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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

CONTENTS
PAGE

1. Executive Summary
2
2. Introduction
a. Objectives of the study
4
b. Research Methodology
5
c. Scope of the Study
6
d. Limitations
7
3. Company Profile
8
4. Data Analysis and Interpretation
19
5. Findings
45

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6. Conclusion
66
7. Reference
68

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The project aims at the study of Ceramic powders and its


market growth opportunities. The background talks about various
factors that have led us to undertake this study and how and to
whom this report will benefit .Objectives talks of types of data the
research project will generate and how this data is relevant.

The ceramic industry in India has got huge opportunities but has
not been much explored. The United States of America and China
are the leading countries in the production of ceramic powders.

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Realizing the huge potential Carborundum Universal Ltd. has
come up with their set of ceramic thermal plasma powders.

INTRODUCTION

An introduction to the present applications of ceramic powders is


followed by a detailed account of the different chemical and
physical properties of ceramic powders, and the characteristics of
such powders.

Ceramic powder industry is one with a huge scope in future.


Ceramic powders can be used in almost all industries using
moving metal parts. A coating of ceramic powders on metals

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increases life span of the metals and reduces wear and tear. It
also helps to create a thermal barrier on metal parts.

CUMI is a brand name in electro minerals, abrasives and more


.The company is the only one in India producing Ceramic
powders. CUMI is trying to expand the niche market in India and
also develop its market worldwide .

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the study are the following:

To conduct a detailed study on ceramic powders, its


properties and other characteristics.

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To conduct a market research on Ceramic powders.
To conduct a study on supply chain of the company and
propose a better one for global customer.
To propose a business model for the company
To conduct a study on ceramic plasma thermal spray
powders and its future scope in various fields .

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN
The study conducted was descriptive in nature.

SOURCES OF DATA
The data obtained was both primary and secondary, was obtained
from various sources like internet, company and reference books.

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

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As there are only limited players globally in this field and this
being a niche segment data collection was possible only
through the internet and details provided by the company.
The other source of getting information regarding the
product was from books on ceramic powder.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is conducted on the topic Ceramic Powders. It was


undertaken to analyze the awareness level market growth of
ceramic powders for enhancing the business of the company by
providing the company with information collected and proposing
strategic steps.

The Ceramic industry is a slow growing one in India with huge


opportunities in future. This is a slow growing industry because of
the small manufacturing sector and the unawareness of the
product and its advantages. Whereas in other countries ceramic
powders have a huge market as manufacturing companies
concentrate on increasing the quality of their products.

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CUMI has been engaged in the production of Ceramic powders for
the past 10 years and being the sole producer in India, it has not
been able to capture a fare share in the Indian market.

This study tries to propose promotional strategies that would help


in serving the company. Therefore such a report is deemed to
have some sort of relevance to the company.

LIMITATIONS

Time and cost were the main limiting factor in the study.
Ceramic powder being a less explored product, it was
impossible to get more details about the market and other
information.

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While research other companies and suppliers were reluctant
to provide information regarding this product which affected
the effectiveness of the report.
And like any other research the limitation of personal bias of
respondents limits the scope of the study.

COMPANY PROFILE

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Corporate Group:

Murugappa Group

Headquartered in Chennai, the Rs. 15,907 crores (USD 3.14


billion) Murugappa Group is one of India's leading business
conglomerates. Market leaders in diverse areas of business

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including Engineering, Abrasives, Finance, General Insurance,
Cycles, Sugar, Farm Inputs, Fertilizers, Plantations, Bio-products
and Nutraceuticals, its 29 companies have manufacturing
facilities spread across 13 states in India. The organization fosters
an environment of professionalism and has a workforce of over
32,000 employees. The Group has forged strong joint venture
alliances with leading international companies like DBS Bank,
Mitsui Sumitomo, Foskor, Cargill and Groupe Chimique Tunisien
has consolidated its status as one of the fastest growing
diversified business houses in India.

The business has its origins in 1900, when Dewan Bahadur A M


Murugappa Chettiar established a money-lending and banking
business in Burma (now Myanmar), which then spread to
Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam. A century down the
line, it has withstood enormous vicissitudes (including
strategically moving its assets back to India and restarting from
scratch in the '30s, before the Japanese invasion in World War II)
to become one of the country's biggest industrial houses.

Some of the country's best-known brands like BSA and Hercules in


bicycles, Parrys Spirulina and Parrys Beta Carotene in
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nutraceuticals, Parrys Pure in sugar, Carborundum and Ajax in
abrasives, Gromor and Paramfos in fertilisers, and many more
come from the Murugappa Group. Focussing on its research and
development innovations, it has registered 43 international
patents.

The group has grown consistently through its decisive and


visionary response to changing times. Its pioneering efforts,
steadfast commitment to ethical business practices and its
dogged pursuit of new areas to extend its business acumen have
brought in its wake several prestigious national and international
awards. Social commitment has always been the cornerstone of
the group's ethos and it has been at the forefront of eco-
conservation, public health, and education in the communities
where its companies operate. It runs several educational and
health care institutions on charitable lines. Besides, the group
runs a research and development centre for rural development,
the Sri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC), which
has been designing simple, cost-effective technologies for local
artisans.

The group is also the first business group in Asia to have been
awarded the 'IMD Distinguished Family Business Award' by the
internationally renowned Management Development Institute
located in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Value Chain

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History of CUMI:

1954 -1963 -

Revenue Rs.19 million


Incorporated as a joint venture between Carborundum
Company, USA, Universal Grinding Wheel Company, UK and
The Murugappa Group, India.
Acquired a coated abrasives facility from Ajax Products Pvt.
Ltd.
Bonded abrasives facility set up at Chennai, India
Bauxite mining at Bhatia, Gujarat, India.

1964-1973

Manufacture of super refractories at Chennai, India


Revenue Rs.78 million
Brown aluminum oxide grains plant at Edapally, India
Bauxite calcinations facility at Okha, Gujarat, India

1974-1983

Revenue Rs.337 million


Acquisition of Eastern Abrasives Ltd, a coated abrasives
manufacturer in Kolkata, India
Second bonded abrasives plant at Hosur, near Bangalore,
India.
Established MMTCL as a joint venture with Morgan group plc.
for ceramic fibres.

1984-1993

Revenue Rs.1308 million.

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Expansion of bonded abrasive plant at Hosur with a modern
facility for vitrified grinding wheels.
Silicon carbide plant at Koratty and Refractories plant at
Ranipet, India.
Industrial ceramic plant at Hosur, India.
Acquisition of 40% interest in Wendt (India) Ltd, a joint
venture with Wendt Gmbh, Germany for super abrasives.

1994-2003

Revenues Rs.3150 million.


12 MW Hydel project at Maniyar, Kerala.
Second unit at Edapally for manufacture of brown aluminium
oxide grains.
Acquired a controlling interest in Sterling Abrasives Ltd.,
Ahmedabad, India.
Acquired a controlling interest in Cutfast Abrasive Tools Ltd.
and Cutfast Polymers Ltd., a Chennai based abrasive
manufacturer and subsequent mergers.
Established CUMI America Inc., USA and CUMI Australia Pty.
Ltd.
Established a 5.5 MW natural gas based thermal power
plant in Nallur in Tamilnadu, India through Southern Energy
Development Cooperation Ltd.
Acquired Prodorite AntiCorrosives Ltd., a leading player in
anti-corrosion engineering.
Cloth processing facility at Maraimalainagar, Tamilnadu.

2004-2010

Revenue Rs.13146 million


Automated thin wheel facility at Hosur and Chennai, India.
Modern silicon carbide micro grit plant at Koratty.
Modern polymer manufacturing facility near Chennai.
Establishment of CUMI Middle East and CUMI Canada Inc.

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Establishment of state of the art coated abrasive plant at
Sriperambudur, Chennai.
Acquisition of monolithic refractory facility in Jabalpur, India
Acquisition of Volzhsky abrasive works Russia.
Acquisition of technical ceramics unit at Aurangabad.
Acquisition of 51% holdings Foskor Zirconia (Pty) Ltd. South
Africa, worlds largest manufacturer of Zirconia .
World class facility for wear resistence liner tiles, Hosur.
Manufacturing facility for Thin Wheels, Uttarkhand.
Manufacturing facility for Power Tools at Jigani, Bangalore.
Commissioning of a modern 1000 tonne vitrified bonded
abrasives plant and 2000 tonne organic bonded abrasive
facility in China.
Setting up of a modern facility for manufacture of
anticorrosive products at Serkaddu, India.
Establishment of automated silicon carbide grit plant in
Cochin SEZ.

Business Line :

Abrasives & Allied Products

An abrasives is a hard, tough and wear resistant substance for


grinding and polishing operations. Manufactured through a
complex and high technology process, these abrasives are used in
metal removal, cutting and finishing operations in almost all
industries.

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Coated Abrasives

Bonded Abrasives

Super Abrasives

Allied Products

Electro Minerals

CUMI's electrominerals products group offers sintered aluminum


oxide and silicon carbide grains as the major product lines. Upon
completion of the acquisition in South Africa, CUMI's product
range would get enlarged to include fused zirconia as one more
major product line. Apart from these, CUMI also offers fused
mullite and other speciality products on a small scale.

Electrominerals are used as basic raw material in the


manufacture of abrasives and refractories. They are also used
for surface preparation and in tile and paint industries. They are
also increasingly being used for silicon wafer slicing in solar cell
manufacture, dental care and skin therapy. Silicon carbide is also
used as an input in metallurgical industries.

CUMI's range of electrominerals include silicon carbide,


brown aluminium oxide and white aluminium oxide. It also
manufactures mullite, bubble alumina and certain other
specialities in smaller quantities.

The manufacturing process is as follows: Basic inputs are fused


using electric arcing. Then the resultant crude is crushed and
graded. The key inputs for manufacture of electro
minerals include bauxite, alumina, silica sand, raw petroleum
coke and electricity.

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The key success factors in this industry are cost and quality. Entry
barriers are high capital investment, limited market and
technology. Availability of alternatives and product differentiation
are the main challenges in this business.

The global market size for electro minerals is estimated at around


USD 2.5 billion. The acquisition of Volzhsky Abrasive Works, Russia
has positioned CUMI as the second largest producer of silicon
carbide in the world. Apart from CUMI, the major players in this
industry are Saint Gobain, Treibacher, Washington Mills, Kollo and
a few Chinese manufacturers.

In India, CUMI is one of the leading players in aluminium oxide


grains. Apart from CUMI, Grindwell Norton, Orient Abrasives and
SNAM Abrasives are the others. Imports from China are also a
major source of electro minerals for the India Market.

On a consolidated basis, captive sales to the abrasives and


refractory units account for about 15 per cent of the output of this
business.

The electro minerals business operates several manufacturing


facilities which have been certified for process quality and
environment protection.

Industrial Ceramics

The Ceramics product group offers products which harness the


heat resistance/ containment, wear resistance and insulation
properties of ceramics and also corrosion resistance properties of
various materials. The product lines are:

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Industrial ceramics

Anticorrosion products

Bio-ceramics

Super Refractories

Refractory is a material that will retain its shape and chemical


identity when subjected to high temperatures and is used in
applications that require extreme resistance to heat, such as
furnace linings. Refractory products are basically used in
industries for heat resistant and containment. CUMI's
manufactures Super Refractories (which can be in two forms fired
refractories and monolithics) and also Refractory Fibre.

Fired (or shaped) refractories are manufactured both in India


and Russia. The manufacturing process, involves mixing, molding,
drying and firing. The product varies with the temperature that
the refractory is required to withstand which depends on the
product being manufactured in the kiln. Therefore the product
range is very wide each manufacturer specializes only in specific
segments. CUMI's product range is up to 1850 degrees and serves
the upper segment of the refractory market. CUMI caters to the
sanitary ware, carbon black, iron and steel, power, HT insulators,
ceramic tiles, ferrous and non ferrous industries, fertilizer,
chemical processing industries and all other industries using kilns.

Monolithics are refractory material in the form of powder. They


are like cement mortar and applied in in-situ applications. The
manufacturing process involves batching and mixing different raw
materials based on unique formulations customized to suit
specific applications. This does not require any firing. Monolithics
are used, when the refractory material cannot be manufactured in

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a shape and form due to size and larger area to be covered.
Monolithics are used in cement, steel, foundries, carbon black,
ferrous, non ferrous and also integrated steel plants.

CUMI is a market leader in the manufacture of super refractory


products in India since 1965 with technical know-how from
Carborundum Company USA. The other players in the industry are
ACE Refractories, Maithan Ceramics, Vesuvius etc. The acquisition
of VAW, Russia has given CUMI a foothold in the Russian market
for refractories. The acquisition has also given CUMI access to
advanced technology.

Murugappa Morgan Thermal Ceramics Ltd., CUMI's joint venture


with the Morgan Crucible Company plc., U.K. manufactures
ceramic fibre and other insulating products. Ceramic fire is an
asbestos free spun or blown alumino-silicate fibre made from
blends of high purity alumina and silica. A unique combination of
physical and refractory properties makes this an outstanding
material for use in high temperature applications. The major user
industries are petrochemicals, steel, power and furnace building
industries.The key success factors in this industry are quality and
application engineering support to customers. Technology and its
absorption constitute major entry barriers.Key inputs
are alumina, silicon carbide, mullite, zirconia and power/fuel.

CUMI in the Past Ten Years (31st March)

Rs. million
2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
Revenue
Sales 7151 6606 5268 4242 3565 3142 2843 2834 2857 2571
Other Income (a) 515 847 214 484 156 180 311 97 106 180
Profitability
Profit Before Interest & tax 1133 1541 925 1035 554 445 529 425 471 492

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(PBIT)
Profit Before Tax (PBT) 861 1372 853 1007 524 402 455 309 358 349
Profit After Tax (PAT) 597 972 587 766 384 317 366 215 232 260
PBIT / Gross Sales (%) 15.8% 23.3% 17.6 24.4 15.5 14.2 18.6 15.0 16.5 19.1
PBT / Sales (%) 12.0% 20.8% 16.2 23.7 14.7 12.8 16.0 10.9 12.5 13.6
Assets Employed
Fixed Assets (b) 3682 3218 2462 1645 1060 865 911 989 972 1013
Investments 1722 1698 897 511 478 452 502 559 373 364
Net Current Assets 2325 1867 1371 1087 935 908 901 917 892 898
Total Assets 7729 6783 4730 3243 2474 2225 2314 2465 2237 2274
Fixed Asset Turnover (times) 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.6 3.4 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.5
Return on Capital Employed
14.7% 22.7% 19.5 31.9 22.4 20.0 22.9 17.2 21.1 21.6
(%)
Funds Employed
Paid up share capital 187 187 187 187 93 93 93 93 93 121
Reserves (c) 3694 3304 2522 2156 1866 1589 1403 1171 1179 1373
Networth 3881 3490 2709 2343 1959 1682 1497 1265 1272 1494
Loan Funds 3480 3010 1815 723 406 404 658 1016 965 781
Net Deferred Tax Liability 368 283 207 177 139 139 159 185 - -
Total Funds Employed 7729 6783 4730 3243 2474 2225 2314 2465 2237 2274
Debt to Equity Ratio 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.5
Investor Parameters
Dividend (%) 100% 100% 75 180(d) 100 125(d) 100 75 70 60
(e)
EPS ( Rs. 2 Face Value) 6.4 10.4 6.3 8.2(f) 8.2 6.8 7.8 4.6 4.2 4.3
Book value (on Rs. 2 Face
42 37 29.0 25.1 41.9 36.2 32.2 27.2 27.2 24.6
Value) (e)
Return on Net Worth (%) 15.4% 27.8% 21.7 32.7 19.6 18.8 24.4 17.0 18.2 17.4

Including profit / (loss) on sale of investments and profit on


undertaking

Excluding revaluation reserve

Excluding revaluation reserve and net of miscellaneous expenditure


not written off and including share capital suspense

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Dividend for the year 2004 includes a special dividend of 25% and that
for the year 2006 includes a special dividend of 120%

EPS & Book value up to the year 2004 recomputed based on split face
value of Rs. 2

DATA ANALYSIS
&
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INTERPRETATION

PRODUCT
CERAMIC POWDERS (plasma thermal spray powders)

INTRODUCTION:
Plasma spray is the most versatile of the thermal spray process.
Plasma is capable of spraying all materials that are considered
spray able. In plasma spray devices, an arc is formed in between
two electrodes in a plasma forming gas, which usually consists of
either argon/hydrogen or argon/helium. As the plasma gas is
heated by the arc, it expands and is accelerated through a shaped
nozzle, creating velocities up to MACH 2. Temperatures in the arc
zone approach 36,000F (20,000K). Temperatures in the plasma
jet are still 18,000F (10,000K) several centimeters form the exit
of the nozzle.
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MATERIALS

Nozzle designs and flexibility of powder injection schemes, along


with the ability to generate very high process temperatures,
enables plasma spraying to utilize a wide range of coatings. The
range goes from low melting point polymers such as nylon, to
very high temperature melting materials such as refractory
materials including tungsten, tantalum, ceramic oxides, and other
refractory materials.

INDUSTRIES

Because plasma-arc spraying is the most versatile of all the


thermal spray processes it can be found in the widest range of
industries. Plasma spray coatings are used commonly for

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applications in aerospace, automotive, medical devices,
agriculture communication, etc.

Plasma Spray Applications

An example application where plasma spray coatings are


commonly found is in jet engines. Jet engines literally contain
hundreds of components that are plasma spray coated. A
commonly used coating in jet engines is produced with yttria
partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ). This coating provides high
temperature protection to components that are exposed to
combustion gases. The thermal protection allows the component
to last longer and run at higher temperatures, which improves the
system's overall performance efficiency.

Plasma Spray Process

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The plasma spray process is most commonly used in normal
atmospheric conditions and referred as APS. Some plasma
spraying is conducted in protective environments using vacuum
chambers normally back filled with a protective gas at low
pressure, this is referred as VPS or LPPS.

Plasma spraying has the advantage that it can spray very high
melting point materials such as refractory metals like tungsten
and ceramics like zirconia unlike combustion processes. Plasma
sprayed coatings are generally much denser, stronger and
cleaner than the other thermal spray processes with the
exception of HVOF and detonation processes. Plasma spray
coatings probably account for the widest range of thermal spray
coatings and applications and makes this process the most
versatile.

Zirconium oxide : Key applications are gas turbine hot


section components, diesel engine piston crowns and seats.
Diesel engine pistons, valves, cylinder heads and coatings
for casting molds and troughs.

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Used primarily on turbine combustion liners and airfoils
Thermal barrier coatings in rocket and jet engines.

PLASMA SPRAYING GUN :


9MB Type Machine Mount Plasma Gun

Plasma gun that is mounted. Requires a power


supply, console, heat exchanger.

9MB Type Machine Mount Plasma Gun

Uses Pros Used With


Used to spray Spray hard materials. Ceramics, tungston
tougher materials. carbide.

9MB Type Handheld Plasma Gun

Plasma gun that is handheld. When changing


from one spray material or plasma gas to
another, the switchover is fast nozzles and
electrodes are plugin/pullout assemblies.

9MB Type Handheld Plasma Gun

Uses Pros Used With


Used to spray Spray hard Ceramics, tungston carbide.
tougher materials.
materials.

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3MB Type Plasma Gun

3MB type plasma spray gun is designed to


spray high-melting point refractory point
metals. With a simple change of a nozzle, it
can also spray lower melting point metals. It
provides dense coatings with excellent bond
strength.

3MB Type Plasma Spray Gun

Uses Pros Used With


Provides dense The small and light Mainly high-melting point
coatings with plasma gun has no powders.
excellent bond moving parts and
strength. requires no
adjustments. The
nozzle is one-piece
causing it to be
leak proof.

Types of Plasma spray powders:


Abradables and plastics
Metals ,Alloys ,Composites and Blends
Carbide powders
Ceramic powders

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CERAMIC POWDERS
Oxide Ceramic Powders have become very important thermal
spray materials because of their excellent performance of thermal
insulation and resistance to high-temperature oxidation, have
been doped in these powders to improve the phase structural
stability and toughness of the ceramic coatings.
Oxide Ceramic coatings produced by plasma spray or high
velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray are characterized by high
hardness, high bonding strength, resistance to high-temperature
oxidation, wear, corrosion and thermal shock as well as good
thermal insulation properties. Ceramic Powder has lower heat
conductivity and greater thermal shock resistance properties than
Alumina, and is, therefore, used mainly for thermal barrier
coating.

Ceramic Powder Synonyms:

Ceramic powder, nanoceramic powder, ceramic particles,


polishing, lapping, grinding, dispersion, surface treatment,
polishing beads, lapping beads, sintered, ceramic beads, oxide
powder, carbide powder, boride powder, nitride powder,
composite powder.

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Some Types Of Ceramic Powder/ Plasma Powder :

Aluminium oxide
Chrome oxide
Titanium oxide
Zirconium oxide
Yttrium oxide

Ceramic Powders Industrial Applicability:

The ceramic powder according to the present invention can be


applied to a semiconductor-sealing material used in, for instance,
automobiles,
portable telephones,
personal computers and domestic appliances;
multilayer plates on which semiconductors are mounted,
further fillers such as putty, sealing agents,
various kinds of rubber materials,
various kinds of engineering plastics.

In addition, the ceramic powder according to the present


invention can likewise be used as, for instance, prepregs for use
in, for instance, printed boards produced by impregnating glass
woven fabrics, glass nonwoven fabrics and other organic base
materials with the ceramic powder of the invention as well as
various kinds of engineering plastics, in addition to the foregoing
semiconductor-sealing material.

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Grinding chamber with
Al2O3 coating.

Ceramic powders used in diesel engine liners, cylinders.

Page | 29
Airplane turbines coated with ceramic powders.

DETAILS OF CERAMIC POWDERS:

Zirconium Oxide:

Zirconia based ceramics are used in heat insulation applications


as thermal barriers to improve efficiency and service life of
components in high temperature service. These materials are
generally plasma sprayed over an appropriate bond coat.
Stabilizers such as magnesia, ceria, calcia and yttria are alloyed
with the zirconia to help minimize phase transformation that can
cause volume changes within the coating, which can lead to
coating spallation and cracking during service. Key applications
are gas turbine hot section components, diesel engine piston
crowns and seats.

Chemistry: ZrO2 5CaO 0.5Al2O3 0.4SiO2 1.1 other oxides


Particle Size: -90 +30 m (-170 mesh +30 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Specifications: Canada Pratt Whitney CPW 212 MTU MTS 1067

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Pratt Whitney PWA 1312 SNECMA DMR 33.089 (Special Order as
Metco 201B-NS-
U. S. Military Naval OS10604
Recommended for combustion applications. Abrasive wear
resistant up to approx. 900C (1650F). Coatings resist wetting
and corrosive effects of molten metal. Applications: diesel engine
pistons, valves, cylinder heads and coatings for casting molds and
troughs.

Chemistry: ZrO2 5CaO 0.5Al2O3 0.4SiO2 1.1 other oxides


Particle Size: -53 +11 m (-270 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed

Specifications: Honeywell Allied Signal FP 5045 XIV, Table 1


Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/18 Rolls-Royce Allison EMS 56720
Volvo PM 819-26
Recommended for combustion applications. Abrasive wear
resistant up to approx. 900C (1650F). Coatings resist wetting
and corrosive effects of molten metal. Applications: diesel engine
pistons, valves, cylinder heads and coatings for casting molds and
troughs.

Chemistry: ZrO2 24MgO


Particle Size: -53 +11 m (-270 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Recommended for combustion applications. Abrasive wear
resistant up to approx. 900C (1650F). Coatings resist wetting
and corrosive effects of molten metal. Applications: diesel engine
pistons, valves, cylinder heads and coatings for casting molds and
troughs.

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Chemistry: ZrO2 24MgO
Particle Size: -90 +11 m (-170 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Specifications: Jet Avion JA 1346 Pratt Whitney PWA 1333
Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/21
Recommended for combustion applications. Abrasive wear
resistant up to approx. 900C (1650F). Coatings resist wetting
and corrosive effects of molten metal. Applications: diesel engine
pistons, valves, cylinder heads and coatings for casting moldsand
troughs.

Chemistry: ZrO2 25CeO2 2.5Y2O3


Particle Size: -90 +16 m (-170 mesh +16 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Ideally suited for severe thermal barrier applications and offers
greater high temperature corrosion resistance against sodium,
sulfur and chlorine contaminants compared to 8% yttria zirconia
coatings.
Chemistry: ZrO2 18TiO2 10Y2O3
Particle Size: -75 +5 m (-200 mesh +5 m)

Morphology: Spheroidal, Spray Dried


Coatings exhibit excellent scuff resistance, high temperature
hardness, excellent thermal shock properties and resistance to
sulfidation, chlorinization and sodium hot corrosion.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -75 +45 m (-200 +325 mesh)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Specifications: GE A50TF204, Class B Honeywell Allied Signal
91547-EMS 52564, App. A

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Light Helicopter LHM 3314, Type 1 Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/46
Rolls-Royce Allison EMS 56722 Rolls-Royce Allison EPS 10479
SNECMA DMR 33.098 Volvo PM 819-55
Williams WIMS 652
Powders are spheroidal with excellent flowability, chemical
homogeneity, structural stability and high purity. Coatings have
excellent thermal shock and insulating features. Primarily used as
a thermal barrier coating for turbine combustion liners and
airfoils.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -125 +45 m
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Specifications: GE A50A558, Class C GE A50TF278, Class A
Powders are spheroidal with excellent flowability, chemical
homogeneity, structural stability and high purity. Coatings have
excellent thermal shock and insulating features. Used primarily on
turbine combustion liners and airfoils.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -125 +11 m (-120 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Specifications: GE A50TF278, Class B (sized to drawing
10042376)
Honeywell Allied Signal EMS 57750 Type I, Class 1
Honeywell M3966, Type II Honeywell M3978
Pratt Whitney PWA 1375 U. S. Military Kelly AFB 97P1271
Volvo PM 819-20
Very high purity product. Powders are spheroidal with excellent
flowability, chemical homogeneity, structural stability. Coating
shave excellent thermal shock and insulating features. Used
primarily on turbine combustion liners and airfoils.

Page | 33
Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3
Particle Size: -125 +11 m (-120 mesh +11 m)

Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP


Specifications: GE A50TF278-50-S-4, Class B Honeywell Allied
Signal EMS 57750, Type I, Class 1
Pratt Whitney PWA 1375 Siemens/Westinghouse 83336AB Sec.
5.3.1
Turbine Airfoil Coating and Repair MS101.1
Similar to Metco204NS, with good, rather than exceptional purity.
Spheroidal with excellent flowability, chemical homogeneity,
structural stability. Coatings have excellent thermal shock and
insulating features. Used primarily on turbine combustion
linersand airfoils.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -106 + 11 m (-140 mesh + 11 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP
Specifications: Alstom HTCT 650564 (exception to 125
requirement allowed)
GE A50A557 GE A50TF278, Class C
Honeywell M3978
Powders are spheroidal with excellent flowability, chemical
homogeneity, structural stability and high purity. Coatings have
excellent thermal shock and insulating features. Used primarily on
turbine combustion liners and airfoils.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -106 + 16 m (-140 mesh + 16 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, HOSP

Page | 34
Specifications: Alstom HMHD 658042 Alstom HMHD 658043
Powder with reduced fines. Powder particles are spheroidal with
excellent flowability, chemical homogeneity, structural
stabilityand high purity. Coatings have excellent thermal shock
and insulating features. Used primarily on turbine combustion
linersand airfoils.

Chemistry: ZrO2 8Y2O3


Particle Size: -45 +11 m (-325 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
AMDRY 6643 is a stabilized Yttria Zirconia. The Zirconia is not
flame stabilized. Coatings can be used at temperatures up to
approximately 1350 C (2460 F), depending on operating
conditions.

Chemistry: ZrO2 20Y2O3


Particle Size: -106 +16 m (-140 mesh +16 m)
Morphology: Spheroidal, Spray Dried

A flame stabilized yttria zirconia, designed to produce coatings


that are stable at high temperatures. Recommended for
resistance to erosion at temperatures above 845C (1550F).
Applications: thermal barrier coatings in rocket and jet engines.

Aluminum oxide:

Alumina is a wear resistant metal oxide ceramic that is chemically


inert and stable at high temperatures. Key functions are for
abrasive, sliding and erosive wear in applications where impact is
not an issue. Typically applied by plasma spraying, this material

Page | 35
has been used in many applications. Medium to coarse grades
can be used as a cutting medium such as knife edge seals in
turbine applications. High purity grades (white alumina) exhibit
excellent dielectric characteristics. Blends with small to moderate
amounts of titanium oxide increase overall coating toughness.

Chemistry: Al2O3 99.5+


Particle Size: -31 +3.9 m
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Has the highest dielectric strength of all aluminum oxide coatings.
Excellent refractory properties.

Chemistry: Al2O3 99.5+


Particle Size: -45 +5 m (-325 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide good resistance against abrasion, sliding wear,
friction and oxidation at service temperatures up to approximately
800 C (1470 F) and exhibit high dielectric strength, suitable for
electrical insulation. Should not be used where impact or shock
loading occurs.

Chemistry: Al2O3 98+


Particle Size: -45 +15 m (-325 mesh +15 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Specifications: Canada Pratt Whitney CPW 210 Pratt Whitney PWA
1310
Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/9 Rolls-Royce Allison EMS 56758
SNECMA DMR 33.080 Williams CWIMS 765
Dense coatings which resist wear by fibers and threads and also
resist erosion in high temperatures ranging from 840 - 1650C
(1550 - 3000F).

Page | 36
Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2
Particle Size: -22 +5 m
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Specifications: GE A50TF87, Class C Volvo PM 819-00
Good resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear, friction and
oxidation up to approx. 1100C (2040F). Coatings are particularly
suitable for applications in the textile or synthetic fiber
manufacturing industries, where surface resistance is required on
partsused for the guiding and handling of thread. Can be used in
many environments including most acids and alkalis.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -22 +5 m
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear and
oxidation for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
C(2040 F). Can be used in acidic or alkaline environments.
Recommended for guiding or handling of thread in textile
andsynthetic fiber production.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -38 +16 m (-400 mesh +16 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear and
oxidation for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
C(2040 F). Can be used in acidic or alkaline environments.
Recommended for guiding or handling of thread in textile and
synthetic fiber production. Formerly provided as PEM 10-231.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +11 m (-325 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Specifications: Boeing BMS 10-67, Type III GE A50TF87
Page | 37
MTU MTS 1059 Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/36
SNECMA DMR 33.020 Volvo PM 819-11

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +5 m (-325 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear and
oxidation for service temperatures up to approximately 1100 C
(2040 F). Can be used in acidic or alkaline environments.
Recommended for guiding or handling of thread in textile and
synthetic fiber production.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -75 +30 m (-200 mesh +30 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Specifications: Canada Pratt Whitney CPW 281 CFM International
CP 6009
GE A50A565 GE A50TF87, Class B
MTU MTS 1061 Pratt Whitney PWA 1311-1
Rolls-Royce MSRR 9507/50 SNECMA DMR 33.013
Volvo PM 819-12 Williams WIMS 650
Good resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear, friction and
oxidation up to approx. 1100C (2040F). Coatings are particularly
suitable for applications in the textile or synthetic fiber
manufacturing industries, where surface resistance is required on
parts used for the guiding and handling of thread. Can be used in
many environments including most acids and alkalis.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -90 +5 m (-170 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear and
oxidation for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
Page | 38
C(2040 F). Can be used in acidic or alkaline environments.
Recommended for guiding or handling of thread in textile and
synthetic fiber production.

Chemistry: Al2O3 3TiO2


Particle Size: -90 +5 m (-170 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings provide resistance to abrasive wear, sliding wear and
oxidation for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
C(2040 F). Can be used in acidic or alkaline environments.
Recommended for guiding or handling of thread in textile
andsynthetic fiber production.

Chemistry: Al2O3 13TiO2


Particle Size: -22 +5 m
Morphology: Angular/Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Produces dense coatings with a smooth as-sprayed surface finish.
Good abrasive wear resistance with fair resistance tochemical
attack. Recommended for hydraulic parts, plungers, shaft sleeves,
mechanical seals or textile machine parts.

Chemistry: Al2O3 13TiO2


Particle Size: -30 +5 m (-400 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Recommended for abrasive wear, sliding wear and oxidation
resistance for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
C(2040 F). Coating applications include thread production in
textile and synthetic fiber manufacturing. Can be used in acidic
and alkaline environments. Somewhat lower hardness and
corrosion resistance than coatings of Al2O3 3TiO2.

Chemistry: Al2O3 13TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +22 m (-325 mesh +22 m)
Page | 39
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Recommended for abrasive wear, sliding wear and oxidation
resistance for service temperatures up to approximately 1100
C(2040 F). Coating applications include thread production in
textile and synthetic fiber manufacturing. Can be used in acidic
and alkaline environments. Somewhat lower hardness and
corrosion resistance than coatings of Al2O3 3TiO2.

Chemistry: Al2O3 40TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +5 m (-325 mesh +5 m
Morphology: Spheroidal, Spray Dried
Good abrasive wear resistance and erosion resistance below
550C (1020F). Lower wear resistance; better grindability than
coatings containing less titania. Polished coatings are used in
chemical industry because of their low degree of wetability
fordilute solutions of common acids. Used for thread guides to
resist abrasive fibers.

Chemistry: Al2O3 40TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +22 m (-325 mesh +22 m)
Morphology: Angular/blocky, Fused and Crushed
Produces coatings with good friction characteristics that are
appropriate for hard, bearing surfaces. Hardness of coatings
permits good grindability. Ground and polished coatings have low
degree of wettability and may be used to resist dilute solutions of
common acids. Applications include pump components, shaft
sleeves, mechanical seals, thread guides and textile machinery
components.

Page | 40
Chrome Oxide:

Chromium oxide is the most chemically inert and wear resistant of


all the oxides, and can be used at service temperatures below
540 C (1000 F). Applications such as in the laser engraved
printing rolls, pump seals and textile manufacturing components
are typical. Excellent coatings are achieved using by the plasma
process. Additions of titanium oxide and silicon dioxide results in
improved cohesive strength, better toughness and abrasive wear
resistance. These coatings exhibit higher thermal conductivity
than zirconia based ceramics but higher micro and macro
hardness and wear resistance.

Chemistry: Cr2O3
Particle Size: -15 +5 m
Morphology: Blocky, Chemically Smoothed
Dense, corrosion resistant coatings used on pump seal areas,
grounds, rolls and wear rings. Recommended for resistance
towear by abrasive grains, hard surfaces, particle erosion and
cavitation. Coatings are insoluble in acids, alkalis and alcohol.
Applications include anilox rolls, pump seal lands and seats,
ground rolls subject to sliding and abrasive wear and wear rings.

Chemistry: Cr2O3
Particle Size: -106 +11 m (-140 mesh +11 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Sintered and Crushed
Specifications: Pratt Whitney PWA 1325 Rolls-Royce MSRR
9507/53
Dense, corrosion resistant coatings used on pump seal areas,
grounds, rolls and wear rings. Recommended for resistance to

Page | 41
wear by abrasive grains, hard surfaces, particle erosion and
cavitation. Coatings are insoluble in acids, alkalis and alcohol.

Chemistry: Cr2O3 2TiO2


Particle Size: -125 +11 m
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Produces dense, corrosion resistant coatings with higher
toughness than pure chrome oxide materials. Used on pump seal
areas, grounds, rolls and wear rings. Recommended for resistance
to wear by abrasive grains, hard surfaces, particle erosion and
cavitation. Coatings are insoluble in acids, alkalis and alcohol.

Chemistry: Cr2O3 5SiO2 3TiO2


Particle Size: -45 +5 m (-325 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Coatings exhibit high wear and corrosion resistance, and are
tough with high resistance to mechanical shock compared to
other ceramics. Good friction characteristics.

Titanium Oxide :

Titanium oxide and its alloys produce coatings that are generally
tougher, but with lower hardness, than coatings of alumina.
Applications for titanium oxide based coatings are sliding wear
resistance where lubricity is needed. Coatings should not be used
at services temperatures that exceed 540 C (1000 F) to avoid
potential cracking as a result of phase transformation. Higher
concentrations of chromium oxide or alumina will increase the
wear resistance of titanium oxide. Air plasma spray produces

Page | 42
higher quality, denser coatings that can be ground to smoother
finishes than those produced using combustion powder spray.

Chemistry: TiO2 99%


Particle Size: -88 +7.8 m (-170 mesh + 7.8 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Moderate abrasive wear resistance. Lower hardness than
alumina / titania coatings. Soluble in alkalis and sulphuric acid,
but resistant to attack in many other environments. Slightly
conductive; static electricity does not build up on the coating
surface.

Chemistry: TiO2 99%


Particle Size: -45 +5 m (-325 mesh +5 m)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Moderate abrasive wear resistance. Lower hardness than
alumina / titania coatings. Soluble in alkalis and sulphuric acid,
but resistant to attack in many other environments. Slightly
conductive; static electricity does not build up on the coating
surface.

Chemistry: TiO2 99%


Particle Size: -106 +38 m (-140 +400 mesh)
Morphology: Angular / Blocky, Fused and Crushed
Moderate abrasive wear resistance. Lower hardness than
alumina / titania coatings. Soluble in alkalis and sulphuric acid,
but resistant to attack in many other environments. Slightly
conductive; static electricity does not build up on the coating
surface.

Chemistry: TiO2 45Cr2O3


Particle Size: -125 +7.8 m (-120 mesh + 7.8 m)

Page | 43
Morphology: Blend Produces hard coatings with excellent
resistance to abrasion, wear, heat and corrosion. Applications: dry
cell battery core mandrels and drum doctor blades.

Alumina:

Alumina Formula: Al2O3

Alumina (Al2O3) Typical Physical Properties Available:

Sintered pieces, targets, tumbling media, colloidal


dispersion, and numerous powder granulations as small as
nanoparticles

Alumina (Al2O3) Typical Applications:

a) Refractories, abrasives, cement, slag adjusters,


traditional & advanced ceramics (lamp components,
mechanical and pump seals, nozzles, semiconductor
equipment components, nuclear insulation, magnetic
recording media, IC packages, & tool bits), aluminum
chemicals, flame retardants, fillers, welding fluxes,
adsorbents, adhesives, coatings, and detergent zeolites.

b) Alumina is an excellent thermal and electrical insulator.


Additionally, it is extremely resistant to wear and
corrosion.

c) Ceramic injection molding.

Aluminium Titanate:

Page | 44
Aluminum Titanate Powder Description:

1) Made by reacting QAl2O3 and TiO2 for 12 hours at


1300 deg. C.

2) Aluminum titanate is a ceramic material consisting of a


mixture of alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) forming
solid solution with stoichiometric proportion of the
components: Al2O3*TiO2 or Al2TiO5.

3) The distinctive property of Aluminum Titanate ceramics


is their high thermal shock resistance, which is a result of
very low coefficient of thermal expansion.

Aluminum Titanate Powder Typical Physical Properties


Available:

1) Granulations from 150 microns and finer

2) Nanoparticles

Aluminum Titanate Powder Typical Physical Constants:

Molecular Weight (g/mol.): 181.8281

Color :white to brownish

Stable From (deg. C): 1260 to 1865

Aluminum Titanate Powder Typical Applications:

Engineered ceramic parts for automobiles, (catalytic


converters, and diesel engine components)

Aluminum Titanium Oxide

Page | 45
Aluminum Titanium Oxide Description:

A highly reactive powder with low thermal expansion, low


thermal conductivity, and high thermal shock resistance

Aluminum Titanium Oxide Typical Chemical Properties


Available:

Typical Chemistry: Al2O3= 53%, TiO2= 41%, and MgO=


3%. Purities available from 99% (industrial grade) to a
typical 99.5% to a 99.99% (high purity grade)

Aluminum Titanium Oxide Typical Physical Properties


Available:

Sintered pieces, targets, granules, and minus 100 mesh


powder

Aluminum Titanium Oxide Nominal Physical Constants:

Molecular Weight: 181.86

Stable (C):1260- 1865

Specific Surface Area (m2/g): 2.3

Refractive Index: 1.7

Aluminum Titanium Oxide Typical Applications:

Non-ferrous metallurgy, crucibles, nozzles, tubes,


thermocouples, portliner in autos, master moulds in the
glass industry, plasma and flame spraying, coatings
(thermal, corrosion and wear protection).

Page | 46
Market Opportunities

The electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties of


plasma sprayed ceramic coatings enable them to reduce part
costs, increase product performance and lifetimes, and lower
maintenance cycle times in a number of applications.

In the electronics industry, ceramic oxides are used to


manufacture resistors, capacitors, hybrid circuits and sensors.
Their low value for electrical conductivity and high dielectric
strength make them popular for applications requiring electrical
insulation.

In the semiconductor industry, various types of discrete packages


are used to make electrical contact, dissipate heat and protect
the semiconductor device. The thermal conductivity of the
insulating materials is important for a high power device. Thermal
dissipation is also crucial for the electrical efficiency and life of
the package, with the thermal dissipation being directly
proportional to the thickness of the material. In these
applications, a dielectric coating can be plasma sprayed to a
thickness that is unobtainable with traditional tape cast and dry
pressed ceramics. Replacing the ceramic substrate with a plasma
sprayed dielectric coating can provide a more cost-effective, less
labor-intensive package with fewer pieces and less material
handling.

Plasma sprayed ceramic oxides are also used in a broad range of


semiconductor processing and equipment applications, where
they enhance surface properties and serve as target materials,
dielectric coatings, and chemical-, thermal- and erosion-resistant
linings on products such as semiconductor sputtering targets,
shield kits and a host of other components.
Page | 47
In physical vapor deposition (PVD) applications, the coatings are
used to reduce particle generation in process chambers during
thin film deposition. The coatings provide a highly textured
surface that increases the mechanical bond between the coating
surface and the depositing thin film, and leads to an increase in
the process chamber lifetime, and extended chamber service
time.

Over the past several years, wafer manufacturers (often called


fabs) have achieved tremendous cost savings with thermal-
sprayed coatings. Their success has sparked an interest in
expanding the use of the coatings in several other areas,
including the manufacture of electrostatic chucks (ESCs), where
the coatings dielectric constant, electrical resistivity and
dielectric strength can be beneficial. The coatings are used on the
lower electrode that controls the charge separation between the
wafer and chuck. The dielectric constant is high enough that the
applied voltage required to sustain the needed clamping pressure
does not result in dielectric breakdown. ESCs used for etching,
implantation, PVD and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are
candidates.

Interest in plasma spraying will undoubtedly continue to grow as


an increasing number of applications experience success with this
new technology.

Page | 48
FINDINGS

Page | 49
Ceramic powder shipment % in world -2003 data

SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS OF CERAMIC POWDERS IN


DETAIL :
Component Coating Thickness of Applications
Material Coating
Used
Corona Rollers Alumina Oxide 1000 microns
Heat, Wear & Die Electric Insulation

for corona treaters.

Cylindrical Rod Alumna - 250 microns Pump Abrasive Medium In Ready


Titania Mix Concrete Trucks

Page | 50
Smooth hard surface, improved
Fiber Passing
Roller Alumna Titania 250 microns frictional coefficient for yarn fiber
Oxide sliding.

Plate Cylinder / Alumina - 150 microns Printing Industry


Impression Titania /
Cylinder Chromium
Carbide

Pump Plunger 250 microns Sliding wear resistance in

Alumina -
Titania corrosive media

Reciprocating Alumina
Spindle Titania

200 microns Sliding Wear & Corrosion

resistance in granite

industry.

Screw Shaft Alumina - 250 microns


Titania To convey high viscous

fluid in Petro-chemical

Industries

Rieter Godet Alumina Titania 250 microns Fibre Sliding Wear


Roller
Resistance

Wire Passing Alumina Wire Guides In Wire


Pulley 300 microns
Drawing Industry

Page | 51
SUPPLY CHAIN AND LOGISTICS:

The company at present has 12 customers in the country and is producing


Ceramic powders of about 4-5 tonnes annually.

Packing of ceramic powders are usually done in about 25kg packs or as


specified by the customer .
Before the company used to pack in specially designed model as for
easy usage in Ceramic spray guns .
Transportation is usually done by large trucks through road .

Page | 52
Business model :

Business type :

Ceramic powers

A fine powder synthesized from various natural gases and solids


through reactant processes. Used as a strengthening agent in
both armor plating and shield generators, as well as constituting
an important part of many other composite materials.

Competitors:

Sulzer Metco inc


H.C. Starck, Inc. - West Chester, OH
Drache USA, Inc. - Gibsonville, NC
CERAC INC. - Milwaukee, WI
Alfa Chemical Corp. - Kings Point, NY

Current details :

Production of ceramic of about 4 tones


Supplies only in India
Packing according to customer needs.

Business Proposal :

Get into business tie-ups with some of the major producers


and suppliers of plasma spray powders and ceramic
powders, thus develop a better distribution channel

Page | 53
worldwide. As , CUMI has its units worldwide it would be
easier to develop a better distribution channel and supply
ceramic powders to the leading ceramic powder
manufacturers of the world at a competitive price than other
companies and thus acquiring more sales .
Get into business tie-ups with some of the leading suppliers
and manufacturers of plasma spray machines such as
plasma spray guns and thereby opening new channels of
sale and indirectly obtaining new customers and increasing
the sales .
Get into business focusing on the major applicants of
ceramic powders like diesel engine manufacturers, turbine
engine manufacturers, textile industry equipment
manufacturers, paper industry equipment manufacturers
,and develop a proper marketing strategy so that the
companies are aware of the advantages of the ceramic
powders and their applications. For this CUMI must attain all
the necessary approvals and certifications so as to gain the
trust of the companies.

Major Plasma spray equipment manufacturers:

Nantong Zhenhuan Trade Co., Ltd.


Plasma powders and systems incorporated .
Sulzer metco Inc
Metalizing Equipment Company (MEC) Pvt. Ltd.
MSSA interweld Co
Thermal Spray Depot
Pars Plasma Coating
TMS metalizing systems ltd
Bolts metalizing Inc

Page | 54
Major Plasma spray powder manufacturers :

MarkeTech International - Port Townsend, WA


All-Chemie, Ltd. - Mount Pleasant, SC
H.C. Starck, Inc. - West Chester, OH
Drache USA, Inc. - Gibsonville, NC
CERAC INC. - Milwaukee, WI
Alfa Chemical Corp. - Kings Point, NY
Surepure Chemetals, Inc. - Florham Park, NJ
Sulzer metco inc
Zibo Tiancheng Glaze Co.ltd

Global presence of CUMI:

Canada Egypt
USA Nigeria
Brazil Kenya
Argentina South Africa
Norway UAE
UK Russia
Netherlands China
Belgium Bangladesh
France India
Spain Sri Lanka
Germany Malaysia
Switzerland Singapore
Poland Japan
Austria South Korea
Italy Taiwan
Romania Australia
Greece New Zealand
Turkey

Page | 55

INDUSTRY CHOOSEN : DIESEL ENGINE


MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
DIESEL ENGINE :

A diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition


engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat
of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is
injected into the combustion chamber. This is in contrast to
spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline
engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to
gasoline), which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel
mixture. The engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in
1893.The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of
any regular internal or external combustion engine due to its
very high compression ratio. Low-speed Diesel engines (as
used in ships and other applications where overall engine
weight is relatively unimportant) often have a thermal
efficiency which exceeds 50 percent.
Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four
stroke versions. They were originally used as a more efficient
replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s
they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in
locomotives, large trucks and electric generating plants
followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in
a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel
engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA
increased. As of 2007, about 50 percent of all new car sales
in Europe are diesel.
Diesel Engines also known as (also known as compression-
ignition engines) is an internal combustion engine that uses

Page | 56
the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel,
which is injected into the combustion chamber. This is in
contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol
engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel
as opposed to gasoline), which uses a spark plug to ignite an
air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by Rudolf
Diesel in 1893.
The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any
regular internal or external combustion engine due to its
very high compression ratio. Low-speed Diesel engines (as
used in ships and other applications where overall engine
weight is relatively unimportant) often have a thermal
efficiency which exceeds 50 percent.
Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four
stroke versions. They were originally used as a more efficient
replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s
they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in
locomotives, large trucks and electric generating plants
followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in
a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel
engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA
increased. As of 2007, about 50 percent of all new car sales
in Europe are diesel.
The world's largest diesel engine is currently
a Wrtsil Sulzer RT96-C Common Rail marine diesel of about
108,920 hp (81,220 kW) @ 102 rpm output.

Diesel Engine Manufactures:


Machines
In China there are about 99396 suppliers of machines driven
by diesel engines whereas India has 1038 suppliers.
Following them is Germany with 77, Australia with 84,

Page | 57
Thailand with 69, Turkey with 194, Pakistan with 37 and
Belgium with 91.

Transportation:

Category:

Truck Engine (1636) Tractor Truck (6399)

Motorcycles (6523) Cargo Truck (3689)

Boat Engine (1394) Tanker Truck (3501)

Aircraft (1) Garbage Truck (1931)

Dump Truck (12058) Watering Cart (1796)

ATV (9086) Other Trucks (1593)

Supplier Location:

China Thailand (132)


(Mainland) (54535)
Turkey (64)
India (81)
Pakistan (23)
Germany (17)
Belgium (14)
Australia (25)

Page | 58

Major advantages
Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal
combustion engines:

They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the


same work, due to the engine's higher temperature of
combustion and greater expansion ratio. Gasoline engines are
typically 30 percent efficient while diesel engines can convert
over 45 percent of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.

They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to


attend to, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to
damp environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires,
etc., also eliminates a source of radio frequency emissions
which can interfere with navigation and communication
equipment, which is especially important in marine and aircraft
applications.

They can deliver much more of their rated power on a


continuous basis than a petrol engine.

The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as


that of a petrol engine due to the increased strength of parts
used. Diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol
as well.
Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many
applications. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using
a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount
of flammable vapor. The low vapor pressure of diesel is
especially advantageous in marine applications, where the
accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular
hazard. For the same reason, diesel engines are immune
to vapor lock.

For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (mass burned
per energy produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly
constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use
proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs.

They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.

Diesel engines can accept super- or turbo-charging pressure


without any natural limit, constrained only by the strength of
engine components. This is unlike petrol engines, which
inevitably suffer detonation at higher pressure.

The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal,


therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines.

Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, non-petroleum-based fuel


(through transesterification) which can run directly in many
diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation
to run synthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to
gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol).
Global demand to grow 3% annually through 2012

World diesel engine demand is forecast to expand over three


percent per year through 2012 to about $160 billion. This
represents a considerable deceleration from the impressive
growth posted during the 2002-2007 period, reflecting an
expected slowdown in motor vehicle and off-highway equipment
production. Additionally, projected declines in metal prices are set
to lower diesel engine production costs, moderating growth in the
market. Despite the slower growth rate, substantial increases in
demand are being predicted for every segment of the world diesel
engine market.

The Asia/Pacific region is now the worlds largest market for diesel
engines, surpassing Western Europe. Rising demand for diesel
engines in China, India, and South Korea drove growth in the
regional market. The Asia/Pacific share of the world diesel engine
market is forecast to exceed one-third by 2012. Imports of diesel
engines are expected to surge from 2007 to 2012, as regional
manufacturers are unable to keep up with demand. In 2012, only
Japan is forecast to post a substantial diesel engine trade surplus.
Although the regional light vehicle segment is projected to
expand at the fastest annual rate, the largest absolute gains will
occur in the heavy truck and bus segment. China alone is forecast
to account for almost 18 percent of new demand, from 2007 to
2012. North American market to outpace Western Europe, driven
by motor vehicle uses.

The diesel engine market in Western Europe is projected to


decelerate through 2012, as the production of motor vehicles and
machinery weakens. In North America, the US is expected to
account for the vast majority of new diesel engine demand
through 2012. Growth in the North American market will be driven
by the motor vehicle segment, which is set to benefit from the
increasing use of diesel engines in light vehicle production. In
Eastern Europe and Latin America, demand for diesel engines is
forecast to grow about 4.0 percent per year from 2007 to 2012.
Nonetheless, each of these two regions will still account for less
than six percent of total diesel engine demand. Stationary market
segment to grow the fastest Growth rates in the various diesel
engine markets are expected to be fairly uniform through 2012,
ranging from about two to four percent. The stationary segment is
expected to expand at the fastest annual rate, while the motor
vehicle segment is forecast to claim most new demand.

Diesel engines future growth :

In the midst of an economic downturn, looking toward the future


gives us hope. A recent report from Freedonia group on the global
diesel engine and related products looks bullish for growth on
diesel technology. It forecasts that the demand for diesel engines
and related products will rise 6.2 percent annually to $19.5 billion
in 2013. Demand for diesel engines and related parts in the motor
vehicle market as a whole is projected to advance 8.5 percent
annually to $10.7 billion in 2013. In the non-motor vehicle
segment of the diesel engine market, demand for engines and
related parts is forecast to rise 3.7 percent annually to $8.8 billion
in 2013. Study authors relate the gains in on and off-road sectors
due to pent-up demand for replacing older equipment and desire
to take advantage of new cleaner more efficient technology.
Diesel Engine Manufacturers :

The following listings are some of the leading manufacturing


companies in the world.

China YUCHAL International owns 76% of diesel engine


manufacturing in the world

Caterpillar

Cummins

Detroit Diesel

Perkins

Perkins Remanufactured

John Deere

Yanmar

Major Diesel engine manufacturing countries :

China

Germany

Basil
Russia

India

Sales Data :

Sales of Diesel engine world wide :

Current market value for Diesel engine globally : 136 Billion


dollars

Expected Diesel engine total value by 2012 =160 Billion


dollars

Expected Market growth rate for Diesel engine in Upcoming


years:

6.2 percent annually to $19.5 billion


Sales
Expected Business for diesel engine Expected % Value for Ceramic Coating

1%

99%

Expected money value for ceramic coating by 2012 :


1% of 160 billion dollars = 1.6 billion dollars

Expected Market growth rate for Diesel engine in Upcoming


years :

6.2 percent annually to $19.5 billion

Expected Market growth rate for ceramic coatings :


0.195 billion dollars.

Estimated profit :

Diesel engine companies: An estimated profit of about 0.195


billion dollars approximately for ceramic powder providers. So
CUMI must target to achieve a significant part in this profit.
SWOT ANALYSIS:

STRENGTH: WEAKNESS:
STRATEGIC ISSUES :
Part of a well known and CUMI never explored the
prestigious Murugappa
STRATEGY: market of Ceramic powders
group. globally.
CUMI has its units all over In the last 10-20 years the
the world ,so this makes a company never tried to
better distribution channel make an expansion in this
The company has good field.
resources. Lack of approvals and other
Powders used for producing certifications for Ceramic
Ceramic powders are also powders to getting into
produced within the business with global
company. customers like Rolls Royce.

THREAT
OPPORTUNITY
Global competitors like
Indian market solely open
Sulzer Metco Inc., H.C.
for the company
Starck Inc., Pars Plasma
Large number of industries,
Coating.
applicants of ceramic Absence of an effective
powders.
strategic planning
Slow but gradual growth in Substitutes. For example,
demand of the product. electro plating and other

Business Model 1:
This business model suggests CUMIS tie-ups with other global
powder manufacturing companies like H.C.Starck and Suzler
Metco.

Key Partners: Key Value Channels: Custom


activities propositi er
& ons: Relatio
MarkeTech Key n&
Internation resources Custom
al : Transportati er
Provide on channels Segme
All-Chemie, Powders the like ship, nts:
Ltd. manufactur ceramic road will be
ed in the powders used as per Packing
H.C.
units of at a much the need of as
Starck, Inc.
CUMI lower cost the specified
Drache mixed and better customer. by the
proportion quality, custome
USA, Inc.
ally for the creating r,
CERAC INC. desired value for delivery
- ceramic the time by
powders. companys the
Alfa products. fastest.
Chemical
Corp. Advanced
technical
Surepure expertise.
Chemetals,
Inc.

Sulzer
Metco I

Zibo
Tiancheng
Glaze

Cost Structure :
An agreed upon percentage of the profit would be shared among
the companies.
Revenue Streams :
Increased number of global customers as a result of shared
sales channels.
Better penetration into global market.

CUMI
Shared Joint Technic
Sales cooperati al
channels on Experti

HC

Business Model 2:
This business model suggests CUMI to focus on Ceramic powder
industry and its expansion world over by focusing on specific
industries like Diesel engine manufactures and manufacturing the
ceramic plasma powders, then outsourcing the sales and
marketing functions to an international trader of repute. The
options of looking at other small manufacturers of plasma
powders as trading partners also should be kept open. The
production planning, production and packaging are the value
addition done in house. The strengths and competencies of the
trader is brought in to expand CUMIs market reach due to lack of
sales resources.
CUMI Packing
&

Through international
traders

Razor and Blades business model:


The bait and hook business model (also referred to as the razor
and blades business model or the tied products business model)
was introduced in the early 20th century.

This involves offering a basic product at a very low cost, often at a


loss (the Bait), then charging compensatory recurring amounts
for refills or associated products or services (the hook).

Some of the major competitors like H. C. Starck and Sulzer Metco


provide Plasma thermal spraying machines to their customers as
their bait and thereby increasing the sale of their powders which
is their Hook. Utilizing their resources, CUMI could provide
spraying machines at a compatible cost and thereby increase the
sales of their ceramic powders.

Network Effect business model:


In economics and business, a network effect is the effect that one
user of a good or service has on the value of that product to other
users.

If CUMI could supply their ceramic powders to a few reputed firms


initially, and thereby create a brand image and value for their
product, it will automatically attract other customers around the
globe.

For example, China YUCHAL International owns 76% of diesel


engine manufacturing in the world. If this company implements
the usage of ceramic plasma powders in their diesel engine
manufacturing units and does business with CUMI, it will lead
other diesel engine manufacturers to follow. This would result in
increased global usage of ceramic powders.
CONCLUSION

The project study attempts to make an analysis of the market


growth of the Ceramic powder industry and to propose strategic
steps for Carborundum Universal Ltd. to increase the sales of their
Ceramic powders.

At present Ceramic powder industry in India has not acquired


acceptance due to the presence of various substitutes such as
other thermal spray powders and electroplating. Despite CUMI
being the only company producing ceramic powders for the last
10 years in India, the company has not been able to tape the
market successfully.

This study shows that CUMI could increase their figures by


aligning themselves with global leaders in the industry like H.C
Starck and Sulzer Metco. This would give CUMI the advantage of
increased sales channels and technical assistance. But CUMI must
keep in mind the various factors like quality, approvals and
certifications. Another strategic proposal would be to focus
business with specific industries like paper industry, diesel engine
manufacturing industry, textile industry etc.

To conclude CUMI must try to put more emphasis on effective


utilization of their resources, certifications and approvals required
to do business with leading companies like Rolls-Royce. CUMI
must also focus on proper marketing strategy for their product.

REFERENCES:
Online Database

www.cumi-murugappa.com
www.alibaba.com
www.hcstarck.com
www.predmaterials.com
www.ceramics-directory.com
www.quickmba.com
www.sulzermetco.com