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EDCS 223 | Prof. Greg Pawilen | 1st Semester | S.Y. 2010 – 2011 Maria Carmela R.

Labindao (MA Ed CS)

THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL NEEDS, ISSUES, AND DEMANDS


IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION CURRICULUM

I. Sociological Perspective of Education

Educational Sociology
 The science which describes and explains the institutions and social forms through
which the child gains and organizes his experiences and those institutions and social
forms in relation to which the child must function in adult life. These institutions and social
forms are regarded particularly in their relation to the educational system in its evolution
and changing functions (George E. Payne, Editor of Educational Sociology)

 Education is the influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet
ready for social life. Its object is to arouse and to develop in the child a certain number of
physical, intellectual, and moral states which are demanded of him by both the political
society as a whole and the special milieu for which he is specifically destined (Emile
Durkheim, Education and Sociology)

Schooling vs. Education


*Schooling is relatively a simple concept but is often confused with education.

Schooling simply refers to:


• The totality of experiences that occur within the institution called school, not all of
which are educational
• It includes all the activities that take place within the curriculum of a school – that is,
within courses and programs of study
• It also includes the activities called “extracurricular”, such as sports, clubs, school
newspapers, and other activities not included in the formal curriculum.
• In addition, it involves teaching and learning not included in either curricular or
extracurricular activities (hidden curriculum).

II. Major Theories in Educational Sociology


*Based on tensions and contradictions between action and praxis, agency and structure,
micro and macro approaches, individual and society.

1. Functionalism
 how social structures meet the needs/requisites of a more inclusive social system
 basic functions of education:
a. qualification (transmission of knowledge, skills and attitudes)
b. selection (allocation of individuals to social positions)
c. integration (or maintenance and transmission of culture)

2. Economic Theories
 Utilitarian theories
 Rational choice
 Human capital

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3. Conflict Theory
 Dynamics of education revolve and are implicated in the unequal distribution of
resources in society
 Carl Marx and Max Weber theories

4. Interactionist Theories
 Tends towards meso and micro level analysis of individuals within educational
settings
 Three traditions:
a. Symbolic Interactionism and Role theory; situated selves and others
b. Interaction Ritual theory, dramaturgical interactionism; everyday rituals and
their effects on social structure
c. Interactionist phenomology and ethnomethodology; social constructionism;
processes that produce and sustain people’s sense of reality, how knowledge,
ability, intelligence, etc. are socially constructed
 Core of Interactionist theory of meaning lies in the following ideas (by Plummer,
K. 1996):
 Meaning is never fixed or coded but always emergent
 Meaning is ambiguous
 Meaning is triadic, it depends on gesture of one, the response of another, and
the joint act that emerges between them
 Meaning depends upon interactive process and this process is always re-
adjusting itself in the collective social process

5. Postmodernism and Postconstructuralism


 Postmodern condition of knowledge
 The relations between truth and power in educational discourse and discursive
practices; according to critical pedagogy “the classroom should become the arena
for intellectual resistance towards the ways in which roles, our lives, and our
subjectivities are defined and constituted” (Michel Foucault)
 Structuralist study societies as meaning making systems, which have under or
beyond the appearances of social reality/surface, structures that require a deeper
theoretical analysis
 Poststructuralist deny that there exists any subject or center outside of the signs

III. Social Needs, Issues and Demands of Individuals in Society and the
School Curriculum

A. Societal Changes and Problems


(Passe, 1999)
*change will constantly occur
“People have assumed that society will solve its problems through education” (Reitman,
1992)

Some Influential Factors in Society:


1. Socio-Economic Status: A curriculum that respects the backgrounds of poor children
and allows more opportunity for application and integration that will break the
connection between poverty and school failure

2. Single-Parent Families: the focus on helping children of single parents overcome


whatever problems they may have so that learning can take place is advised to be
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integrated into regular course of study, not only in the guidance curriculum (i.e. lessons
in making decisions, avoiding stress, communicating intimate feelings)

3. Latchkey Kids: schools can provide programs for latchkey kids like educational
activities and hobbies, and also teach more on home safety and security; after-school
programs, recreation centers for neighbourhood youths

4. Increasingly Mobile Society: children moving from one school to another is helped
to adjust with the school’s curriculum; teaching children how to make friends and
accepting others who appear to be different

5. Changing Cultural Mix/Ethnic Discord: racial and cultural changes/diversity in the


school; multicultural curriculum; learning of one’s and others’ culture, awareness of
differences to help understand one’s culture

6. Technological Changes/Communication Skills: less interpersonal


communication/interaction among children due to advancement of technology;
integrating technology in school curriculum, communication skills in curriculum; use of
the mother-tongue in communicating

7. Changes in the Workplace: Adults are busier than ever, and mothers are forced to
work than to stay at home, thus, adult support and involvement that used to help
children to develop positive values, attitudes, and knowledge has declined; integration
of values education nowadays in school curriculum

8. Television/Immoral Behaviour: a great concern of educators - television watching


decreased the creativeness in children; exposure to information that children cannot
discern by themselves; media education, consumer health education

9. Mental Illness: children who experienced abuse suffer from mental and emotional
problems – curriculum that allows children to learn how to deal with problems, provide
an atmosphere that encourages self-expression and individuality; drug education

10. Health Care/Sexual Activity: relationship of health and learning; health


programs in school – health education, sex education

11. Globalization: crucial role of education in human development for economic


growth; raising the standards of education through the curriculum

B. Putting Theory into Practice

a. Abuso, Julian. "School dropout in basic education in the Philippines: Accountability and
partnership"
o The study showed that poverty is one socio-economic cause of double digit
dropout rates in the Philippines
o The study argues that school dropout should be addressed by using a multi-
sectoral approach where various stakeholders serve as major partners—the family,
school, department of education, local government units, members of civil society,
local community, NGOs and other national agencies.

b. Multi-lingual Education Policy. Department of Education, Order No. 74, s. 2009

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c. Huidor, O. & Cooper, R. “Examining the Socio-cultural Dimension of Schooling in a
Racially Integrated School”. Education and Urban Society, Oct. 28, 2009
o Permit with Transportation Program in a racially integrated school for
Latina/Latino and African-American Students (busing program)
o understanding ethnic diversity aside from the PWT program; create school
culture that promotes a multi-cultural experience by engaging students in various
activities; have more inclusive schooling programs for all students

d. Gonzales, M.C. T., Pijano, M.C.V. “Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A


Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning”. In: Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices,
and Programs. 1997, 1- 13.
o Philippine non-formal education thrusts focuses on:
(1) family life skills - health, nutrition, childcare, household management, and family
planning, (2) vocational skills, (3) functional literacy, (4) livelihood skills

e. Maligalig, D.S., Albert, J.R.G. “Measures for Assessing Basic Education in the
Philippines”. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Discussion Paper Series No.
2008 – 16, May 2008, p. 1 – 21.
o Quality of schools, distance of schools, demands of community life and the
tremendous desire to help in the family income (a sign of poverty), are factors that
adds to poor achievement and to the lack of interest in attending schools.
Furthermore, there is this perception also that basic education may not be relevant
because what children learn in school are not applicable in daily lives – the
curriculum is overloaded and does not accommodate cultural differences (cited by
Maligalig and Albert, 2008 from Human Development Network, 2000)

f. Culture Responsive Curriculum for Indigenous Peoples. Department of Education &


College of Education, UP Diliman, 2002.
o Indigenization/Localization of the curriculum is important for the learner, the
teacher, the community

g. Yair, G. & Alayan, S. “Paralysis at the Top of a Roaring Volcano: Israel and the
Schooling of Palestinians in East Jerusalem”, Comparative Education Review, 43 (2),
2009, 235 – 257.
o Socio-political position of the East Jerusalem residents and their system of
education
o Israeli government pays for school operations, but the Palestinian authority
dictates the curriculum standards (Palestinian – language, use of the mother
tongue; Israeli – diverse subjects)
o Exceptional and paradoxical state of affairs affects the schooling of children in
East Jerusalem
References:
Antikainen, A. Classical Sociological Theories and the Modern Sociology of Education. November 2003.
http://cc.joensuufi/~anti/pub/teaching/handout_1.pdf

Passe, J. 1999. Elementary School Curriculum. 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. USA.

Strouse, J.H. 2001. Exploring Socio-Cultural Themes in Education: Readings in Social Foundations. 2nd ed., Prentice-
Hall, Inc. NJ, USA.

Tozer, S., Senese, G., Violas, P. 2006. School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 5th ed.,
McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. NY, USA.

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EDFD 221 – Socio-Cultural Foundation of Education: A Comparative Approach syllabus and handouts. 2nd semester,
S.Y. 2009 – 2010.