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Introduction to

Fluid Sampling

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Course Objectives

Fluid & Phase Behaviour


Sampling Fundamentals
Sampling Technology
Surface Sampling
QHSE
Surface Sampling Practical

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The Big Picture
Obtaining PVT and fluid property data is one of
the most important components of well testing
campaign

Measured data must be accurate

Data must be representative of the reservoir fluid

Quality of the data is highly dependent on the


Quality of the samples

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The Big Picture
Sample Quality is dependent on:
Reservoir
Well Conditioning
Sampling Methods, Equipment & Operating
Procedures

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Why Sample?
Fluid property data is needed
to:

Help describe the reservoir

Predict reservoir fluid behavior

Assist in development planning

Assess the environmental


impact

Evaluate economic potential

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Everyone is Relying on Fluid Information
Completion/production Facilities/flow
Engineer assurance engineer
Completion design Flow assurance
Material specification
Separation
Artificial lift calculations
Treatment
Production log interpretation
Metering
Production facilities design
Production forecasts Transport
Reservoir
Fluid
Reservoir Engineer Properties Geologist
Reserve estimation Reservoir correlation
Material-balance calculation Geochemical studies
Natural drive mechanism Hydrocarbon source
Reservoir simulation studies
Well test interpretation

Environmental Engineers & Scientists


Chemical / Process Engineers
Economists / Accountants
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Why is sampling knowledge important to Well Testers?

Pre-job planning
Sampling objectives/requirements in the Well Test
plan must be discussed & understood with the client.

Liase with the Client & Sampling equipment onsite


Determine the most suitable time to collect sample
Determine when all the test objectives have been
met & the test abandoned
Presentation of the Test Report & Invoicing

Surface Sampling

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Introduction to PVT and Fluid
Behaviour

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Phase Behaviour

What is a phase?
Solid
Liquid
Vapour or Gas

Change of phase depends on Pressure &


Temperature.
eg.
+Heat +Heat
Ice Water Steam
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What is PVT Analysis?
The study of reservoir fluid samples under
varying conditions of Pressure, Volume and
Temperature

Temperature is normally held constant @


reservoir temp.

Pressure and Volume are varied

Measurement of :
- physical properties
- composition

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PVT Analysis is needed

At the initial exploration stage

Before reservoir depletion

During production when up-dated information


may be required

If further development, appraisal or new recovery


techniques are to be introduced

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PVT Experiment

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Fluid Categories
Oil
Type GOR Color
Gravity

Dry Gas No Liquids

Wet Gas 100,000 scf/bbl >50 API White

Gas Condensate 3000-70,000


(Retrograde Gas) scf/bbl <60 API Straw

High Shrinkage Light - Deep


<3500 scf/bbl <50 API Brown
Oil
100 2500 Black or Dark
Black Oil scf/bbl <30 API
Brown

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P-T Diagram of a Low Shrinkage Oil

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Sampling
Theory

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What type of sample do we need ?
A representative reservoir fluid sample or as close as possible
This means :
pressurized fluid
oil with solution gas still in place
gas with heavy ends in the vapor phase

Where should we sample from ?

Downhole, as close to the formation as possible,


wherever reservoir and well conditions permit

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When do we need to sample ?

As early in the life of the reservoir as possible

Before depletion below saturation pressure

Additionally at strategic milestones in the life of a well:


- After completion
- After work over
- During enhanced recovery programs

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What Type of Samples do we collect?

1. Bottom hole

2. Wellhead

3. Separator Recombination

4. Dead oil

5. Water
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Factors Affecting Choice

Type of analysis to be conducted

Volume required for analysis

Quality of results required

Type of fluid to be sampled

Degrees of depletion

Surface facilities & well completion

Environmental Concerns

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Bottom hole Samples

Always first choice where reservoir and well conditions permit


PRes > Psat

Uncontaminated fresh reservoir fluid collected close to the


perforations

Monophasic / Single-Phase Sample


- Solution gas still dissolved in oil
- Heavy ends still in vapor phase
- Pressurized

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Wellhead Samples

Possible when conditions allow :


PSat < WHP at WHT

Collected Up-stream of the choke manifold

May not be suitable for Asphaltene analysis

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Surface Recombination Samples
(Separator Samples)

Matched sets of equilibrated Separator Gas and Liquid


Oil and Gas captured at the same time.
Usually taken as back-up to BHS
Often used as the main samples.
Quality dependant on :
- Separator stability
- GOR accuracy
- Sampling Technique

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Dead Oil and Water

Collected at Stock Tank or Atmospheric conditions

Oil Samples captured from Gauge Tank or Oil line

Water samples captured from separator water line

Collected when large volumes are required

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Sampling &
Analysis
Technology

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Single-Phase Sampling
History
Single-phase Reservoir Sampler (SRS) developed in 1989
Became the industry benchmark for Cased Hole Bottom hole Sampling

Single-Phase Multi-sample Chamber (SPMC) developed in 1998


Industry first Single Phase Open Hole Bottom hole sampler

Why?
Temperature reduction from TRes to TAmb causes sample pressure to drop
below PSat
Pressure Drop below PSat causes irreversible compositional changes

How does it work?


Nitrogen charge increases sample pressure above PRes
Pressure drops on return to surface but not below PRes

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Single-Phase Sampling

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Bottom hole Sampling Techniques

Open Hole
The well is uncompleted
Sampling tools are run as part of the MDT
string

Cased Hole
The well is completed
Well Testing equipment installed.
Production Well

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Conventional Sample Bottle
Positive Displacement Operation
Sample Agitation Ring
Mercury (Hg) Free
Valves Incorporated in End caps
Minimal Dead Volume
Used for Separator Oil Samples

Specifications:
Volume = 700cc (600cc max sample volume)
MWP = 10,000 - 15,000 psig
MWT = 200C
Sour Service
DOT & TC approved *
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Gas Sample Bottle

Manufactured by Luxfer
Made from Aluminium
Vacuumed to 1mbar

Specifications:
Volume = 20 Ltr
MWP = 2900 psi @ 60C
Sour Service

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Single-Phase
Sample Bottle
Same sample chamber as CSB
Transport of Single Phase samples without
pressure drop
60cc Nitrogen Gas Cap

Specifications
700cc Sample Chamber (600cc max sample)
120cc Nitrogen Chamber
MWP = 10,000 25,000 psig
MWT = 200C
Sour Service
DOT & TC Approved
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Surface Sampling Guidelines

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Well Conditioning
At least 1.5 x String Volumes should have been
produced

Stable Down hole & Wellhead Pressure

BSW < 1% (Solids), if high water cut check salinity

Clean/Stable burning of the flare

pH - Neutral
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Separator Preparation / Stability

Stable flow rates & GOR

Stable Pressure & Temperature

Chemical Injection stopped if possible

Stable Sight Glass level between 30% & 70% of scale

Oil Sight Glass/Sample line purged with fresh oil

Check for carry over

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General Sampling Preparation

Client must verbally confirm suitability to


sample
Obtain a Permit To Work
Inform all 3rd Parties that sampling is about
to commence to prevent any interference in
the separator
i.e. meter factors, gravity collection etc
should be stopped.
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General Sampling Preparation
3rd Party sample bottles
- Must confirming appropriate Test Certification &
MWP/MWT

Do not use 3rd Party Pressure Gauges


- Potential for mercury contamination

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Dead Oil Sampling
Guidelines
Collection Points :
- downstream of the separator oil meters
- stock tank
- downstream choke manifold

Earth sampling hose & metal sample


containers
- prevents the build up of static electricity and the risk of
explosion caused by sparking
- Use only metal UN approved containers
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Dead Oil Sampling Continued

Always leave a minimum 10% gas cap

Allow the sample to de-gas for as long as


possible before screwing on the lid

Do not allow rainwater/spray etc to


contaminate the sample during filling &
degassing

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Water Sampling Techniques

Sample from the separator Water outlet line


Use only plastic or glass containers

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Surface Sampling Data Sheet
All boxes must be filled. If information is unavailable
insert N/A
Use the Remarks column for all additional information
For example :
- well-test data source & time
- if any chemical injection was taking place
- client representatives name

The Client/Test Supervisor must confirm that the


correct data has been used
A copy of the completed Datasheet must accompany
the sample bottle from the well-site to the PVT lab
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Sample Labelling Pressurised

Attach to Bottle and Outside of Box:


Hand written Sample Label
Hazard Label Flammable Gas

If using Own Printed:


Plasticised Label

The Green Status tag should be


removed

Paperwork in Box :
Copy of Sample Data Sheet
5 Year Certification
DOT Exemption
Other paperwork as required
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Sample Labeling Dead Oil / Water
Attach to Drum / Bottle :
Hand written Sample Label
Hazard Label Flammable Liquid
Write sample details in White
Paint pen

If using Computer Printed label:


Plasticised Label

For 205L Drums:


Scratch details into surface

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QHSE

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Pressure Operations Guidelines

Sampling Equipment
All Sampling Equipment MUST be pressure
rated.

It is Forbidden to submit any piece of sampling


equipment to a pressure higher than its MWP
during operations.

The MWP of the Weakest component gives


the overall working pressure rating of the
system.

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Sampling Equipment
Service Type

Due to the unknown nature of the well fluid to be


sampled in exploration wells, sampling tools and
sample bottles used shall be designed suitable for
H2S service as standard.

Surface Sampling manifolds as standard are not


certified for H2S service, some items require a
material change with appropriate documentation.

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Sampling Equipment
Transportation
Pressurised samples are only to be transported in
Sample Bottles

All bottles must have valid 5 year Pressure Certification

All bottles must be approved for the country of


destination and for the type of fluid.
eg DOT for USA
TC for Canada

Refer to POM Section 6 and Sample Bottle Shipping


matrix.
Never ship samples in down-hole sampling tools
- Wire lines MPSR are the only exception
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Sampling Equipment
Working Pressure-Sampling Receptacles
Sample Bottle must not exceed MWP during
sample transfer and transportation.

Conventional Sample Bottles


10% of sample volume gas cap for the sample to
expand due to temperature variations during
transportation.

Single Phase Sample Bottle


Gas cap using 60cc Nitrogen
Maximum allowed Oxygen = 0.5%
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Sampling Equipment
Gas Sample Bottle
Manufactured by Luxfer
Made from aluminium
Working pressure varies dramatically with the
temperature applied to the cylinder.

On no account should mercury come into


contact with a GSB due to the corrosive
effect of mercury on aluminium.

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Sampling Equipment
General Safety Precautions
Do not bleed system pressure by slacking fittings
or connections

Do not tighten fittings when system is pressurised

Never allow problems to go unreported

Always use proper thread lubricants & sealant on


tapered pipe tread

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Sampling Equipment
General Precautions
Component inspection- Prior to use inspect sealing
surfaces, threads & housings for any signs of damage.

Avoid mixing materials or fittings from various


manufacturers

Never use components with no markings or known


traceability

Purge trapped air and pressurise test to maximum


operating pressure. Inspect for leaks and proper function.

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Sampling Equipment
Equipment Certification
ALL sampling tools and Sample Bottles must be
pressure tested:
1 Year
-Visual inspection, Pressure test to MWP
5 Years
- Pressure Test to Test Pressure
- Witnessed by Certifying Authority (Lloyds, DNV,
BV)

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Dangerous Goods Guidelines
ALL Dangerous Goods must be declared
for Air, Sea and Land transport

Why?
Ensures that all the transportation
chain know what dangerous goods they
are transporting.

How to properly load and handle them.

What to do if an incident or accident


occurs either in-flight, at sea or on the
ground.

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Dangerous goods guidelines
Dangerous goods declaration form must be signed only by a trained
/ certified person.
Air IATA approved 3 day course
Sea IMDG approved 3 day course
Valid for 2 years.
DG regulations updated annually
Required by Local and International Law
Consequences of false declaration
- Jail time (up to 5 years)
- Fines (US$200,000 +)

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