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# Soil Mechanics

CE 462

1 Soil Mechanics CE 462
Khasawneh, P.E.
Syllabus

## Dr. Mohammad Ali Khasawneh, P.E.

Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Syllabus
Time: S T Th. 8:15 to 9:15 AM; C3014; Section 2

Office: C5 L1

E-mail: mkhasawneh@just.edu.jo

## Office Hours: TBA

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Syllabus
Text:

## Braja M. Das and Khaled Sobhan,

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering,
8th Edition, Cengage Learning

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Syllabus
References:
1. Terzaghi, K, Peck, R and Mesri G., (1996) Soil Mechanics
in Engineering Practice, 3rd Edition
2. Coduto, D., (1999) Geotechnical Engineering: Principles
and Practice, Prentice Hall
3. C. Liu and J. B. Evett, Soils and Foundations, Pearson
Prentice Hall 7th Edition

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Syllabus
Content: The following topics will be covered

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Syllabus
following scale and weighting of component activities
and the professional judgment of the instructor:

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Syllabus
Exams: TBD.

## Final Exam: TBA by Admission and

Registration Unit

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Syllabus
Course outcomes:

After successfully completing this course the student should be able to:

1. Know the soil mineralogy, basic soil indices, how to classify the soil and know
how to calculate compaction parameters. Perform basic weight-volume
calculations.
2. Know basic principles of flow through porous media including Darcy's law, the
equation of continuity, seepage forces, and flow nets.
3. Know how stresses are transferred through soils. Be able to compute both geostatic
stresses (total stress, effective stress, and pore pressures) and induced stresses due
to point, line, and area loads.
4. Know basic consolidation theory. Be able to estimate the amount of settlement and
the time required for settlement under a given load.
5. Know shear strength principles including the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Be
able to perform basic calculations related to shear strength analysis.

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10 Soil Mechanics CE 462
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Soil Mechanics
Geotechnical Engineering-General
Perspective - Chapter I
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Soil Mechanics is the first course in a major civil engineering
field called Geotechnical Engineering.

## Geotechnical Engineering involves the application of soil

mechanics, rock mechanics, engineering geology, and other
related disciplines to civil engineering design and
construction.

## Geotechnical Engineering plays a key role in all civil

engineering projects since all structures are built in or on the
ground.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
The term "soil" can have different meanings, depending upon the
field in which it is considered.

## To a geologist, it is the material in the relative thin zone of the

Earth's surface within which roots occur, and which are formed as
the products of past surface processes. The rest of the crust is
grouped under the term "rock".
To a pedologist, it is the substance existing on the surface, which
supports plant life.
To an engineer, it is a material that can be:
o built on: foundations of buildings, bridges
o built in: basements, culverts, tunnels
o built with: embankments, roads, dams
o supported: retaining walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Most of the man made structures except those which float or fly are
supported by natural soil or rock deposits.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Rock:
Can be defined as a natural aggregate of minerals that are
connected by strong and permanent bonding or attractive
forces (cemented or consolidated material ).

Soil:
May be defined as the unconsolidated or un-cemented
material. It is the sediments and deposits of solid particles that
have resulted from the disintegration/decomposition of the
rock through mechanical, chemical and physical weathering.
Soil has attractive forces and may not be permanent as that of
rock.
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Rocks: Soils:

## 1. Most rocks are cemented 1. Most soils are not cemented

2. Most rocks have low 2. Most soils have large
porosity porosity
3. Weathering can greatly 3. Weathering barely alters the
alter the rocks properties soil properties
4. Depending on scale, rocks 4. Depending on scale, soils
are considered a are considered a continuous
discontinuous material material

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

Rock Soil

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Soil Mechanics:

## The branch of science that deals with the study of

1. Physical properties of soil.
2. Behavior of soil mass subjected to various
types of forces.

## Soil mechanics is the study of both solid and

fluid mechanical characteristics of soils.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Solid Mechanics issues:

## 1. How much soil will deform when it is loaded?

2. When loads are applied, at what rate does soil
deform?
3. How much load can we apply to the soil before it
fails? How does soil fail?

## These questions are required to be asked from the

solid mechanics point of view.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics issues:

## 1. How does water flow through soil or how fast or

at what rate?
2. How can fluid flow through soil and cause it to
fail?

## So these issues are required to be answered as far as

fluid mechanics is concerned.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Why do, civil engineers, study soil mechanics?

## Briefly, all branches of civil engineering require an understanding

of soil and how it behaves namely:

1. Structural engineering
2. Transportation engineering
3. Environmental engineering
4. Hydraulic engineering.

## They require these particular concepts of soil mechanics to

analyze the problems of civil engineering.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Structural engineering:

## Virtually all structures eventually come into contact with

soil or via their foundations. That is, for bridges, buildings,
chimney towers, transmission line towers, offshore drilling
rigs etc.

## So knowledge of soil mechanics is essential to assure that

structures are properly supported. This can avert the
structural damage and failure, loss of life and financial loss.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Transportation engineering:

cuts, fills etc.

## So understanding soil mechanics can prevent problems with

pavement potholing, cracking, embankment and slope
failures that can wipe out entire roadways.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Environmental engineering

## Liquid toxins or pollutants often spilled or released

inadvertently into or onto the soil

wastes.

## Will the pollutants remain in place or possibly be transported

through soil, if so at what rate?
Can anything be done to clean-up the pollution such as working
out of remedial measures like provision of the barriers or
remediation measures for cleaning the pollution?
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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Hydraulic engineering

## The design of earthen flow retention structures such as dams,

levees, dikes, storage ponds etc. requires knowledge of how
water is transported through soil.

## It also requires the knowledge of how water flowing through

soil can cause failure by mechanisms such as boiling, piping,
erosion and scour.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Behavior of the structure depends
upon:

## Properties of the soil on which

the structure rests

## Properties of the rocks from

which they are derived

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Applications: Applications:

## 1. Roadway construction 4. Slope stabilization

i. Embankments 5. Retaining walls
ii. Compaction 6. Dams
iii. Drainage design 7. Tunnels
2. Foundations 8. Ports
i. Shallow foundations 9. Mines
ii. Deep foundations 10. Landfills
3. Excavations 11. Culverts

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation -- Shallow Foundations

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation -- Deep Foundations

Driven Piles
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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation -- Deep Foundations

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation -- Foundation Failure

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Foundation -- Foundation Failure

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Excavation

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Slope Stability

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Dams

Types: Purposes:

## 1. Gravity Dams 1. Water supply

2. Arch Dams 2. Flood control
3. Buttress Dams 3. Power production
4. Earth/Rock 4. Recreation/Aesthetic
Fill Dams

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Dams -- Gravity Dams

## Monksville Dam, Grand Coulee Dam

Ringwood Borough, NJ Columbia River, WA
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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Dams Arch Dams

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Dams -- Buttress Dams

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Dams Earth/Rock Fill Dams

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Natural Hazards
Types:
1. Earthquakes: sudden release of energy in the Earths crust
that creates seismic waves.
2. Landslides: geological phenomenon that includes a wide
range of ground movements (rockfalls, deep failure of slopes
and shallow debris flows) due to gravity that requires a
trigger.
3. Sinkholes: depression or hole on the ground caused by
collapse of the surface layer and/or collapse of an underlying
cave or void. Can also be caused by chemical dissolution of
carbonate rocks or suffosion processes.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Natural hazards -- Earthquakes

## 1971 San Fernando

earthquake

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Natural hazards -- Landslides

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Natural hazards -- Sinkholes

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Natural hazards -- Sinkholes

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
As far as civil engineers are concerned, we are required
to study the properties of soil such as:

1. Properties of origin
2. Grain size distribution
3. Weight-Volume relationships
4. Physical properties of soil
5. Ability to be compacted
6. Ability to drain water
7. Mechanical behavior of the soil when they are sheared or
compressed or when water flows through it.
8. Consolidation/Settlement and swell of clays
9. Shear strength of the soil
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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Properties of origin

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Grain size distribution

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Weight-Volume relationships

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Physical properties of soil

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Ability to be compacted

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Ability to drain water

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Stresses in soil

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Consolidation/Settlement and swell of clays

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Shear strength of the soil

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Learning Objectives

## 1. Origin of soil and grain size

i. Describe the processes of soil and rock formation and types
of soil deposits
2. Weight-volume relationships, plasticity and structure of soil
i. Analyze soil composition based on weight and volume
relationships
ii. Explain how soil structure, mineralogy, gradation and
interaction with water affect its behavior
3. Engineering soil classification
i. Classify soils using AASHTO and Unified soil
classification systems
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Learning Objectives

4. Soil compaction
i. Evaluate soil compaction characteristics and select
compaction methods and equipment for fine and coarse-
grained soils
ii. Interpret field compaction results with respect to
compaction specifications
5. Permeability and seepage
i. Interpret permeability test data to get soil permeability
and/or estimate soil permeability from basic soil
properties
ii. Analyze seepage flow and pressures
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Learning Objectives

6. Stress analysis
i. Calculate total and effective stresses in soil
ii. Calculate stress increase in soil due to vertical loads
7. Compressibility of soil
i. Predict foundation settlement (elastic, consolidation)
8. Shear strength of soil
i. Select appropriate lab and field tests to measure soil
strength
ii. Interpret shear strength lab and field test data to get design
parameters

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics
Evolution of Soil Mechanics

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Soil Mechanics
Origin of Soil and Grain Size -
Chapter II
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Rock Types
In the Earth's surface, rocks extend up to as much as 20 km
depth. The major rock types are categorized as to origin as:

magma.

## Sedimentary rocks: formed from the accumulated

deposits of soil particles or remains of certain organisms.

## Metamorphic rocks: formed by a process called

metamorphism.

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Rock Types
Igneous Rocks:

1. If the molten rock (magma) cools very slowly, the different materials segregate
into large crystals forming a coarse grained or granular structure.
2. Example: GRANITE which consists of quartz or feldspar minerals.
3. ACIDIC rocks because of the high silica content and basically they are light
colored rocks.
4. Rocks whose minerals contain iron, magnesium, calcium or sodium but little
silica are classified as BASIC rocks.
5. When the solution of the magma is cooled more rapidly, tiny crystals (fine-
grained) of the minerals are formed.
6. Examples: FELCITE and BASALT
7. When the solution of magma is cooled very rapidly the minerals do not separate
into crystals but rather solidify.
8. Examples: SCORIA, PUMICE and OBSIDAN

So more silica rocks are called ACIDIC rocks and less silica rocks are called
BASIC rocks.
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Rock Types
Sedimentary Rocks:

## 1. Due to the abundant availability of cementing materials in

the flowing water such as silica, carbonates and iron
oxides.
2. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulated
deposits of soil particles or remains of certain organisms that
have become hardened by pressure or cemented by
minerals like silica, carbonates and iron oxides.
3. Examples for these sedimentary rocks are limestone,
sandstone, shale, conglomerate and breccia.

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Rock Types
Metamorphic Rocks:

## 1. Produced from igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks.

2. This results when any type of existing rock is subjected to a
process called metamorphism.
3. The metamorphism is the change brought about by the
combinations of heat, pressure and plastic flow so that the
original rock structure and mineral compositions are changed.
4. Here the plastic flow refers to a slow viscous movement and
rearrangement within the rock mass due to external forces.
5. Metamorphism of granite gives GNEISS
6. Metamorphism of limestone gives MARBLE
7. Metamorphism of shale gives SLATE
8. Metamorphism of sandstone gives QUARTZITE.

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Rocks Cycle

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Formation of Soils
Three basic rock classifications based on origin namely igneous, sedimentary
and metamorphic rocks. These rocks are subjected to different types of
weathering like physical/mechanical or chemical weathering. In this process
rocks get transported by different agencies and they get disintegrated into soils
(boulders, gravel, sand, silt and clay).

ROCKS
(IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC)

WEATHERING
(PHYSICAL/MECHANICAL OR CHEMICAL)

TRANSPORTED

## BOULDERS, GRAVEL, SAND, SILT AND CLAY

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Formation of Soils
1. Now, rocks whose chief mineral is quartz with high silica content
when they decompose and disintegrate predominantly they
produce sandy or gravelly soil with little clay. They are Acidic
light colored rocks.
2. Similarly, basic rocks decompose and disintegrate to produce fine
textured silt and clay soils with low silica content.
3. The clays are not small fragments of the original materials that
existed in the parent rock but they are result of the primary rock
forming minerals decomposing to form secondary minerals
4. So the basic rocks decompose to fine textured silty and clayey
soils whereas acidic rocks decompose to give coarse textured
sandy and gravely soils.
5. Soil can be grouped into two broad categories depending upon the
method of deposition like RESIDUAL and TRANSPORTED.

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Formation of Soils
Residual soil:
1. Formed from the weathering of rock and they remain at
the location of their origin.
2. May possess mineralogical resemblance to the parent
rock.
3. Its characteristics mainly depend upon the climatic
conditions like humidity, temperature, rainfall in that
particular area or the natural drainage pattern and
form and extent of vegetation cover.
4. For the formation of residual soil to take place a warm
and humid climate is favorable.
5. The nature of residual soil differs markedly at different
depths below ground surface and constantly changes
with time.
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Formation of Soils
Transported soil:
1. Moved from the place of their origin to other places by
transporting agencies like gravity, water, glaciers, wind or man
either singularly or in combination.
2. Classified based on the transporting agency and the method of
deposition
3. Examples:
i. Glacial soils transported and deposited by glaciers
ii. Alluvial soils transported by running water and deposited along
streams
iii. Lacustrine soils formed by deposition in quiet lakes
iv. Marine soils formed by deposition in the sea
v. Aeolian soils transported and deposited by wind
vi. Colluvial soils formed by movement of soil from its original
place by gravity, such as during landslides

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Weathering
Weathering:
The process of breaking down rocks by
mechanical/physical and chemical processes into
smaller pieces to form various sizes of soils (Boulders to
gravel to sand to silt to clay)

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Weathering
Mechanical/Physical weathering
1. Reduces the size of the parent rock material
2. No change in the original composition of the parent
rock.
3. They include the actions of water, frost, temperature
changes, wind and ice.
4. They cause disintegration and the products are mainly
coarse soils.
6. The principal cause is climatic change.

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Weathering
Mechanical/Physical weathering

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Weathering
Chemical weathering
1. Not only breaks up the material into smaller particles but
alters the nature of the original parent rock itself.
2. The main processes responsible are hydration, oxidation,
and carbonation.
3. New compounds are formed due to the chemical
alterations.
4. Rain water that comes in contact with the rock surface
reacts to form hydrated oxides, carbonates and
sulphates.
5. Chemical weathering occurs in wet and warm conditions

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Weathering
Chemical weathering
6. Chemical weathering consists of degradation by
decomposition and/or alteration.
7. The results of chemical weathering are generally fine
soils with altered mineral grains.
8. The clay minerals are a product of chemical
weathering of feldspars, ferromagnesians and micas.
9. The clay minerals give the plastic property to soils.
10. There are three important clay minerals: (1) kaolinite,
(2) illite, and (3) montmorillonite.

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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Quartz
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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Orthoclase
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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

plagioclase

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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Muscovite
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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Biotite
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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Calcite

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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals

Dolomite
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Typical Rock-Forming Minerals
Chlorite

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Typical Rocks
Granite

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Basalt
Typical Rocks

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Typical Rocks

Rhyolite
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Typical Rocks
Sandstone

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Limestone
Typical Rocks

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Conglomerate
Typical Rocks

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Marble
Typical Rocks

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Slate
Typical Rocks

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Mica schist
Typical Rocks

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Typical Rocks
Folded schist

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Soil Particle/Grain Size

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Karl Terzaghi (the father of soil
mechanics) quote:
Unfortunately soils are made by nature not by man and the
products of nature are always complex. As soon as we pass from
steel and concrete to the earth the omnipotence of the theory
ceases to exist. Natural soil is never uniform. Its properties
change from point to point while other knowledge of its
properties are limited to those few spots at which samples have
been collected. In soil mechanics the accuracy of computed
results never exceeds that of a crude estimate and the principle
function of theory consists of in teaching us what and how to
observe in the field.

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Soil Mechanics
Origin of Soil and Grain Size -
Chapter II
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Formation of Clay Minerals
Soil Particle

## Rock Fragment Mineral

Formed from
Nature of
two basic
Atoms
structural units

Tetrahedral or
Silicates Aluminates Oxides Carbonates Phosphates Octahedral
unites

Combine to
form sheets

form form form

## 2-layer or 3- 2-layer or 3- 2-layer or 3-

layer sheet layer sheet layer sheet
minerals minerals minerals

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Formation of Clay Minerals
1. A soil particle may be a mineral or a rock fragment.
2. A mineral is a chemical compound formed in nature
during a geological process.
3. A rock fragment has a combination of one or more
minerals.
4. Based on the nature of atoms, minerals are classified
as silicates, aluminates, oxides, carbonates and
phosphates.
5. Silicate minerals are the most important as they
influence the properties of clay soils.
6. Different arrangements of atoms in the silicate
minerals give rise to different silicate structures.
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Formation of Clay Minerals
Basic Structural Units

## 1. Soil minerals are formed from two basic

structural units: tetrahedral and octahedral.
2. The units are not electrically neutral and as such
do not exist as single units.
3. The basic units combine to form sheets in which
the oxygen or hydroxyl ions are shared among
4. Three types of sheets are thus formed, namely
silica sheet, gibbsite sheet and brucite sheet.
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Formation of Clay Minerals
1. Isomorphous substitution is the replacement
of the central atom of the tetrahedral or
octahedral unit by another atom during the
formation of the sheets.
2. The sheets then combine to form various two-
layer or three-layer sheet minerals.
3. As the basic units of clay minerals are sheet-
like structures, the particle formed from
stacking of the basic units is also plate-like. As
a result, the surface area per unit mass
113
becomes very large.
Soil Mechanics CE 462
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Formation of Clay Minerals
Soil Particle

## Rock Fragment Mineral

Formed from
Nature of
two basic
Atoms
structural units

Tetrahedral or
Silicates Aluminates Oxides Carbonates Phosphates Octahedral
unites

Combine to
form sheets

form form form

## 2-layer or 3- 2-layer or 3- 2-layer or 3-

layer sheet layer sheet layer sheet
minerals minerals minerals

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Structure of Clay Minerals
A tetrahedral unit consists of a central silicon atom that
is surrounded by four oxygen atoms located at the
corners of a tetrahedron. A combination of tetrahedrons
forms a silica sheet.

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Structure of Clay Minerals
An octahedral unit consists of a central ion, either aluminum or
magnesium, that is surrounded by six hydroxyl ions located at the
corners of an octahedron. A combination of aluminum-hydroxyl
octahedrons forms a gibbsite sheet, whereas a combination of
magnesium-hydroxyl octahedrons forms a brucite sheet.

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Two-layer Sheet Minerals
Kaolinite and halloysite clay minerals are the
most common.
Kaolinite Mineral
1. The basic Kaolinite unit is a two-layer unit
that is formed by stacking a gibbsite sheet
on a silica sheet.
2. These basic units are then stacked one on top
of the other to form a lattice of the mineral.
3. The units are held together by hydrogen
bonds.
4. The strong bonding does not permit water to
enter the lattice. Thus, Kaolinite minerals are
stable and do not expand under saturation.
5. Kaolinite is the most abundant constituent of
residual clay deposits.
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Two-layer Sheet Minerals
Kaolinite and halloysite clay minerals are
the most common.

Halloysite Mineral

## The basic unit is also a two-layer sheet similar to

that of Kaolinite except for the presence of water
between the sheets.

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Three-layer Sheet Minerals
Montmorillonite and illite clay minerals are the most common. A basic three-
layer sheet unit is formed by keeping one silica sheet each on the top and at the
bottom of a gibbsite sheet. These units are stacked to form a lattice of the
mineral.
Montmorillonite Mineral
The bonding between the three-layer units is by van der Waals forces. This
bonding is very weak and water can enter easily. Thus, this mineral can
imbibe a large quantity of water causing swelling. During dry weather, there will
be shrinkage.

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Three-layer Sheet Minerals
Montmorillonite and illite clay minerals are the most common. A basic three-layer
sheet unit is formed by keeping one silica sheet each on the top and at the bottom
of a gibbsite sheet. These units are stacked to form a lattice of the mineral.
Illite Mineral
Illite consists of the basic montmorillonite units but are bonded by secondary
valence forces and potassium ions. There is about 20% replacement of
aluminum with silicon in the gibbsite sheet due to isomorphous substitution.
This mineral is very stable and does not swell or shrink.

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Fine Soil Fabric
Natural soils are rarely the same from one point in
the ground to another. The content and nature of
grains varies, but more importantly, so does the
arrangement of these. The arrangement and
organization of particles and other features within
a soil mass is termed its fabric.

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Fine Soil Fabric
CLAY particles are flaky. Their thickness is very small relative to
their length & breadth, in some cases as thin as 1/100th of the
length. They therefore have high specific surface values. These
surfaces carry negative electrical charge, which attracts positive
ions present in the pore water. Thus a lot of water may be held as
adsorbed water within a clay mass.

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Soil Mechanics
Origin of Soil and Grain Size -
Chapter II
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Specific Gravity

## Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of

the unit weight/density of a given material
to the unit weight/density of water.

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Specific Gravity

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Soil Types and Classification - General
Soils

Cohesive Organic
Granular or
Sticky & plastic Spongy, cohesionless
Small crumbly
Non sticky
Wet Compressible
Larger
Clay Not good
Good
<0.005 mm

0.1 mm

## 0.1 mm > Silt >

0.005 mm

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Soil Types and Classification - General
Granular/Cohesionless Soils:

## Excellent engineering properties (except loose sand)

Excellent foundation materials for supporting roads and
structures
Large bearing capacity
Small settlements
Excellent embankment material
High shear strength
Easily compacted
Excellent backfill material for retaining walls
Easily compacted
Easily drained
Small lateral pressures
High permeability
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Soil Types and Classification - General
Cohesive Soils:

## Bad engineering properties compared to cohesionless soils

Lose shear strength upon wetting
Sensitive to water; expand when wetted and shrink when
dried
Creep (deform plastically) over time; landslides
Lower shear strength
Large lateral pressures
Low permeability;
Therefore, suitable for dams and not suitable as backfill,
foundation and embankment materials

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Soil Types and Classification - General
Silty Soils:

On the borderline
Fine grained and yet cohesionless
Undesirable soil properties
High capillarity and frost heave/action

Organic Soils:

## Very unsuitable for all applications

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Soil Types and Classification Grain size
Soils

## Coarse grained Fine grained

> 0.075 mm (fines) < 0.075
(sieve # 200) mm (sieve # 200)

Gravel Silt

## Coarse sand Clay

Fine sand

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Soil Types and Classification Grain size

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Soil Types and Classification Grain size
Coarse-Grained Soils:

particles.

## 2. For these soils the grains are well defined

and may be seen by the naked eye.

## 3. The individual particles may vary from

perfectly round to highly angular.
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Soil Types and Classification Grain size
Fine-Grained Soils:

## 2. Silts: These can be visually differentiated from clays

because they exhibit the property of dilatancy. If a
moist sample is shaken in the hand water will appear
on the surface. If the sample is then squeezed in the
fingers the water will disappear.

## 3. Clays: Clays exhibit plasticity, they may be readily

remolded when moist, and if left to dry can attain high
strengths.
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Soil Types and Classification Grain size
Organic Soils:
1. These may be of either clay or silt sized particles.
2. Contain significant amounts of vegetable matter.
3. The soils as a result are usually dark grey or black and
have a noticeable odor from decaying matter.
4. Generally only a surface phenomenon but layers of peat
may be found at depth.
5. These are very poor soils for most engineering
purposes.
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Soil Types and Classification

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Soil Types and Classification

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Soil Types and Classification

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Mechanical Analysis of Soils
Mechanical analysis: is the determination of the size
range of particles present in a soil, expressed as a
percentage of the total dry weight.

## Two methods generally are used to find the particle-

size distribution of soil:

## 1. Sieve analysisfor particle sizes larger than 0.075

mm in diameter, and
2. Hydrometer analysisfor particle sizes smaller
than 0.075 mm in diameter.

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Sieve Analysis of Soils

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Sieve Analysis of Soils
1. The sieves used for soil analysis are generally 203 mm (8
in.) in diameter.
2. To conduct a sieve analysis:
i. First oven-dry the soil and then break all lumps into
small particles. The soil then is shaken through a stack
of sieves with openings of decreasing size from top to
bottom (a pan is placed below the stack).
ii. The smallest-sized sieve that should be used for this
type of test is the U.S. No. 200 sieve.
iii. Portions retained on each sieve are collected separately
and oven-dried before the mass retained on each sieve
is measured.
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Sieve Analysis of Soils

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Sieve Analysis of Soils

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Sieve Analysis of Soils
A particle-size distribution curve can be used to determine the
following four parameters:

## 1. Effective size (D10): This parameter is the diameter in the particle-

size distribution curve corresponding to 10% finer. The effective
size of a granular soil is a good measure to estimate the hydraulic
conductivity and drainage through soil.

## 4. Sorting coefficient (So):

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Sieve Analysis of Soils

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Sieve Analysis of Soils

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Sieve Analysis of Soils Example

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Sieve Analysis of Soils Solution

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Sieve Analysis of Soils Solution

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Sieve Analysis of Soils Example

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Sieve Analysis of Soils Solution

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Hydrometer Analysis of Soils
1. To determine the grain size distribution of material passing
the 75m sieve.
2. The soil is mixed with water and a dispersing agent, and
allowed to settle to the bottom of a measuring cylinder.
3. As the soil particles settle out of suspension the specific
gravity of the mixture reduces. An hydrometer is used to
record the variation of specific gravity with time.
4. By making use of Stokes Law, which relates the velocity
of a free falling sphere to its diameter, the test data is
reduced to provide particle diameters and the % by weight
of the sample finer than a particular particle size.

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Hydrometer Analysis of Soils

## Values of K from previous equation

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Hydrometer Analysis of Soils

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Hydrometer Analysis of Soils

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Full Particle-Size Distribution Curve

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Particle Shape
1. As important as particle-size distribution.
2. Difficult to measure.
3. Generally can be divided into three major categories:

## i. Bulky: formed mostly by mechanical weathering of

rock and minerals. Predominantly sand particles. Sand
particles close to origin are very angular. Sand particles
carried by water and wind for a long distances are
subangular to rounded.

minerals.

## iii. Needle shaped: less common.

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Particle Shape

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Soil Mechanics
Weight-Volume Relationships -
Chapter III
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Components of Soils

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Weight/Mass and Volumes Relationships
Given
1. The weight of a chunk of moist soil sample is 45.6 lb.
2. The volume of the soil chunk measured before drying is 0.40 ft3.
3. After the sample is dried out in an oven, its weight is 37.8 lb.
4. The specific gravity of solids is 2.65.

Required
1. Water content.
2. Unit weight of moist soil.
3. Void ratio.
4. Porosity.
5. Degree of saturation.

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Weight/Mass and Volumes Relationships

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Weight/Mass and Volumes Relationships
Given
1. The moist mass of a soil specimen is 20.7 kg.
2. The specimens volume measured before drying is 0.011 m3.
3. The specimen's dried mass is 16.3 kg.
4. The specific gravity of solids is 2.68.

Required
1. Void ratio.
2. Degree of saturation.
3. Wet unit mass.
4. Dry unit mass.
5. Wet unit weight.
6. Dry unit weight.

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Weight/Mass and Volumes Relationships

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

Ww
w
Vw
Ww
w 100%
Ws

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content and Specific Gravity

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity
and Moisture Content

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity
and Moisture Content

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity
and Moisture Content

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Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity
and Moisture Content

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Various Unit Weight Relationships

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Compactness Relative Density
Compactness: relative density the relative
condition of a given soil between two extremes
(densest and loosest conditions).

## Compactness: relative density volume

reduction that has been achieved by
compaction compared to the maximum volume
reduction possible.

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Compactness Relative Density

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Compactness Relative Density

Given
1. A fine, dry sand with an in-place unit weight of 18.28 kN/m3.
2. The specific gravity of solids is 2.67.
3. The void ratio at its densest condition is 0.361.
4. The void ratio at its loosest condition is 0.940.

Required
1. Relative density of the sand.

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Soil Mechanics
Plasticity and Structure of Soil -
Chapter IV
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Plasticity and Consistency
Plasticity:
The ability of a soil to undergo unrecoverable
deformation at a constant volume without cracking
or crumbling of the soil, due to the presences of clay
minerals or organic material.

Consistency:
The physical state of a fine-grained soil at a
particular water content.

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Plasticity and Consistency
At a very low moisture content, soil behaves more
like a solid.

## When the moisture content is very high, the soil

and water may flow like a liquid.

## Depending on the moisture content, the behavior

of soil can be divided into four basic states

## 1. Solid 2. Semisolid 3. Plastic 4. Liquid

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Atterberg Limits
Border line water contents, separating the
different states of a fine grained soil.

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Atterberg
Albert Atterberg was a Swedish chemist and
agricultural scientist.

## Conducted studies to identify the specific minerals that

give a clayey soil its plastic nature

## In each state the consistency and behavior of a soil is

different and so are its engineering properties.

## The boundary between each state can be defined based

on a change in the soil's behavior.

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Atterberg Limits

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Liquid Limit (LL)
The liquid limit (LL) is the
water content where a soil
changes from liquid to plastic
behavior

Determined using a
Casagrande cup (lab) or cone
penetrometer (field)

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Liquid Limit (LL)

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Liquid Limit (LL)

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Liquid Limit (LL)
The moisture
content, in
percent, required
to close a
distance of 12.7
mm (0.5 in.)
along the bottom
of the groove
(see Figures 4.2c
and 4.2d)
after 25 blows is
defined as the
liquid limit.

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Liquid Limit (LL)
Liquid Limit (LL) is defined as:

## The moisture content, in percent, required to

close a distance of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) along the
bottom of the groove after 25 blows.

## # of blows should be within 15-35 blows

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Liquid Limit (LL)

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Liquid Limit (LL)
Flow line can be written in a general form as :

## The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed an

empirical equation for estimating the LL:
* Note: good results for N
between (20-30) blows.
* Note: diff. for diff.
soil types

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Fall Cone Method (British
StandardBS1377).
LL= moisture content at which a standard cone of apex angle 30
and weight of 0.78 N will penetrate a distance d = 20 mm in 5
seconds when allowed to drop from a position of point contact with
the soil surface.

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Fall Cone Method (British
StandardBS1377).

* Note:
A semi-logarithmic

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Plastic Limit (PL)
The plastic limit (PL) is the water content (w%)
where soil starts to exhibit plastic behavior.

## The moisture content in percent, at which the soil

crumbles, when rolled into threads of 3.2 mm (0.13
in.) in diameter

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Fall Cone Method (British
Standard).
PL= moisture content at which a standard cone of
apex angle 30 and weight of 2.35 N will penetrate a
distance d = 20 mm.

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Liquid Limit & Plastic Limit

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Shrinkage Limit (SL)
The shrinkage limit (SL) is the water content
where further loss of moisture will not result
in any more volume reduction

## The shrinkage limit is much less commonly

used than the liquid limit and the plastic limit.

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Plasticity Index (PI)
The PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the
plastic limit

## The plasticity index is important in classifying fine-

grained soils.

High PI tend to be clay
Low PI tend to be silt
PI of 0 tend to have little or no silt or clay.

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Plasticity Index (PI)
Range of water content over which the soil
remains plastic

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Plasticity Index (PI)

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Activity
Because the plasticity of soil is caused by the
adsorbed water that surrounds the clay particles,
we can expect that the type and amounts of clay
minerals in a soil will affect the liquid and plastic
limits (i.e., the PI of a soil is a measure of the activity A
of the soil grains).
Skempton (1953) observed that the PI of a soil
increases linearly with the percentage of clay-
size fraction (% finer than 2 m by weight) present.
On the basis of these results, Skempton defined a
quantity called activity, which is the slope of the
line correlating PI and % finer than 2 m.
Activity is used as an index for identifying the
swelling potential of clay soils.
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Activity

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Activity

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Activity
The activity A of a finegrained soil can be useful in
identifying the type of clay contained in a soil.

For example:

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Liquidity Index and Consistency
Index
The relative consistency of a cohesive soil in the
natural state can be defined by a ratio called the
liquidity index

## Liquidity index (LI) is a measure of sensitivity

For sensitive clays --- LI > 1
For overconsolidated clays --- LI < 1

LI < 1

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Liquidity Index and Consistency
Index
Consistency index (CI), may be defined
as:

## Where w = in-situ moisture content

CI can be 0 or 1; when???!!!

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Example

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Solution

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Plasticity Chart

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Plasticity Chart
The information provided in the plasticity
chart is of great value and is the basis for
the classification of fine-grained soils
in the Unified Soil Classification
System.
There is another use for the A-line and the
U-line. Casagrande has suggested that the
shrinkage limit of a soil can be
approximately determined if its plasticity
index and liquid limit are known
How? See next

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Estimation of SL from Plasticity Chart

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Soil Mechanics
Classification of Soil - Chapter
V
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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Soil Classification
1. Different soils with similar properties may
be classified into groups and sub-groups
according to their engineering behavior.

## 2. Classification systems provide a common

language to concisely express the general
characteristics of soils, which are infinitely
varied, without detailed descriptions.

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General Classification Systems
1. Textural classification: based on the particle-size
distribution of the percent of sand, silt, and clay-
size fractions present in a given soil. Developed by
the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
2. The other major category: based on the engineering
behavior of soil and takes into consideration the
particle-size distribution and the plasticity (i.e.,
liquid limit and plasticity index). For example:
i. The AASHTO classification system, and
ii. The Unified classification system.

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Textural Classification
1. Texture of soil refers to its surface appearance.
Soil texture is influenced by the size of the
individual particles present in it.
2. Table 2.3 divided soils into gravel, sand, silt,
and clay categories on the basis of particle size.
In most cases, natural soils are mixtures of
particles from several size groups.
3. In the textural classification system, the soils are
named after their principal components, such as
sandy clay, silty clay, and so forth.
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Textural Classification

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Textural Classification

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220
This chart is based only on the fraction of soil that
passes through the No. 10 sieve

## Soil Mechanics CE 462

Textural Classification

Khasawneh, P.E.
Textural Classification
Example:
If the particle-size distribution of soil A shows 30% sand, 40% silt, and 30%
clay-size particles, determine its textural classification ?

Solution.

Clay loam
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Textural Classification
Example:
If a soil has a particle size distribution of 20% gravel, 10% sand, 30% silt,
and 40% clay, classify the soil according to textural classification system;

Solution:
The modified textural compositions is needed

## Clay or gravely Clay

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Textural Classification

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Textural Classification

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Textural Classification
1. Based entirely on the particle-size distribution.
2. Doesnt take plasticity (Atterberg Limits) into
consideration.
3. Plasticity is caused by the amount and type of
clay minerals and dictates the physical properties
of fine-grained soils.
4. There is a need for new classification methods
that takes into consideration the particle-size
distribution along with plasticity.

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AASHTO Classification System
1. Soil is classified into eight major groups: A-1 through
A-8.
2. Organic soils are classified as A-8 .
3. Soils classified under groups A-1, A-2, and A-3 are
granular materials of which 35% or less of the
particles pass through the No. 200 sieve.
4. Soils of which more than 35% pass through the No.
200 sieve are classified under groups A-4, A-5, A-6, and
A-7. These soils are mostly silt and clay-type
materials.
5. Classification is carried out left to right by elimination.
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AASHTO Classification System

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AASHTO Classification System
Classification criteria:
1. Grain size
i. Gravel: fraction passing the 75-mm sieve and retained on the No. 10 (2-mm)
U.S. sieve
ii. Sand: fraction passing the No. 10 (2-mm) U.S. sieve and retained on the No.
200 (0.075-mm) U.S. sieve
iii. Silt and clay: fraction passing the No. 200 U.S. sieve
2. Plasticity: The term silty is applied when the fine fractions of the
soil have a plasticity index of 10 or less. The term clayey is applied
when the fine fractions have a plasticity index of 11 or more.
3. If cobbles and boulders (> 75 mm) are encountered, they are
excluded from the portion of the soil sample from which
classification is made. However, the percentage of such material is
recorded.
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1. Group Index (GI)

## 2. Partial GI using LL & partial GI using PI .

3. If GI is negative, it is taken as 0.
4. The GI is rounded off to the nearest whole number.
5. There is no upper limit for the GI.
6. The GI of soils belonging to groups A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5,
and A-3 is always 0.
7. When calculating the GI for soils that belong to groups A-2-6
and A-2-7, use the partial GI for PI.
8. The quality is inversely proportional to the GI.
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Soil Mechanics
Classification of Soil - Chapter
V
Department of Civil Engineering
Jordan University of Science and Technology

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This system classifies soils into two broad categories:

## 1. Coarse-grained soils that are gravelly and sandy in nature with

less than 50% passing through the No. 200 sieve.

## i. The group symbols start with a prefix of G or S. G stands for

gravel or gravelly soil, and S for sand or sandy soil.

2. Fine-grained soils are with 50% or more passing through the No.
200 sieve.

## i. The group symbols start with prefixes of M, which stands for

inorganic silt, C for inorganic clay, or O for organic silts
and clays.
ii. The symbol Pt is used for peat, muck, and other highly
organic soils.
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## Other symbols used for the classification are:

L low plasticity (liquid limit less than 50)
H high plasticity (liquid limit more than
50)

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For proper classification according to this system, some
or all of the following information must be known:

## 1. Percent of gravelthat is, the fraction passing the 76.2-mm

sieve and retained on the No. 4 sieve (4.75-mm opening)
2. Percent of sandthat is, the fraction passing the No. 4 sieve
(4.75-mm opening) and retained on the No. 200 sieve (0.075-
mm opening)
3. Percent of silt and claythat is, the fraction finer than the No.
200 sieve (0.075-mm opening)
4. Uniformity coefficient (Cu) and the coefficient of gradation
(Cc)
5. Liquid limit and plasticity index of the portion of soil passing
the No. 40 sieve
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1. The group symbols for coarse-grained
gravelly soils are GW, GP, GM, GC, GC-
GM, GW-GM, GW-GC, GP-GM, and
GP-GC.

## 2. Similarly, the group symbols for fine-

grained soils are CL, ML, OL, CH, MH,
OH, CL-ML, and Pt.
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According to a recent approach use Figures 5.4, 5.5
and 5.6:

given soil:

## 1. Fine fraction percent passing No. 200 sieve

2. Coarse fraction percent retained on No. 200 sieve
3. Gravel fraction percent retained on No. 4 sieve
4. Sand fraction (percent retained on No. 200 sieve) (percent
retained on No. 4 sieve)Percent of gravelthat is, the fraction
passing the 76.2-mm sieve and retained on the No. 4 sieve
(4.75-mm opening)
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