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API MPMSwLS.LD 73

0732290 O526656 242

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Date of Issue: June 1994 Affected Publication: API Chapter 19.1D,Documentation File for APl Manual of Petroleum Measure- ment Standards Chapter 19.lD-EvaporativeLoss from Fixed Roof Tanks [MI Builelin 2.5181, Fust Edition,

March 1993 (first printing)

ERRATUM

The corrected Table of Contents is shown on the following page:

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API PUBLICATION 2518 DOCUMENTATION FILE CONTENTS SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE - INTRODUCTION ............................................... .. 1 !STANDING STORAGE
API PUBLICATION 2518
DOCUMENTATION FILE
CONTENTS
SECTION
DESCRIPTION
PAGE
-
INTRODUCTION ...............................................
..
1
!STANDING STORAGE LOSS
A
Development of Vapor Space Expansion Factor, KE
Al
B
Development of Vented Vapor Saturation Factor, Ks
..
B1
C
Development of Vapor Space Temperature Factor, KT
..
C1
D
Development of Solar Insolation Parameters ..
D1
E
Development of Paint Solar Absorptance, Q
El
..
F
Development of Liquid Surface Temperature Equations ..
F1
G
Sensitivity Analysis of Standing Storage Loss Equation
..
G1
H
Comparison of Standing Storage Loss Equation with
Test Data ..
i ..
H1.
REFERENCES ................................................
..
R1
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API MPMS*LS.LD 93 m 0732290

051LY39

9Y7

m

Documentation File for API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 19.1- Evaporative Loss From Fixed Roof Tanks

[API Bulletin 25181

API PUBLICATION CHAPTER 19.1 D FIRST EDITION, MARCH 1993

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American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street, Northwest

Washington, D.C. 20005

4’

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API MPMS*LS.LD

93

0732290 05LL440 667

Documentation File for API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 19.1-Evaporative From Fixed Roof Tanks

Loss

[API Bulletin 25181

Measurement Coordination

API PUBLICATION CHAPTER 19.1D FIRST EDITION, MARCH 1993

American

Petroleum

Institute

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API MPMS*L9*LD 93

0732290 05LL44L 5T5

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SPECIAL NOTES

  • 1. API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED.

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FACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS.

  • 3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER

PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDI- TIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROM THE EMPLOYER, THE MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER OF THAT MATERIAL, OR THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET.

  • 4. NOTHING CONTAINED IN ANY API PUBLICATION IS TO BE CONSTRUED AS

GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANU- FACTURE, SALE,OR USE OF ANY METHOD,APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT COV- ERED BY LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATION BE CONSTRUED AS INSURING ANYONE AGAINST LIABIL- ITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OF LEITERS PATENT.

  • 5. GENERALLY, API STANDARDS ARE REVIEWED AND REVISED, REAF-

FIRMED,OR WITHDRAWN AT LEAST EVERY FIVE YEARS.SOMETIMES A ONE- TIME EXTENSION OF UP TO TWO YEARS WILL BE ADDED TO THIS REVIEW

CYCLE. THIS PUBLICATION WILL NO LONGER BE IN EFFECT FIVE YEARS AF- TER ITS PUBLICATION DATE AS AN OPERATIVE API STANDARD OR, WHERE AN EXTENSION HAS BEEN GRANTED, UPON REPUBLICATION. STATUS OF THE PUBLICATION CAN BE ASCERTAINED FROM THE API AUTHORING DEPART- MENT [TELEPHONE (202) 682-8000]. A CATALOG OF API PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS IS PUBLISHED ANNUALLY AND UPDATED QUARTERLY BY API, 1220 L STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005.

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API MPMS*:LS.LD 93 W 0732290 0533442 433

FOREWORD

API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this pub- lication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage re- sulting from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict.

Suggested revisions are invited and

should be submitted to the director of the Measure-

ment Coordination, Industry Services Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

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API MPMS*LS*LD 93

0732290 0533443 378

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API PUBLICATION 2518 WCUMENTATION FILE

CONTENTS

SECTION

DESCRIPTIûN

PAGE

-

 

INTRODUCTION ..............................................

..

 

1

‘STANDING STORAGE LOSS

 

A

Development

of

Vapor Space Expansion Factor, KE

 

Al

B

Development of Vented Vapor Saturation Factor,

KS

B1

Development

of

Vapor

Space Temperature

Factor, KT

CI

Deve1opment

of

Sol ar

Insol at i on

D1

Development

of

Paint

Solar Absorptance, Q

 

El

Development of Liquid Surface Temperature Equations

..

F1

Sensitivity Analysis of Standing Storage Loss Equation

..

G1

Comparison of Standing Storage Loss Equation with

 

Test Data............................................

 

H1.

WORKING LOSS

 

Development

of Working Loss Equation ........................

 

I1

Deveìopment of Turnover Factor, Q ..........................

31

Development of Product Factor, Kp ...........................K1

Comparison of Working Loss Equation with Test Data

..........

L1

REFERENCES ..

................................................

R1

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API MPMS*LS.LD 93 m 0732290 05LL444 204 m

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3

 

INTRODUCTION

the First Edition [A6].

t

 

1

then that in the First Edition [A6].

API PUBLICATION 2518

DOCUMENTATION FILE

This document is the Documentation File to API Publication 2518, Second Edition [A7]*.

The purpose of the Documentation File is to present detailed technical infomation related to the development of AN. Publication 2518 that includes: (I) the development of theoretical equations; (2) comparisons with test data; (3) a sensitivity analysis of the loss equation; and (4) other pertinent information that was developed during the preparation of API Publication 2518.

The Documentation File is divided into two main parts: Sections A through H pertain to the standing storage loss, and Sections I through L pertain to the worki ng 1 oss.

The standing storage loss equation in the Second Edition [A71 is different

Sections A through H present the

development of the new standing storage loss equation.

The working loss equation in the Second Edition [A71 is the same as that in

Sections I through L contain development information

that originally appeared in the First Edition.

Section R contains a list of important References that were reviewed in developing the Second Edition. These references are cited in various sections of the Documentation File.

Numbers in brackets refer to the numbered references listed at the end of this Documentation File.

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API PUBLICATION 2518 ûûCUMENTATION FILE

SECTION A

DEVELOPMENT OF VAPOR SPACE EXPANSION FACTOR,

KE

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Al

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.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m

--``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Al .O

A2.0

A3.0

A4.0

A4.1

A4.2

A4.3

A4.4

A4.5

A5.0

Al

Al

API W6LICATION 2518

DOCUMENTATION FILE

SECTION A

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

  • - PAGE

NOMENCLATURE

..

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A3

INTRODUCTION

..

.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m --``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Al .O A2.0 A3.0 A4.0 A4.1 A4.2

.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .

A4

VAPOR

SPACE VOLUME CHANGE

..

.. .

i

..

. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A4

VAPOR SPACE EXPANSION

FACTOR. .. . . . . . ... .. ... . . . . . . .. .. . . .

.

A9

SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS FOR THE VAPOR SPACE

EXPANSION FACTOR

..

.. . . ... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

.

Neglecting the

Term PBp

Replacement of Tyl With

........................... .....

TM. ....................... .. ..

Replacement

of

Py2

With

PvA

..

.. .. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . . . . . ..

.

.

....

Use of a-Simplified Equation for the Vapor Pressure Range, APy Neglecting the Term APB

..... .....

.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m --``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Al .O A2.0 A3.0 A4.0 A4.1 A4.2

..............................

... ... .......... ..... .. ... .. . . . .

A9

A9

A9

A10

A10

All

CONCLUSION.

.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m --``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Al .O A2.0 A3.0 A4.0 A4.1 A4.2

.. . . . . . .

i

..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . .

.

.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m --``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Al .O A2.0 A3.0 A4.0 A4.1 A4.2

.. .

.

A12

TABLES

Value of the Variables at the Maximum and Minimum Conditions ..

.API MPMS*LSnLD 93 m 0732290 O533446 087 m --``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Al .O A2.0 A3.0 A4.0 A4.1 A4.2

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .

A5

FI6üRES

Schematic of the Tank Vapor Space Heating Process and the Resulting Volume Expansion Due to the Thermal Breathing ..

.. . .

.

. .

. .

.

. .

.

.

.

.

. . .

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

. .

.

. .

.

. . . . ..

. A13

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API MPMS*LS*LD 93 m 0732290 05LL447 TL3 m

API WBLICATIW 2518 DOCUMENTATION FILE SECTION A

NOMENCLANRE

 

DESCRI PT ION

UNITS

-

A

Vapor pressure function constant

di mens i on1 es s

B

Vapor pressure function constant

OR

KE

Vapor space expansion factor

dimensionless

n

Number of mol es

mol e

P

Pressure

psi

AP

Pressure change

psi

R

Ideal gas constant (10.731)

psia ft3/l bmole OR

T

Temperat Ure

OR

AT

Temperature change

OR

V

Vol Ume

ft3

AV

Vol Ume change

ft3

Y

Mole fraction in the vapor phase

mol e fracti on

SUBSCRIPTS

A

Air

ATM

Atmospheric

8

Breather Vent

BP

Breather Vent Pressure Setting

BV

Breather Vent Vacuum Setting

L

Liquid

LA

Liquid Average

T

Total

V

Stock Vapor

VA

Vapor Average

  • 1 Initial Condition or Minimum Condition

  • 2 Final Condition or Maximum Condition

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A3
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Al -0 INTRODUCTION

This section of the Documentation File to API Publication 2518, Second Edition, contains a derivation of the equation for the vapor space expansion factor, KE. This equation is derived from the ideal gas law and from the pressure, temperature and volume conditions that exist in the vapor space of a fixed-roof tank containing a volatile liquid stock.

Section A2 presents a derivation of the vapor space volume change due to thermal breathing. This derivation closely follows that originally derived' by Boardman [i]* and that. presented at the API "Symposium on Evaporation Loss' of Petroleum from Storage Tanks" November 10, 1952 [2].

Section A3 defines the vapor space expansion factor, KE, and develops the equation that may be used to calculate this factor.

Section A4 describes various simplifications that can be made to the equation for the vapor space expansion factor to permit ease of calculation with little loss in accuracy.

A2-O

VAPOR SPACE VûLWE CHANGE

Figure Al is a schematic illustrating the tank vapor space thermal breathing process in a fixed-roof tank that is partially filled with a volatile liquid stock and equipped with a pressure-vacuum vent.

During the thermal breathing process, the pressure, volume. and temperature vary from minimum condition 1 to maximum condition 2. At conditions 1 and 2, the total absolute pressure in the vapor space is Pl and P2, respectively, where:

~~~
~~~

~~~

~-

Numbers in brackets refer to the numbered references listed at the end of this Documentation File.

A4

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API MPMS*Lî-LD 93 m

0732290 0533449 B9b =,

During the thermal breathing process, the pressure, volume and temperature vary from a certain combination of values at the minimum condition to be certain combination of values at the maximum condition. At the minimum condition 1, it is assumed that all of the variables are simultaneously at their minimum values; and at the maximum condition 2, it is assumed that all of the variables are simultaneously at their maximum values. lhe value of the variables at the minimum condition i and maximum condition 2 are listed in Table Al.

Table Al - Value of the Variables at the Hinimupi and iíaximm Conditions

Variable

Gas space total pressure

Atmospheric pressure

Gas space gage pressure

Stock vapor pressure

Ai r part i al -pressure

6as volume

Gas temperat Ure

Liquid surface temperature

 

Minimum

Maximum

Units

Condition 1

Condition 2

psia

psia

Psig

psi a

PJ i

ft3

I

OR

OR

From the ideal gas law, the total number of moles of gas, nT, in an enclosed volume, V, at temperature, T, and pressure, P, is given by:

PV

nT - -

(A-3 1

RT

Assume that the gas mixture in the tank vapor space is a two-component mixture consisting air and stock vapor. The mole fraction of air, YA, and the mole fraction of stock vapor, yv, may be determined by Eqs (A-4) through (A-7):

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YA

nA

= -

"T

API

flPflS*LT.lD

93

W

0732290

05LL450 508 W

Yy

"V

= -

nT

Yy

pV

= -

P

The mole fraction of

air,

vapor,

yy, as follows:

YA,

may be expressed

in terms

of

the mole fraction

of

(A-8)

During the thermal breathing process of the tank vapor space,

the number of

moles of air,

nA,

in the volumes,

Vi

and Vp,

assumption may be expressed as follows:

is assumed to remain the same.

This

We may substitute

Eq (A-4)

into Eq

(A-9)

to yield:

YA1 nT1 = YA2

n12

(A- 10)

We may substitute Eq (A-3)

into

Eq (A-10)

to yield:

yA1 [cl=

plVI

yA2 ]-&i[

p2v2

(A-11)

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Solving for ‘2 and using Eq (A-8), we may write:

v2 = v1 k] I;[ k]

(A- 12)

(A-13)

We may substitute Eq (A-7) into Eq (A-13) to yield:

v2 = v1 [;;: ppv2

”]

k]

(A- 14)

Using Eq

(A-14),

the volume change due to thermal breathing, AV, may be

determined as follows:

 

AV = V2 -

V1

(A-15)

 

(A-16)

We may substitute Eqs (A-1) and (A-2) into Eq (A-16) to yield:

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A7

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API MPMS*LS.LD

93

0732290 05LL452 380

(A-17)

AV

=

V1

[I+ ( ‘V2

-

‘Vi)

-

(‘BP

- ‘BV)]

p~~~ +

p~~ -

pv2

[1

2(‘

ilTl)]

1]

(A-18)

It .is a convenient to define the terms APy, APg and ATy as follows:

APV

=

QV2 - QVl

 

APB =

PBP

-

PBV

ATv

= 12 - T1 = Tv2

- TV1

(A-19)

(A-20)

(A-21)

We may substitute Eqs (A-19), terms to yield:

 

(A-20)

and

(A-21)

into Eq (A-18) and expand the

 

APV

- APB

 

AV

= V1

[[l

+

(A-22)

 

’ATM

+

’BP

.-

 

(A-23)

Since the terms (ATV/Tyl)

and

(APy

-

APB)/(PA~

+

PBP

-

Pyp)

are small,

their product can be considered negligable. Thus, the product term in Eq (A-23) can.be neglected. Eq (A-23) then simplifies to the following:

AV =

\Il

k t

APV

P~~~ +

Ï

- APB

p~~ - pv2

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A8

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(A-24)

I API flPflS*:LS-LD 93 U 0732290 0511453 217 m A3.0 VAPOR SPACE EXPANSION FACTOR The vapor
I
API flPflS*:LS-LD 93 U 0732290 0511453 217
m
A3.0
VAPOR SPACE EXPANSION FACTOR
The vapor space expansion factor, KE,
is defined
as
the
ratio of
tile
vo
urne
change, AV,
to the initial volume,
Vi,
as follows:
AV
-
KE
(A-25)
v1
Substituting Eq (A-24)
into (A-25)
we obtain:
--
(A-26)
TV1
‘ATM
’ ‘BP
-
‘Y2
A4.0
SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS FOR THE VAPOR SPACE EXPANSION FACTOR
Eq (A-26)
may be simplified for ease of calculation.
Sections A4.1 through
A4.4
present various
simp1 i.fications that can be made.
A4.1
Neqlectincr the Term Pw
It
should
be
noted
that
PBP
is
small
(about
0.03
psi)
compared to
PATH
(about
14.7
psia)
and
can
be neglected
in
the
denomination
of
Eq
(A-26)
to
yield:
(A-27)
A4.2
Replacement of
Tvi
With
TI A
In
the
first tem
of
Eq
(A-27),
the minimum vapor space tmperature,
TV1,
is
close to
the daily average liquid
surface ,temperature, TLA,
since
both
are
absolute temperatures.
Thus,
for ease
of calculation,
we
can
replace TV1 with
TLA in
Eq (A-27)
to yield:
--``,,`,,,``,````,,``,```,,,``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
A9
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API RPRS*L9*1D 93'- 0732290 0511454 153 H

AT"

APV

KE = - +

-

APS

T~~

p~~~

-

pv2

(A- 28)

A4.3

Replacement of

Pv7 With

Pvq

For

low

vapor

pressure

stocks,

the

stock

vapor

pressure,

Pv,

is

small

compared to atmospheric pressure, PA^. Thus, we may replace the stock vapor

pressure -at the minimum liquid surface temperature,

Pvp,

with

the 'stock vapor

pressure at the daily average liquid surface temperature, PVA, in Eq (A-28) to

yield:

(A- 29)

Eq (A-29)

appears

as

Eq 4

in Ref.

A7.

A4.4

Use of a Simplified Equation for the Vapor Pressure Range, APy

The vapor pressure of the stock may be determined from Eq (A-30), where the

vapor pressure function

constants

A

and

B must

be selected

stock [see Tables 4 and 5 in Ref. A7].

for the particular

(A-30)

W e can determine

the

slope of

the vapor space pressure

its derivative with respect to the liquid surface temperature,

function by taking

TL, as follows:

dP,

-t-

6

Py

'>

(A-31)

Eq (A-31)

can be written in differential form as follows:

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API MPMS*19=1D 93

0732290

0511455 09T

(A-32)

Eq (A-32) gives the vapor pressure range, APv, in terms of the liquid surface temperature range, ATL.

For most hydrocarbon liquids, the liquid surface temperature range, ATL ,

may be related to the vapor temperature in Section F):

range, ATy, as follows (see Eq (F-16)

ATL =

0.50

ATy

(A-33)

Substituting Eq (A-33)

into Eq

(A-32),

equation for the vapor pressure range:

we obtain the following simplified

= [

0.50

8

Tt

Py

] ATy

(A-34)

Eq (A-34) may be substituted into Eq (A-29) to yield:

A4.5 Neglecting the Term APg

(A-35)

For most atmospheric storage tanks, the breather vent pressure and vacuum settings are typically +0.03 psi and -0.03 psi, respectively. Thus, the term

APB/(PATM - PYA) is small (about 0.002 for low vapor pressure stock) compared

to the term ATv/TLA

(about 0.040 for ATy = 2OOF and TLA = 5200R). For these

cases, the last tern in Eq (A-35) may be neglected to yield:

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API MPMSULS.LD 93 H 0732290 05LL45b T2b = B KE - El [I + [~l[p*T:.p"j] 0.50
API MPMSULS.LD 93 H 0732290 05LL45b T2b =
B
KE - El [I + [~l[p*T:.p"j]
0.50
(A-36)
In comparing fq (A-36) to Eq (A-26), we can see that the calculation process
is greatly simplified because it is not necessary to determine all of the
variables, TU, 1~2,TM, Pyl, Pyp and PYA, but only the variables TLA and PYA.
AS.0 coNcLusIoN
Equation (A-29)
expansion factor, KE,
was selected for use in calculating the vapor space
in API Publication 2518, Second Edition [A7].
This
equation was derived from the ideal gas law and from the pressure, temperature,
and volume conditions that exist in the vapor space of a fixed-roof tank
containing a volatile liquid stock. Equation (A-29) was developed from a more
complete expression, Eq (A-26) , by incorporating several simp1 ifications that
make the calculations more user friendly, with little loss in accuracy.
m: Thi8 documnt i8 part of the API mtandudi developerkt procems and is
intendecl for use by API
cooraittwm M.
It ahall not bo
rmproguced or
circulated or quoted,
in whole
or in
part,
outmide
of
the cognizant APT
conmittee(8) except with the written approval of APX. Thio draft API mtandard
will be formatted and edited prior to APT publication. Copyright@1990.
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A12
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Pressure-Vacuum

b Av{

Heat

p2

  • 0 T2

Figure Al - Schematic of the Tank Vapor Space Heating Process and the Resulting Volume Expansion Due to Themal Breathing

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.API MPMS*39-3D 93 m

0732290 0533458 8T9 m

API PUBLICATION 2518 DOCUMENTATION FILE

SECTION B

DEVELOPHENT OF

VENTED VAPOR SATURATION FACTOR, Ks

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API MPMS+LS-LD 93 W 0332270 05LLq57 735

API PUBLICATION 2518

00CUnEKTATION FILE

‘SECTION 8

SECTION

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

.

NOMENCLATURE

.............................................

83

  • 81 .o

INTROWCTIûN.............................................

BS

  • 82.0 VENTED VAWR SATURATION FACTOR HODEL .....................

  • 82.1 Vented Vapor Saturation Factor Definition

B2.2

Model Description

......................................

...............

B5

85

87

82.3

82.4

Saturation Parameter

...................................88

.............

B10

Vented Vapor Saturation Factor Deve1opment

.

B3.0

VENTED VAPOR SATURATION FACTOR CORRELATION

...............

811

  • 63.1 Sumnary of API. €PA and UOGA Test Data

B3.2

B12

.................

Saturation Factor Correlation of API and €PA Test Data . 813

B3.3

Saturation Factor Correlation of API. Test Data

€PA and WOGA

..............................................

813

  • 84.0 CONCLUSION

...............................................

815

81

82

B3

84

B5

86

TABLES

Saturation Factor. KS. for

API Test Data

[38]

.............

Sumnary of €PA Tests [20] Saturation Factor. Ks. for

Selected.......................

EPA Test Data [20]

............

Sunriiary of UOGA Tests [17] Selected Saturation Factor. Ks. for UOGA Test Data [17]

......................

...........

Sumnary of Test Data Used to Develop the Vented Vapor

Saturat i on

Factor Corre1at i on ............................

816

817

818

619

821

823

FIGURES

  • 81 Saturation Factor Analysis

Schematic of the Tank Vapor Space for

the Vented Vapor

...............................

  • 82 Saturation Factor. Ks. Test Data

Versus PVAHV for

the API

and €PA

................................................

83

Saturation Factor. Ks. Correlation

.......................

84

Saturation Factor. Ks. Versus PVAHV for the API. EPA

and WOGA Test Data .......................................

824

825

826

827

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I

API MPMS*L9=LD 93

0732290 051LYbO 457

SYMBOL

A

AL

a

B

b

CV

D

E

EC

EM

HV

K

RVP

S

TAR

*LA

TVA

ATA

ATV

t0

"V

API PUBLICATION 2518 DOCUMENTATION FILE SECTION B

NûMENCUTURE

DESCRIPTION

Constant in the vapor pressure equation Area of the stock liquid surface

Defined by Eq (8-15)

Constant in the vapor pressure equation

Defined by Eq (8-16)

Average vapor concentration in the vented gas

Tank diameter Evaporation loss

Evaporati on

1oss

cal cul ated

Evaporation loss measured

Tank vapor space

out age

Overall mass transfer coefficient between the liquid surface and the vented vapor

Vapor space expansion factor Vented vapor' saturation factor

Stock

vapor molecul ar weight

Moles of stock vapor vented

Atmospheric pressure Stock vapor pressure detemined at TLA Vented gas volume outflow

Ideal gas law constant,

(10.731)

psia

ft2

WITS

-

dimensionless

OR

dimensionless

lbm/sft3

ft

1WdaY

1h/day

1bm/day

ft

1bmol e

ft2 hr mole

frac.

dimens i on1 ess

d imens i on1 ess 1bm/l bmol e

1hol e

psi a

psia

sft3/day

Re id Vapor

Pressure

Saturation parameter, defined by Eq (6-4) Average daily ambient temperature Average daily 1iquid surface temperature Average daily vapor space temperature Daily ambient temperature range Daily vapor space temperature range Time of a daily period Vol urne of the tank vapor space

psi

dimensi on1 ess OF or OR or

OF

OR

OF

or

OR

OF

or OR

OF

or OR

hr

f t3

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API MPMS*LS.LD 93 0732290 05LLYbL 393 API PUBLICATION 2518 DOCUMENTATION FICE SECTION B NfflENCLATURE (Continued) UNITS
API MPMS*LS.LD
93
0732290
05LLYbL
393
API PUBLICATION 2518
DOCUMENTATION FICE
SECTION B
NfflENCLATURE (Continued)
UNITS
-
SYMBOL
DESCRIPTION
AV
thermal Volunie of breathing gas vented cycle during a single daily
ft3
Daily the vented average vapor stock vapor concentration
in
YV
mole fraction
YVO
Daily average saturated stock vapor
concentrat ion
mole fraction
Gat density
1 kn01 e/ft3
P6
64
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81 .O INTROûüCTIûN

This

section

of

the

Documentation File

to

API

Publication

2518,

Second

Edition,

contains the development of the vented vapor saturation factor,

Ks.

The 'Vented

Vapor Saturation Factor',

Ks,

is defined

as

the

ratio of

the

daily average stock vapor concentration in the vented gas, yv, to the stock vapor

concentration,

yvo,

in equilibrium with the

average 1iquid surface temperature.

stock

liquid surface at the daily

Section B2 presents the derivation of

a theoretical equation for estimating

the vented vapor saturation

factor

that

is

based on an analytical

model of

the

daily thermal breathing process.

Section B3

presents the

development of

a correlation

for

estimating

the

vented vapor saturation factor that

s based on test

data.

  • 82.0 VENTU) VAWR SANRATION FACTOR

MODEL

  • 82.1 Model Description

 

Figure 61

is

a

schematic of

a f;xed-roof

tank that is partially filled with

a

volatile

liquid stock

and equipped with

a pressure-vacuum vent.

During the

daily thermal breathing cycle, the gas mixture in the tank vapor space is

initially heated from its minimum condition to its maximum condition (see Section

A

of

this

Documentation File for

additional detail).

Vapor

is vented

from the

tank

vapor

space when the

pressure

increases to

the

pressure setting of

the

pressure-vacuum vent.

As

the gas mixture

in

the tank vapor

space is cooled from

its maximum condition back to its minimum condition, air is admitted to the

tank

vapor space when the vacuum vent.

pressure decreases to the vacuum setting of the pressure-

Evaporation of

stock occurs

from the

liquid surface as the

stock tries to

saturate the

air that

was

admitted to the tank vapor space.

Test data indicates

that there is a region at the top of the tank vapor space under the pressure- vacuum vent where there is a significant concentration gradient.

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API

MPMSJLCI-LD

93

0732290 05124b3 Ibb

During the daily thermal

breathing cycle,

expelled from the tank vapor space, my,

may be

the moles

of stock

vapor that are

estimated by Eq (8-1):

where the

tern

AV

represents

the

volume

vented

during

a

single

themal

breathing cycle (see Section A2,

Eq (A-24)).

 

The vented gas contains less stock vapor

per unit

volume than the gas near

the liquid surface. The daily average stock vapor concentration in the vented vapor is yy (unsaturated), and the daily average stock vapor concentration near the 1iquid surface is yvo (saturated).

DÚring the daily thermal

breathing cycle,

stock vapor evaporates and rises

upward from

the

area near the

liquid surface to replace the stock vapor lost as

gas

is vented

from the tank vapor space.

Stock will continue to evaporate as

it

tiies to establish. a saturati.on condition at the top of the tank vapor space.

The moles of stock that evaporate during a daily thermal breathing cycle may

be estimated by Eq

(B-2):

where K is the overall nass transfer coefficient between the liquid surface and the vented vapor.

After

a

series of

repeated daily thermal

breathing cycles where the same

meteorological conditions occur,

the

stock

vapor

concentration

in

the

vented

vapor will vary during each thermal breathing cycle in a repeated manner, and the

daily average stock vapor concentration in the vented vapor, yy,

will

achieve a

steady value.

This concentration

value depends upon

the

rate

at which the

stock

vapor lost from the tank vapor space is replaced by stock evaporated from the 1iquid surface.

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86

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API MPMS*lS*lD 93 W

0732290 0511464 OT2 W

The steady value of the daily average stock vapor concentration in the

vented vapor, yv, may be determined by equating Eq (B-1) with Eq (6-2) and

solving for yv as follows:

yy [ pG

=- (Yyo - Yy)

It is useful to define the saturation parameter, S, as follows:

s 3

[ p6

K AL

Aval

t

Using this defined saturation parameter, Eq (B-3) may be written as:

Yy s = (Yyo - Yy)

Eq (8-5)

may

now be

 

1'

Yy

= Y+

1+s

solved for yy to yield:

  • 82.2 Vented Vapor Saturation Factor Defini tion

The vented vapor

saturation factor, Ks, is defined by Eq (6-7) as the ratio

of the daily average stock vapor concentration in the vented vapor, yv, to the

daily average saturated stock vapor concentration, yyo.

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API

MPMS*IjS*LD

93

0732290 0511465 T39

ühen KS - 1, the vented

contains no stock vapor.

gas is completely saturated; when KS = O, the vented gas

  • 62.3 Saturation Parameter

lhe saturation parameter, S, as defined by Eq (8-4) may be written in terms

of other evaporation loss parameters. First, note Eqs (8-8) threugh (B-11) as

follows:

.

*L] ;t I [

AV = Vy KE ,

VV'

r ": "1

-

(see Eq (A-25) in Section A)

(B-9)

(8-10)

(8-11)

Substituting Eqs (B-8) through (8-11) into Eq (B-4), we obtain:

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(B-12)

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API

MPflS*LS-LD

93

0732290 05LL4bb

975

The vapor space expansion factor, KE, may be expressed in the following

simplified form (see Eq (A-36) in Section AS):

(B-13)

Substituting Eq (8-13) into Eq (8-12) and replacing TVA with TM (since both are

absol Ute temperatures), we. obtain:

(B-14)

It is convenient to define the following dimensionless parameters a and b:

a E r"R tD ""K TM"L I

0.50

B

(8-15)

(B- 16)

We also know that the daily average saturated stock vapor concentration, yvo, can

be expressed as follows:

(B-17)

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API MPMS+LS.LD 93

0732290 05LL4b7 BOL M

Substituting Eqs (8-15), (B-16) and (B-17) into Eq (B-14), we obtain:

 

(B- 18)

82.4

Vented Vapor Saturati on Factor Deve1 opment

Substituting yv from Eq (6-6) into Eq (8-7) we obtain:

 

(B-19)

Equation (B-19) shows that as the saturation parameter, S, increases, the vented

vapor saturation factor, KS, decrease toward O. Conversely, as S decreases, the

value of KS increases toward 1.

=

1

i

(8-20)

Equation (B-20) shows that the vented vapor saturation factor, Ks, depends upon

only 3 parameters: a, b and yyo.

Inserting the expressions for a, b and yvo from Eqs (B-15). (8-16) and (8-

17),

we obtain the following final expression which contains all of the

vari ab1 es :

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API

MPMS*Lq=LD 93

0732290 0511468 748

K,

4

=

1t

1

[a

  • I 1 - [a

(B-21)

It

should be noted

that

KS will

tend toward

1

as

Hy tends

toward

O.

Also,

KS

will

tend toward O as PYA tends toward PATH.

 

Insufficient information

is

currently

available to

determine

the

overail

mass transfer coefficient, K, and thus Eq (8-21)

 

was used

only as

a

guide to

show

the dependancy of KS on PYA, Hy and the other variables.

Although it is possible to improve the above simplified analysis to develop a theoretical relation for the vented vapor saturation factor, Ks, it was decided instead to develop a correlation for KS based on actual test'data, as described in Section 83. However, the above Simplified analysis was used as a guide in selecting the analytical form for the correlation equation and in selecting the parameters to include in the correlation.

B3.0 VENTED VAPOR SATURATION FACTOR CORRELATION

This section sumarizes the development of a correlation for estimating the vented vapor saturation factor, Ks.

Section 83.1 summarizes the saturation factors that were calculated from the

API[38]*, EPA[20] and üOGA[lI) test data. The API test

data showed that the

vented gas was near saturation conditions at all times. lhe €PA and UOGA lest

Data, however, showed that the vented gas was not saturated, with the degree of

saturation being less with increasing product vapor pressure, vapor space outage, Hy.

PYA, and increasing

t

Numbers

in brackets refer to the numbered references

this Documentation File.

listed at

the end

of

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The fact that the vented gas is not saturated with stock vapor reflects the effect of
The fact that
the vented
gas
is
not
saturated with stock vapor reflects the
effect
of
mass transfer'rate limitations
from the
liquid
surface
to
the
area
below the pressure-vacuum vent. As the vapor space outage increases, the
distance that the stock vapor must travel
from the liquid
surface to the vent
is
lengthened.
This lengthened distance decreases the mass transfer rate and thus
the concentration
in
the
vented
gas.
For high vapor pressure stocks,
since the
amount
of stock
vapor lost
in
each
daily thermal
breathing cycle is larger,
a
higher rate of evaporation from the liquid surface is required to replenish the
stock vapor
that
is
lost.
Mass
transfer
rate
limitations,
however,
limit
the
ability
of
the
stock
to
replenish
the
vented
vapor
at
these higher vapor
pressures and thus reduce the degree of saturation in the vented gas.
Section 83.2 presents the -development of a correlation for the vented vapor
saturation
factor based on
only
the
API
and
ÊPA test
data.
This correlation
showed trends that
are similar to those predicted
by the theoretical
analysis
(see Eq
(6119)) in that
the saturation factor approaches 1 as the vapor pressure
or the outage approach O, and the saturation factor becomes small as the vapor
pressure or outage increase.
Section 3.3 presents the development of a correlation for the vented vapor
saturation factor based on the combined set of API,
EPA and UOGA test data.
This
correlation showed the same trends as the correlation that was based on only the
API and EPA test data, but there was more scatter of the WOGA test data
corre1 at i on.
from the
63.1
Sumnary of API,
€PA and WOGA Test Data
Table
81
sumnarires
the
10
API
tests
[38)
along
with
the
calculated
saturation
factor,
Ks.
The
saturation factor
for
the
API
test
data
are
very
close to
1,
with an average value
for the
10 tests of 0.964.
Table 82 summarizes the
IS €PA
tests
[20].
It
was found that
all
of
the €PA
test data
was suitable
for
use
in
calculating
a
saturation
factor,
with
the
exception
of
Tests
EPA-IA,
EPA-4B
and
EPA-4C.
The reason
for rejecting
these
tests
is
stated at the bottom of
Table 62.
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API

flPMS*LS=LD 73

0732290 0511970 3Tb

Table 83 summarizes the

EPA test data along with the calculated saturated

factor, Ks, for those tests which were selected in Table 62. Since the average

liquid surface temperature was not measured during the indicated in Note 5 at the bottom of Table B3 was used 1iquid surface temperature.

EPA tests,

the equation

to estimate the average

 

Table

84

summarizes the 44 WOW

tests

(171.

Out

of

the total

of

44 tests,

21

were

found

suitable

to

calculate

a

saturation

factor.

The

reasons

for

rejecting the other tests

is noted

at

the bottom of Table 84.

 
 

Table

BS

summarizes

the

suitable

UOGA

test

data

and

the

calculated

saturation factor,

Ks.

Only

the

crude

oil

tests

were

used

to

calculate

a

saturation

factor.

The

vapor

pressure

at

the

daiTy

average

liquid

surface

temperature was calculated utilizing the equations noted at the bottom of Table

BS.

No

such

relationships

were

available

for

the

distillate

and

fuel

oil

products used in the WOGA test program.

 

63.2

Saturation Factor Correlation of API and EPA Test Data

 

In general,

it

was

found that

there was

a higher quality

in

the API

test

data

[38]

and

EPA test

data

[20]

than in

the WOGA test

data

[17].

The combined

set

of

API

and

EPA

test

data

were

used

to develop

a

saturation

factor

corre1 at i on'.

 
 

Figure

82 presents

the correlation,

 

where the

saturation

factor,

Ks,

was

found to

be

related to the product

of the vapor pressure,

PYA,

and the

vapor

space outage,

Hy.

The vapor pressure

characteristics of

the stock used

in