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OAKLAND,BERKELEY,ANDEAS TBAYNEW S ,EVENTS ,RES TAURANTS ,MUS I C ,& ARTS
N EW S & O PIN I ON FEAT URE OCTOBER 07, 2015

Racial Profiling Via Nextdoor.com


White Oakland residents are increasingly using the popular social
networking site to report "suspicious activity" about their Black
neighbors and families of color fear the consequences could be
fatal.
By Sam Levin @SamTLevin

ILLUSTRATION BY ROXANNE PASIBE

Email Tweet Share 14K Print 1point

Thestrangeglancesarestartingtobecomemorefrequent.James
Fisher,afourteenyearoldfreshmanatOaklandCharterHighSchool,
hasnoticedthatashegetsolder,morepeopleonthestreeteyehim
withsuspiciousorfearfulstares."Someofthemjustlookatme,and
thenthey'lllookaway,"hesaid."Orsometimes,Igointostores,and
theylookatmeliketheythinkI'mgoingtodosomethingbad."

JamesisaBlackteenagerwhoissoftspokenandlooksaboutthree
yearsolderthanhisactualage.Onarecentafternoonlastmonth,I
chattedwithhimandEmma,histhirteenyearoldsister,attheirhouse
intheUpperDimondneighborhoodintheOaklandhills.Thetwo
siblingstoldmeabouttheirfirstweeksofhighschoolandhowthey
haveenjoyedthefreedomattimestowalkaroundOakland'sChinatown
districtwithouttheirparents.

Buttheyneverwalkaroundtheirownneighborhoodalone.

Thetreelinedresidentialstreetoflargesinglefamilyhomeswherethe
Fisherslivemorecloselyresemblessuburbiathanadenselypopulated
city.PositionedatthetopofasteephillnearDimondCanyonPark,
theirhousefeelsworldsawayfromthebusyurbanbustleofMacArthur
BoulevardandtheFruitvaledistrictjusttothesouthwest.Onthe
surface,theirblocklookslikeanidealplacetoraisekidssafe,family
friendly,andquiet.Althoughtheirindividualstreetisverydiverse
withabouttenBlackormixedracekidsnowlivingnearbywhite
residentsarebyfarthelargestracialgroupinthesurroundingarea.
Andit'sinthisneighborhood,perhapsmoresothananyotherpartof
Oakland,thatJamesfeelsmostlikeatargetfortheuncomfortable
glancesthatarebecomingincreasinglycommoninhislife.

clicktoenlarge

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Bert J o hns o n
EmmaandJamesFisherdon'twalkaroundtheUpperDimondduetoconcerns
aboutracialprofiling.

Butheandhisparentsarenotjustworriedabouthurtfulstaresfrom
neighborsorpassersby.Overthelasttwoyears,theirneighborhoodhas
becomeoverrunwithracialprofilingbutnotbypolice,ratherby
mostlywhiteresidentsincorrectlyassumingthatpeopleofcolorwho
arewalking,driving,hangingout,orlivingintheneighborhoodare
criminalsuspects.Theseresidentsoftendon'trecognizethattheymay
havelongheldracialprejudicesorunconsciousbiases,butrecently,
they'vebeenabletoinstantlybroadcasttheirunsubstantiated
suspicionstothousandsoftheirneighborswiththeclickofamouse.

Nextdoor.com,awebsitethatbillsitselfasthe"privatesocialnetwork
forneighborhoods,"offersafreewebplatformonwhichmemberscan
blastawidevarietyofmessagestopeoplewholiveintheirimmediate
neighborhood.ASanFranciscobasedcompanyfoundedin2010,
Nextdoor'suserfriendlysitehasexplodedinpopularityoverthelast
twoyearsinOakland.Asofthisfall,atotalof176Oakland
neighborhoodshaveNextdoorgroupsand20percentofall
householdsinthecityusethesite,accordingtothecompany.

OnNextdoor,peoplegiveawayfreefurnitureorfruitfromtheir
backyards.Usersreunitelostdogswiththeirowners.Membersorganize
communitymeetingsandsharetipsaboutbabysittersandplumbers.
Butunderthe"CrimeandSafety"sectionofthesite,thetoneismuch
lessneighborly.There,residentsfrequentlypostunsubstantiated
"suspiciousactivity"warningsthatresultincallstothepoliceonBlack
citizenswhohavedonenothingwrong.Inrecentmonths,peoplefrom
acrossthecityhavesharedwithmeNextdoorpostslabelingBlack
peopleassuspectssimplyforwalkingdownthestreet,drivingacar,or
knockingonadoor.UsershavesuggestedthatBlacksalesmenand
mailcarriersmaybeburglars.OneNextdoormemberpostedaphotoof
ayoungBlackboywhofailedtopickupdogpoopandsuggestedthat
hisneighborscallthepoliceonhim.

Unwelcome at Home: Black

Oaklanders on Racial Profiling


from East Bay Express

08:10

UnwelcomeatHome:BlackOaklandersonRacialProfilingfromEast
BayExpressonVimeo.

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WhiteresidentshavealsousedNextdoortocomplainandorganize
callstopoliceaboutBlackresidentsbeingtoonoisyinpublicparksand
barsraisingconcernsthatthesiteamplifiestheharmfulimpactsof
gentrification.OnNextdoorandotheronlineneighborhoodgroups
includingFacebookpagesandYahooandGooglelistservsresidents
havecalledBlackandLatinomensuspiciousforbeingnearbusstops,
standingin"shadows,"makingUturns,andhangingaroundoutside
coffeeshops.Residentsfrequentlywarneachothertobeonthelookout
forsuspectswithlittlemoredescriptionthan"Black"and"wearinga
hoodie."

"ThesepostscastsuchawidenetonouryoungBlackmen,"said
ShikiraPorter,anUpperDimondresident,whoisBlack."Youstart
seeingthisoverandoveragain,andyouunderstandquicklythat,oh,
it'stheBlackbodythatthey'reafraidof."

InsomeNextdoorgroups,whenpeopleasktheirneighborstothink
twicebeforelabelingsomeonesuspicious,otherusersattackthemfor
playingthe"racecard"andbeingthe"politicalcorrectnesspolice."
Somegroupshaveevenactivelysilencedandbannedthefewvocal
voicesofcolorspeakinguponthewebsites,accordingtorecordsthatI
reviewed.

Thissometimestoxicvirtualenvironmenthasrealworldimpacts.
Residentsencourageeachothertocallpolice,sharetipsonhowto
reachlawenforcement,andsometimesevenalertcopsandsecurity
guardsaboutsuspiciousactivitythey'veonlyreadsecondhandfrom
othercommenters.IspoketolongtimeOaklanderswhosaythe
profilingisgettingworse,notingthattheyhaverecentlyhadneighbors
questionthemontheirblockorintheirowndrivewaysuspiciousof
whethertheymightbeuptonogood.Peopleofcolordescribedstories
ofwhiteresidentsrunningawayfromthem,screamingatthemtoleave
asharedgardenspace,andcallingpoliceonyoungchildrenintheir
ownhome.Insomeareas,theprofilingisfurtherexacerbatedbythe
growingpresenceofprivatepatrolofficerswhomresidentshavehired
toguardthestreets.

EvenhighrankingofficialswithOPD,whichhasaformalpartnership
withNextdoor,haveadmittedthatthedepartmentissometimesforced
torespondtobaselesssuspicionsaboutresidentsofcolorthekindof
profilingthatcangouncheckedinonlinegroups."If...they'reall
feedingoffofthesamebias,thenthatcouldbeharmful,"saidOPD
AssistantChiefPaulFigueroa.Helateradded,"Fearcanreallydrivethe
applicationofbias."

Now,agroupofOaklandresidentscallingthemselvesNeighborsfor
RacialJusticeistryingtofightbackagainsttherampantprofiling
onlineandintheirneighborhoods.ButNextdoorofficialsandthewhite
residentswhocontrolanddominatetheonlinegroupsdonotappearto
betakingtheirconcernsseriouslyorwillingtomakesubstantive
changes.

Andaslongastheprofilingandprejudicedonlinepostspersist,Mitsu
Fisher,thefatherofJamesandEmma,isnotlettinghiskidsplay
outsideorwalkthestreetsoftheirownneighborhoodwithout
supervision.MitsumadethatanofficialpolicyinFebruary2014aftera
patrolofficerintheOakmoreneighborhoodwhowasworkingfora
privatesecuritycompanyandwasnotsupposedtobearmedchased
andshotaBlackteenageboysuspectedofcommittingaburglary,
accordingtopolice.Thefactthataprivateguardshotayoungsuspect
wasupsettingenoughtoMitsu,butitwastheresponsefromhis
neighborsonlinethatledhimtotrulyfearforhisownkids'safety.

OnNextdoorandaneighborhoodYahoogroup,residentscelebrated
theprivatesecurityguardforshootingtheteenagerandorganizedto

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buyhimathankyougift.

WhenIfirstmetAudreyEsquivelforcoffeeintheLaureldistrict,she
handedmeagrainyphotocopyofaonepagedocumentdatedJune15,
1937.Thereport,fromthegovernmentsponsoredHomeOwners'Loan
Corporation,offeredaformaldescriptionofthehousingcharacteristics
anddesirabilityoftheFruitvaledistrictinEastOakland.Basedon
informationfromaCityofOaklandbuildinginspector,thereportstated
thattheneighborhood's"favorableinfluences"includeditsconvenience
tolocaltransportation,schools,andshoppingcenters.Therewas,
however,onemain"detrimentalinfluence"thatmadetheneighborhood
undesirable:"proximitytoarea[infiltrated]byNegroes."Andthearea
wouldlikelybecomeincreasinglylessdesirableoverthenextdecadedue
tocontinued"infiltration,"thereportadded.

clicktoenlarge

Bert J o hns o n
AudreyEsquivel,aGlenviewresident,wasprofiledinherownneighborhood
whenanearbyresidentfearedshemightbetryingtobreakintoherhome.

Esquivel,whoismixedraceBlackandlivesinthenearbyGlenview
neighborhood,recentlystumbleduponthedocumentwhilereading
about"redlining"thedecadeslongprocessbywhichthegovernment
andbankssystematicallyenabledwhiteneighborhoodstoprosperwith
mortgageloanswhiledenyinghousingopportunitiestocommunitiesof
color.Likecitiesacrossthecountry,Oaklandbecameverysegregated
becauseofredliningwithwealthierwhitecommunitiesthrivinginthe
hillsandpoorerBlackneighborhoodslanguishingintheflatlands.

"Wecanshowhowthehistoryoftheneighborhoodisplayingoutover
time,"saidEsquivel,whoisamemberoftheNeighborsforRacial
Justicegroup."Wewentfromthistimewhensegregationsuchasthis
waslegal,anditwasokaytobeopenlyracistandlittleJohnnycould
callBlackpeoplethe'nword.'Now,it's'Don'tcallthemanything.We're
alljusthuman.'There'sneverbeenanyeducationonhowto
successfullytransitiontointegration."

Oaklandismuchmoreintegratedtodaythanitwasinthe1930s,
althoughthehillsarestilllargelywhite.Inthe94602zipcodewhich
includesGlenview,UpperDimond,andOakmorewhitesmakeup46
percentofthepopulation,Blacksmakeup18percent,andLatinos
comprise14percent.TheEastOaklandflatlandsneighborhoodstothe
southaremajorityLatinoorBlack.

AlthoughOaklandmayhavecomealongwaysincethedaysof
redlining,Esquivelsaidthatsubtleracialtensionsandprejudicesare
pervasiveinherneighborhoodandthatsheoftenencounterswhite
residentswhoare,tovaryingdegrees,uncomfortablewiththepresence
ofpeopleofcolor.WhenshemovedfromNorthCarolinatotheEast
Bay,shethoughtshewouldbejoiningaprogressivecommunityone
inwhichshewouldnotfeelostracizedorunwelcomeduetothecolorof

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herskin.Butthefearsthatherwhiteneighborshavewhentheyseeher
arerealanddamaging,shesaid.

ForpeopleofcolorlivinginOaklandneighborhoodsthatarestill
predominantlywhite,manyoftheconcernsregardingracialprofiling
stemfromcommunityandpoliceeffortstofightcrime.Evenasoverall
crimecontinuestodeclinehere,Oaklandconsistentlyranksasoneof
thetoptencitiesforviolentcrimepercapita.Intermsofcrime
preventionefforts,muchoftheneighborhoodlevelorganizinghas
focusedonrobberies,burglaries,andcarbreakinsthecriminal
offensesthatcanplaguecertainareasinwavesandshakepeople's
senseofsecurityintheirownneighborhoodsorhomes.Asasnapshot,
throughmidSeptember,inOPD'sArea3whichincludesLakeshore,
Eastlake,Dimond,Laurel,andFruitvaletherehadbeen651reported
robberies,1,388burglaries(893ofwhichwerecarburglaries),and348
aggravatedassaults.

ButOPDalsorespondstoaconsiderablenumberofcallsfromcitizens
concernedaboutthepeopletheyseeintheirneighborhoods:Acrossthe
cityduringthepasttwoyears,accordingtodatathatthedepartment
providedtome,policehavereceivedanaverageofroughly730callsfor
suspiciouspeopleorvehicleseverymonth.

ThroughNeighborhoodCrimePreventionCouncilmeetingsandother
localorganizinggroups,residentsinthehillshavepressuredthecity
foryearstodevotemorepoliceofficerstopatrollingtheirstreetsand
investigatingpropertycrimesandviolentoffensesintheir
neighborhoods.MotivatedbythebeliefthatOPDprioritizesresourcesin
highcrimeareasanddoesnotdoenoughtoprotecttheirhomesinthe
hills,residentshaverepeatedlytakenmattersintotheirownhands.
Somehaveformedtraditionalneighborhoodwatchgroupsinwhich
volunteerswalkthestreets.Othershaveinstalledsecuritycameras.And
manyneighborhoodshavelaunchedprivateemaillistservsthatenable
residentstoefficientlycommunicatewiththeirneighbors.Intheearly
daysofthelistservs,theideawasthatresidentscouldusetheonline
communitiestocoordinateeffortstopushforpoliceofficersandalso
sharetipsaboutsuspiciousactivityorcrimesinrealtime.

OneofthefirstinOaklandwasaDimondemaillistservthatlaunched
roughlyseventeenyearsago,accordingtoAnnNomura,whoisMitsu
Fisher'swifeandthemotherofJamesandEmma."Itwasverymucha
grassrootstoolfororganizing,"saidNomura."Itwasreallyfocusedon
gettingbasicservices."

Butasmoreoftheselistsemergedandgrewinmembershipandas
concernsaboutcrimeescalatedthetoneshifted,accordingto
Nomura,whohassubscribedtonumerouslistservsovertheyears.
Eventually,manygroupsfrequentlyattractedinflammatorypostsor
raciallyinsensitivemessagesaboutcrimetrendsandsuspiciouspeople,
shesaid.Nomurasentmeone2012examplefromtheDimondgroupin
whichawhitewomanwarnedofa"lightskinnedblackfemale"talking
onhercellandwalkingherdog."Idon'trecognizeher.Hasanyone
describedanysuspectofcrimelikeher?"theneighborwrote.Although
somerespondedthatthepostseemedunnecessary,othersthankedher
forsharingtheinformationandagreedthatthewomanseemed
suspicious.Eventually,aneighborchimedintosaythatthewoman
livedafewstreetsawayandhaslivedinthesamehouseherwholelife.

WhenlifelongOaklandresidentLelandThompsonjoined"Glenfriends"
aYahoogroupfortheGlenviewneighborhoodthatstartedin2001
hewasshockedtoseehowmanypostsdescribedsuspiciouspeople
withvaguedescriptionsthatmatchedhim:"Blackman,fiveten,160
pounds,bald,"hesaid.Thompsontoldmethatheandhiswife,whois
white,nowhavearunningjokeinwhichshe'llreadthelistservandtell
him,"'Oh,you'reonGlenfriendsagain!'"

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clicktoenlarge

Bert J o hns o n
OaklandnativeLelandThompsonbecamesofrustratedwithGlenview
residentsprofilinghimandfearinghemightbeacriminalsuspectthathe
stoppedjogginginhisownneighborhood.

AfterseeingsomanypostswarningofdangerousBlackmen,
Thompson,whogrewupintheprojectsofEastOaklandandhaslived
inGlenviewforseventeenyears,saidhestoppedwearinghoodies."It's
sadbecausepeoplearenotseeingindividuals.They'rejustseeing
profilesandthey'reactingonit,"hesaid."Eventhoughthisismy
communityandmyhome,theyjustseeasilhouette."

Thompson,anexecutivecoachandleadershiptrainer,usedtogo
joggingat5:30a.m.inhisneighborhood,buthesaidresidentswould
clearlygetscaredofhim,andeventuallyhedecideditwasonlyamatter
oftimebeforesomeonecalledthepoliceonhim.Heneverrunsinhis
neighborhoodanymore."HowcomeIhavetochangetomakeyou
comfortable?IhavetoshowyouthatI'mnotthreateningasopposedto
youmakingtheassumptionthatbasedonmybehavior,Ihaven'tposed
athreat?"hesaidwithaloudsigh.

WhilelistssuchasGlenfriendsbecameincreasinglydivisiveovertime,
theyweren'tnecessarilyreachingwideaudiencesinOaklandand
tendednottohaveformalpartnershipswithOPD.Butin2011,
Nextdoor.comenteredtheOaklandmarket,offeringamoreadvanced,
welldesignedwebsiteforneighborhoodmessagingaplatformthat
eventuallyattractedinterestfrompolice.Andbothsupportersand
criticsofthecompanynowagree:Itwasagamechangerforonline
communicationandcrimereportinginOakland.

WhenOaklandPoliceLieutenantChrisBoltonfirstlearnedabout
Nextdoor,itwascleartohimthatthewebsiteofferedanunprecedented
opportunity.Boltonwhoisthedepartment'ssocialmediaguruandis
knownforhisactiveuseofTwittersaidaresidentoftheGoldenGate
neighborhoodinNorthOaklandsuggestedtohimin2013thatpolice
considerusingthesitetocommunicatedirectlywithresidents.Atthat
point,therewereroughly7,500OaklandresidentsonNextdoor.

"Iwasdrawntoitpersonallybecauseoftheorganicwaythat
neighborhoodsformedandchosetocommunicatewithoneanother,"
Boltonsaidinaninterview."Ijustfeelthatthemorepeopletalkwith
oneanother,themoreweknowourneighbors.Andthemoreweshare
information,thestrongerthatneighborhoodcanbe."

InJune2013,thedepartmentlaunchedapilotpartnershipwith
NextdoorinNorthOakland,whichenabledOPDtohaveaprofileon
thesitethatofficialscouldusetosendoutmessagestoresidents.In
April2014,OPDandNextdoorlaunchedaformalcitywidepartnership,
andtodaypoliceregularlypublishalerts,suspectphotos,missing
personreports,crimestatistics,andotherpublicsafetyinformation.
Sometimes,policesendoutcitywidealerts,butmoreoftenlocalarea

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commanderswriteneighborhoodspecificpostsforlimitedclustersof
users.

SinceBoltonfirstheardaboutNextdoor,thesite'suserbasehasgrown
exponentiallyinOaklandandnowincludesnearly43,000total
membersspreadoutacross31,000homesinthecity,hesaid.WhenI
metBoltoninearlySeptember,hetoldmethat2,000Oaklandusers
hadjoinedinthepreviousthirtydays.Inordertojoin,usershaveto
verifytheiraddressesanduserealnamessothatwhenpoliceofficers
sendoutmessages,theyknowtheyarereachingcityresidents.Bolton
saidthedepartmentdoesn'thaveaccesstoneighborhoodpostsand
doesn'tmonitorcrimeandsafetymessagesunlessuserssendthem
directlytoOPD.

SinceNextdoorlaunchedin2010withitsfirstneighborhoodgroupin
MenloPark,Oaklandhasbeenattheforefrontofthewebsite's
expansion.HeadquarteredindowntownSanFrancisco,thecompany
expandednationallyinOctober2011andnowboastsmorethan75,000
groupswithanaverageof100newneighborhoodsjoiningeveryday.
Thesite,cofoundedbytechentrepreneurandCEONiravTolia,has
alsopartneredwithmorethan1,200governmententities,mostlypolice
departments,throughouttheUnitedStates.Thatincludesmorethan35
lawenforcementagenciesintheBayArea.TheNextdoorOakmore
groupwasoneofthefirstneighborhoodsonthesite,andOPD
partneredwiththecompanybeforeithadevenrolledoutitsplatform
forpublicagencies.

Today,thefivelargestNextdoorneighborhoodsinOaklandareAdams
Point,GoldenGate,MaxwellPark,CrockerHighlands,andOakmore,
accordingtothecompany.BecauseOaklandhaslonghadactiveYahoo
andotheremailgroups,Nextdoorwasaneasysellformany
neighborhoods,saidcompanyspokespersonKelseyGrady,inarecent
interview."Oaklandhasbeenacommunitythathasbeeninterestedin
organizingforalongtime.Theadoptionhasbeensogreatthere."

InOakland,roughly20percentofallNextdoorconversationsareabout
crimeandsafety.Therestcoverevents,lostandfound,freeitems,
classifieds,andrecommendations.InmyreviewofNextdoorcrime
postsfromneighborhoodsinNorthOakland,EastOakland,and
aroundLakeMerritt,Ifoundthatthevastmajorityofcommentsabout
suspiciousbehaviorinvolvedBlacksuspects.Inagivenmonthina
singleneighborhood,outofseveraldozentotalcrimeandsafetyposts,
asmallnumberofpostsusuallythreetofivetypicallyfeature
descriptionsofsuspiciousbehaviorwithquestionablejustifications.
Andinmanymorepoststhatcitereasonablysuspiciousbehavioror
actualallegedcrimes,usersdescribedsuspectswithfewspecifics
beyond"AfricanAmerican,"maleorfemale,oldoryoung.

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Bert J o hns o n
ShikiraPorter,anUpperDimondresident,hasaskedherneighborstostop
raciallyprofilingBlackOaklandersonNextdoorbuthasfacedsignificant

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pushbackfromNexdoorusersandthegroupmoderator.

"Igetsonauseousandsoangry,"saidPorter,theUpperDimond
resident,whoisalsoamemberofNeighborsforRacialJustice.WhenI
metherforcoffee,shehandedmeastackofNextdoorOakmore
printoutswithraciallybiasedreportsofsuspicion.

Oneusertoldpeopletobealertafterseeingan"AfricanAmerican
driver"insideawhitecommercialvan,wearinga"brightgreenvest,"
parkedonthestreetat2a.m.nothingelsesuspicious.Inapostthis
summer,aresidentwarnedotherstowatchoutfor"twoyoungAfrican
Americans,slim,baggypants,early20s"whosaidtheywerelookingfor
alostdog.Notingthattheydidnothave"anythinglikebagstocarry
stuffoutofahousetheymightbreakinto,"thewomansaidthe
situationmaybe"benign,"butadded,"Ihaveasensethatitwasn't."In
anotherpost,amanwarnedofa"nefariousindividual"aBlackyouth
whoappearedtobesixteenyearsoldwhocametohisdoorsayinghe
waslookingforhisfriend.AnotherpostedaboutaLatinoman,
describinghimasa"suspiciouscharacter"whoappeared"visibly
nervous"andwas"hidingnearthebusstop."

Inanothercase,ausersuggestedthataBlacksalesmanworkingfora
securitycompanyandgoingdoortodoorwasclearlycasinghomesin
searchofaplacetoburglarize.Evenafteraresidentconfirmedwiththe
companyinquestionthathewasanauthorizedsalespersonandposted
thatonthemessagethread,peoplestillchimedinsayingheseemed
shadyandcouldbeapotentialthreat.

Thesekindsofpostsaren'tisolatedtothehills.InaNorthOakland
neighborhood,onewomanrecentlytitledapost"AttemptedRobbery"
anddescribeda"lighterskincoloredAfricanAmericanabout6'3"who
"keptintheshadowsasheapproached,"thenseemedtohesitatenear
herandherhusbandandson."Thatguytotallyseemedlikehewasup
tonogood,"shewrote.Therewas,basedonherdescription,no
attemptedrobberyorevenanyverbalorphysicalcontactwhatsoever,
butafterreceivingencouragementfromfellowcommenters,shecalled
thepolicetoreporttheman.

NearLakeMerritt,residentshaveincreasinglyusedNextdoorto
organizecoordinatednoisecomplaintsagainstmusicandpartiesinthe
parkinsomecases,mostlywhiteusersofthesitelamentaboutthe
activitiesofpeopleofcolorwhohavelonghungoutandheldsocial
eventsthere.Earlierthisyear,OPDrespondedonNextdoor,saying
policewouldbeincreasingpatrolsaroundthelakeinresponseto
people'scomplaintsaboutnoiseandparties.

SomeBlackresidentsandactivistssaypeopleofcolorwhohavelived
foralongtimenearLakeMerrittarenowsubjecttoharassment."These
peoplearen'tthugstryingtorobyouthesearepeoplewhoactually
livearoundhere,"saidDaveyDCook,aBlackradiojournalistand
longtimeOaklandresident.HecreditedNextdoorfortheincreased
policepresencearoundthelakeincludingrecentlywhenagroupof
copsrespondedtocallsfromawhitemanaboutasmallSundaynight
drumcircleexclusivelymadeupofpeopleofcolor.

"Whenweseenewpeoplecominginandusingtheseapps,it'svery
discouraging,"saidTheoWilliams,aBlackOaklandnativeandoneof
themusicianswhohadtofacepolicequestionsoverhisdrumcircle.
"It'slikenowyouhaveanewacronym'partyingwhileBlack!'...It's
disturbingandsad."

InAdamsPointlastMarch,multipleuserspubliclycomplainedabouta
Blackboywhowasapparentlynotpickinguphisdog'spoop.Afterone
womandescribedhimasa"veryniceAfricanAmericanyoungboywho
regularlywalksaratherscarylookingpitmix,"andaskedfor

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suggestionsonhowtogethimtopickupthedog'swaste,one
commentersuggestedshecallpolice.Thatcommenterwrote:"Not
pickinguppoopfromyourdogisagainstthelawit'sahealth
violation."Thiscommenteralsosuggestedshecontacttheboy'sschool.
Anothermanchimedinwithanimageoftheboy:"Here'shisphoto.
OPDmightfindthishandy."

Later,thecommenterwhopostedthephotosuggestedthatthecity
aggressivelytargethisfamilywithfines,writing:"I'msuretheydon't
havethatkindofmoney...buttheycouldatleastputalean[sic]on
theirhomeandvehicles."

clicktoenlarge

Bert J o hns o n
CedricBedfordChalale,alongtimeAdamsPointresident,washorrifiedwhen
membersofhisNextdoorgroupencouragedeachothertocallthepoliceona
youngBlackboywhohadn'tpickeduphisdog'spoop.

CedricBedfordChalale,alongtimeAdamsPointresidentandNextdoor
user,wasshockedbytheconversation."Thatwasreallycrossingthe
line,"saidBedfordChalale,whoisBlackandprovidedmewithcopies
ofthecommentthread."Tocalltheauthoritiesaboutsomethingas
smallasdogshit?ThisishowlittleblackBoysendupgettingshot."
BedfordChalalesaiditfeelsliketheracistpostsareconstantinhis
neighborhood."Everytimethere'saBlackperson,it's'Callthepolice!
Callthepolice!'"BedfordChalale,whosaidheisoneofthefewvoicesof
colorwhocommentsinhisNextdoorgroup,hasattimesposted
commentsraisingconcernsaboutracialprofiling.Whenhedoes,few
appeartosupporthismessage,hesaid.Andsometimes,Bedford
Chalale'sneighborsgobeyondsimplystatingtheirdisagreementwith
him.Onmultipleoccasions,usershaveflaggedhiscommentsabout
profilingasabusiveorinappropriate,hesaid.Onetimeafterheposted
aboutprofiling,ausercomplainedtoNextdoorthatBedfordChalale
wasn'tusinghisrealnameonthesite,whichwasn'ttrue.Nextdoor,
however,temporarilysuspendedhisaccount.

Whenusersfaceaccusationsthattheyareengagedinracialprofiling
onNextdoor,theyoftenrespondwithoneormoreofseveralcommon
defenses.Forinstance,theyarguethatifresidentshaveabadfeeling
aboutsomeone,it'sbettertobesafethansorryandthatresidents
shouldtrusttheirinstinctsandinformtheirneighbors.Whenpressed
aboutthepotentialharmofapostthatdescribesa"Blackmale"with
fewothercharacteristics,residentsarguethatdescriptionsofraceare
relevantandtheyshouldshareeverydetailofasuspectorsuspicious
personevenifalltheycanrecallisrace.

I'vealsoreadpostsinwhichNextdoorusersarguethatcommenters
whoraiseconcernsaboutracialprofilingareengaginginvictim
blamingthatresidentswhohavefacedtraumaticcrimesintheirown
neighborhoodsorhomesareunderstandablyfrightenedfortheirsafety
andhavearighttoposttheirsuspicionswithoutbeingcalledaracist.

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Theysometimesfurtherarguethatamajorityofthesuspects
committingthecrimesaffectingtheircommunitiesareBlack,andthat,
asaresult,it'slogicaltobesuspiciousofpeopleofcolortheydon't
recognize.

Exceptforthecommentsmadebyafewblatantlyracisttrolls,the
majorityofbiasedpostsinthesegroupsappeartostemfromaplaceof
genuinefearandconcern.Butactivistsarguethatresidentsshould
proactivelyworktochecktheirbiasesandrecognizethat,statistically,
onlyatinyfractionofOakland'sBlackpopulationisengagedin
criminalactivity.

DebbyWeintraub,awhiteRockridgeresident,hastwicehadburglars
breakintoherhomeincludingarecentincidentinwhichsuspects
tookmorethan$10,000worthofherfamily'sbelongings,including
manysentimentalitems.Asavictimofthesecrimes,shesaidshe
understandsthepainandfearthatpeopleinherneighborhoodfeel,but
saidsheisstilldisturbedthatpeoplefreelypublishtheirsuspicions
evenwhenthere'snoevidenceofwrongdoing.Shesaidshetriesto
recognizethatherownsuspicionsaresimplynotworthbroadcasting."I
certainlydon'twanttogoaroundsuggestingthatsomebodywho
might'vemademefeeluncomfortableforwhateverreasonisnecessarily
[asuspect],"shesaid."Idon'twanttolivemylifelikethat."

Esquivel,theGlenviewresident,saidthereisnoacceptabledefensefor
suspiciousactivitypoststhatturnallpeopleofcolorintocrime
suspectsintheirownneighborhoods."Whenlivesareonthelineand
personalsafetyisontheline,itceasestobeokaytoairthesekindsof
beliefs,"shesaid."Andthisisineffectivecrimereporting.Youneedto
targetthesuspiciousbehavior.Skincolorisnotacrime,andskincolor
isnotasuspiciousbehavior."

Theissuebecamemuchmoreurgentforheraftershewasprofiledin
herownneighborhoodin2013.Esquivelhadaskedherneighborson
Glenfriends,theYahoogroup,ifanyonehadlemonstospare.Awhite
womanrespondedandsaidshecouldcomeoveranytimeandgrab
somefromhertreeevenifshewasn'thome.WhenEsquivelstopped
byonemorningafewdayslater,shepluckedsomelemonsandthen
rangthefrontdoorbelltoseeifthewomanwashomesoshecouldsay
thankyou.

Thewomanlookedoutthewindowandrefusedtoopenthedoor.
Esquivelrecalledseeingthewomantellsomeoneonthephone,"Noway
I'mopeningthedoor."Thewoman,itturnedout,thoughtEsquivelwas
tryingtobreakintoherhome."Iwasabsolutelyvisiblyshaken,"
Esquivelsaid."Ijuststartedcrying."Shesaidshewassoupsetshe
couldn'tevendriveanymoreherpartner,whoiswhiteandhadwaited
inthecar,hadtotakethewheel.

Afterthatincident,Esquivelfeltthatshehadtodosomethingtospeak
outabouttheprofilinginherownneighborhood.Shesubsequently
joinedNeighborsforRacialJustice,asmallgroupofbothwhite
residentsandpeopleofcolorwhocametogetherin2013tospeakout
againstprejudicedpostsonNextdoorandonYahooandGoogle
listservs(manyofwhichremainactive).Thegroup,whichnowhas
roughlytwentymembers,hasgivenpresentationsonracialprofilingat
communitymeetings,hostedfilmscreeningsonracialinequities,led
BlackLivesMattervigils,andhasbroughtitsconcernstoOPD,
NeighborhoodCrimePreventionCouncilmeetings,andNextdoor.

Thegrouphasalsowrittenguidelinesabouthowtoreportsuspicious
activityonline,includingencouraginguserstofocusonbehaviors
meaningspecificactionsthatsuggestcriminalactivityand
emphasizingdistinctcharacteristics,suchasshoes,facialhair,tattoos,
andcarmodel.Racemustbesecondarytoallthat,andifyoucan't

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describebehaviorsandotherspecificdescriptors,thendon'tpost.
Otherwise,"WeseeAfricanAmericanmenineverysinglepostnot
doinganythingsuspicious,"saidPorter.

Toillustratetheclearracialbiasesinpeople'spostsandlanguage,
PorterprovidedmewithahandfuloftherareNextdoorOakmoreposts
thatfeaturesuspiciouspeoplewhoarewhite.Inclearcontrasttothe
postsaboutBlackmendescribedas"thugs"and"thieves"withbaggy
clothesorhoodiesusersdescribedwhitesuspectsinmore
sympatheticterms.One,forexample,describeda"cleancut,college
ageishwhiteguy"whohadasuspiciousdoortodoorsalespitch.
Anotherdescribeda"HippyWhiteguy"whowasliterallystandingin
someone'sbackyard.Athirdpostedaphotooftwosuspiciouswhite
menwithalengthydisclaimer,statingthatifsomeonecouldidentify
themasneighbors,shewould"apologizetothempersonallyfor
thinkingtheywereuptosomething."

Blackneighborsneverreceivethiskindofbenefitofthedoubt,Porter
said,andevenwhenresidentssubsequentlyprovetheinnocenceofa
profiledperson,thererarelyareapologiesorevenpublic
acknowledgementsthatthesuspicionwasfalse.Onthecontrary,
NeighborsforRacialJusticehasfacedasignificantuphillbattleinits
effortstopushmoderatorsoftheonlinegroupstoactivelydiscourage
racialprofilingandadoptexplicit,enforcedpoliciesagainst
discriminatoryposts.

OnGlenfriends,Esquivelhasaskedherneighborsonmultiple
occasionstoconsiderhowpeopleofcolormightfeelabouttheir
questionableposts.Inresponse,shehasfacedharassing,aggressive,
andbullyingcomments.Forexample,sheoncewroteapostthatsaidin
part:"Doyourealizewhenyousendfearbasedemailsthatputfolkson
HIGHALERTforapersonofcolor,withoutdescribingtrulysuspicious
behavior,vehicledescription,oranythingbeyondskincolor,youare
targetingME?"

Oneneighborresponded:"Wherethehelldoyougetoff,Esquivel?Is
yourpresumptuous,condescending,ignorantprofilingofWhite
neighborsthefullmeasureofyourmasteryofracialsensitivity?[A
neighbor]reportedsuspiciousactivityofyetanothercrewofblack
thugsinverytemperate,neutrallanguagethatwasverifiedby[a
differentneighbor's]videocameras."

Esquivelsubsequentlyaskedforthatcommentertoberemoved,and
althoughsomesupportedher,manydefendedthecommenter,saying
hehadfreespeechrightstovoicehisopinionandthathislanguagedid
notconstituteabuse.Eventually,themoderatorofthediscussion,who
isawhiteman,bannedEsquivelfrompostingonGlenfriends.

"I'moneofthefewvoicesofcolorthatdarestospeakonthislistserv
andnowI'mcensored!"shesaidinaninterview."So,you'renothearing
fromanyBrownorBlackpeople."

OnNextdoor,moderatorsarecalled"leads,"andtheyareoftenoneof
thefoundingorearlymembersofaneighborhoodgroup.Theymanage
theirneighborhood'sNextdoorCrimeandSafetyResourcessectionand
canremoveinappropriatemessagesandclosecommentthreads.Inthe
Oakmoregroup,NeighborsforRacialJusticehashadsignificant
conflictswithlongtimeleadHughBartlett,whoiswhiteandhasshut
downdiscussionsaboutraceissuesandBlackLivesMatteronmultiple
occasions,arguingthattheyarenotrelevanttoNextdoor.Forexample,
NomurapostedanExpressarticleaboutracialprofilingonBART
andBartlettclosedthediscussiontocommentssayingitwasnot
appropriateforagroupfocusedonneighborhoodissues.However,he
haspermitteddiscussionsoncoalexportsinOakland,pesticideusein
theBayArea,andOaklandteachercontracts.

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FromhispostsonNextdoorandhiscommentsduringaphone
interview,it'sclearthatBartlettviewsthediscussionaboutprofilingas
somethingofanannoyancethatunnecessarilyclogsupthesite's
newsfeed.InshuttingdownthepostonBARTprofiling,hewrotethat
hecouldn'tpermiteveryonetopostabouttheir"favoriteaxetogrind."
Andonceinresponsetoapostabouta"supershadylookingdude,"
Bartlettresponded:"Nottostartaracewar,butwhatskincolorwas
he?"AfterimmediatelydeletingoneofPorter'spostsonracialprofiling,
hewroteamessagetoherthatsaid:"Ifthesepostscontinue,youwill
bereportedtoNextdoor."

Hetoldmebyphone:"Thereisdefinitely,inourneighborhood,a
specificgroupthatisprettyaggressiveatbeingthepoliticalcorrectness
police."Heacknowledgedthat"ourneighborstendtobemore
suspiciousofAfricanAmericanpeople,"butsaidthatgiventhe
frequentcomplaintsaboutprofilingfromNeighborsforRacialJustice,
"theconsciousnessinourneighborhoodisprettyhigh."

WhenIaskedBartlettwhoisalsotheleadorganizerforhislocal
privatepatrolgrouphowhefeltabouttheconcernsfromfamiliesof
colorwhofearthatNextdoorprofilingandthepresenceofguardsisa
toxicmix,heresponded,"Ithinkit'sparanoia."

IntheearlydaysofNextdoor,thecompanydidnotenvisionthatthe
sitewouldbeusedforpublicsafetyandcrimeprevention,saidGrady,
thecompanyspokesperson."We'vereallyseenNextdoorevolveintothe
virtualneighborhoodwatch,"shesaid,notingthatsheoftenhears
aboutnewmembersjoiningspecificallybecausetheyareconcerned
aboutsafetyandwanttoshareandreceiveinformationaboutcriminal
activity.Fromthestart,thephilosophyofNextdoorwasthatresidents
woulddrivethecreationandgrowthoftheirneighborhoodsiteswith
residentsfoundingtheirlocalgroups,invitingotherneighborstojoin,
writingaboutthetopicsthatmostinterestthem,andselfmoderating
controversialpostsanddiscussions."WhatpeopleloveaboutNextdoor
isit'saverydemocraticplatform,"Gradysaid.

Whenitlaunched,Nextdoorpublished"guidelines"statingthatusers
shouldrefrainfrompublishingprofanityordiscriminatoryposts.And
inAprilofthisyearinresponsetogrowingconcernsaboutracially
prejudicedcommentsthecompanyaddedaspecificguidelinethat
usersshouldnotpostanythingthatcouldbeperceivedas"profiling."
BuriedinanFAQsection,thecompanydefinesprofilingasthe"actof
makingassumptionsaboutaperson'scharacterorintentionsbasedon
theirappearanceoridentityratherthantheiractions."TheNextdoor
"leads"areinchargeofinterpretingandenforcingtheguidelines,and
userscancontactthecompanyiftheyareunhappywithalead'sactions
orinaction.

Formorethanamonth,NeighborsforRacialJusticehascomplainedto
thecompanyaboutBartlett,theOakmorelead.AtonepointinAugust,
aNextdoorrepresentativeagreedthatBartlett'sdeletionofpostsabout
racialjusticewasinappropriate,writinginadirectemailtooneofthe
members:"Wedeeplyappreciateyou[bringing]thistoourattentionas
wetakeissuesofleadabuseveryseriously."ThatNextdoorofficialwent
sofarastoremoveBartlettasalead.Butemailsshowthat,laterthat
sameday,thecompanybacktrackedandrestoredhisstatuswithlittle
explanation.

"Hejustallowsthese[racialprofiling]poststofly,andanytimewe
challengethatoranyneighborssay'Ifeelendangeredbythis,'heshuts
itdown,"PortersaidofBartlett.Shewasparticularlyfrustratedwhena
Nextdoorrepresentativerespondedtohercomplaintswithamessage
critiquingherpostsinthegroup,writing,"I'ddefinitelyencourageyou
touseabitmoretactwhilecommunicatingyourpointstoneighbors."

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Lastweek,aftermuchbackandforth,NextdooragreedtomakeMitsu
Fishera"colead"oftheOakmoregroupalongsideBartlett,according
toFisher.

Gradysaidthecompanytakesconcernsaboutracialprofilingseriously
andthatNextdoorisconsideringpossiblyrequiringnewmembersto
signanagreementsayingtheywillabidebyitsguidelines.Butshealso
saidshebelievesthatmemberstendtospeakupaboutracialprofiling
whenitoccurs."We'restartingtofacilitatealotofreallyhealthy
conversationsonracialprofiling,"shesaid.Shefurthersaidthatthe
companyrarelyreceivescomplaintsaboutprofilingfromusers,noting
that0.25percentofallpostsareflaggedasabusive(whichcouldbefor
awidevarietyofreasons,includingprofiling).

ButtheadvocateswithNeighborsforRacialJustice,alongwithexperts
onracialprofiling,saidNextdoorcanandshoulddomuchmore.Ona
basiclevel,thecompanycouldpostclearandstronglywordedwarnings
directlyintheCrimeandSafetysectionstatingthatitwillnottolerate
anyprofiling.Thecompanycouldalsotakeamoreactiverolein
deletingoffensivepostsorbanninguserswhocontinuetoengagein
profilingafterthey'vebeenwarned.Activistsfurthersuggestedthatthe
companyrequireneighborhoodleadstoparticipateinbasictrainingon
profilingandhowtomoderatecomments.

OPDwhichNextdoorsayshasbeenoneofitsmostsuccessful
municipalpartnershasalsoemphasizedthatitdoesnotwanttoget
callsaboutsuspiciouspeoplewhoaren'tactuallydoinganything
suspicious.Bolton,thelieutenantwhospearheadedtheNextdoor
partnership,notedthathehasheardofficersrespondingtocallsfor
serviceask,"Why,exactly,amIgoingtothiscall?Youhaven'tgivenme
anything....Whatdoyouwantmetodowiththis?"

Internally,OPDhaslongbeenplaguedbyracialbiaseswithinits
departmentwithdataconsistentlyshowingthatpolicestopandsearch
peopleofcoloratdisproportionatelyhighratesBlackresidentsmade
up57percentof2014policestops,eventhoughtheyconstituteonly27
percentofthecity'spopulation.OPD,whichisunderfederaloversight
duetoitshistoryofraciallybiasedpolicing,hasbeenworkingtocombat
itsbiasesthroughongoingtrainingandresearchefforts.Butexperts
notethatpolicedepartmentsaremorelimitedintheirabilityto
eliminateprofilingwhenitcomestocitizens'calls.Inotherwords,when
residentsengageinracialprofiling,policegenerallyhavetoinvestigate,
whichcreatesyetanotherpathwayforpeopleofcolortofaceunjustified
contactswithpolicebeyondtheraciallybiasedstopsandsearches
copsarealreadydoingontheirown.

"Iftheyarejustlookingaroundfurtivelyortheylookoutofplace,that's
notavalidbasisofsuspicion,"saidJackGlaser,UCBerkeleypublic
policyprofessorandexpertonracialprofiling."Ifyoucallthepoliceon
them,itputsthepoliceinthisbind.Itforcesthepolicetodeprivethem
oftheirconstitutionalrights."

Figueroa,OPDassistantchief,saidthedepartmentisworkingto
eliminateraciallybiasedpolicingatalllevels,notjustinstopsand
searches.Thatincludesensuringthatacitizen'squestionablereportof
suspiciousactivitydoesnotleadtoanunwarrantedandbiasedpolice
response.Butheacknowledgedthatwhenpeopleopttocallpoliceon
anyonetheydeemsuspicious,itcanputapersonofcoloronapath
intothecriminaljusticesystem,whichisplaguedbymanybiases.

Aftercitizenscallpolice,forexample,dispatcherswhohavetotranslate
thatinformationandpassitalongtoofficersmaybeinfluencedbytheir
ownunconsciousbiases,Figueroaexplained.Then,theofficers"apply
theirownjudgmentsastowhatthey'rehearing,howtoreact,andhow
they'regoingtoapproachthecall,"hesaid.Evenifasubsequentstop

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is,atthatpoint,legallybasedon"probablecause,"theofficers'biases
caninfluencewhatstepstheytakeduringthestop,hesaid."Thereare
somanylayersinvolvedinthis....Iamfocusedontryingtodetermine
whereimplicitbiasenterstheprocess,thenhowcanwecontrolforthat
ateachstep."

Butaslongasprofilingbyneighborsandpolicecontinues,thedamage
remainssevereforallresidents.Glasernotedthatwhenpolicespend
timeprofilinginnocentpeople,theyaredivertingresourcesawayfrom
thosewhoareactuallyengagedincriminalactivity.Profilingalsobreeds
deepmistrustinlawenforcement,whichinturnmakesitmuchharder
forpolicetoworkwithcommunitiesofcolorandinvestigateandsolve
crimes.

Forthosewhoareprofiled,thepsychologicalandemotionalsuffering
canhavelastingeffects.Itcanmakepeopleafraidtoleavetheirown
houseandwalktothegrocerystoreatnightormakethemcautious
aboutspendingtimeincertainpublicplaces.Andtheharshrealityfor
someisthattheyaren'tevensafefromprofilingintheirownhomes.

ShikiraPortersaidawhitemanrecentlystaredherdownwhileshewas
inthedrivewayofherUpperDimondhouseonemorning,gettingready
totakehersontoschool."Finally,Isaidtohim,'Yeah,Ilivehere,'"she
said.Andtwowhitewomen,sheadded,recentlyquestionedherwhen
shepulledoverandbrieflyparkedhercarafewblocksfromherhome
toansweracallonhercellfromherson'sschool.Whentheseincidents
happen,itcanfeeldifficulttoresumenormalactivities."You're
supposedtogointoyourdayandshowuptoworkandnotbeangry,"
shesaid."It'sallthesewayspeopleofcolorhavetotrytoholdit
together."

LelandThompson,theGlenviewresident,toldmethatwhitewomen
havedartedacrossthestreettoavoidhimonhisownblock.Hesaid
thatwhenthathappenedrecently,hebecamesoangryandfrustrated
thathewasvisiblyshakingbythetimehegothome.

VanessaGraham,whoisBlackandhaslivedinRockridgefortwo
decades,toldmethatabouteightyearsago,someonecalledOPDon
hersonswhiletheywerehomealoneintheirbackyardafterschoolone
afternoon.Theboys,theninsixthandeighthgrades,camefacetoface
withanOPDofficerwhoshoweduptotheiryardanddemandedthat
theboysprovethattheybelongedthere,shesaid."'HowdoIknowyou
reallylivehere?'"thecoptoldhersons,sherecalled.Whenthefamily's
Labradorretrieverstartedaggressivelybarkingattheofficer,hesaid
somethingtotheeffectof,"'Ifyoudon'tgetthatanimalundercontrol,I
willshootit,'"shesaid.

Grahamstillthinksabouttheincidenttothisdayespeciallywhenshe
seespeopleraisingsuspicionsaboutyoungBlackboysinherNextdoor
group.Shewonderswhatwould'vehappenediftheofficerhadfiredat
theirdog.Thequestionthatreallyhauntsheris,"Whatifhehad
missed?"

clicktoenlarge

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Bert J o hns o n
AfteraprivatesecurityguardshotaBlackteenageburglarlysuspectintheir
neighborhood,MitsuFisherandAnnNomuradecidednottolettheirkidswalk
aloneintheUpperDimondanymore.

ForAnnNomuraandMitsuFisher,it'snotworththerisktohavetheir
kidsoutintheirneighborhoodalone."Thislookslikeagood
neighborhooduntilyougetontheinternetandseesomeofthis
craziness,"Mitsusaid.Annadded:"Ihavenoassurancethatpolice
wouldnotgrabmykidfornogoodreason."

WhenIaskedtheirkidsJamesandEmmaiftheywerefrustratedwith
theirparents'policydemandingtheystayindoorsintheUpperDimond,
theyexpressedambivalence."It'sjustnotaverycomfortableexperience
toliveinaplacewhereyourneighborsmightcallthecopsonyou,"
Emmasaid.

Jamessaidhewasn'tsurewhatwouldmakehimfeelsaferinhis
neighborhoodbutsaidthatgettingridofprivatepatrolswouldbea
goodplacetostart."It'skindofunnervingtoseeafakecop...hiredby
theneighborsdrivingaround,"hesaid,adding,"Idon'tknowwhatyou
candotostoptheracism."

Correction:Theoriginalversionofthisstoryerroneouslystatedthat
JamesFisherismixedraceBlack.James,whoisadopted,isnot
mixedrace.

Clarification:TheoriginalversionofthisstorystatedthatAudrey
EsquivelsaidthemoderatorofGlenfriendshadbannedherfrom
posting.ThestoryhasbeenupdatedtoclarifythatEsquivelhadsaid
themoderatorofadiscussiononcrimeandsafetyhadbannedher.

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