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PREDICT 4.

0
PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION AND
DETERMINATION OF CORROSION
IN STEELS

Users Guide
PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and does not
represent a commitment by InterCorr International, Inc. The information contained in this
document and the PREDICT 4.0 software is purely advisory in nature. In no event shall InterCorr or
its employees or agents have liability for damages, including but not limited to, consequential
damages arising out of or in connection with any persons use or inability to use the information in
this document. The software described in this manual is furnished under a license agreement and
may be used or copied only in accordance with this agreement. It is unlawful to copy the
accompanying software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement. No
part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the expressed written
permission of InterCorr International, Inc.
Copyright InterCorr International, Inc., 1995 - 2005. All Rights Reserved.
Document No. L932253SK
Windows, Excel and Word are a registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INSTALLATION............................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLING PREDICT 4.0................................................................................... 5
1.2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE ............................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.1 Single User Installation .................................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.2 Network Installation Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 TECHNICAL PRODUCT SUPPORT ....................................................................................................................... 6
2. PREDICT 4.0: DESCRIPTION AND UTILIZATION.................................................................................. 7
2.1 OVERVIEW WHATS NEW IN PREDICT 4.0? ................................................................................................... 7
PREDICT 4.0 FEATURES AND BENEFITS .......................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 Characteristics................................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.2 Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................ 9
2.1.3 Units and Conversions..................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 CONSULTING PREDICT 4.0................................................................................................................................ 9
2.2.1 Important Pointers on Using PREDICT 4.0................................................................................................ 13
2.2.2 Cost Analysis in PREDICT 4.0.................................................................................................................... 13
2.2.3 Data Conversion Dialog in PREDICT 4.0 .................................................................................................. 15
2.2.4 Flow Modeling Dialog in PREDICT 4.0..................................................................................................... 15
2.2.5 Ionic Strength Dialog in PREDICT 4.0....................................................................................................... 16
2.2.6 Corrosion Distribution Profile Dialogs in PREDICT 4.0........................................................................... 17
2.2.7 Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis in PREDICT 4.0......................................................................................... 20
2.2.8 Access to Lab Corrosion Rate Data in PREDICT 4.0................................................................................. 23
2.2.9 Importing Data from Excel to PREDICT 4.0 .............................................................................................. 26
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS IN CORROSION ASSESSMENT ....................................................................... 27
2.3.1 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) ............................................................................................................................ 28
2.3.2 Carbon Dioxide ........................................................................................................................................ 28
2.3.3 Chlorides .................................................................................................................................................. 28
2.3.4 Bicarbonates............................................................................................................................................. 29
2.3.5 Temperature ............................................................................................................................................. 29
2.3.6 Acetate and Ionic Strength ....................................................................................................................... 30
2.3.7 Gas to Oil Ratio........................................................................................................................................ 30
2.3.8 Water to Gas Ratio................................................................................................................................... 31
2.3.9 Sulfur/Aeration ......................................................................................................................................... 31
2.3.10 Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH) ...................................................................................................... 31
2.3.11 Fluid Velocity ...................................................................................................................................... 31
2.3.12 Ratio of Hydrocarbons to Water ......................................................................................................... 32
2.3.13 Corrosion Allowance........................................................................................................................... 32
2.3.14 Service Life .......................................................................................................................................... 33
2.3.15 Type of Flow ........................................................................................................................................ 33
2.3.16 Method of Inhibition ............................................................................................................................ 33
2.3.17 Inhibition Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 34
2.3.18 Measured pH ....................................................................................................................................... 35
2.4 THE PREDICT 4.0 INTERFACE MENUS AND THE TOOLBAR ............................................................................. 35
2.5 GENERAL NOTES ON CONSULTING PREDICT 4.0 ............................................................................................ 37
3. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF PREDICT 4.0 MODEL ....................................................................... 39
3.1 SYNOPSIS ....................................................................................................................................................... 39
3.2 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 39

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

3.3 CO2/H2S-BASED CORROSION: TECHNICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW ................................... 40


3.4 PREDICT 4.0 MODEL DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................... 43
3.4.1 Role of H2S.................................................................................................................................................... 49
3.4.2 Temperature Effects....................................................................................................................................... 51
3.4.3 Chlorides ....................................................................................................................................................... 52
3.4.4 Bicarbonates.................................................................................................................................................. 52
3.4.5 Velocity .......................................................................................................................................................... 53
3.4.6 Importance of Water/Gas/Oil ratios.............................................................................................................. 56
3.4.7 Oxygen/Sulfur ................................................................................................................................................ 58
3.4.8 Inhibition/Inhibition Effectiveness................................................................................................................. 59
4. FLOW MODELING IN PREDICT 4.0 ......................................................................................................... 62
4.1 OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................................... 62
4.2 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 62
4.3 VERTICAL FLOW ............................................................................................................................................ 62
4.3.1. Bubbly Flow: ............................................................................................................................................ 63
4.3.2. Slug Flow: ................................................................................................................................................ 64
4.3.3. Churn Flow: ............................................................................................................................................. 64
4.3.4. Annular Flow: .......................................................................................................................................... 65
4.3.5. Shear Stress Calculation .......................................................................................................................... 65
4.4 HORIZONTAL FLOW ....................................................................................................................................... 65
4.4.1. Flow Pattern Prediction........................................................................................................................... 67
4.4.2. Liquid Hold-up Factor ............................................................................................................................. 68
4.4.3. Pressure Drop Calculation ...................................................................................................................... 69
4.4.4. Shear Stress Calculation .......................................................................................................................... 69
4.5 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR ............................................................................................................................ 70
4.6 INCLINED FLOW ..................................................................................................................................................... 70
4.7 FLOW MODELING DIALOG...................................................................................................................................... 71
5. CORROSION DISTRIBUTION PROFILE.................................................................................................. 74
5.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................. 74
5.2 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................... 74
5.3 COMPUTATIONAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................... 76
5.4 PROFILE GENERATION ............................................................................................................................................ 77
5.5 PRINTING AND COPYING PROFILE DATA ................................................................................................................ 78
APPENDIX A: BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................................... 79

INDEX ........................................................................................................................................................................ 82

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

1. INSTALLATION

1.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLING PREDICT 4.0

The PREDICT expert system requires the following minimum configuration for installation and use:
An IBM personal computer or 100 percent compatible, with at least 64 MB (128 MB recommended) of
RAM.
A VGA monitor (An SVGA monitor is recommended)
An Intel pentium or higher processor or equivalent (AMD Athlon or other compatible processors).
Microsoft Windows 98/2000/XP or Microsoft Windows NT
A CD-ROM drive
A hard disk with at least 15 MB of available file space.
The PREDICT 4.0 system is also available in a network-compatible version. Contact us at
predict@intercorr.com for details.

1.2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE


Predict 4.0 comes with a setup procedure that copies all relevant files to appropriate directories and creates icons
for the end user to facilitate program access.

1.2.1 Single User Installation

USING CD-ROM: Start your computer and insert the PREDICT 4.0 installation CD in the CD drive. The
software is designed to start by itself, if there is no response, from the start menu, choose run and type
d:\setup (where d is CD-ROM drive) and follow the instructions on the individual screens to complete
the installation. You will need administrative access on the computer to install all the components
correctly. Log in as the administrator or a power user with administrative access before you begin
installation.
Predict 4.0 is supplied with a hardware security key that provides licensing protection for your copy of
PREDICT 4.0. Please ensure that the hardware key is securely attached to the printer port of the computer
before using Predict 4.0. The key will need to be attached to the computer any time you wish to use this
software.
Incase of USB Key protection proceed with the installation as detailed above before inserting the USB
key in the USB port. After completing the installation plug in the USB Key. The new hardware found
wizard comes up in Windows 2000/XP/NT4 machines, click on Next to install the driver automatically.
Windows XP users may encounter a warning screen that says the hardware is not compatible with
Windows XP. The hardware has been tested and is compatible with XP, click on Continue Anyway to
proceed.
Double click on the PREDICT icon or the Predict.exe file to begin a consultation. Attach your USB or
hardware key before and during the use of Predict.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

1.2.2 Network Installation Procedure

Follow the same procedure as described for the single-user installation, but perform the setup on the
server and not on a stand-alone PC or a network client. (Network License and Network Key required)

1.3 TECHNICAL PRODUCT SUPPORT

InterCorr offers comprehensive technical product support programs to cater to the needs of users in both
the software utilization area as well as in corrosion and material evaluation. Technical support is
classified into two categories:

(a) If you have routine questions about using PREDICT 4.0 or have problems installing or getting the
program to execute properly, please contact support personnel at InterCorr International for
immediate assistance:
InterCorr International
14503 Bammel N. Houston #300
Houston, Texas 77014
(281) 444-2282 (Tel.)
(281) 444-0246 (Fax)
predict@intercorr.com
softinfo@intercorr.com

(b) If you have questions about the reasoning in PREDICT 4.0 or the decision-making rules or would
like to have complete access to both the system development and technical expertise at InterCorr,
you may procure annual maintenance and enroll in the PREDICT 4.0 Technical Support Program.
The PREDICT 4.0 Technical Support Program provides several benefits, including:
Access to all the rules and decision-making mechanisms in PREDICT 4.0
Unlimited technical support for a small, one-time fee ensuring expert attention and advise
on all related corrosion evaluation problems
Free attendance to seminars and users-group workshops conducted by InterCorr
Members of support program qualify for free upgrades as well as preferred pricing on new
versions of the program. Members also receive information about relevant changes in
technology in the PREDICT 4.0 system.

Please contact InterCorr at predict@intercorr.com if you wish to procure annual maintenance / technical
support. If you have already procured technical support, please contact InterCorr by phone or email for
any questions or problems.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2. PREDICT 4.0: DESCRIPTION AND UTILIZATION

2.1 OVERVIEW WHATS NEW IN PREDICT 4.0?

PREDICT 4.0 is the latest generation of the PREDICT system which addresses one of the most significant
issues in corrosion evaluation, i.e., assessment of corrosion rates of steels exposed to corrosive
environments. PREDICT 4.0, a by-product of years of corrosion research and modeling, puts to good use
application of state-of-the-art software technology to provide access to a comprehensive knowledge base
on corrosion decision-making. It is an easy-to-use graphical tool that integrates the effects of a complex
set of environmental parameters to provide a corrosion rate assessment based on extensive literature
data, lab testing and field experience.

PREDICT 4.0 FEATURES AND BENEFITS

The PREDICT 4.0 system represents comprehensive revision of the earlier versions of PREDICT 4.0
corrosion prediction software system. PREDICT 4.0 incorporates a completely revised corrosion
prediction module with improved prediction performance as well as accurate pH, corrosion scaling,
persistence determination and flow modeling modules. PREDICT 4.0 includes new data, analysis and
field insights to give you the most accurate corrosion prediction solutions. Features of the PREDICT 4.0
system include,

An updated, enhanced corrosion prediction module


Ability to view actual test corrosion rate data obtained from 18 flow loops
Ability to Export to MS-Word and MS Excel
Ability to perform Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis using MS-Excel
Ability to import data into Predict from MS Excel for multiple cases
Ability to study effect of Glycol Injection in gas pipelines
Ability to determine water phase behavior and predict system dew point
Ability to perform corrosion analysis along the length of a pipe (or tubing) and view graphically
the variation of corrosion rates over length.
A state-of-the-art pH computation module which accounts for the effects of over 16 different
anion and cation species, including organic and inorganic acid components
An enhanced flow modeling module that provides key insights into understanding the
contribution of typical flow-induced corrosion parameters
Ability to analyze inclined uphill and downhill flows for shear stress and fluid velocity
calculation.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Ability to accurately model momentum transfer effects (flow regimes, void fractions, pressure
drops and shear stresses) en-route to improved corrosion prediction
Ability to accurately determine scaling effects due to formation of Iron carbonate and Iron
sulfide scales as a function of temperature and pH
Ability to accurately characterize role of oxygen concentration in corrosive systems
Improved rules to account for variation of water content in oil and gas wells
Ability to handle different types of hydro-carbons and persistence effects
Updated economic analysis for integrating economic factors into corrosion analysis
New pitting probability module to assess modality of corrosion (general vs. localized)

The PREDICT 4.0 system has a re-designed, enhanced user interface with a host of new features:

State-of-the-art interface (XP/2000 compatible) for enhanced efficacy and ease of use
Ability to share data with all Windows-compatible programs and support for ODBC database
connectivity
Module to convert data from field production report into parameters required for corrosion
analysis
Improved file read and write capabilities
Enhanced user friendly and context sensitive help system
Easily export data to MS Word and MS Excel and plot graphs at the click of a button

2.1.1 Characteristics

PREDICT 4.0 performs a rigorous evaluation of corrosive environments and provides assessment of
corrosion rates
Ability to assess the availability of liquid water through continuous phase modeling and dew point
prediction
Incorporates comprehensive and accurate corrosion modeling to account for the effects of a number
of critical parameters
Helps in the determination of system pH for typical oil and gas environments
Provides decision-making rules for corrosion characterization on the basis of a corrosion model that
accounts for the interaction of different critical parameters
Determines annualized and present worth cost as a means to conducting cost analyses to compare
different material choices
Includes an intuitive, graphical, easy-to-use interface

A flow chart displaying the reasoning structure in PREDICT 4.0 is shown in Figure 3.2. While the flow
chart indicates a hierarchical decision-making structure for PREDICT 4.0, the object-based

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

implementation of PREDICT 4.0 ensures meaningful answers independent of the order of data
specification during a consultation.

2.1.2 Benefits

Microsoft Windows based tool that can run on most common personal computers
Easy to use graphical interface makes using the system a simple task. (See Figure 2.1)
Extensive on-line help assists the user in understanding significance different corrosion evaluation
parameters
Cost analysis module facilitates comparison of project cost when using different materials
Can be easily installed on any stand-alone or network system compatible with Windows/Windows
NT/Windows for Work groups/Windows-95/Windows 2000/XP operating system
Can lead to significant reduction in time spent assessing corrosion and can be a means for obtaining
cost-effective automated solutions
Access to extensive consulting and development support from InterCorr in using/customizing
PREDICT 4.0

2.1.3 Units and Conversions

PREDICT 4.0 system allows utilization of both English and SI units. While the system performs an
automatic conversion from English to SI and vice versa, typical conversion factors are listed in the table
below for commonly utilized system parameters.

Parameter in Unit in SI system Conversion To Multiply by


PREDICT 4.0
(to convert from) English
Pressure bar psia 14.5
Temperature C F 1.8 and add 32
Velocity m/s ft/s 3.28
Length/thickness mm in 0.039
Gas to Oil Ratio m3/m3 scf/bbl 5.61
Water to Gas Ratio m3/M.m3 bbl/Mscf 0.178
Yield Strength Mpa ksi .145
Corrosion Rate mmpy mpy 39.37
Note: M.m3 stands for millions of cubic meter and Mscf denotes Millions of standard cubic feet.

Table 1.1: SI Units and Conversion Factors for Corresponding English Units

2.2 CONSULTING PREDICT 4.0

You can start a PREDICT 4.0 consultation in two ways:

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

1. By double clicking on the PREDICT 4.0 icon on the Desktop. You will see a PREDICT 4.0
Application window opening up with the program title bit map super-imposed.
2. PREDICT 4.0 program can also be accessed by clicking on Start > Programs > InterCorr Software >
Predict.
Both will take you to a program screen similar to one shown in Figure 2.1. The consultation will show a
form with all relevant environmental parameters with corresponding units displayed. The default unit
system used in PREDICT 4.0 is English.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.1 PREDICT 4.0 Start up Screen

Based on the Data specified for the different parameters, PREDICT 4.0 will instantaneously display the
following results:
System Bulk pH
Predicted corrosion rate called Corrosion Index (in mpy or mmpy)
System Dew Point Temperature
A textual recommendation in the results box indicating whether the predicted corrosion rate is within
the specified allowance for the particular system.
A corrosion index bar that graphically represents the corrosion rate. The color of this bar indicates
whether you are operating within the specified allowance. If the predicted corrosion rate is higher
than what is allowed, the bar is red. Otherwise, the bar is green.
Predicted phase behavior of water in the system, indicated by the mole fraction of water in the vapor
and liquid phase.
A water phase behavior bar that graphically represents the presence of condensed water in the
system. The color of this bar indicates the presence of the two phases, light blue for vapor and solid
blue for liquid phase.
Consulting PREDICT 4.0 is designed to be an intuitively simple task. The user can specify data for any of
the parameters and watch the effect of that parameter on the corrosion rate in the system. The system
starts with a set of default values and calculates a corrosion rate based on any changes to the displayed
values on an as-you-see-it basis.
While PREDICT 4.0 uses a complex computational model for determining the corrosion rate, the ease-of-
use in applying the system to obtain meaningful answers is transparent. However, the answers
displayed produce results consistent with the data input by the user. Hence, it is critical that users
ensure that they provide accurate input data to obtain maximum benefit from the depth of reasoning and
functionality built into PREDICT 4.0.
In the following paragraphs, we will go through a typical consultation in a step-by-step manner:
1. Specification of Production Data: To begin with a Predict 4.0 consultation click on the Convert
button on the toolbar to provide the Production rates and acid gas concentrations. Predict 4.0 is
modular and object oriented and allows a change of any parameter at any point. It is advisable
however to start with the operating conditions and production rates.
2. Temperature/Gas-Water ratios: Temperature has a strong effect on system pH and corrosion
rates. Corrosion rates significantly increase with increasing temperature. If the Gas to Oil Ratio is
more than 5000 scf/bbl (which denotes a gas well), the system uses the water to gas ratio and the
dew point as means to determine availability of an aqueous medium to measure corrosion. So,
depending on the value entered for the Gas to Oil Ratio, the system will let you specify the relevant
water-related parameters. If the Gas to Oil Ratio is less than 5000 scf/bbl (which denotes an oil line),
the system uses the water cut and oil persistency to determine the wetness effect.

In Predict 4.0, the amount of water content entered is translated into liquid water as a two step
process:
Prediction of dew point for the system

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Determination of vapor and liquid phase fractions for the water


3. Specification of pH related data: At the outset, PREDICT 4.0 determines a corrosion rate only if
you have an acidic environment. The acid environment can come from dissolved salts or dissolved
acid gases. So, if your environment has no acid gases (or acidic components) or there is sufficient
buffering (see bicarbonates for more information) to produce a pH higher than 7.0, the system will
predict zero or very low corrosion rates. So, the first step in consulting PREDICT 4.0 involves
specification of the acid gas (H2S and CO2) partial pressures as well as the bicarbonate and the
organic acid content of the environment. It is also recommended that you use the ionic strength
calculation dialog to input data relevant to different cations and anions from your water analysis. If
you do not have partial pressures available and instead have a ppm or a percent, use the on-line help
in PREDICT 4.0. It tells you how to convert between different unit systems or methods of measuring
presence of a certain element in an environment. You can also use the data conversion module to
obtain required partial pressures automatically.
4. Corrosion Profile: Often, corrosion analyses are required to be performed on across a tubing string
or a pipeline. In such situations, where there are a number of points to assess for corrosivity
prediction, it can be a tedious task to analyze each data point. To overcome this difficulty and there
by save substantial time / cost associated with corrosion prediction analysis, Predict 4.0 has a built in
corrosion distribution profile generation module. This module performs the following tasks:
Generation of water phase and constituent concentration data at each point
Prediction of corrosion for each point
Graphical representation of corrosion distribution profile
Graphical representation of liquid water content in relation to pipe or tubing length
The systems enhanced calculation rules for predicting the water content of natural gas and dew point
calculations enable accurate predictions for water condensation and thus corrosion rates. A glance at
the corrosion profile provides information about problem spots in the pipe system where there is a
high possibility of water condensation and potentially damaging corrosion rates.
5. Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis: While performing corrosivity analysis, it is very helpful to
understand the effect of a particular parameter or a group of parameters. Using Multipoint
Sensitivity Analysis, users can study the effect of a number of parameters on the predicted corrosion
rates or computed pH. For instance, while analyzing a particular well, it makes sense to check the
effect of a change in production rates and how such a change would affect the corrosion rates. Or for
instance, in case of a flow line, one may need to see the effect of pipe diameter on the flow
characteristics and the predicted corrosion rate. Such sensitivity analyses can be easily performed
using the Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Tool using MS Excel.
6. Chlorides/oxygen/sulfur: These parameters typically make corrosion worse if the process has been
initiated by the presence of acid gases. Their role, while not as critical as that of H2S or CO2, is
significant because these parameters can significantly increase corrosion rates in mildly corrosive
systems.
Predict 4.0 has enhanced rules to assess corrosion damage due to oxygen in water (and acidic
systems). Predict also provides access to compelling test data that provides insights into oxygen-
related localized corrosion.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

7. Velocity/Type of flow: Flow parameters are very critical in both determining and controlling
corrosion effects. Erosion corrosion as well as the protection (or the lack thereof) from corrosion
films is very much a function of fluid velocity and other hydrodynamic parameters. Predict 4.0
provides comprehensive fluid dynamic analysis capabilities, including prediction of flow regimes,
various dimensionless parameters, liquid hold up and wall shear stress. For more information,
please see the section on flow modeling.
8. Inhibition/corrosion allowance: Inhibition choices in PREDICT 4.0 allow the user to select
applicable methods of inhibition for vertical or horizontal flow and determine the extent of corrosion
mitigation. In some cases, the system might provide no protection due to inhibition because of high
velocities or chloride concentrations. PREDICT 4.0 has in-built rules to assess the appropriate method
of inhibition for a given set of conditions and can also determine whether a specified method of
inhibition is applicable or not to the specified conditions.

2.2.1 Important Pointers on Using PREDICT 4.0

As you go through a PREDICT 4.0 consultation, you will observe that the effect of a change in the
value of a parameter on the corrosion calculations is seen only when you leave that particular
data slot (also known as the edit control). For example, if the corrosion rate index for a specific set
of input values is that includes H2S = 10 psia is 15 mpy, then, if you wish to determine the corrosion
index for H2S = 2 psia, all that you need to do is change the value in the data slot and click on any
other data slot. PREDICT 4.0 will calculate a corrosion index with the current set of values each time
you leave a data slot and click on another.
The Gas to Oil Ratio (GOR) slot controls whether you can enter water cut or Water to Gas Ratio
(WGR) information. If the GOR is less than 5000 scf/bbl (oil well or line), you will not be able to
specify the WGR or the dew point. Conversely, if GOR >= 5000, water cut and oil type will be
grayed and you can only specify WGR and the dew point.
The type of flow specified (horizontal or vertical) will determine the type of inhibition choices
available to you. Obviously, it is not very meaningful to talk of pigging in vertical flow conditions
like tubing. Further, you have to specify an appropriate method of inhibition before specifying an
inhibition efficiency range. If you choose no inhibition or just pigging where continuous inhibition
is required and indicate a high efficiency, the system will ignore your efficiency specification.
The startup PREDICT 4.0 splash screen (the same as the screen that comes up when you ask for help
about PREDICT 4.0) will disappear upon a mouse click.
You can save, print, and change between different units using toolbar icons shown in Figure 2.1. All
these functions are identical to those found in any standard Windows application program and are
described in greater detail in Section 2.4

2.2.2 Cost Analysis in PREDICT 4.0

PREDICT 4.0 facilitates a rigorous, present worth cost analysis for a given material through the Cost icon
on the toolbar. Clicking on the Cost icon leads to a dialog box as shown in Figure 2.2. The cost
analysis module allows you to compare the costs of using different materials for a given project using a
large number of relevant factors that are typically used in performing cost analyses:
Material costs (delivery, design, construction) data such as poundage and supply

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Operating costs
Maintenance Costs
Taxes, Depreciation and salvage value
Recurring annual costs

Figure 2.2 -- Cost Analysis in PREDICT 4.0

PREDICT 4.0 takes into account different elements of project life costing to determine an annualized (per
year cost) using a specific material as well as the total cost over the life time of the project. The user has
to specify all the input data in the data slots and click on the CALC button in the dialog box. The
program will display the annualized cost and present worth after taxes (PWAT) based on the life of the
project at the bottom of the dialog box as shown in Figure 2.2.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2.2.3 Data Conversion Dialog in PREDICT 4.0

PREDICT 4.0 provides a convenient way to convert the values commonly available for analysis into
variables required for prediction of corrosion. Clicking on the Convert button on the toolbar for
analysis brings up a dialog box shown in Figure 2.3. After entering the values for different parameters,
the user has to click on the convert button to convert the data into appropriate values needed for
PREDICT 4.0 consultations. Click on the OK button in the dialog box to calculate the data and post them
in the start-up screen.

Figure 2.3 -- Data Conversion Dialog in PREDICT 4.0.

2.2.4 Flow Modeling Dialog in PREDICT 4.0

PREDICT 4.0 facilitates flow regime analysis and flow modeling as well as determination of wall shear
stress and pressure drop using data about the flowing medium. Clicking on the Flow icon on the toolbar
leads to a dialog box shown in Figure 2.4 for flow modeling. The flow module allows the user to
predict the flow regime, calculate friction factor, assess pressure drop and the wall shear stress, based on
the flow regime by specifying some commonly available data such as:
Pipe Diameter and Roughness
Water production rate, density and viscosity
Gas production rate, density and viscosity
Oil production rate, density and viscosity

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The user has to specify all the input data and click on the Calc button for the program to calculate the
output.

Figure 2.4 - Flow Modeling Dialog

2.2.5 Ionic Strength Dialog in PREDICT 4.0

Ionic Strength dialog in predict can be used to calculate the ionic strength of the solution, which plays
an important role in accurate pH calculation. This can be invoked by clicking on the Calc button next to
the input box for ionic strength, in the PREDICT 4.0 interface. The user has to input the concentrations of
various anions and cations and click on Calc to calculate Ionic Strength. Figure 2.5, below shows the
dialog box. To post the calculated ionic strength to the main frame the user must click on OK button.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.5 Ionic Strength Dialog

2.2.6 Corrosion Distribution Profile Dialogs in PREDICT 4.0

Predict 4.0 now provides a useful utility to perform an analysis for corrosion index calculation over the
length of a pipe. It is available from the toolbar by clicking on the Profile icon and from the menu by
selecting the Distribution Profile option in the analysis menu item or by hitting F5.
This option provides a tool for calculating the Corrosion Rates, not only at a single point in the piping
system, but over user specified number of points over the entire length of the pipe. The user specifies
all the required information in the form of pressure and temperature conditions at pipe inlet and outlet,
the total pipe length and the number of equidistant points for corrosion analysis.
Application
It must be noted that the data entered on the main form corresponds to inlet conditions at the pipe inlet.
That is, the corrosion index shown on the screen prior to running this module is the calculated corrosion
index at the inlet of the pipe length.
So, in order to complete a successful analysis of pipe/tubing length the user needs to first fill in the inlet
conditions on the main form, which gives the corrosion index at that point. Then by selecting the Profile
icon (or hitting F5) the pipe data and Pressure Temperature inputs should be entered in the displayed
input dialog box, Figure 2.6.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.6 Corrosion Distribution Profile Input Dialog

The units for corrosion rates and other input parameters are decided by the users choice of units on the
main form, and can be changed at any time during the program. To learn more about compatibility and
conversion of units refer section 2.1.3.
The resulting plot of corrosion index vs. the pipe length generated is displayed along with the phase
distribution of water over the length, as seen in Figure 2.7. The movement of the mouse over the plot
indicates the user of the corrosion rates, the water phase distribution at the point in the piping system.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.7 Corrosion Distribution Profile - Results Dialog

Details
How this module works? The inlet conditions, as specified on the main form are used to estimate the
corrosion index at that point. The inputs provided, help in generating a temperature and pressure profile
over the pipe length. These profiles are estimated to be linear. With the actual values for absolute
pressure (hence calculated partial pressures), temperature, and velocity (inlet velocity is considered as
average velocity over the range), Corrosion Rates are calculated at various points the number of which
is determined by the user. These rates are then plotted against the points these were calculated at.
Also the system uses the computational methods of Bukacek and Maddox to compute the water content
of sour gas and along with Riedels correlation for vapor pressure of water computes the phase
distribution at any given point in the piping system.
For more details refer section 5 of this user guide.
Utilization Tips

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

For very long distance, or for nonlinear geometry, or very high velocity difference, you can run a
distribution for 2 or 3 separate lengths, with corresponding input parameters.
When a Distribution Profile is run and viewed, it is stored in memory until another distribution is run,
which then replaces the earlier run. So you can print your Distribution Profile anytime, but before
running another Distribution Profile. Also the input parameters are printed along with the chart, to
enable the user to document the cases.

2.2.7 Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis in PREDICT 4.0

Predict 4.0 now provides a new utility to perform Sensitivity Analysis for corrosion rate, Dew Point and
pH calculation with respect to a variety of other parameters. It is available from the toolbar by clicking
on the MPS icon and from the menu by selecting the Multipoint Sensitivity option in the Analysis menu
item or by using the hotkey F8.
This option provides a tool for calculating the effect of a variety of different parameters such as H2S and
CO2 mol% or Acetates or Production rates etc. on the predicted corrosion rate and pH. The following
screen is displayed (Figure 2.8) when you click on the MPS icon on the toolbar:

Figure 2.8 Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Selection of parameters

Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis can be performed in the following two ways:


1) Importing a MS Excel sheet containing the data
Using MS Excel and the provided templates, users can set up their analysis in MS Excel for up to 20
different cases. Then using Predict 4.0, users can compute the corrosion rates, pH and Dew point for
each of these cases and Plot a Sensitivity Analysis graph at the click of a button.
The first step to use this tool is to set up the Analysis in MS Excel. Using the templates provided (can be
found in the same directory as Predict 4.0) users can easily generate this file needed to import into
Predict. A sample of a Excel File is shown here in Figure 2.8 (This will perform the sensitivity analysis
of the H2S% on the corrosion rate):

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Predict 4.0 Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Template


Units English

Gas Production Water Production Oil Production Temperature Pressure H2S CO2 Pipe/Tube ID Type of Flow
MMSCFD bbl/d bbl/d F psia mol% mol% inch H or V
5 10 1000 77 100 1 2 3.102 H
5.2 10.1 1010 77 100 1.5 2 3.102 H
5.4 10.2 1020 77 100 2 2 3.102 H
5.6 10.3 1030 77 100 2.5 2 3.102 H
5.8 10.4 1040 77 100 3 2 3.102 H
6 10.5 1050 77 100 3.5 2 3.102 H
6.2 10.6 1060 77 100 4 2 3.102 H
7.6 11.3 1130 77 100 7.5 2 3.102 H
7.8 11.4 1140 77 100 8 2 3.102 H
8 11.5 1150 77 100 8.5 2 3.102 H
8.2 11.6 1160 77 100 9 2 3.102 H
8.4 11.7 1170 77 100 9.5 2 3.102 H
8.6 11.8 1180 77 100 10 2 3.102 H
8.8 12 1200 80 120 10.5 2 3.102 H

Figure 2.9 Sample Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Import Sheet

Once this file is created and saved with all the required data marked in red completely filled out, start
the Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Tool. On the above screen, shown in Fig. 2.8 select the check box to
Choose a File to import and then click on Browse to locate the file you created and select it. Select the
parameters for the analysis, the X Axis and the Y Axis parameters from the drop down lists and click on
Perform Sensitivity Analysis.

2) Using the data from the current consultation (main screen)


Based on the current consultation, and the values already provided on the main screen, you can choose
to perform a multipoint sensitivity analysis. On the above screen, shown in Fig. 2.8 make sure that the
check box to Choose a File to import is unchecked. Select the X Axis parameter that you would like to
perform a sensitivity analysis on from the drop down list, and provide the % values for the analysis.

For e.g. : Lets say we need to perform a sensitivity analysis of the concentration of Acetates (50-150
ppm) on the corrosion rate. After setting up all the parameters on the main screen click on the MPS icon
on the toolbar to launch this utility. Make sure that the check box to Choose a File to import is
unchecked Select the X Axis Parameter as Acetates, and choose +50% and 50%.
With an initial value of 100 ppm, and a +50% and 50% sensitivity, the effective range will be 50 to 100
ppm. Click on Perform Sensitivity Analysis to start the process. Predict 4.0 will create a Excel Sheet
with the parameters from your consultation and perform a sensitivity analysis on the selected parameter
(in this case, 50 to 150 ppm Acetates).

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Parameters that can be selected to be plotted on the X Axis are:


Gas Production Rate
Water Production Rate
Oil Production Rate
Temperature
Pressure
H2S mol%
CO2 mol%
Pipe or Tube ID
Acetates
Bicarbonates
Chlorides
Oxygen

Parameters that can be selected to be plotted on the Y Axis are:


Calculated pH
Calculated Corrosion Rate
Calculated Dew Point

The green columns in the Excel sheet will be updated with the calculated parameters and the Sensitivity
Analysis graph will be automatically generated. Users can save their changes or generate more graphs
as needed. An example of the graph that is instantly generated is shown in the following Figure 2.10

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Sensitivity Analysis

0.70

0.60
Corrosion Rate, mpy

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
H2S, mol%

Figure 2.10 Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis Results Chart

2.2.8 Access to Lab Corrosion Rate Data in PREDICT 4.0

Predict 4.0 now provides a new utility that gives the user on the fly access to actual laboratory test data
encompassing over 18 flow loop tests and conducted over a period of one and a half years for different
materials and environments. These tests were conducted on OCTG and Pipeline to assess corrosivity of
CO2/H2S multiphase systems and to understand and characterize corrosion in terms of H2S corrosion
and scaling as well as CO2 and H2S equilibria as a function of environmental and flow parameters. The
Data presented through this tool indicates significant effect of H2S/CO2 ratio, chloride content and
temperature on corrosion behavior. The data is presented as Corrosion Rate vs Shear Stress graphs and
can be filtered based on the range of data requested by the user.

Using the Data icon from the toolbar or using the F9 key, this utility can be launched. The following
screen, as shown in Figure 2.11, can be used to filter and view the Corrosion Rate Data.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.11 View Corrosion Rate Data Screen

As shown in the above screen, choose the CO2/H2S Ratio, Chloride concentration and the Temperature
from the drop down options to filter the data. Based on the selections, the list of available data changes.
Click on the links in the box to view the data as either a html file or as a MS Excel file. Both the actual
data points obtained from the tests and the corresponding chart is shown.

Experimental tests have been conducted using Pipeline and OCTG materials. The materials used were:
C-Mn L-80 (Q&T), C4130 (Q&T), C4130 (N), C-Mn N-80 (N) are the OCTG materials used as
laminar flow through electrodes (FTE's). The compositions of these materials are detailed in Figure
2.13.
API 5L-X65, A106 Gr B, API 5L-X60 are the Pipeline materials used as laminar flow though
electrodes (FTE's). The compositions of these materials are listed in Table 2.12.
Three reservoir electrodes (Ref. Numbers 512, 519, 520) were made of carbon steel.
One impingement electrode (Ref No. 5846) was also made of carbon steel.

A summary of the test conditions for all the 18 flow loops is presented in figure 2.14

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Steel Identifier Heat Treatment Carbon Cr Steel


percent percent Grade/Supplier

Carbon Steel 1 Hot Rolled >= 0.1 0.0 ASM A106-Gr. B


Carbon Steel 2 Normalized/TMCP <= 0.1 0.0 API 5L x60
Low alloy steel 1 Hot Rolled >= 0.1 0.5 Siderca 0.5 Cr
X65

Figure 2.12 Pipeline Steels used for testing

Steel Identifier Heat Treatment Carbon Cr Steel


percent percent Grade/Supplier

C-Mn steel 1 Quenched & 0.2 - 0.3 0.0 C-Mn L-80


Tempered
C-Mn steel 2 Normalized 0.35 - 0.45 0.0 C-Mn N-80
Low Alloy steel 1 Quenched & 0.2 - 0.3 0.5 - 1.0 L-80 (4130)
Gr. 4130 Tempered

Low Alloy steel 2 Normalized 0.35 - 0.45 0.5 - 1.0 Siderca SD-70
Gr. 4130

Figure 2.13 OCTG Steels used for Testing

Test # H2S , psia CO2, psia CO2/ H2S Cl- Content, ppm Temperature, F pH
Pipeline Material
1 0.4 20 50 2000 80 3.9
2 4 20 5 2000 80 3.9
3 0.4 20 50 150000 80 3.9
OCTG Material
4 0.4 20 50 150000 80 3.9
5 4 20 5 2000 80 3.9
6 0.534 20 50 150000 80 3.9
7 35.0 200 50 2000 250 3.8
8 5.34 200 500 2000 250 3.9
9 35.0 200 5 150000 250 3.9

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

10 4 200 50 150000 250 3.9


11 0.4 200 500 150000 250 3.9
12 5.45 1500 250 50000 250 3.9
Pipeline Material
13 0.4 200 500 2000 200 3.9
14 0.4 20 50 150000 200 3.9
15 4 200 50 150000 200 3.9
16 4 200 50 2000 80 3.9
17 4 20 5 150000 80 3.9
18 0.4 200 500 5000 80 3.9

Figure 2.14 Summary of test conditions

2.2.9 Importing Data from Excel to PREDICT 4.0

Predict 4.0 now provides the user with the ability to import data from MS Excel directly into predict.
Users can use MS Excel to setup up to 20 cases in a single spread sheet, and can import this spreadsheet
into Predict 4.0. It also provides the user with the option to create separate Predict Files (.PRD) file for
each case imported. The imported cases are analyzed, the calculations performed and displayed for the
user.

This tool proves to be very useful to gather data from various sources and clients that do not have
Predict. The user can send the Excel Spread Sheet to another user or client and get the data inputs from
him/her. Then with a single click of a button all the data can be easily imported in Predict 4.0.

First, the user needs to create a Excel file in a format that can be imported in Predict. Two templates are
provided in the root directory of the program named ImportData-EnglishUnitsTemplate.XLT and
ImportData-MetricUnitsTemplate.XLT for each system of units. Double clicking on this files will
create an Excel Sheet with the correct format, and fill in all the data that needs to be imported in Predict
4.0. Up to 20 cases can be imported in Predict at a time. Each row of the sheet represents one case,
provide unique Case IDs that can be used as File Names for each of these cases. Save the file and then
import it into Predict.

To import this excel file into Predict 4.0 choose, Import Data from the File Menu or use the hotkey
Ctrl+I. This will show a screen as shown below in Figure 2.15

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.15 Import Data in Predict 4.0

Click on Browse and select the file you created. Check the box to save the PRD files if you would like
all the cases to be saved as individual Predict Files, and specify a different directory if you so desire.
Click on Import to import this data in Predict.

2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS IN CORROSION ASSESSMENT

As the user specifies environmental data, the program calculates and displays a corrosion rate index, a
direct measure of corrosion rate in the system based on a large number of parameters listed below:
Acid gases -- H2S and CO2

HCO3-

Chlorides

Temperature

Acetate and Ionic Strength

Gas to Oil Ratio

Water to Gas Ratio/Water cut

Presence of elemental sulfur/aeration

Fluid velocity

Type of flow

Inhibition and inhibition efficiency

Dew point
PREDICT 4.0 determines the system pH based on acid gas partial pressures, buffering and temperature.
The system also includes the effect of saturation53, 54 of FeCO3 and FeS scale into the corrosion index
calculation. The pH is dynamically displayed on the Screen as the user inputs environmental data.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2.3.1 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), like carbon dioxide is an acid gas, which dissolves in aqueous environments to
contribute to a reduction in the system pH. The pH varies with the amount of H2S dissolved. Typically,
the pH decreases with increasing amounts of H2S in solution. The lower the pH, the more aggressive
the environment from the standpoint of corrosion. Additionally, the severity of hydrogen charging also
increases with the amount of H2S. The amount of H2S in solution increases with:
1. Increasing mole fraction of H2S with increasing total system pressure causing an increase in H2S
partial pressure.
2. Increasing partial pressure at constant total system pressure if additional souring of the gas occurs.
Corrosion in steels generally increases with H2S partial pressure. H2S is an acid gas and the term acid
refers to its ability to depress pH when it is dissolved in an aqueous solution. This increased
aggressivity results from the decrease in the pH of the aqueous phase as the partial pressure of H2S
increases. An added effect of H2S in CO2/brine systems is a reduction in corrosion rate of steel when
compared to corrosion rates under conditions without H2S. This reduction in corrosion rate is primarily
a low temperature effect and predominates system corrosivity at temperatures less than 175 F (80 C) due
to the formation of a meta-stable iron sulfide film. At higher temperatures the combination of H2S and
chlorides will usually produce higher corrosion rates than just CO2/brine systems, since stable iron
carbonate films usually do not occur as readily in systems with H2S as they do in systems without H2S.

2.3.2 Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide (CO2), as in the case of hydrogen sulfide, is an acid gas that dissolves in aqueous
environments to produce a reduction in the system pH. Therefore the pH varies with the amount of CO2
dissolved. Typically, the pH decreases with increasing amounts of CO2 in solution. The lower the pH,
the more aggressive the environment from the standpoint of corrosion. The amount of CO2 in solution
increases with increasing mole fraction of CO2 in the gas phase and with increasing partial pressure of
CO2.

Corrosion severity generally increases with CO2 partial pressure. CO2 is an acid gas and the term acid
refers to its ability to depress pH when it is dissolved in an aqueous solution. This increased aggressivity
results from the decrease in the pH of the aqueous phase as the partial pressure of CO2 increases.

2.3.3 Chlorides

Produced water from hydrocarbon formations typically contains varying amounts of chloride salts
dissolved in solution. The chloride concentration in this water can vary considerably, from zero to few
ppm for condensed water to saturation in water having high total dissolved salts/solids (TDS). In many
cases, the water in the system will be a combination of produced and condensed water resulting in
solutions with 1000 to 100,000 ppm chloride. Chlorides are often specified in ppm NaCl. It should be
noted that ppm chlorides can be obtained as 0.63 x ppm NaCl.
Under normal circumstances, the chloride content of the aqueous phase does not directly affect the
hydrogen charging conditions in steel. However, it can have an effect on the effectiveness of chemical

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

corrosion inhibitors. Therefore, in many cases, more careful selection of inhibitors and inhibition
procedures must be performed where high levels of chlorides (>30,000 ppm) are present.
In naturally deaerated production environments, corrosion rate increases with increasing chloride ion
content over the range 10,000 ppm to 100,000 ppm. The magnitude of this effect increases with
increasing temperature over 150 F (60 C). This combined effect results from the fact that chloride ions
in solution can be incorporated into and penetrate surface corrosion films which can lead to
destabilization of the corrosion film and increased corrosion. This phenomenon of penetration of
surface corrosion films increases in occurrence with both chloride ion concentration and temperature.
Corrosion rates of steel in oil and gas production generally increase with increasing chloride content.
The chloride species in the aqueous phase can work to penetrate and destabilize protective surface films.
Typically, brines with low chloride content (i.e. <10,000 ppm) less aggressive than those having higher
chloride contents provided that they are compared at the same pH. In some cases, the presence of salts
can reduce the solubility of acid gases or buffer the water therefore affecting the solution pH.

2.3.4 Bicarbonates

The bicarbonate ion is a buffering agent used in aqueous solutions to increase the pH of the solution. Its
presence is typically measured in ppm or mili-equivalents/liter (meq/l). One meq/l represents 0.061
grams of HCO3- in one liter of solution or 61 ppm. The increase in pH in turn decreases the corrosivity
of the environment. Hence, presence of HCO3- is beneficial from the standpoint of corrosion. Typical
quantities of HCO3- in production environments range from 1 meq/l to 100 meq/l.

2.3.5 Temperature

Temperature is a critical parameter in determining the corrosivity of oil and gas production
environments. Changes in temperature affect the corrosion rate of steels in several ways which must be
taken into account for estimation of corrosion severity:
1. Increasing temperature decreases solubility of dissolved gases, which increases the pH of the
environment.
2. Increasing temperature increases the aggressivity of chloride ions in aqueous solutions by thermal
activation.
3. Different levels of temperature have different effects on environmental cracking. Between room
temperature and 250F, increasing temperature decreases susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement
Cracking and SSC. But, above 150F, susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking is increased.
4. Formation of a protective carbonate scale in aqueous CO2 environments at elevated temperatures.
5. Reduction in CO2 corrosion rate with addition of H2S.

In the PREDICT 4.0 program, each of these effects is handled separately through the various parameters.
However, directly incorporated into the temperature effect is No. 4 in the list above (i.e. formation of a
protective iron carbonate scale in CO2 brine systems at temperatures above 150 F (60 C). This has the
effect of decreasing the corrosion rate at temperatures above 150 F (60 C) to values lower than those
usually predicted based on aqueous CO2 corrosion. However formation of iron carbonate scale itself
requires a substantial metal loss that can cause a failure. Also, the scale formation effect is not found

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

when H2S is present in amounts above 0.05 psia. Here, corrosion rate will normally continue to increase
with increasing temperature.

2.3.6 Acetate and Ionic Strength

The acetate ion concentration is an important parameter in calculating the bulk pH of the solution as
well as the saturation pH calculation (for FeCO3, FeS scale formation). Presence of acetate is typically
measured in ppm or mili-equivalents/liter (meq/l). One meq/l represents 0.059 grams of CH3COO- in
one liter of solution or 59 ppm. Its presence increases the pH, which in turn decreases the corrosivity of
the environment. Hence, presence of CH3COO- is beneficial from the standpoint of corrosion. The
presence of formate (HCOO-) ions in the environment can also be interpreted as acetate ions, since both
the acids have similar dissociation constants. Typical quantities of CH3COO- in production
environments range from 1 ppm to 200 ppm.
The Ionic Strength of a solution is an important parameter in calculating accurate pH and saturation pH
data. The ionic strength of the solution, typically represented in Molar units, can be calculated from the
individual ion concentration using:

IS = 0.5(M Z2 )
Where,

Z is the charge of each ion


IS is the ionic strength of the solution
M is the molar concentration of each ion and can be calculated using,

M = x 10
-3

MW

Where,
x is concentration of each ion in ppm
MW is the molecular wt./atomic wt. of each ion

2.3.7 Gas to Oil Ratio

In oil and gas production, where the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 scf/bbl in British
units), the tendency for corrosion and environmental cracking is substantially reduced. This is caused
by the inhibiting effect of the oil film on the metal surface, which effectively reduces the corrosivity of
the environment. However, the inhibiting effect is dependent on the oil phase being persistent and
acting as a barrier between the metal and the corrosive environment. If GOR is not known, it is
recommended that a value greater than 5000 or 890 (in SI units) be used.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2.3.8 Water to Gas Ratio

To have corrosion in oil and gas systems, aqueous water is required. In many production applications
where essentially dry hydrocarbons are being produced, the full corrosivity of the hydrogen sulfide
and/or carbon dioxide will not be present.
In such systems, a dry gas is considered as that which contains no more than 2 BBL water/MSCF gas (or
11.3m3/Million m3). For Water to Gas Ratio with less than or equal to this amount, the corrosive
severity is substantially reduced. Care should be taken to evaluate presence of possible locations where
water can separate from the hydrocarbons and form a continuous water phase. Under such conditions,
substantial corrosion can exist. If you do not know the water to gas ratio or do not wish take its effect
into the reasoning, please use a value of 3 or greater.

2.3.9 Sulfur/Aeration

In systems containing high levels of H2S, elemental sulfur is often found to be present. Its presence can
significantly increase the corrosivity of the production environment with respect to weight loss
corrosion, localized corrosion and susceptibility to sulfide stress cracking.
Aeration in the operating environment significantly increases the corrosivity of the operating
environment. In this program, the acceleration for corrosion of steel in aerated conditions is
approximately ten times that of the rate determined for deaerated conditions. Aeration also increases the
severity of localized corrosion and SCC for susceptible corrosion resistance alloys. The mechanism of
this increased aggressivity is a result of the ease of formation of oxygen concentration cells on the metal
surface, which increases pitting and crevice corrosion. Both these phenomena, in turn, increase the
severity for SCC since pitting and crevice attack can act as locations of SCC initiation.

2.3.10 Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH)

Corrosion rates generally increase with decreasing pH of the aqueous phase. Therefore, corrosivity can
be expected to increase with increasing acid gas (H2S and CO2) partial pressure. At a particular acid gas
partial pressure, pH will tend to increase with increasing temperature. This affect can result in direct
reduction in corrosion rate with this rise in pH. In many cases however, the decrease in acid gas
solubility in the aqueous phase with increasing temperature can be compensated by increased total
pressures as the well depth increases. This can actually increase acid gas partial pressure and increase
the severity of corrosion.

2.3.11 Fluid Velocity

In multiphase (i.e. gas, water liquid hydrocarbon) production, the flow rate influences the corrosion rate
of steel in two ways. First, it determines the flow behavior. In general terms, with increasing velocity
this is manifested as static conditions (i.e. little or no flow), stratified flow at intermediate conditions
and turbulent flow at higher flow rates. One measure which can be used to define the flow conditions is
the superficial liquid velocity. Second, flow can also accelerate corrosion with increasing velocity
through increased mass transport and at still higher flow rates by removal of protective corrosion films
(i.e. corrosion products and inhibitor films). One measure which can be used to define the flow
conditions in multiphase flow systems is the superficial liquid velocity. At less than about 3 ft/sec (1
meter/sec), conditions are generally considered static.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Under these conditions corrosion rates can actually increase over those observed under moderate
flowing conditions. This occurs because under static conditions, there is no natural turbulence to assist
the mixing and dispersion of protective liquid hydrocarbons or inhibitor species in the aqueous phase.
Additionally, corrosion products and other deposits can settle out of the liquid phase to promote crevice
attack and under-deposit corrosion.
Between 3 and 10 ft/sec (1 and 3 meter/sec), stratified conditions generally still exist. However, the
increased flow promotes a sweeping away of some deposits and increasing agitation and mixing. At
about 15 ft/sec (5 meter/sec), corrosion rates in non-inhibited applications start to increase rapidly with
increasing velocity. For inhibited applications, corrosion rates of steel increase only slightly between 10
and 30 ft/sec (3 to 10 meter/sec) resulting from mixing of the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases. Above
about 30 ft/sec (10 meter/sec), corrosion rates in inhibited systems start to increase due to the removal of
protective surface films by the high velocity flow.
Vertical flow conditions commonly follow similar relationships as found in horizontal flow. The main
exception is at low flow rate conditions. For vertical flow, static conditions only persist at very low
flow rates (i.e. <1 ft/sec; 0.3 meter/sec). For downhole conditions, this is usually only during shut-in of
the well. Above this velocity, there is enough agitation to produce a mixing of hydrocarbon, aqueous
phases and inhibitors. Therefore, between 1 and 30 ft/sec (0.3 to 30 meter/sec) in inhibited systems and
1 and 15 ft/sec (0.3 and 5 meter/sec) in non-inhibited systems corrosion rates and not usually affected
greatly by velocity. Only at flow rates above these ranges to corrosion rates increase rapidly with
increasing velocity due to removal of protective surface films.

2.3.12 Ratio of Hydrocarbons to Water

Conditions where a persistent liquid hydrocarbon phase is present can influence the tendency for
corrosion of steel and also may dictate the type of corrosion inhibition program to be most appropriately
utilized. Typically, conditions where the oil to water ratio (OWR) is > 2 generally result in less
corrosion of steel than those having lower ratios.
When considering this situation, the persistence of the liquid hydrocarbon on the steel surface is an
important factor. If experience shows that little or no oil persistence occurs, then the use of OWR less
than 2 in the program is suggested even though the actual value of OWR may be greater than 2. The
OWR ratio may also be determined as the reciprocal of the product of gas to oil ratio and water to gas
ratio.

2.3.13 Corrosion Allowance

In designing systems from materials such as steel, which can exhibit corrosion, it is common to take into
account an added factor of safety in terms of the Corrosion Allowance. The concept of Corrosion
Allowance involves the use of an increased thickness over that required for mechanical design to allow
for corrosion and metal loss that may take place during the project life or until replacement.
The magnitude of the Corrosion Allowance is dependent on the severity of corrosion expected and the
ability to mitigate corrosion usually by the use of corrosion inhibitors. The Corrosion Allowance in
most cases is < 0.12 inches (3 mm). However, in some particularly severe cases larger Corrosion
Allowances can be utilized.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2.3.14 Service Life

Service Life is the period of useful service for a particular component. This is usually taken to be the
time required to achieve a corrosion metal loss equal to the Corrosion Allowance. Alternatively,
Service Life may be used to define the required Corrosion Allowance based on the assessment of
corrosion severity and inhibition performance and methods in the particular application.

2.3.15 Type of Flow

The flow conditions (i.e. static, stratified, turbulent, etc.) are dependent on the nature of the produced
gases and fluids and whether the flow is primarily horizontal (surface production) or vertical (subsurface
production). Horizontal flow is usually more prone to static and stratified conditions, which limits the
amount of mixing of oil and water phases at low flow rates. Vertical flow typically exhibits these types
of conditions only during period of shut-in of the well. (See Fluid Velocity for more information.)

2.3.16 Method of Inhibition

For horizontal flow systems the following types of inhibition method are commonly used:
No Treatment - The conditions may be essentially non-corrosive. This usually occurs under the
following conditions (a) very low acid gas (CO2 and H2S) partial pressures, (b) low amounts of water or
(c) a very persistent oil phase.
Continuous Inhibition - Inhibitor is continuously injected into the flow stream. This may be conducted
in both downhole and surface production systems. It is preferred where the flow velocity is greater than
10 ft/sec (3 meter/sec) or where the amount of water is high.
Batch Inhibition - Inhibitor is added in the flow system periodically in batch treatments usually
between two pigs. A strongly persistent filming inhibitor is usually used which can reduced corrosion
rates effectively during the period between batch treatments. This technique is usually effective where
the chloride concentration is high but the velocity is low. It is commonly used to supplement other
inhibition techniques.
Pigging - Pigging is the use of flowline pigs to assist in (a) application of batch inhibitors and (b)
removal of accumulated water, solids and other deposit in the flow system. In many applications,
pigging is required to get proper distribution of inhibition chemicals through the flow system. In cases
where flow velocity is low, pigging is used to remove water and deposits from the bottom of the pipe,
which can promote corrosion at this location.

For vertical flow systems the following types of inhibition method are commonly used:
No Treatment - The conditions may be essentially non-corrosive. This usually occurs under the
following conditions (a) very low acid gas (CO2 and H2S) partial pressures, (b) low amounts of water or
(c) very persistent oil phase.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Batch Inhibition - Inhibitor is added in the flow system periodically in batch treatments and usually
added to the tubing bore in a process where the fluids in the well bore are displaced with the inhibitor
and its carrier. A strongly persistent filming inhibitor is usually used which can reduce corrosion rates
effectively during the period between batch treatments. This technique is usually effective where the
chloride concentration is high but the velocity is low. However, conditions of high temperature (>250
F; 120 C) and high flow rate generally limit the use of this technique.
Squeeze Treatment - Squeeze treatments are a modification of batch inhibition used for controlling
downhole corrosion. Instead of just displacing the tubing with inhibitor and its carrier fluid, the squeeze
treatments also forces the fluid under pressure into the surrounding formation. This has the benefit of
extending the duration between batch treatments in some wells. However, in other cases, squeeze
treatments can also interfere with the wells production by plugging the formation.
Continuous Inhibition - Inhibitor is continuously injected into the tubing at bottom of the string or
through a subsurface injection valve. The rate of injection is regulated to provide the inhibitor at a
required concentration to mitigate corrosion. While more costly and requiring more equipment than
batch inhibition, continuous inhibition has been shown to be more effective particularly in deeper high
temperature wells and at more severely corrosive conditions. At high flow rates, continuous inhibitor
injection may become costly and possibly ineffective.

2.3.17 Inhibition Efficiency

Inhibition Efficiency (IE) is a term that describes the efficacy of an inhibitor treatment in mitigating
weight loss corrosion. It is based on either laboratory or field data where inhibited and non-inhibited
corrosion rates are compared using the following equation:

IE = 100[(CRn - CRi)/CRn]
where
CRn = non-inhibited corrosion rate,
CRi = inhibited corrosion rate.

Values of IE near 100 percent represent conditions with maximum efficacy of the inhibitor treatment.
Conditions that affect IE include:

Inhibitor concentration.
Severity of corrosive environment.
Service temperature.
Solubility of inhibitor in aqueous phase.
Phase behavior of inhibitor and carrier fluid in service environment.
Persistence of inhibitor on metal surface.
Inhibitor screening is often used to compare the IE of different inhibitors formulations.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

2.3.18 Measured pH

The PREDICT 4.0TM system is enabled with a way to assess corrosion using the measured pH and the acid
gasses as the parameters. Typically, the higher the pH of the solution the less acidic the environment
and lesser the corrosion.

2.4 THE PREDICT 4.0 INTERFACE MENUS AND THE TOOLBAR

PREDICT 4.0 comes with an intuitive graphical interface that facilitates easy access to the functionality of
the program. Typically, the user has access to all aspects of consulting the program visible on the screen
through the Tool Bar. The menus merely duplicate the functionality for those users accustomed to using
menus. The primary objective of the PREDICT 4.0 interface to give the user an easy-to-use and powerful
way of accessing the significant amount of information embodied in PREDICT 4.0. The user can perform
a variety of tasks just at the click of a toolbar icon or by accessing any of the corresponding choices in
the menus. The Toolbar Icons and pull-down menus in PREDICT 4.0 are shown in Figure 2.16:

Figure 2.16 -- PREDICT 4.0 Menu and Tool Bar

The New command allows the user to start a new PREDICT 4.0 consultation. While PREDICT 4.0 has a
single document interface (SDI), the user can run many instances of the program. This means that you
can run many copies of PREDICT 4.0 at the same time. The SDI has been recommended as the preferred
format for future programs because of the ease with which data can be shared across programs in the
SDI format.
The Open command allows the user to open other stored consultations of PREDICT 4.0. The default
extension for stored PREDICT 4.0 files is .prd.
The Save command saves the current consultation to a file name provided by the user. It saves the
current environment configuration as well as the predicted corrosion rate and the pH.
The Excel toolbar icon lets the user export entire data used to generate Predict consultation to MS
Excel, and automatically generate a plot of Corrosion Profile and Water Behavior in Excel.
The Word toolbar icon lets the user export entire data used to generate Predict consultation to MS
Word, and automatically generate a plot of Corrosion Profile and Water Behavior in Excel.
The English toolbar icon lets the user switch back from metric/SI units if the units have been changed to
SI. The default units in PREDICT 4.0 are English. The Metric toolbar icon lets the user switch from
English units to SI. Please note that Metric and SI systems of units are used interchangeably to refer to
the same system of units in PREDICT 4.0 and in this manual.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The MPS toolbar icon will perform the Multipoint Sensitivity Analysis using MS Excel as described in
Section 2.2.7
The Data icon will launch a screen that provides the user access to real lab corrosion rate data obtained
from 18 flow loop tests. More details can be found in Section 2.2.8
The Convert icon allows the user to convert commonly available data into variables required for
PREDICT 4.0.
The Flow icon allows the user to predict the flow regime, calculate friction factor and assess pressure
drop and the wall shear stress, based on the flow regime by specifying some commonly available data.
More details can be found in Chapter 4
The Profile icon provides a tool for calculating the Corrosion Rates & Estimating Water phase behavior,
not only at a single point in the piping system, but over user specified number of points over the entire
length of the pipe. Chapter 5 has more details.
The Cost toolbar icon lets the user perform a cost analysis for assessment of costs in using a specific
steel. The program determines an annualized cost as well as an overall project cost based on present
worth analysis.

The menus provide access to all the functionality available through the toolbar. In addition, the current
version of PREDICT 4.0 allows access to system help through the PREDICT 4.0 Help menu and as context
sensitive help by hitting F1. Help can also be accessed by clicking on the index option of the Help
menu, which will lead to a help Window shown in Figure 2.17

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 2.17 -- PREDICT 4.0 Help Window

2.5 GENERAL NOTES ON CONSULTING PREDICT 4.0

The best approach to learning the PREDICT 4.0 interface is to explore the program and its
commands. The graphical interface is intuitive and obvious. The interface also provides easy
access to different functionality built into PREDICT 4.0.
PREDICT 4.0 determines pH and corrosion rate through utilization of a complex numerical-
heuristic model that incorporates data from literature, lab and field spanning over 30 years of
corrosion research. The model itself captures the synergistic effects of different corrosive
parameters and has been tested extensively on real-time cases in order to calibrate the results of
the program.
You can exit the program through choosing exit from the file menu or by choosing close after
clicking on the control-menu box on the left hand corner of every window.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The PREDICT 4.0 knowledge base embodies significant expertise in steel evaluation and corrosion
assessment. We believe that the program provides accurate results and consistent reasoning. However,
this program is advisory in nature and its conclusions, ought to be construed as such and nothing more.
The knowledge and rules are continually evolving entities and InterCorr will be updating the program
regularly to enhance its utility and accuracy.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

3. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF PREDICT 4.0 MODEL

3.1 SYNOPSIS

One of the most fundamental issues in current day corrosion research is assessment of corrosion rates in
steels and determination of corrosivity of typical operating environments in oil and gas production.
Such an assessment requires an understanding of the role of primary environmental and metallurgical
variables and underlying mechanisms of corrosion. The PREDICT 4.0 system presents a novel
hierarchical approach to assess system corrosivity and prediction of corrosion rates in carbon steels in
production environments containing CO2 and/or H2S. In this Chapter, Critical environmental
parameters that influence system corrosivity are identified and the effects of these parameters on
corrosion are examined. Modeling for synergistic assessment of system corrosivity as a function of
relevant operating parameters is presented and is accompanied by a description of the PREDICT 4.0
model.

3.2 INTRODUCTION

CO2/H2S corrosion in oil and gas production environments represents one of the most important areas of
corrosion research. It is so because of the criticality of the need to assess corrosive severity as a means
to ensure safe utilization of steels, which have wide application in just about every sphere of oil and gas
production and refining. Even though CO2/H2S corrosion and concomitant mechanisms have been areas
of significant work over the last thirty years, there still exists a need to accurately predict corrosivity of
CO2/H2S environments from a stand point of defining limits of use for carbon steels. Even though
numerous predictive models have been developed and are being developed1,2 , most of the available
predictive models tend to be either very conservative3 in their interpretation of results or focus on a
narrow range of parametric effects, thereby limiting the scope of the models application in realistic
assessment of corrosivity and corrosion rates. Often times, data required by the models are often not
easily accessible or available to the operators who need to employ the model, thereby limiting the
applicability of the models to situations of reduced practical importance4,5. In this context, the issue of
corrosivity assessment for carbon steels can be re-stated in terms of the following critical requirements
that formed the basis for the PREDICT 4.0 system development:

Develop a predictive model that utilizes commonly available operational parameters


Utilize existing lab/field data and theoretical models to obtain realistic assessments of corrosivity
and corrosion rates
Develop a computational approach that integrates both numerical and heuristic (field data and
experience) information and knowledge about corrosivity prediction.

The method adopted in the PREDICT 4.0 model captures both the effect of critical parameters on
corrosion rates as well as that of parameter interactions.

The primary variables in corrosivity prediction in the PREDICT 4.0 system are the acid gases CO2 and
H2S that contribute to the typically acidic pH found in production environments. The Predict 4.0
model uses the system pH as a central factor in modeling significant corrosivity mechanisms, including

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

contribution of multiple anions and cations, as well as in assessing the role of pH in corrosion product
dissolution and / or precipitation.

The model also uses the widely accepted de Waard - Milliams2 relationship for CO2 corrosion for an a
determination of corrosion rates in CO2-based systems. However, the effective CO2 partial pressure in
the system is not based on the operating partial pressure but one obtained from the system pH. This rate
is further refined to account for the presence of H2S, corrosion products, temperature effects etc.

A technical description of different corrosivity modeling parameters and their effects is given in ensuing
sections of this Chapter. The underlying idea here is to capture a prediction model within the PREDICT
4.0 system to accurately represent the state-of-the-art in theoretical analyses as well as parametric
correlations based on lab and field data. The PREDICT 4.0 systems development has been guided by
comparison with data from actual field conditions in an effort to compare system predictions6 with field
observations.

An important concept in the PREDICT 4.0 model is the role of superposition of different parameters.
Such super-positioning requires a clear understanding of independent parameter effects and also on how
corrosion rate progresses when subjected to the effects of two or more variables. While the current
prediction model is primarily concerned with environmental constituents and their effects of corrosion,
it is also important to recognize the significant role of metallurgy in fashioning appropriate corrosion
behavior. Influence of compositional and alloying elements has been chronicled but has hitherto not
been rigorously studied in assessing resistance to system corrosivity and a brief discussion of
metallurgical factors in corrosivity determination is provided elsewhere in this Chapter.

3.3 CO2/H2S-BASED CORROSION: TECHNICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

CO2-based corrosion has been one of the most active areas of research, with several predictive models
for carbon steel corrosion assessment. These efforts range from a predictive model that begins with CO2
corrosion2,3 to models that focus on specific aspects of the corrosion phenomena (such as flow-induced
corrosion or erosion corrosion)4,5 to models that empirically relate corrosion rates to gas production and
water production rates7. Crolet et al.8 use the physical chemistry of the corrosive medium as the key
notion and take into account ionic strength, pH and specific ionic species as relevant factors. Other
relevant efforts include those by Ikeda et al. 9 that look at the influence of H2S and O2 on CO2-based
corrosion as well as those by Adams et al.10. Many of these efforts suffer from significant drawbacks in
that,

they focus on a narrow range of parametric effects, for e.g., there is relatively little published
information on the effects of H2S in production systems and on how sulfide scaling can affect the
CO2 corrosion process
Some models focus just on one component of corrosivity, such as erosional effects, wall shear stress
effects or flow effects and have opted to ignore effects of chemical species (factors such as pH, H2S,
CO2 etc.)
Other models totally rely on lab data for predictive modeling, with the consequence that the
simplifying assumptions made in developing laboratory models often lead to results that can be far
removed from what is observed in the field.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The current model integrates lab data and field experience within the framework of relevant controlling
parameters that are most prominent in oil and gas production. It is important to realize that while arcane
theoretical models are interesting from an academic stand point, the controlling parameters in a model
must also represent data easily available to oil and gas production personnel. The current model
attempts to integrate principles hitherto delineated in developing the PREDICT 4.0 model.

While there have been several studies focusing on the exact mechanism of metal dissolution in CO2
containing waters, the efforts of de Waard and Milliams and others2,3,9 present a commonly accepted
representation wherein anodic dissolution of iron is a pH dependent mechanism as given by Bockris2,
the cathodic process is driven by the direct reduction of undissociated carbonic acid. These reactions
can be represented as3,

++ -
Fe ----------> Fe + 2e (Anodic reaction)
H2CO3 + e-----> HCO3- + H (Cathodic reaction)

The overall corrosion reaction can be represented as,

Fe + 2H2CO3 ---> Fe++ + 2 HCO3- + H2

The build up of the bicarbonate ion can lead to an increase in the pH of the solution till conditions
promoting precipitation of iron carbonate are reached, leading to reaction given below:

Fe + 2HCO3- ---> FeCO3+ H2O+CO2

Iron carbonate solubility, which decreases with increasing temperature, and the consequent precipitation
of iron carbonate is a significant factor in assessing corrosivity. The charge transfer controlled reaction
involving carbonic acid and carbon steel (or Fe) can be represented in terms of the concentration or
partial pressure of dissolved CO2 in the medium to arrive at a corrosion rate equation that incorporates
the order of the reaction and an exponential function that approximates for Henrys reaction constants
temperature dependence. This corrosion rate equation is given as2,
/
log (Vcor) = 5.8 - 1710 T + 0.67 log (pCO2) ------ (1)

where
Vcor = corrosion rate in mm/yr
T = operating temperature in K
pCO2 = partial pressure of CO2 in bar

The corrosion rate obtained by equation (1) has typically been often seen as the maximum possible
corrosion rate without accounting for iron carbonate scaling. A nomogram representing eq. (1) is given
in Figure 3.12, which also includes a scale factor to account for the formation of protective carbonate
films that lead to a reduced corrosion rate at higher temperatures.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.1: CO2 Corrosion Nomogram

The above correlation describes CO2-based corrosion. There have been other significant efforts to
demonstrate the effects of other environmental variables such as pH, H2S, chlorides, bicarbonates,
water/gas/oil ratios, velocity etc. Effects of H2S on corrosion rates in the laboratory have been studied
and presented by Videm11 et al., and Ikeda9 et al. Ikedas work indicates that the preferential formation
of an Iron sulfide film can decelerate the corrosion rate, especially at temperatures above 20 C and
extending up to 60 C. Above 150 C, the corrosion reaction falls back to the standard CO2-based
corrosion with an FeCO3 film that is more stable than the FeS film. Videms work supports the theory
that even small amounts of H2S can provide instantaneous protection at temperatures in the range 70-80
C.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Lotz et al. 12 have chronicled the role of the hydrocarbon condensate in providing corrosion mitigation
in specific production systems. The role of the type of oil or gas condensate is important from the stand
point of accurate assessment as reported by Choi et al13,14. Other studies evaluating effects of critical
parameters such as pH and velocity on CO2 corrosion include those by Dugstad15 as well as Lotz16.
Other predictive models also include those by Gunatlun17 and Bonis et al18 wherein a combination of the
parameters discussed herein along with electro-chemical considerations have been utilized to arrive at
the corrosion rate.

The primary objective of the corrosivity prediction model described in this Chapter is to address the
need of developing a predictive method that would synthesize different parametric relationships based
on information from literature, lab research/data and practical experience/expertise. It has often been
observed that lab data and the ensuing models represent poor and often inadequate simulation of field
conditions19. It is also necessary to understand that field data is typically sparse and can be negated by
other production data. The need to integrate field data/experience and laboratory models stems from
the fact that the lab data can provide significant pointers and trends that can be used in conjunction
with field data and experience. The idea is to develop a methodology that can integrate analytical and
heuristic models.

To this end, this PREDICT 4.0 system mirrors other successful development efforts undertaken by the
authors in the areas of evaluation of CRAs and cracking in steels20,21. The central theme is to develop a
computer program that can bring together different types of modeling knowledge to provide a realistic
solution to the significant question of predicting corrosion rates in typical production environments.

3.4 PREDICT 4.0 MODEL DESCRIPTION

A flow chart delineating the hierarchical reasoning structure of the predict model is given in Figure 3.2.
The first step in corrosivity determination is computation of the system pH, since it is the hydrogen ion
concentration that drives the anodic dissolution. Further, the role of pH in promoting or mitigating CO2-
based corrosion has been extensively chronicled22,19. For production environments, where it is the
dissolved CO2 or H2S that contribute significantly to a suppressed pH, the pH can be determined as a
function of acid gas partial pressures, bicarbonates, organic acids and temperature, as shown in Figure
3.323 and Figure 3.453. From a practical stand point, the contribution of H2S or HCO3 or temperature to
pH determination is another way of representing effective levels of CO2 that would have produced a
given level of pH.

This type of pH determination has been found to be quite accurately applicable in other modeling efforts
involving verification of the relationship given in Ref. 23. While it has been documented that the CO2
corrosion mechanism is dissimilar to that of strong acids like HCl (where as CO2 corrosion is now
understood to progress through direct reduction of H2CO3 to HCO3- rather than reduction of H+ ions),
and that carbonic acid corrosion is much more corrosive than that obtained from a strong acid such as
HCl at the same pH19, there is also significant agreement that lower pH levels obtained from higher acid
gas presence leads to higher corrosion rates. Conversely, higher levels of pH obtained through buffering
in simulated production formation water solutions have been shown to produce significantly lower
corrosion rates even at higher levels of CO2 and/or H2S24. Data about the effects of pH from another
study is shown in Figure 3.515. Hence, it is more meaningful to determine the effective CO2 partial
pressure from the system pH.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Ionic Strength,
H2S, CO2, Determine Eff.
Acetates,Temp. Determine pH CO2 Pressure

Water phase
Determine characterization
Saturation pH for Determine Effective
FeCO3 and FeS Corrosion Rate

Operating CO2/H2S Ratio


Temperature Film Effects
H2S Effect Relative
Domination

Gas/Oil Ratio
Water Content Oil/Gas/Water Effects
Oil Type
Dew Point Horizontal Flow

Flow Modeling
Inhibition: Vertical Flow
Delivery Method
Effectiveness
Corrosion Rate Chlorides
Aeration
Prediction Sulfur

Figure 3.2: System Flow Chart

The discussion above warrants accurate prediction of pH in the presence of both CO2 and H2S. While
several studies have been made in this regard, the theoretical approach by Crolet and Bonis for
calculation of pH in the presence of both CO2 and H2S was more accurate. In this approach, they use
the equation of electrical neutrality of charges in the solution and can be given as:

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.3: In-situ pH variation with H2S and CO2

Ca++ + H+ + Fe++ = HCO3- + CO3= + HS- + S= + Ac- + OH- + ------(2)


where, the concentration of each species is expressed in equivalents/liter. After making some simple
assumptions without losing generality and accuracy, Equation 2 can be rearranged as:

(H+)3 + (Ka + A + B + S)(H+)2 + [ Ka (B + S) (K1 + K1 x) P ] H+ - Ka (K1x + K1 x)P = 0 --(3)

where,

A = Conc. of acetates, B = Conc. of Bicarbonates


S = Conc. of Sulfates x = PCO2/(PCO2 + PH2S)
x = 1 x K1 = 1st global dissociation constant for CO2
K1 = 1st global dissociation constant for H2S
Ka = dissociation constant for acetate

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The equation above can be solved using Newton-Raphson method to obtain the concentration of
hydrogen ions in the solution, which represents the pH. The accuracy of the pH calculated by PREDICT
4.0 is shown as a plot of Measured pHVs Calculated pH in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.4: Effect of acetate ions on pH

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.5: Corrosion rate of steel as a function of pH

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide
7.00

6.00

5.00
pH Calculated Using Predict

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
Measured pH

Figure 3.6: Plot of Measured pH and Calculated pH

Once the system pH is determined, the effective CO2 partial pressure can be determined from as,

Log(pCO2-eff) = (C1 - pH) / 2 ---------------- (4)

where pCO2-eff is the effective partial pressure of CO2 in a production system that can produce the
prevalent level of hydrogen ion concentration.

The effective CO2 partial pressure from (4) can be used in Equation (1) to determine an initial corrosion
rate for CO2-based corrosion. The corrosion rate so obtained is modified to account for the formation of
a FeCO3 film (Fe3O4 at higher temperatures) whose stability varies as a function of the operating
temperature. The scale correction factor shown in Figure 3.1 is used to determine the initial corrosion
rate from the nomogram in Figure 3.12. It is generally estimated that this corrosion rate presents a
maximum corrosion rate even though it has been reported that the rate computed by the nomogram are
reached or exceeded in systems with high flow rates. It is important to recognize that this corrosion rate
has to be modified to account for the effect of other critical variables in the system. Further, this rate
does not indicate modality (general or localized) but rather, represents the maximum rate of attack.

PREDICT 4.0 also calculates the saturation pH (pHSat) of FeCO3 and FeS using the electroneutrality
equations given by Crolet & Bonis. The calculation of pHSat is important in that pH, pHSat - pHBulk ,
can be used to determine if an environment is corroding or scaling. A positive value in pH, i.e., the
saturation pH of a particular compound is greater than the bulk pH, is an indication that the system is

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

corroding. A negative value in pH, i.e., the saturation pH of a particular compound is lesser than the
bulk pH, is an indication that the system is scaling.

As mentioned earlier, it is necessary to superposition the effects of other critical system parameters. The
flow chart in Figure 3.2 provides the sequential effects that are important from a standpoint of
corrosivity determination. In addition to the system pH, these include,

H2S partial pressure


Maximum operating temperature
Dissolved chlorides
Gas to oil ratio
water to gas ratio/water cut
Oil type and its persistence
elemental sulfur/aeration
fluid velocity
Type of flow
Inhibition type and efficiency

The following sections discuss the effects of these parameters on corrosivity and provide information as
to how it is critical to examine the parameter interactions prior to capturing the synergistic effects of
these parameters on corrosion.

3.4.1 Role of H2S

Oilfield production environments, in recent years, have been characterized by increasing presence of
H2S and related corrosion considerations. Even though H2S is probably the most significant concern in
current day corrosion and cracking evaluation, the role of H2S in corrosion in steels has received much
less attention when compared to the widely studied CO2 corrosion.26 However, H2S related corrosion
and cracking has remained one of the biggest concerns for operators involved in production because of
the significance of H2S related damage.27.

The current modeling effort, in addition to its contribution in pH reduction, H2S has a threefold role:

(1) At very low levels of H2S (< 0.01 psia), CO2 is the dominant corrosive species, and at temperatures
above 60 C, corrosion and any passivity is a function of FeCO3 formation related phenomenon and
the presence of H2S has no realistic significance.

(2) In CO2 dominated systems26,28, presence of even small amounts of H2S (ratio of pCO2/pH2S > 200),
can lead to the formation of an iron sulfide scale called mackinawite at temperatures below 120 C.
However, this particular form of scaling, which is produced on the metal surface directly as a
function of a reaction between Fe++ and S-- is influenced by pH and temperature27. This surface

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

reaction can lead to the formation of a thin surface film that can mitigate corrosion. The authors are
currently pursuing laboratory studies to characterize the stability and formation of mackinawite in
sour systems.

(3) In H2S dominated systems (ratio of pCO2/pH2S < 200), there is a preferential formation of a meta-
stable sulfide film in preference to the FeCO3 scale; hence, there is protection available due to the
presence of the sulfide film in the range of temperatures 60 to 240 C. Here, initially it is the
mackinawite form of H2S that is formed as a surface adsorption phenomenon. At higher
concentrations and temperatures, mackinawite becomes the more stable pyrhotite. However, at
temperatures below 60 C or above 240 C, presence of H2S exacerbates corrosion in steels since the
presence of H2S prevents the formation of a stable FeCO3 scale.9, 29 Further, it has been observed
that FeS film itself becomes unstable and porous and does not provide protection. Also, the scale
factor applicable for CO2 corrosion with no H2S (shown in Figure 3.1) becomes inapplicable. Even
though there is agreement amongst different workers that there is a beneficial effect of adding small
amounts of H2S at about 60 C, Ikeda et al.9 and Videm et al.11 present divergent results at higher
concentrations and higher temperatures.

The effect of H2S adopted in the PREDICT 4.0 model reflects work published by T. Murata et al.29 for
CO2 dominated systems. Figure 3.529 shows the combined effects of temperature and gas composition
on corrosion rate of carbon steels. Figure 3.69 shows the effect of varying degrees of H2S contamination
on CO2 corrosion. It is to be noted that the role of H2S in CO2 corrosion is a complex issue governed by
film stability of FeS and FeCO3 at varying temperatures and is an area further active research by the
authors.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.7: Effect of gas composition and temperature on corrosion rate

3.4.2 Temperature Effects

Temperature has a significant impact on corrosivity in CO2/H2S systems. Corrosion rate as a function of
different levels of CO2 and temperature are given in Figure 3.72. It has to be noted that once the
corrosion products are formed, there is a significant mitigation in corrosivity. It is also apparent that the
carbonate film is more stable at higher temperatures and affords greater protection at higher
temperatures. Figure 3.8 also shows that at temperatures beyond 120 C, corrosion rate is almost
independent of the CO2 partial pressure of the system. The carbonate film may, however, be weakened
by high chloride concentrations or can be broken by high velocity. In H2S dominated systems, because
of the fact that no carbonate scale may be formed and that the FeS film becomes porous and unstable at
temperatures beyond 120 C, significant localized corrosion may be observed.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.8: Effect of H2S and temperature on corrosion rate in pure iron

3.4.3 Chlorides

Produced water from hydrocarbon formations typically contains varying amounts of chloride salts
dissolved in solution. The chloride concentration in this water can vary considerably, from zero to few
ppm for condensed water to saturation in formation waters having high total dissolved salts/solids
(TDS). In naturally deaerated production environments, corrosion rate increases with increasing
chloride ion content over the range 10,000 ppm to 100,000 ppm30. The magnitude of this effect
increases with increasing temperature over 60 C (150 F). This combined effect results from the fact
that chloride ions in solution can be incorporated into and penetrate surface corrosion films which can
lead to destabilization of the corrosion film and lead to increased corrosion. This phenomenon of
penetration of surface corrosion films increases in occurrence with both chloride ion concentration and
temperature.

3.4.4 Bicarbonates

Bicarbonates in the operating environment have a significant impact on corrosion rates. On one hand,
high levels of bicarbonates can provide higher pH numbers leading to corrosion mitigation even when
the partial pressures of CO2 and H2S are fairly high. There is a natural inhibitive effect of presence of

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

bicarbonates which can be present in substantial quantities in formation waters (up to 20 meq/l)31.
Condensed water in production streams typically contains no bicarbonates.

Figure 3.9: Corrosion rate as a function of temperature and CO2 pressure

3.4.5 Velocity

Next to the corrosive species that instigate corrosion, velocity is probably the most significant parameter
in determining corrosivity of production systems. Fluid flow velocities affect both the composition and
extent of corrosion product films. Typically, high velocities (> 4 m/s for non-inhibited systems) in the
production stream leads to mechanical removal of corrosion films and the ensuing exposure of the fresh
metal surface to the corrosive medium leads to significantly higher corrosion rates. Corrosion rate as a
function of flow velocity and temperature is shown in Figure 3.1015.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

In multiphase (i.e. gas, water, liquid hydrocarbon) production, the flow rate influences the corrosion rate
of steel in two ways. First, it determines the flow behavior and flow regime. In general terms, this is
manifested as static conditions (i.e. little or no flow) at low velocities, stratified flow at intermediate
conditions and turbulent flow at higher flow rates. One measure which can be used to define the flow
conditions is the superficial liquid velocity.

Velocities less than 1 m/s are considered static. Under these conditions corrosion rates can be higher
than those observed under moderately flowing conditions. This occurs because under static conditions,
there is no natural turbulence to assist the mixing and dispersion of protective liquid hydrocarbons or
inhibitor species in the aqueous phase. Additionally, corrosion products and other deposits can settle
out of the liquid phase to promote crevice attack and underdeposit corrosion.

Between 1 and 3 m/sec, stratified conditions generally still exist. However, the increased flow
promotes a sweeping away of some deposits and increasing agitation and mixing. At 5 m/sec, corrosion
rates in non-inhibited applications start to increase rapidly with increasing velocity.31 Data shown in
Figure 3.1131 demonstrates the effects of velocity on corrosion rate for both inhibited and non-inhibited
systems. For inhibited applications, corrosion rates of steel increase only slightly between 3 to 10
m/sec, resulting from mixing of the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases. Above about 10 m/sec, corrosion
rates in inhibited systems start to increase due to the removal of protective surface films by the high
velocity flow.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.10: Corrosion rate as a function of velocity and temperature

Flow related effects on corrosivity have been linked to the wall shear stress developed and is an area of
intense research in the community32. Flow induced corrosion is a direct consequence of mass and
momentum transfer effects in a dynamic flow system where the interplay of inertial and viscous forces
is responsible for accelerating or decelerating metal loss at the fluid/metal interface. While flow-
induced corrosion is a significant component of predictive modeling discussed herein, the topic of flow-
related effects is being actively researched by the authors and forms the focus of another publication.
Another relevant aspect of flow or velocity induced corrosion is erosion corrosion33 and refers to the
mechanical removal of corrosion product films through momentum effects or through impingement and
abrasion. Guidelines for velocity limits with respect to erosional considerations are given in API-14E in
terms of the density of the fluid medium.34

Figure 3.11: Effect of gas velocity on corrosion rate

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

3.4.6 Importance of Water/Gas/Oil ratios

The PREDICT 4.0 model classifies systems as oil dominated or gas dominated on the basis of the gas/oil
ratio (GOR) of the production environment. If the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 scf/bbl
in English units)35, the tendency for corrosion and environmental cracking is often substantially reduced.
This is caused by the possible inhibiting effect of the oil film on the metal surface, which effectively
reduces the corrosivity of the environment. However, the inhibiting effect is dependent on the oil phase
being persistent and acting as a barrier between the metal and the corrosive environment. The
persistence of the oil phase is a strong factor in providing protection, even in systems with high water
cuts. In oil systems with a persistent oil phase and up to 45 percent water cut, corrosion is fully
suppressed, irrespective of the type of hydro-carbon12. Relative wettability of the oil phase versus the
water phase has a significant effect on corrosion36. Metal surfaces that are oil wet show significantly
lower corrosion rates37.

The PREDICT 4.0 model described in this Chapter provides for a significant reduction in the corrosion
rate (up to a factor of 4) based on the type of oil phase being persistent, mildly persistent and not
persistent. However, the degree of protection can be quantified only as a function of water cut and
velocity. The persistence determination is a more complex task and requires knowledge of the kerogen
type and hydrocarbon density. It is important to understand the type of crude oil in terms of the organic
compounds that make up the crude to determine wettability effects. Figure 3.12 shows data that relates
the acid number of the crude to oil wettability and Figure 3.13 shows corrosion rate as a function of
produced water content for different crude oil/produced water mixtures36. While the effect of
persistence of the oil medium is significant on corrosion rates, it is even more difficult to quantify
precise compositional elements of an oil medium that contribute to wettability and persistent oil film
formation. Such quantification is possible by rigorous laboratory testing of different actual,
uncontaminated (read deaerated) production water samples, so as to determine the extent of protection.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.12: Effect of acid number on crude oil wettability

In oil systems the water cut acts in synergy with the oil phase to determine the level of protection from
the hydrocarbon phase. However, at very low water cuts (less than 5 percent), corrosive severity of the
environment is lessened due to the absence of an adequate aqueous medium required to promote the
corrosion reaction.

In gas dominated systems, there are two measures to evaluate availability of the aqueous medium. If the
operating temperature is higher than the dew point of the environment, no condensation is going to be
possible and will lead to highly reduced corrosion rates. Corrosion under condensing conditions (i.e.,
operating temperature less than the dew point) is a function of the rate of condensation and transport of
corrosion products from the metal surface.38 If the total water in a condensing system as measured by
the Water to Gas Ratio is less than 11.3m3/Mm3 (2 BBL water/MSCF gas), corrosivity is substantially
reduced.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.13: Effect of changing crude oil type on corrosion rate as a function of water content

3.4.7 Oxygen/Sulfur

Presence of oxygen significantly alters the corrosivity of the environment in production systems.
Oldfield39 has chronicled how presence of oxygen can significantly increase corrosion rates due to
acceleration of anodic oxidation. While corrosion rate increases with oxygen, rate of oxygen reduction
as a cathodic reaction is further exacerbated by:

1. Increase in operating temperature


2. Increased fluid flow leading to increased mass flow of oxygen to the metal surface
3. Increasing oxygen concentration

Data showing increases in corrosion rate as a function of oxygen concentration for differing
temperatures is shown in Figure 3.1439. Corrosion rates for different flow velocities and oxygen levels
as a function of temperature is shown in Figure 3.1539. Presence of elemental sulfur is similar to that of
free oxygen since elemental sulfur also acts as a strong oxidizing agent.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

3.4.8 Inhibition/Inhibition Effectiveness

Appropriate inhibition is a critical criterion for effective use of carbon steels in corrosive production
systems. Inhibition has been typically found to be viable in flows with velocity in the range 0.3 - 10
m/s. Requirements for the type of inhibitor and the method of delivery depend on the type of system
(production tubing or horizontal flow lines) to be inhibited. Inhibition Efficiency (IE) describes the
efficacy of an inhibitor treatment in mitigating weight loss corrosion and is an important factor in
assessing corrosivity. It is based on either laboratory or field data where inhibited and non-inhibited
corrosion rates are compared using the following equation:

IE = 100[(CRn - CRi)/CRn]
where
CRn = non-inhibited corrosion rate,
CRi = inhibited corrosion rate.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 3.14: Effect of oxygen concentration as a function of temperature on corrosion

Values of IE near 1.0 represent conditions with maximum efficacy of the inhibitor treatment.
Conditions which affect IE include:

1. Inhibitor concentration.
2. Severity of corrosive environment.
3. Service temperature.
4. Solubility of inhibitor in aqueous phase.
5. Phase behavior of inhibitor and carrier fluid in service environment.
6. Persistence of inhibitor on metal surface.

The PREDICT 4.0 model evaluates inhibition efficacy on the basis of velocity, hydrocarbons to water
ratio and dissolved chloride levels. The method of delivery (batch, continuous, pigging etc.) is also an
important factor in determining appropriateness of inhibition for a given set of operating conditions.

Figure 3.15: Effect of oxygen concentration as a function of temperature on corrosion

The corrosion rate predicted in the current model can be represented in terms of three broad rules that
guide the computer models decision making:

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

1. Effect of fundamental system variables such as CO2, H2S, pH, temperature, and velocity on
corrosion rate.
2. Effect of parameter interactions on corrosivity, such as, influence of temperature on the carbonate or
sulfide film stability. Or flow effects on corrosion products and the ensuing loss of protective films
as a function of velocity, temperature, acid gases and pH.
3. Effects of system modifiers such as oil film persistence (or lack of it) or the crude type, water cut,
dew point, aeration and inhibition.

Corrosion rate, thus predicted, incorporates the synergy of the effects of all the critical system variables
and provides a more realistic estimation of corrosivity than what would be available with conservative
theoretical models that focus on a limited number of parameters. The significance of the reasoning in
PREDICT 4.0 model stems from the fact that the decisions made synthesize different types of corrosion
knowledge:

Theoretical models that provide effects of different parameters.


Data from laboratory tests that provide insight on parametric correlations and trends about
parametric effects and
Experience-based heuristics that facilitate proper interpretation of data from lab and field.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

4. FLOW MODELING IN PREDICT 4.0

4.1 OVERVIEW

Multiphase systems present an imposing challenge from a standpoint of corrosion evaluation and
prediction because of the need to synergistically capture the role of important environmental, flow and
metallurgical variables and underlying mechanisms of corrosion. In this chapter, we focus on modeling
fluid flow in order to assess wall shear stress and pressure drop in multiphase systems.

4.2 INTRODUCTION

Proper modeling of multiphase flow requires an understanding of the physical system. When co-current
flow of multi-phases occurs, the phases take up a variety of configurations, known as flow patterns52.
The particular flow pattern depends on the conditions of pressure, flow and channel geometry. In
corrosion prediction and assessment in oil and gas wells, the flow pattern or successive flow patterns
that would exist in the well and shear stress at the wall are essential. The flow modeling module in
PREDICT 4.0TM helps the user in predicting the flow pattern and assessing the shear stress and pressure
drop for various flow regimes depending on the flow parameters, thus helping the user in assessing the
effective corrosion rate.

4.3 VERTICAL FLOW

PREDICT 4.0 uses the flow map proposed by Kabir and Hasan52. The flow map is developed based on
theoretical principles and is verified using experimental data. The model is found to have a better
accuracy in calculation of flow regime, liquid hold-up and pressure drop, over other models. As per
Kabir and Hasan, the four flow patterns that occur in a vertical flow are - bubbly, slug, churn and
annular - shown in Figure 4.1.
At low gas flow rates, the gas phase tends to rise through the continuous liquid medium as small discrete
bubbles giving rise to the name, bubbly flow.
As the gas flow rate increases the smaller bubbles begin to coalesce forming larger bubbles. At
sufficiently high gas flow rates, the agglomerated bubbles become large enough to occupy almost the
entire pipe cross-section. These large bubbles, known as 'Taylor bubbles', separate the liquid slugs
between them. The liquid slugs, which usually contain smaller entrained gas bubbles, gives the name of
the flow regime.
At still higher flow rates the shear stress between the 'Taylor' bubble and the liquid film increases,
finally causing a breakdown of the liquid film and the bubbles. The resulting churning motion of the
fluids give rise to the name of this flow pattern.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The final flow pattern, annular flow, occurs at extremely high gas flow rates which causes the entire gas
phase to flow through the central portion of the tube. Some liquid is entrained in the gas core as
droplets while the rest of the liquid flows up the wall through the 'annulus' formed by the tube wall and
the gas core.

Figure 4.1 - Flow Patterns in Vertical Concurrent Two Phase Flow

A brief summary of the model used for calculation of flow pattern, liquid hold-up and pressure drop is
given below:

Summary of the Model

4.3.1. Bubbly Flow:

Transition Criteria: [
Vsg < 0.429Vsl + 0.357Vt or Vt < VtT ]
( )
0.5
g
m
0 .6 0.08
or E g < 0.52 and Vm1.12 > 4.68 D 0.48
l g




l l

Vsg
Eg = D
Void Fraction: [C V0 m + Vt ] . + 0.371 c D
C0 = 12
t

Pressure Drop:
( dP dz) f
=
2 f mVm2 m
gc D

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

4.3.2. Slug Flow:

Transition Criteria: [
Vsg > 0.429Vsl + 0.357Vt ] and

[
Vsg2 g < 17.1 log( lVsl2 ) 23.2 ] if lVsl2 > 50 or

Vsg2 g < 0.00673( lVsl2 )


1.7
if lVsl2 < 50

Vsg
Eg = D
Void Fraction: [C V1 m + VtT ] . + 0.90 c D
C1 = 12
t

( dP ) =
(
2 f mVm2 m 1 E g )
dz gc D
Pressure Drop: f

4.3.3. Churn Flow:

( )
0.25
g
Vsg < 31
. l g
and
g2
Transition Criteria:

[
Vsg2 g > 17.1 log( lVsl2 ) 23.2 ] if lVsl2 > 50 or

Vsg2 g > 0.00673( lVsl2 )


1.7
if lVsl2 < 50

Vsg
Eg =
Void Fraction: [C V1 m + VtT ] C1 = 1.0

( dP ) =
(
2 f mVm2 m 1 E g )
dz gc D
Pressure Drop: f

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

4.3.4. Annular Flow:

( )
0.25
g
Vsg > 31
. l g

g2
Transition Criteria:

E g = (1 X 0.8 )
0.378
where, X is the Lockhart - Martinelli parameter
Void Fraction:

dP 2 f c cVg2
= gc D
Pressure Drop: dz

where, c =
[V sg g + EVsl l ]
[V sg + EVsl ]
f c = 0.079
[1 + 75(1 E )] g

( Re )
0.25
g

In all of the above equations,

(
m = 1 E g l + E g g )

DV
f m from m m
l

4.3.5. Shear Stress Calculation

Once the pressure drop in the system is calculated, the shear stress ( W ) exerted on the wall can be
calculated using the relation,

P D
W =
L 4

4.4 HORIZONTAL FLOW

The flow patterns in horizontal flow can be broadly divided into stratified, wavy, annular, slug, bubble
and dispersed/mist flow- figure 4.2 depicts the flow patterns pictorially. PREDICT 4.0 uses the flow map,

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

figure 4.3, proposed by Mandhane et. al.54, based on 5935 flow pattern observations with an accuracy of
68.3%, to make an estimate of the flow pattern prevalent in the vertical system.

Figure 4.2 Flow Patterns in Horizontal Flow

Stratified flow occurs when the liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows over a
smooth liquid-gas interface. Wave flow occurs when the gas phase traveling at a greater velocity than
the liquid phase as to cause ripples in the liquid.
Annular flow occurs when the liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe and the gas flows at
high velocities in the center of the pipe. Slug flow occurs when waves of liquid are picked up by a more
rapidly moving gas to form a frothy slug, which passes through the pipe at a much greater velocity than
the average liquid velocity. The gas phase is more pronounced than in bubble flow. Although the
liquid phase is still continuous the gas bubbles coalesce to form stable bubbles with almost the diameter
of the pipe. Slugs of liquid separate these large bubbles. The velocity of the bubbles is greater than that
of the liquid and can be predicted in relation to the liquid velocity. The liquid surrounding the gas
bubble travels at different velocities compared to the rest of the liquid phase. These variations result in
varying wall friction losses and also in liquid holdup. Both the gas and liquid phases have significant
effects on the pressure gradient.
Bubble flow occurs when bubbles of gas move along the upper part of the pipe at approximately the
same velocity as the liquid. Here, the gas is present as small bubbles randomly distributed, and their
diameters also vary randomly. The bubbles move at random velocities depending on their respective
diameter. Mist flow is the regime in which most or nearly all of the liquid is entrained as spray by the
gas. This is also called as dispersed flow/spray flow and may result in droplet impingement on the metal
surface, causing significant erosion damage. Here, the gas phase is continuous and the bulk of the liquid
is entrained in the gas.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 4.3 Flow-Pattern Map of Mandhane et. al.for Horizontal Two-Phase Flow in Pipes

4.4.1. Flow Pattern Prediction

The coordinates for transition boundaries between various flow regimes of proposed flow pattern map
are delineated in Table 1 where X and Y are the physical property correction factors,

G L 72.4 G
0.2 0.25 0.2

X =
0.0808 62.4 0.018

L 72.4 L
0.25 0 .2

Y=
62.4 10
.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

TABLE 4.1: CO-ORDINATES FOR TRANSITION BOUNDARIES IN THE FLOW MAP

Transition Boundary VSG (ft/s) VSL (ft/s) Physical property


correction - multiply
equation of transition
boundary by
Stratified to elongated bubble 0.1 0.5 1.0/Y
5.0 0.5
Wave to slug 7.5 0.3 Y
40.0 0.3
Elongated bubble and slug to 0.1 14.0 Y
dispersed bubble 230.0 14.0
Stratified and elongated bubble 35.0 0.01 X
to wave and slug 14.0 0.1
10.5 0.2
2.5 1.15
2.5 4.8
3.25 14.0
Wave and slug to annular-mist 70.0 0.01 X
60.0 0.1
38.0 0.3
40.0 0.56
50.0 1.0
100.0 2.5
230.0 14.0
Dispersed bubble to annular- 230.0 14.0 X
mist 269.0 30.0

4.4.2. Liquid Hold-up Factor

Another important step in the prediction of pressure drop is the liquid hold-up factor. Liquid hold-up is
the actual portion of the tube occupied by the liquid. Beggs & Brill56 provide adequate relationships
among primary hydrodynamic variables for calculating the liquid hold-up, based on three broad flow
patterns:

1. Segregated flow - stratified, wavy, annular


2. Intermittent flow - plug, slug
3. Distributed flow - bubble, mist

The equations used for hold-up calculation are listed below:

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide
For segregated flow:

0.980.4846
HL =
NFR 0.0868

For intermittent flow:


0.8450.5351
HL =
NFR 0.0172

For Distributed flow:

. 0.5825
1065
HL =
NFR 0.0609

4.4.3. Pressure Drop Calculation

Calculating accurate pressure drop in tubing for a two-phase flow is not a simple task. A method
suggested by Duckler et. al.55, has found good agreement in lab simulation. Relevant equations used for
pressure drop calculation are listed below:

P 2GT fo 2

= ( )
L gcDNS

Where,

2 (1 )
2

= L + G
NS H L NS (1 H L )
4WT
N Re TP =
D NS
NReTP is the two phase Reynolds No. used for the calculation of friction factor fo
() is the two-phase correction factor
GT is the total mass velocity
WT is the total mass flow rate
NS, G, L are no-slip, gas and liquid densities respectively
, HL are liquid fraction and liquid hold-up factor respectively
D is the diameter of the pipe

4.4.4. Shear Stress Calculation

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide
Once the pressure drop in the system is calculated, the shear stress (w) exerted on the wall can be
calculated using the relation,

P D
w =
L 4

4.5 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR

PREDICT 4.0 includes the effect of compressibility of gases while calculating velocity and
pressure drop. The compressibility factor of natural gases is calculated using the Dranchuk
Abou-Kassem equations given below:

A A A A
z = 1 + A1 + 2 T + 3 3 + 4 4 + 5 5 pr
pr Tpr Tpr Tpr

A A A A
+ A6 + 7 T + 8 2 pr2 A9 7 T + 8 2 pr5
pr Tpr pr Tpr
pr2 ( A11 2pr )
(
+ A10 1 + A11 2
pr )

3 l
Tpr

where,
P
pr = 0.27 pr
, is the pseudo reduced density
(zT )
pr

A1 through A11 are constants


Tpr
is the pseudo reduced temperature
Ppr
is the pseudo reduced pressure

4.6 INCLINED FLOW

Inclined flow is handled as per the correlations based on the publication by Beggs and Brill56.
The approach to inclined flow modeling is of computing horizontal liquid hold-ups as mentioned
above and using a correction coefficient to account for the inclination.
The various types of flow regimes generated in horizontal flow, the inclination (whether flowing
uphill or downhill) and the input liquid content are the main parameters that affect this
coefficient.

Pressure drop is computed using the following equation:

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

g f tp Gm m
sin l H L + g (1 H L ) +
dp g c 2 gc d
=
dZ [ H + g (1 H L )] m sg
1 l L
gc p

Where,
vm and vsg are the mixture and superficial gas velocities
L and G are the densities of the liquid and the gas phase
Gm is the mixture mass flux rate
d is the pipe diameter
ftp is the two phase friction factor
is the pipe inclination angle from horizontal

This total pressure drop takes into account the following three components:
1. Frictional Pressure Gradient
2. Acceleration Pressure Gradient
3. Gravity Pressure Gradient

This also accounts for the pressure recovery in downhill section of a pipeline and forms a part of
the flow model. An iterative procedure is implemented to perform a complete flow
characterization of the entire pipeline system to compute liquid holdup, pressure drop, shear
stress, superficial gas and liquid velocities for individual segments.

4.7 FLOW MODELING DIALOG

The flow modeling dialog, used to predict the flow regime, shear stress at wall and pressure
drop, is shown in Figure 4.3, this can be accessed by clicking on the flow button on the PREDICT
4.0 toolbar or using the short key "F4". PREDICT 4.0 provides the option of using SI or English
units based on the type of units selected in the main screen.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 4.4 - Vertical Flow Modeling Dialog in PREDICT 4.0

Parameters used in Flow Modeling:


1. Total pressure (Psia or Bar) and temperature (F or C) of the system
2. CO2 and H2S mole fraction in the gas
3. Diameter of tubing (inches or cm)
4. Roughness factor of the tubing (inches or cm), the user has the option to choose from the
available list or input a custom value if the value is known
5. The Gas Production Rate (MMSCFD or Mm3)
6. Gas specific gravity for specific gravity of air = 1.0
7. Gas viscosity (centipoise)
8. Water production rate (barrels/day or m3/day)
9. Water density (kg/m3)
10. Water viscosity (centipoise)
11. Oil production rate (barrels/day or m3/day)
12. Oil density (kg/m3)
13. Oil Viscosity (centipoise)

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

14. Liquid Surface-tension (dyne/cm), the user has the option to use the default value, which is
good enough for all practical purposes or input a value if the accurate value is known at the
temperature
15. Type of Flow: Either Horizontal, Vertical or Inclined (Inclination in degrees, negative
inclinations indicate downhill flow)

After entering the data for different parameters the user has to click on Calc button to perform
flow analysis. The various parameters calculated by the dialog as results are:
1. Superficial liquid velocity, the velocity of the liquid (ft/s or m/s) if the liquid were to occupy
the whole cross-section of the pipe
2. Superficial gas velocity, the velocity of the gas (ft/s or m/s) if the gas were to occupy the
whole cross-section of the pipe
3. Liquid hold-up is the factor representing the fraction of the tubing occupied by the liquid
4. Velocity of the mixture (ft/s or m/s)
5. Reynolds number of the mixture
6. Frictional pressure drop in the tubing (psi/ft or bar/m)
7. Shear stress at the wall of the tubing (Pa)
8. Flow regime in the tubing based on type of flow, Horizontal (Stratified, Wavy, Annular,
Slug, Mist or Bubble Flow) or Vertical (Annular, Churn, Slug or Bubble Flow)

The user can go back to the main frame by clicking on the Cancel button.
To save the flow data, the user has to do the following:
1. Enter the data required for performing flow analysis and click on Calc button.
2. Exit the flow dialog using the OK button.
3. To save all the data in the .PRD file use the Save command from the File Menu.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

5. CORROSION DISTRIBUTION PROFILE


5.1 OVERVIEW

The problem of corrosion prediction across a pipeline or a tubing string is significant from a
stand point of the number of data points that need to be modeled and characterized. Given that
each corrosion prediction calculation in Predict 4.0 may require up to 50 input data parameters,
studying corrosion distribution across multiple points on a line immediately becomes a
substantial task.
In an effort to address the need to generate multi-point profiles across tubing strings or pipeline
segments, InterCorr has created a new corrosion distribution profile generation module in Predict
4.0 that automates this onerous task. This chapter describes the extensive functionality built
into this module, and shows how the end user can, with minimal data specification, identify and
predict problem zones in a linear piping system and to analyze predicted corrosion rates and
water phase behavior at virtually any point in a piping system.

5.2 INTRODUCTION

One of the many crucial parameters for accurate corrosion prediction is the presence of liquid
water in the system. Water phase behavior is critical for two reasons:
Corrosion occurs only in the presence of continuous aqueous systems
It is important to accurately characterize the liquid water in a system in order to assess
the water wettability with respect to other phases.

Predict 4.0 incorporates a rigorous model for accurate characterization of water phase behavior.
With correlations for water content of Natural Gas, corrections for sour gas, and vapor pressure
estimates for water at various conditions along a line, as well as information about total water to
gas ratio of the system, the condensation of water can be predicted. The Profile tool in PREDICT
4.0 takes into account the system water and evaluates the phase behavior, predicts the presence
of liquid water and computes the corrosion rates. The resulting profile and input dialog are as
shown below in Figure 5.1

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Figure 5.1 Corrosion Profile Dialogs in PREDICT 4.0

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

5.3 COMPUTATIONAL BACKGROUND

PREDICT 4.0 uses the correlation of Bukacek and Maddox for computing the water content of
sour natural gas 62. It utilizes Bukaceks correlation 61 for sweet gas, which is reported to be
accurate between 60 F and 460 F and for pressures from 15 to 10,000 psia. The factors for the
acid gas are accounted by Maddox Correlation 60, which handles the contribution of CO2 and
H2S. These correlations for both H2S and CO2 are valid from 100 to 3000 psia. Temperature
ranges for their accuracy should be in the range of 80 F 280 F for H2S and 80 F 160 F for
CO2.

Bukaceks correlation is given as:

sat

w = 47484 * P water
+B
P total

3083.87
log B = + 6.69449
459.6 + t

where w is in lb/MMSCF and t is in F. This is applicable only to sweet gas.


Maddoxs method assumes that the water content of sour gas is the sum of three terms:
1. sweet gas contribution
2. CO2 contribution, and
3. H2S contribution.

The water content of the gas is calculated as a mole fraction weighted average of the three
contributions.
w= y w
HC HC
+ y w
CO 2 CO 2
+ y w
H 2S H 2S

Where,
w is the water content in lb/MMCF, y is the mole fraction and subscripts HC, CO2 and H2S for
hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide respectively.

Carroll62 put forth a mathematical correlation by regressing the Maddox charts, to


programmatically compute water content w in lb/MMCF for H2S and CO2. This correlation is a
function of total pressure P in psia, and uses common logarithms.

log w = a0 + a1 log P + a2 (log P ) 2

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

The values for coefficients a0, a1 and a2 are reproduced in Table 5.1.

Temperature F (C) a0 a1 a2
Carbon Dioxide
80 6.0901 -2.5396 0.3427
100 6.1870 -2.3779 0.3103
130 6.1925 -2.0280 0.2400
160 6.1850 -1.8492 0.2139
Hydrogen Sulfide
80 5.1847 -1.9772 0.3004
100 5.4896 -2.0210 0.3046
130 6.1694 -2.2342 0.3319
160 6.8834 -2.4731 0.3646
220 7.9773 -2.8597 0.4232
280 9.2783 -3.3723 0.4897

TABLE 5.1 Correlation Coefficients for Calculating the Maddox Correction for Water Content of
Sour Natural Gas, Carroll 62

To use this method, wHC is computed using a sweet gas method such as McKetta-Wehe chart,
(Bukacek is used in Predict 4.0) and the contributions for CO2 and H2S are computed from the
charts provided by Maddox, which were regressed and used for computing wCO2 and wH2S, this
also enables the correlations to be extrapolated beyond their suggested range to a certain extent.
Since the contribution by these gases is minor in most cases, the use of these extrapolations can
be justified. In cases with high H2S and CO2 content it is advisable to stay within the limits of the
Maddox correlation for an accurate water content estimate.
These equations and the system parameters are used to accurately estimate the phase behavior o
water in the system and predict the dew point temperature for water. The presence of liquid
water aggravates the corrosion problem and predicting its presence along a piping system is
critical to the accuracy to predicted corrosion rates.

5.4 PROFILE GENERATION

As detailed earlier, the corrosion profile provides the user information about a piping system at a
glance. This ability to evaluate corrosion distribution across the length of a pipeline is
immensely useful in focusing on areas of critical corrosion concern.
Though limited to linear pipe lengths (it is assumed that there are no bends or junctions in the
piping or tubing, which will obviously introduce variations in pressure drops and local fluid flow
conditions), this utility can be easily extended to pipes and tubing of varying geometry and
orientation by breaking these into various linear lengths and analyzing each segment, one at a
time. It is also recommended that, for very large pipe lengths and data being available at

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

intermediate points, the profile be generated over separate sections independently. The data can
then be combined to generate a profile for the entire system.
To begin with the process of generating a meaningful profile it is imperative that the user
understand a few basic aspects of the functionality of the profile generation module
PREDICT 4.0 calculates the pH, dew point, and corrosion rate, as and when the input data is
modified or provided. As input data is provided in the main Program window, the calculated
values will change. The data available on the main window is considered as the inlet conditions
for the system. Before running the profile utility, it is important to verify that the data provided
in the Predict main window corresponds to the inlet conditions of the pipe that needs to be
profiled. Click on the Profile icon or hit F5 to start the profile utility.
Apart from the parameters input on the main window, this utility requires the outlet temperature
and pressure of the piping / tubing system. Note that the temperature and pressure of the inlet
shown on the input dialog are the same as that on the main screen and cannot be changed. To
change the inlet conditions in the pipe, go back to the main screen and make the changes there,
which are then incorporated automatically as input for the profile dialog.
The temperature and pressure profiles are assumed to be linear along the pipe length and
corrosion rates are predicted at various points using the interpolated pressure, temperature,
partial pressures and the presence of water condensate at these conditions. These calculated
corrosion rates and water phase-behavior bars are plotted on the profile plot. The maximum
allowed corrosion rate is presented as a green line and for the piping to have a projected service
life greater than or equal to the desired (design) service life, the predicted corrosion rates should
be less than the maximum allowed corrosion rate.

5.5 PRINTING AND COPYING PROFILE DATA

Once the profile has been generated successfully, the user can click on the OK button on the
profile dialog to go back to the main screen and print the corrosion report. This can be achieved
through using the keyboard short cut CTRL+P or using the File Menu to print / print preview the
report from the main screen. The user has the option to choose between three reports, for flow
modeling, corrosion data, and corrosion profile. The choice of units, legend, water bars, minor
grid lines, and markers are all reflected in the report printouts. If the preview is not satisfactory,
users can go back to the profile after closing the preview to make the necessary changes. The
values for input and output entered earlier are retained. After making the necessary changes and
dismissing the profile dialog by clicking on the OK button, users can again print / preview
reports from the file menu.
Functionality has also been provided for the users to copy data into MS-Word or MS-Excel
spreadsheets. The copy button on the Profile dialog copies all the information to the clipboard,
including the corrosion profile and the water phase behavior. The data can then be pasted into
MS-Word or Excel.

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

APPENDIX A: BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. C. S. Fang et al., Computer model of a gas condensate well containing carbon dioxide, Corrosion/89, Paper
465, New Orleans, NACE, 1989.
2. C. de Waard and U. Lotz, Prediction of CO2 corrosion of carbon steel, Corrosion/93, Paper 69, New
Orleans, 1993.
3. C. de Waard and D. E. Milliams., Carbonic acid corrosion of steel, Corrosion 31, 5, 1975, 177.
4. E. Dayalan et al., Modeling CO2 corrosion of carbon steels in pipe flow, Corrosion/95, Paper 118, Orlando,
FL, 1995.
5. J. D. Garber et al., Down hole parameters to predict mist flow and tubing life in gas condensate wells,
Corrosion/94, Paper 25, Baltimore, MD, 1994.
6. R. D. Kane and S. Srinivasan, Proceedings of CLI Workshop on oil and gas corrosivity, Abu Dhabi, April
1995.
7. L. H. Gatzky and R. H. Hausler A novel correlation of tubing corrosion rates and gas production rates ,
Advances in CO2 Corrosion, Vol. 1, pp. 87, NACE 1984.
8. J. L Crolet and M Bonis., A tentative method for predicting the corrosivity of wells in new CO2 fields,
Advances in CO2 Corrosion, Vol. 2, pp. 23, NACE 1985.
9. A. Ikeda et al., Influence of environmental factors on corrosion in CO2 wells, Advances in CO2 Corrosion,
Vol. 2, pp. 1-22, NACE 1985.
10. C. D. Adams et al., Methods of prediction of tubing life for gas condensate wells containing CO2, 23rd
OTC, Houston, TX, 1991.
11. Ketil Videm and Jon Kvarekval., Corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 saturated aqueous solutions containing
small amounts of H2S, Corrosion/94, Paper 12.
12. U. Lotz. et al., The effect of oil or gas condensate on carbonic acid corrosion, Corrosion/90, Paper 41.
13. H. J. Choi et al., Corrosion rate measurements of L-80 grade downhole tubular in flowing brines,
Corrosion/88, Paper 213, St. Louis, MO, 1988.
14. K. D. Efird, Predicting corrosion of steel in crude oil production, Materials Performance, Vol. 30, No. 3,
March 91, pp 63-66.
15. Arne Dugstad and Liv Lunde., Parametric study of CO2 corrosion of carbon steel, Corrosion/94, Paper 14.
16. U. Lotz., Velocity effects in flow-induced corrosion, Corrosion/90, Paper 27, Houston, Texas 1990.
17. Y. Gunatlun., Carbon dioxide corrosion in oil wells, Paper SPE 21330, SPE Middle East Oil Show,
Bahrain, 1991.
18. M. R. Bonis and J. L. Crolet., Basics of Prediction of risks of CO2 corrosion in oil and gas wells,
Corrosion/89, Paper 466, New Orleans, 1989.
19. R. H. Hausler and D. W. Stegmann CO2 corrosion and its prevention by chemical inhibition in oil and gas
production, Corrosion/88, Paper 363, St. Louis, MO, 1988.
20. R. D. Kane and S. Srinivasan "Reliability assessment of Wet H2S Refinery and pipeline equipments: A
Knowledge-based systems approach", Serviceability of Petroleum, Process and Power Equipment, Eds. D.
Bagnoli, M. Prager and D. M. Schlader, PVP Vol. 239, ASME, NY, 1992
21. S. Srinivasan and R. D. Kane, "Expert Systems for Selection of Materials in Sour Service", Proceedings of
the 72nd Annual GPA Convention, GPA, 1993, pp 88-92.

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22. Linda G. S., et al., Effect of pH and temperature on the mechanism of carbon steel corrosion by aqueous
carbon dioxide, Corrosion/90, Paper 40, Las Vegas, 1990.
23. Bonis M., and Crolet J. L., Practical aspects of the influence of in-situ pH on H2S induced cracking,
Corrosion Science, Vol. 27, No. 10/11, pp 1059-1070, 1987.
24. R. D. Kane et al., Internal Reports on multi-client program on safe use limits for steels, CLI International,
Inc., 1992-1994, Houston, Texas.
25. S. Srinivasan and R. D. Kane, Methodologies for reliability assessment of sour gas pipelines, Proceedings
of the Fifth International Conference on Pipeline Reliability, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, Sept.
1995.
26. S. N. Smith and E. J. Wright, Prediction of minimum H2S levels required for slightly sour corrosion,
Corrosion/94, Paper 11, Baltimore, MD, 1994.
27. R. D. Kane, Roles of H2S in behavior of engineering alloys, International Metal Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 6,
1985, pp 291-302.
28. M. J. J. Simon Thomas and J. C. Loyless., CO2 corrosion in gas lifted oil production: Correlations of
predictions and field experience , Corrosion/93, Paper 79.
29. T. Murata et al., Evaluation of H2S containing environments from the view point of OCTG and line pipe for
sour gas applications, Paper No. OTC 3507, 11th Annual OTC, 1979, Houston, Texas.
30. B. Lefebvre et al., Behavior of carbon steel and chromium steels in CO2 environments, Advances in CO2
Corrosion, Vol. 2, pp. 55-71, NACE 1985.
31. L.K. Sood et al., Design of surface facilities for Khuff gas, SPE Production engineering, July 1986, pp
303-309.
32. K. D. Efird et al., Experimental correlation of steel corrosion in pipe flow with jet impingement and rotating
cylinder laboratory tests, Corrosion/93, Paper 81, New Orleans, 1993.
33. J. S. Smart III, A review of erosion corrosion in oil and gas production, Corrosion/90, Paper No. 10, 1990.
34. API 14-E, Recommended practice for design and installation of offshore production platform piping
system, III Edition, Dec. 1981, API, Dallas.
35. NACE Material Recommendation MR-01-75-94, NACE International, 1994.
36. K. D. Efird, Chapter on Petroleum Testing. In: Corrosion Tests and Standards - Application and
Interpretation, Ed: Robert Baboian, ASTM, June 1995, pp 350-358.
37. John S. Smart III, Wettability - A major factor in oil and gas system corrosion, Corrosion/93, Paper No. 70,
New Orleans, LA, 1993.
38. S. Olsen, Corrosion under dewing conditions, Corrosion/91, Paper 472, Cincinnati, 1991.
39. J. Oldfield and B. Todd Corrosion considerations in selecting metals for flash chambers, Desalination, 31,
1979, pp 365-383.
40. E. Dayalan et al., Influences of flow parameters on CO2 corrosion behavior of carbon steels, Corrosion/93,
Paper 72, New Orleans, 1993.
41. A. Dugstad et al., Influence of alloying elements upon the CO2 corrosion rate of low alloy carbon steels,
Corrosion/91, Paper 473, Cincinnati, 1991.
42. M. Kimura et al., Effects of alloying elements on corrosion resistance of high strength line pipe steel in wet
CO2 environment, Corrosion/94, Paper 18.
43. R. D. Kane et al., Multi-client proposal Prediction and Assessment of Corrosivity for Use of Steels in Multi-
phase CO2/H2S Environments, CLI International Inc., Oct. 1995.
44. Ciaraldi S. W., Materials failure in sour gas service, Corrosion/85, Paper 217.

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45. Kane R. D., et al., Guidelines for selection of materials for H2S service, Battelle Summary Report, 1980.
46. B. V. Johnson et al., Effects of liquid wall shear stress on CO2 corrosion of X-52 C-steel in simulated
oilfield production environments, Corrosion/93, Paper No. 573.
47. M. Kimura et al., Effects of alloying elements on corrosion resistance of high strength line pipe steel in wet
CO2 environment, Corrosion/94, Paper 18.
48. X. Zhou and W. P. Jepson., Corrosion in three phase oil/water/gas slug flow in horizontal pipes,
Corrosion/94, Paper 26.
49. C. A. Palacios and J. R. Shadley., CO2 corrosion of API N-80 steel in two-phase flow systems,
Corrosion/91, Paper 476.
50. Leigh Klein, H2S Cracking resistance of type 420 stainless steel tubulars, Corrosion/84, Paper 211.
51. M. B. Kermani et al., Experimental limits of sour service for tubular steels, Corrosion/91, Paper 21.
52. A. R. Hasan and Kabir., C. S., "A Study of Multiphase Flow Behavior in Vertical Oil Wells: Part I -
Theoretical Treatment," SPE, Paper No. 15138, 1986.
53. J. L. Crolet and Bonis, M. R., "pH Mesurement Under High Prssures of CO2 and H2S," Materials
Performance, May 1984, pp 35-42.
54. J. M. Mandhane et al., A Flow Pattern Map for Gas-Liquid Flow in Horizontal Pipes, J. Multiphase Flow,
1974, Vol. 1, pp. 537-553.
55. A. E. Duckler et al., Frictional Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Flow B. An Approach Through Similarity
Analysis, AIChE J., January 1964, pp. 44-51.
56. H. D. Beggs and Brill, J. P., A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes, JPT, May 1973, pp. 607-617.
57. Tomson, M. B., and Oddo, J. E., A New Saturation Index Equation to Predict Calcite Formation in Gas and
Oil Production, Soc. Of Pet. Eng. Paper No. 22056, 1991.
58. Ionization Constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solutions, compiled by D. D. Perrin, Pergamon
Press, Oxfordshire, 1964.
59. Stability Constants of metal ion complexes: Part A Inorganic Liquids, compiled by Erik Hogfeldt,
Pergamon Press, Oxfordshire, 1982.
60. Maddox, R. N., Gas and Liquid Sweetening, 2nd ed., John M. Campbell., pp.39-42, (1974) and Maddox,
R.N., L.L. Lilly, M. Moshfeghian, and E. Elizondo, Estimating Water Content of Sour Natural Gas
Mixtues, Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference, Norman, OK, Mar. (1988)
61. Bukacek quoted in McCain, W.D., The Properties of Petroleum Fluids. 2nd ed., PennWell Books, Tulsa,
OK, (1990)
62. John J. Carroll, The Water Content of Acid Gas and Sour Gas from 100 F to 220 F and Pressures to 10,000
psia, Gas Liquids Engineering Ltd., 81st Annual GPA Convention, Dallas, TX, (2002)

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

INDEX
cost analysis 11
crude oil wettability 42
A
Acetate 18 D
Acetates 33
acid number 43 data entry 10
aeration 10, 19, 44 Delta pH 35
alloy 19, 27 Density
API-14E 41 Gas 13
aqueous 16 Oil 13
assessment 7 Water 13
development 26
dew point 43
B deWaard 26, 27
Benefits 7 Dialog
Bibliography 59 Flow Model 13
bicarbonate 28 Flow Modeling 14
bicarbonates 17, 38 Ionic Strength 14
Bockris 27 Corrosion Profile 16, 62
Bonis 30 Diameter 13, 57
buffer 10, 15, 17, 30 Distribution Profile 16
Dugstad 30
C
E
Calculate
Friction Factor 13 Electroneutrality equations 34
Pressure Drop 13 English units 8
Shear Stress 13 environmental parameters 15
Calculated pH 32 erosion 27
carbon dioxide 16
carbonic acid 28 F
Characteristics 7
chlorides 10, 16, 38 file
Choi 30 new 23
CLI Contact Information 5 open 23
CO2 print 23
Effective partial pressure 34 save 23
partial pressure of 34 flow chart 31
CO2/H2S- corrosion 27 Flow Modeling 13, 14
composition Hoizontal 52
temperature and 37 Vertical 48
Compressibility 56 Flow Regime
consult 24 Annular 48, 49, 52
Consult 8 Bubble 48, 52
Conversion 12 Churn 48
Conversions 8 Mist 52
corrosion Slug 48, 52
allowance 10, 20 Stratified 52
assessment 15 Wave 52
erosion 27 fluid velocity 19
local 34 Friction Factor 13
parameters 35 Frictional Pressure Drop 58
reaction 28
corrosion allowance 20
corrosion rate
G
equation 28 gas to oil ratio 18
gas velocity 41 gas velocity
water content 44 corrosion rate 41

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

Gas-Water ratio 10 modeling


Gunatlun 30 objective 30
modeling parameters 27
multiphase 40
H Murata, T 36
H2S
role of 35 N
temperature and 38
heuristic 26 Newton-Raphson Method 32
hierarchy 7, 30 nomogram 28
horizontal flow 20 numerical 26
Horizontal Flow 52
Flow Map 53
Flow Patterns 52
O
Liquid Hold-up 54 oil phase 42
Pressure Drop 55 Oldfield 44
Shear Stress 56 Overview 7
Transition Boundaries 54 oxygen 44
hydrogen sulfide 16
P
I
parameters 10, 35
Ikeda 27, 29, 36 superposition 27
inhibition 10 persistence
batch 21 oil phase 42
continuous 21, 22 pH
horizontal flow 21 Bulk 18, 31, 35
method of 21 Calculated 32
no treatment 21 corrosion rate, function of 33
pigging 21 delta 35
squeeze 22 in-situ 32
vertical flow 21 Measured 32
Inhibition 44 Saturation 34
Efficiency 44 Saturation FeCO3 18
inhibition efficiency 22 Saturation FeS 18
factors 22 pH 19
in-situ pH 32 pH data 10
Install 5 precipitation 28
interface 23 Predict
Introduction 26 benefits 7
Ionic Strength 14, 15, 18 characteristics 7
consult 8, 24
K consultation 9
Convert 12, 23
kerogen 42 cost analysis 11, 23
description 30
exit 24
L flow chart 31
life time cost 12 help 23
Liquid Hold-up 58 install 5
literature 27 interface 23
Lotz 30 menus 23
network 5
results 9
M screen 9
mackinawite 36 setup 5
Measured pH 32 single-user 5
mechanical design 20 start up 9
metallurgy 27 Start-up 12
Milliams 26, 27 technical support 5

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PREDICT 4.0: Users Guide

toolbar 23 CO2 pressure 39


using 10 composition 37
present worth 12 H2S and 38
Production Rate oxygen concentration 45
Gas 13 oxygen concentration 46
Oil 13 velocity and 41
Water 13 Temperature 10, 37
Profile 16, 62 type of flow 10, 21
pyrhotite 36
U
R
undissociated 28
ratio units
gas/oil 18 english 23
hydrocarbons/water 20 SI, metric 23
water/gas 19 Units
water/gas/oil 42 conversions 8
reactions 28
reduction 28
Reynolds Number 58
V
Roughness variables 26
Pipe 13 velocity 10, 39
Roughness Factor 57 temperature and 41
vertical flow 20
S Vertical Flow 48
Annular Flow 51
Saturation Bubble Flow 49
pH 35 Churn Flow 50
Saturation pH Patterns 49
FeCO3 15 Pressure Drop 49, 50, 51
FeS 15 Shear Stress 51
service life 21 Slug Flow 50
setup 5 Summary 49
Shear stress 58 Void Fraction 49, 50, 51
Shear Stress 13 Videm 29, 36
SI units 8 Viscosity
sulfur 10, 19, 44 Gas 13
Superficial Velocity Oil 13
Gas 58 Water 13
Liquid 58
Surface Tension 57
Synopsis 26
W
System Requirements 5 water
condensed 39
T formation 39
phase behavior 63
Technical Description 26 water cut 15, 43
Technical Support 5 water to gas ratio 19
temperature 17 wettability 42

84