration. This is particularly true for studies in power ered as a succession of simple restoration steps that
are common in all restoration procedures [6].
system restoration where a great number of simula-
tions, taking into account different system configura- The same principle is true when the feasibility of
tions, have to be carried out. In the past, these sim- restoration steps needs to be assessed: the investi-
ulations were mostly performed using powerflow anal- gation of an aggregation of complex phenomena can
ysis, in order to find a suitable restoration sequence. be simplified by defining specific problem areas that

0 2000 IEEE
are common in all restoration scenarios and by devel- accuracy.
oping rules that address those problems. Examples
As a basis for the analysis in the frequency domain,
are the energization of transmission lines and trans-
the frequency scan feature of the (EMTP)is utilized.
formers, the pick-up of cold loads, the energization of
Rules that are based on analysis in the Laplace domain
induction motors, and the reintegration of subsystems.
are not discussed in this paper. The general principle
that is the basis for the framework is shown in the
2.1 Framework Modes schematic in Fig. 1.

There are two different aspects of restoration: on-line

restoration and restoration planning. During on-line
restoration, operators face a high time pressure and
decisions have to be made very quickly. Those deci-
sions are mainly based on predefined restoration plans,
the operators experience, and data given by state es-
timation or other data sources. Predefined plans can
only give the operator a general idea on how to behave
during restoration. At each step, however, the opera-
tor has t o decide whether his action is feasible or not.
Simple analytical rules can help operators to assess the
feasibility of restoration steps and to plan restoration
sequences without the need of extensive time-domain T
During system restoration, planning engineers are
faced with a large number of theoretical possibilities
I 1

of how a system can be restored. Those have to be Time-domainsimulation

explored based on the engineers experience and on
computer simulations carried out with software such

as the Electromagnetic Transient Programs (EMTP) .
Analytical rules that help to assess restoration steps
with respect to their feasibility help to limit the num-
ber of trial-and-error simulations and consequently to
shorten the overall time necessary to develop restora- Figure 1: Assessment of feasibility of restoration steps
tion strategies and restoration plans.
The proposed framework has two modes: an on-line
restoration mode and a restoration planning mode. In
the on-line mode it supports the operator in his de- 3 Study System
cision making process. In the off-line mode it helps
planning engineers to find restoration plans in a faster The system that is used in order to evaluate the rules
and more efficient way. for motor start-ups during restoration is shown in
Fig. 2. It represents a hydro generator that is used
for emergency or black starts of a large thermal power
2.2 Framework Rules plant. During this procedure the auxiliary motors of
the power plant are energized. The resulting high mo-
Time-domain simulations give the most accurate as- tor inrush currents can lead to long-lasting voltage
sessment of whether a restoration step is feasible or drops, and to overheating of motors.
not. However, they require a great amount of time,
particularly when different combinations of restora-
tion steps need to be assessed. Therefore, the rules
that represent the basis of the framework are based
on analysis in the frequency and Laplace domain, and
time-domain simulations are only performed for verifi-
Generator Cable
Transformer circuit breaker Induction motor

cation purposes. The objective thereby is to decrease Figure 2: Study system

. the calculation time while still keeping a reasonable

In order to investigate the feasibility of the rules that
are developed in the following, we simulate the most
severe case of an emergency start: thereby, the aux-
iliaries of two blocks of the thermal power plant are
energized at once by simultaneously closing a circuit
breaker. A time-domain simulation is carried out with
the EMTPand its Transient Analysis of Control Sys-
tems (TACS) module.
The EMTPhas been chosen since it provides accuracy Figure 3: Thevenin equivalent circuit for motor
under large frequency and voltage excursions. The startup
turbine governor control, the excitation system, and
the generator are modeled in full detail [4]. The mo-
tors are lumped into a single machine whose data was
drop of AVEMTP= 0.4 p.u. is very close to the esti-
provided by the utility.
mated value.

4 Rules for Motor Start-up

4.1 Thevenin Equivalent
A multi-port Thevenin equivalent impedance Z with
two terminals (motor and generator) is determined by
performing EMTPfrequency scans, as outlined in [2].
This step has to be carried out only once, since chang-
ing network conditions during the extension of the sys-
tem can be calculated using matrix manipulations.
8 m

4.2 Prediction of Voltage Drop

The start-up of large induction motors or a group of 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

induction motors can lead to a significant voltage drop. Time t [SI

.Fig. 3 shows the Thevenin equivalent circuit with its Figure 4: Voltage drop during motor startup; (Vbase= ,

two terminals. To one of the terminals we connect the 4kV)

generator subtransient reactance X i and t o the other
the locked rotor motor impedance ZLR,calculated ac-
cording to [4]. Using the voltage divider equation we
can then determine the voltage drop, caused by the
motor starting as 4.3 Prediction of Inrush Current
The inrush current is calculated according to

where 22 represents the Thevenin equivalent impedance

between terminals 1 and 2. It is important to notice
that the initial voltage drop AV is always independent
and gives us a value of 6147.2 A that agrees well with
of the generator excitation system, since every excita-
the result of I E M T Px 6200.0 A shown in Fig. 5. As
tion system has a delayed response to disturbances due
for the voltage drop calculation, the initial value of the
to its inherent time constants.
current is independent of the action of the generator
For the validation of Eq. (1) we assume that initially excitation system. In cases where the motor is started
both frequency and voltage are equal to their rated val- from frequencies different from the nominal frequency,
ues, which gives us a voltage drop of AV = 0.38 p.u. the Thevenin equivalent impedance can be determined
The voltage behavior obtained through an EMTPsim- by an EMTPfrequency solution at that particular fre-
ulation of the system is shown in Fig. 4. The voltage quency.

is fulfilled and can be determined numerically [ 5 ] .
Eq. (6) can be solved by writing the sum


0 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1 0
Tim: t [SI
Figure 5: Inrush current during motor startup
Since the actual final speed is an asymptote, the nu-
merical calculation of the start-up time can result
4.4 Prediction of Start-up Time in different values for different slip increments As.
Therefore, we define the operating slip as Eq. (11) and
The start-up time of induction motors can be pre- the associated speed as
dicted, using a quasi-steady-state calculation. For
this, we use the equation of motion that governs the
mechanical behavior of the induction motor together
When calculating the start-up time, the question
with its electrical steady-state equations. Following
arises whether a feasible operating condition exists at
the basic physical law that relates induction motor
all. We define an infeasible operating condition, if the
speed w and acceleration a we get
current in the operating point is bigger than the limit
provided by the manufacturer. The torque behavior
for such a condition (that occurs e. g. during the soft
start of motors) is shown in Fig. 6.
The equation of motion follow as As shown in Fig. 7, the motor permanently draws
very high currents, leading to possible overheating and
(4) damage of machines.

0 erating Point

where Tm represents the mechanical torque and Te the

- El. torque T
Mech. torque ?m
. 1 m

electrical torque of the motor [4].Combining Eq. (3) E

and Eq. (4),and considering the relationships 2

= (l-S)*Wmbase
dw = -Wmbase. ds
gives us the integral

0 0.1 0.2 .
0.3 TiGgt[sr
0.4 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 6: Mechanical and electrical torque for f =

The operating slip SO is reached when the condition 1.0 p.u. and V = 0.5 p.u.

o Operating Point
0 7 8 9 1 0
0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 1 0 1 2 3 4
Time t [SI Tim: t [s]

Figure 7: Current for f = 1.0 p.u. and V=0.5 ?.U. Figure 8: Rotor speed during motor startup

For the validation of the above equations we use the nificantly.

same example as in the previous sections. Due to the
control action of the excitation system, the duration
of the initial voltage drop is much smaller than the
motor start-up time. Therefore, the generator termi- The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial as-
nal voltage can be approximated to be constant during sistance of the Natural Science and Engineering Re-
the start-up, and we determine the current for the cal- search Council (NSERC) of Canada, and of B.C. Hy-
culation of the electrical torque T,, as [4] dro & Power Authority, through funding provided for
the NSERC-B.C. Hydro Industrial Chair in Advanced
Techniques for Electric Power Systems Analysis, Sim-
ulation and Control.
If a more conservative start-up time estimation is de-
sired, Eq. (2) instead of Eq. (14) can be used for the References
electrical torque calculation. CIGRE Study Committee 38.02.02, Modelling
The rotor speed characteristic as calculated with the and Simulation of Black Start and Restoration of
EMTPis given in Fig. 8. Its start-up time of t E M T p M Electric Power Systems, Electra, , no. 147, pp.
3.7 s agrees well with the estimated time of tstart= 21-41, Apr 1993.
3.82 s. H.W. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book, Microtran
Power System Analysis Corporation, Vancouver,
British Columbia, Canada, 1992.
5 Conclusions IEEE Committee Report, Power System Restora-
This paper describes a new method for power sys- tion - A Task Force Report, IEEE Transactions
tem restoration. It is based on a subdivision of com- on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-2, no. 2, pp. 271-
plex problems into problems that can be assessed by 277, May 1987.
means of analytical rules. Analysis procedures in the P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control,
frequency or Laplace domain help to find a suitable McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
restoration sequence, and limit the time that is usu- W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling,
ally needed t o carry out time-consuming time-domain and B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FOR-
simulations based on the trial-and-error principle. As TRAN, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
an example for rules in the frequency domain, a motor- New York, Port Chester, Melbourne, Sydney, 1995.
start case is investigated. The rules show a very J.S. Wu, C.-C. Liu, K.L. Liou, and R.F. Chu,
good agreement with the results given by EMTPtime- Petri Net Algorithm for Scheduling of Generic
domain simulations and therefore help to reduce the Restoration Actions, IEEE Transactions on
time for restoration planning or on-line restoration sig- Power Systems, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 69-76, Feb 1997.