Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Aaren Felder

Analyze the Changes and continuities in Migrations in the period of 1750-1900

From the period of 1750 to 1900, there were several changes and continuities in the region of

Western Europe regarding Migration. In the beginning migrations were influenced by changes in

demography in both industrialized and un-industrialized societies that presented challenges to

existing patterns of living. Furthermore, more and more migrators began their relocation due to

the changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant

global rise in population. On the other hand, many people migrated to gain a better economic


As the wider the world became known to Europeans, many of them left their native countries in

search of a better life for themselves and their families. The earliest of these European migrations

was to the Americas. Around 30 million people left Europe during the Modern Era bound for the

United States, driven across the Atlantic by rising unemployment at home in times of economic

depression and, in the case of one million Irish emigrants, the disastrous potato famine of the


The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of

consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the

existing populations. Sometimes migrants left Europe in order to avoid persecution of various

forms, as was the case with the Russian Jews, who from the 1880s were the target of officially

encouraged pogroms. Late European settlers headed for South Africa and beyond, to Australia

and New Zealand.

There were changes in European migrations around the world. Before, the Irish population

remained in Ireland developing culture, but that eventually changed to their migrations to the
Aaren Felder
U.S. this migration was caused in part by a severe potato famine. Seeking a better life with a

more constant food supply, many people migrated to the U.S. secondly, at first, the British had

many colonies without many of their own people in the colony, but that changed to the British

sending captives to Australia and New Zealand to begin a penal colony. The Irish response to

their famine and poverty by migrating is different than how the French responded to their famine

and poverty. Instead of migrating, the French revolutionized. There were changes in the U.S.

migrations around the world. Unlike most of the rest of the world, the U.S. received many

migrators than provided many. Firstly, in the beginning of this time period the U.S. accepted

many slave migrations to work on sugar, cotton, and tobacco plantations, but that changed to the

use of indentured servants who came not just from west Africa, but from other places in the

world, especially east and southeast Asia. The outlaw of the slave trade was caused by the British

who decided that it should be ended for economic reasons and who spent just as much money as

they earned from the profits of slave trade to stop it in the Atlantic Ocean. Also in the U.S. at first

they accepted and welcomed many foreign migrants, but that changed to not allowing certain

people to migrate there by passing acts such as the Chinese exclusion act. This type of act is

similar to how china, in its days of isolation, kept out and restricted any foreign (especially

western) interference and interaction.

There were many continuities over this time period in both Europe and the U.S. firstly, the main

reason people migrate is for economic reasons and that remained throughout the time period.

Even the Australian penal colonies had this incentive as Britain did not want to have to use tax

money to hold and secure prisoners. Secondly, the migrants bring culture with them which

causes syncretism such as the creation of the Vodun religion in African slaves. Thirdly, world

migrations in both the U.S. and Europe at this time caused widespread disease. An example is the
Aaren Felder
small pox epidemic. The Africans especially had to acclimate to a new world in the U.S. also, the

U.S. and the Europeans had to worry about diseases like HIV and malaria when in Africa.

Finally, there was and remained throughout the period a constant flow of migrants into the U.S.

no matter where they come from in the world. Another continuity is the flow of people from

Europe to Africa. At this time, Europe is still heavily imperialistic especially in Africa because it

was gone unconquered by a colonial force. Europes economic interest in African goods caused

this continuous, through relatively small, migration of Europeans to Africa to government

colonies, collect and sell goods as merchants, and even set up colonies who enjoy extra

territoriality. Colonies such as Britain, South Africa, and French Algeria are examples of this.

The industrial revolution produced technologies that greatly broadened the horizons of people

throughout the world. For example, the invention of the steam engine allowed ships to not rely

on the winds alone to take them to their destinations. The steam engine made journeys to foreign

lands much more feasible and faster. A trip that would normally have taken days, weeks or

maybe even months, would now take hours maybe. Another thing that changed in distance

migrations during 1700-1900 was that majority of the world began to start abolishing slavery.

This ended long distanced migrations forced upon the Africans. Prior to this time, Africans were

sent along the middle passage and into the Americas and the Caribbean. There they would be

forced to produce cash crops such as sugar cane and tobacco to be sent back to the old world.

Africans were threatened horrendously because they were seen as inferior and had no rights.

After slavery ended the lines of Africans in foreign lands ended, the lines of Africans in foreign

lands improved. While they were still faced with racism, they were given more opportunities.

One of these opportunities included the freedom to migrate to wherever they wanted. Despite all
Aaren Felder
the changes. In long distance migrations, one thing that remained the same was European powers

going to faraway lands to gain resources.

Throughout history, the greed of European drove them to other nations in order to exploit them

and gain resources. During 1700-1900s it was no different. The Dutch established a colony in

South Africa in order to gain the lands goods. There they industrialized the land by building

railroad, which made it easier to extract the essential natural resources from the land. Similar

actions were done in other parts of the world as well.

Since the beginning of history, people have migrated long distances. Though many of the reasons

for these migrations remained the same in the imperial counties, the methods of migrating

changed and forced migrations ended during the 18th and 20th centuries.
Aaren Felder
1. "Global Migrations - The Long 19th Century - WHAP Heritage." Google Sites. N.p.,

n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2017. I used this source to help me understand the importance

of the migrations in the world that were happening at the time. This source was

very useful because it describes what exactly they might be moving for, and it

allows for me to gain an understanding on their motives.

2. "CCOT - Spring - Long Distance Migrations 1700-1900." World History Advanced

Placement with Mr. Duez. N.p., 02 Apr. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2017. This source was

very useful because it describes the migrations. It also shows some changes in

migration at the time which is very beneficial to me.

3. "European Immigration to America." European Immigration to America: 1600's,

1700's, 1800's and 1900's ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2017. This source was very

useful because it allowed for me to understand the reasons why the people were

migrating to the states, and it opens up for a different perspective on the topic.