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Section 37.

Approximate Integration

1. Answers:

a. 0.5
2
cos 1 2 cos 1 2 cos 1 2 cos 1 2 cos 1
2 2. 5 3 3. 5 4
2 cos 1 2 cos 1 2 cos 1 cos 1
4. 5 5 5. 5 6
3. 8326

b. 0.5
3
cos 1 4 cos 1 2 cos 1 4 cos 1 2 cos 1
2 2. 5 3 3. 5 4
4 cos 1 2 cos 1 4 cos 1 cos 1
4. 5 5 5. 5 6
3. 8349

cos 1x sin 1x
c. f 2 x 2 14 23 0. 3125 K
x4 x3 2 2

cos 1x sin 1x cos 1x sin 1x


d. f 4 x 12 36 24
x8 x7 x6 x5

18 127 366 245 1. 4102 J


2 2 2 2
0. 31256 2 3
e. ET 0. 026042
12 8 2

0. 31256 2 3
f. n 129. 10, so use 130 subintervals.
120. 0001

1. 41026 2 5
g. ES 0. 0019586
180 8 4
1/4
1. 41026 2 5
h. n 16. 83, so use 18 subintervals.
1800. 0001

Section 37. Approximate Integration 99


2. Answers:

a. 0.5 1 2 2 2 2
2 ln4 ln4. 5 ln5 ln5. 5 ln6
2 2 2 1
ln6. 5 ln7 ln7. 5 ln8
2. 2882

b. 0.5 1 4 2 4 2
3 ln4 ln4. 5 ln5 ln5. 5 ln6
4 2 4 1
ln6. 5 ln7 ln7. 5 ln8
2. 2862

c. f 2 x 1 2 1 12 2 1 0. 07944 K
x2 ln 3 x ln 2 x 4 ln 3 4 ln 2 4

d. f 4 x 2 3 11 18 12
x4 ln 2 x ln 3 x ln 4 x ln 5 x

24 3 11 18 12 0. 10084 J
4 ln 2 4 ln 3 4 ln 4 4 ln 5 4
0. 079448 4 3
e. ET 0. 00662
12 8 2

0. 079448 4 3
f. n 65. 091, so use 66 subintervals.
120. 0001

0. 100848 4 5
g. ES 0. 0001401
180 8 4
1/4
0. 100848 4 5
h. n 8. 7029, so use 10 subintervals.
1800. 0001

Section 37. Approximate Integration 100


3. Answers:

a. 0.2 1 2 2 2 2
2
sin 1/2 0. 6 sin 1/2 0. 8 sin 1/2 1 sin 1/2 1. 2 sin 1/2 1. 4
2 2 2 1
sin 1. 6
1/2
sin 1. 8
1/2
sin 2
1/2
sin 2. 2
1/2

1. 7195

b. 0.2 1 4 2 4 2
3
sin 1/2 0. 6 sin 1/2 0. 8 sin 1/2 1 sin 1/2 1. 2 sin 1/2 1. 4
4 2 4 1
sin 1/2 1. 6 sin 1/2 1. 8 sin 1/2 2 sin 1/2 2. 2
1. 7151

c. 1 1. 331, and thus f 2 x 3 cos 2 x 1


sin 1/2 x 5/2
4 sin x 2 sin 1/2 x

3 1. 331 5 1 1. 331 3. 7984 K


4 2

d. f 4 x 105 cos 4 x 33 cos 2 x 7


9/2 5/2 1/2
16 sin x 4 sin x 4 sin x

105 1. 331 9 33 1. 331 5 7 1. 331 122. 83 J


16 4 4
3. 79842. 2 0. 6 3
e. ET 0. 026042
12 8 2

3. 79842. 2 0. 6 3
f. n 113. 86, so use 114 subintervals.
120. 0001

122. 832. 2 0. 6 5
g. ES 0. 0017469
180 8 4
1/4
122. 832. 2 0. 6 5
h. n 16. 355, so use 18 subintervals.
1800. 0001

Section 37. Approximate Integration 101


4. Answers:
2 2 2 2 2
a. 0.25
2
e 0.5 2e 0.75 2e 1 2e 1.25 2e 1.5
2 2 2 2
2e 1.75 2e 2 2e 2.25 2e 2.5
0. 42885
2 2 2 2 2
b. 0.25
3
e 0.5 4e 0.75 2e 1 4e 1.25 2e 1.5
2 2 2 2
4e 1.75 2e 2 4e 2.25 2e 2.5
0. 42465
2 2
c. f 2 x 2 e x 2x 2 1 2 e 0.5 22. 5 2 1 17. 912 K.

Note: the first factor is monotonic decreasing, so we can plug in 0.5 for x, but the
second factor is monotonic increasing, so we can plug in 2. 5 for x. Yes, we can plug
in different values for x for different factors, depending on their respective
monotonicity.

d. The factor 4x 4 12x 2 3 has derivative 16x 3 24x, so the critical points are 0 and
3/2 . The only critical point in the interval of integration is thus 3/2 . Comparing
the value at this point with those at the endpoints 0.5 and 2.5, we see that it is
maximum absolute value of 4x 4 12x 2 3 occurs at 2. 5, with value:

42. 5 4 122. 5 2 3 84. 25. Thus:


2 2
f 4 x 4 e x 4x 4 12x 2 3 4 e 0.5 84. 25 262. 46 J.

17. 9122. 5 0. 5 3
e. ET 0. 18658
12 8 2

17. 9122. 5 0. 5 3
f. n 345. 56, so use 346 subintervals.
120. 0001

262. 462. 5 0. 5 5
g. ES 0. 011391
180 8 4
1/4
262. 462. 5 0. 5 5
h. n 26. 136, so use 28 subintervals.
1800. 0001

Section 37. Approximate Integration 102