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Common Carriers

(Unless otherwise indicated, reference is to the Civil Code)

A. In General

1. Definitions; essential elements; Art. 1732

U.S. v. Tan Piaco, 40 Phil. 853


Home Insurance Co. vs. American Steamship, 23 SCRA 24
De Guzman v. CA, 168 SCRA 612
Bascos v. CA, 221 SCRA 318
Planters Products Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 226 SCRA 476
Fabre v. Court of Appeals, 259 SCRA 426
Asia Lighterage and Shipping v. Court of Appeals, 409
SCRA 340
Crisostomo v. Court of Appeals, 409 SCRA 528

2. Nature of Business; power of State to regulate;


Art. 1765

Pantranco v. PSC, 70 Phil. 221


Fores v. Miranda, 105 Phil. 266

3. Nature and Basis of liability


Art. 1733

Cangco v. MRR, 38 Phil. 767


Isaac v. A.L. Ammen, 101 Phil. 1046
Phil. Rabbit v. IAC, 189 SCRA 159
LRTA v. Navidad, 397 SCRA 75

4. Classes of common carriers


Art. 1732, 1733, 1755

5. Laws applicable
Art. 1766, 1753

Eastern Shipping v. IAC, 150 SCRA 463

B. Common Carriage of Goods

1. Liability and presumption of negligence


Art. 1733, 1734, 1735
1) Ynchausti Steamship Co. vs. Dexter, 41 Phil. 289
2) Mirasol v. Dollar, 53 Phil. 125

2. Exemption from liability

(a) Natural disaster


Arts. 1734(1), 1739, 1740;
Art. 361, Code of Commerce

3) Tan Chiong v. Ynchausti, 22 Phil. 153


4) Martini v. Macondray, 39 Phil. 934
5) Eastern Shipping v. IAC, 150 SCRA 463, supra
6) Asia Lighterage v. Court of Appeals, 409 SCRA 340
supra
7) Lea Mer Industries, Inc. v. Malayan Insurance Co. Inc.,
471 SCRA 698

(b) Act of public enemy Art. 1734(2), 1739

(c) Act or omission of shipper Art. 1734(3), 1741

(d) Character of goods, etc.


Arts. 1734(4), 1742
Art. 366, Code of Commerce

8) Government v. Ynchausti, 40 Phil. 219


9) Southern Lines v. CA, 4 SCRA 256

(e) Order of competent authority


Arts. 1734(5), 1743

10) Ganzon v. Court of Appeals, 161 SCRA 646

3. Duration of Extraordinary Responsibility

Arts. 1736 to 1738

11) Compania Maritima v. Insurance Company, 12


SCRA 213
12) Lu Do v. Binamira, 101 Phil. 243
13) Eastern Shipping v. CA, 234 SCRA 79
14) Delsan Transport Lines Inc. v. American Home
Assurance Corp., 498 SCRA 603

4. Agreement Limiting Liability


(a) As to diligence required
Arts. 1744, 1745, 1751

(b) As to amount of liability


Arts. 1749 and 1750

15) Heacock v. Macondray, 42 Phil 90


16) Shewaram v. PAL, 17 SCRA 606
17) Ong Yiu v. Ca, 91 SCRA 223
18) Pan Am v. IAC, 164 SCRA 268
19) Cathay Pacific v. CA, 219 SCRA 520

(c) Factors affecting agreement


Arts. 1746, 1747, 1748, 1751, 1752

5. Applicable Law in Foreign Trade


Art. 1753

6. Rules on Passenger Baggage


Arts, 1754, 1998, 2000 to 2003

C. Common Carriage of Passengers

1. Nature and extent of responsibility


Art. 1733, 1755

Isaac v. A.L. Ammen Trans. Co., supra


Landingin v. Pantranco 33 SCRA 284
Landicho v. BTCo. 52 OG 7640
Necesito v. Paras 104 Phil 75
PAL v. CA, 106 SCRA 391
Sulpicio v. CA, 246 SCRA 299
Japan Airlines v. Court of Appeals, 449 SCRA 544

2. Duration of responsibility

Cf. Article 1736, Civil Code;


Article 17, Warsaw Convention (51 O.G. 5084), Article 698,
Code of Commerce

Cangco v. MRR, supra


Del Prado v. Meralco, 52 Phil. 900
La Mallorca v. Court of Appeals, 17 SCRA 739
Bataclan v. Medina, 104 Phil. 181
Aboitiz v. CA. 179 SCRA 95
PAL v. CA, 226 SCRA 423

3. Presumption of Negligence, Art. 1756

4. Force Majeure

Bachelor Express v. CA, 188 SCRA 217


Quisumbing v. CA, 189 SCRA 605

5. Limitation of Liability; validity of stipulations

Art. 1757, 1758

6. Responsibility for acts of employees

Art. 1759, 1760


Bataclan v. Medina, supra
De Gillaco v. MRR, 97 Phil. 884
Maranan v. Perez, 20 SCRA 412
LRTA v. Navidad, supra

7. Responsibility for acts of strangers and co-passengers

Art. 1763
Pilapil v. CA, 180 SCRA 546
Bachelor Express, Inc. v. CA, supra

8. Duty of passenger; effect of contributory negligence

Art. 1761, 1762


Cangco v. MRR, supra
Isaac v. A.L. Ammen, supra

D. Damages Recoverable from Common Carriers

1. In general

2. Actual or compensatory

Art. 2199, 2201, 2203, 1764, 2206


Cariaga v. LTBCo. and MRR, 110 Phil 346
Pan Am v. IAC, supra
Villa-Rey v. CA, 31 SCRA 511
PAL v. CA, 185 SCRA 110

3. Moral
Art. 2217, 2216, 2219, 2220, 2206(3)
Fores v. Miranda, supra
Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155
Lopez v. Pan Am, 16 SCRA 431
Ortigas v. Lufthansa, 64 SCRA 610
PAL v. Miano, 242 SCRA 235
Cathay Pacific v. Vasquez, 399 SCRA 207
See also Northwest Airlines Inc. v. Sps. Heshan, G.R. No.
179117, 3 February 2010

4. Exemplary

Art. 2229, 2232, 2233


Mecenas v. Court of Appeals, 180 SCRA 83

5. Nominal, Temperate and Liquidated

Art. 2221, 2224, 2226


Alitalia v. IAC, 192 SCRA 9
Saludo v. Court of Appeals, 207 SCRA 498
Japan Airlines v. Court of Appeals, 294 SCRA 19
Savellano v. NWA, 405 SCRA 416

6. Attorneys Fees and Interest

Art. 2208, 2210