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Respiratory System Respiratory System Functions

(Chapter 23) 1. External respiration (gas exchange)
2. Pulmonary ventilation (move air)
Lecture Materials
3. Protect respiratory surfaces from:
for -dehydration
-temp changes
Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.
-invasion by pathogens
Suffolk County Community College 4. Produce sound (communication)
5. Provide olfactory sensation (smell)
Eastern Campus

Primary Sources for figures and content:
Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin
Cummings, 2004.
Martini, F. H. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson
Benjamin Cummings, 2004.

Anatomy of Respiratory System: Respiratory Mucosa (mucus membrane)
1. Upper respiratory system: -lines conduction portions
-functions to warm and humidify air -pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx -usually ciliated
2. Lower respiratory system: -scattered goblet cells (mucin production)
A. Conducting portion:
-bring air to respiratory surfaces
-larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
B. Respiratory portion:
-gas exchange

-lamina propria = areolar CT with
-mucus glands (mucin) and
-serous glands (lysozyme)
Glands produce ~1 quart mucus fluid /day
-cilia move mucus to pharynx to be swallowed
(cilia beat slow in cold)

Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes

squamous cell carcinoma -external nares conduct air into vestibule -vestibule = space in flexible part. Filter and clean inspired air Smoking ! destroys cilia 4. ethmoid and maxillay bones. Provide time for smell detection project into cavity on both sides 3. 2 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes .Respiratory Defense Systems: The Upper Respiratory System 1. Increase likelihood of trapping foreign -superior portion has olfactory epithelium material in mucus -nasal conchae (superior. connected to nasal cavity. leads to nasal cavity 2.g. sphenoid. middle. Opening to airway for respiration and encourages bacteria growth 2. lined with hairs to filter particles. Nasal Cavity -nasal conchae cause air to swirl: -divided into right and left by nasal septum 1. Provide time and contact to warm and humidify air -hard and soft palate form floor -internal nares open to nasopharynx -mucosa has large superficial blood supply (warm. Resonating chamber for speech 5. Alveolar macrophages: phagocytose particles that reach alveoli 1. Houses olfactory receptors Inhalation of irritants ! chronic inflammation Features: ! cancer e. Ph. lined with respiratory mucosa. Nose: only external feature Cystic fibrosis = failure of mucus escalator: Functions: produce thick mucus which blocks airways 1. Cilia: “mucus escalator”: move carpet of mucus with trapped debris out of respiratory tract 3. Mucus: from goblet cells and glands in lamina propria. traps foreign objects 2. inferior 2. moisten air) Epistaxis = nose bleed -paranasal sinuses in frontal. Moisten and warm entering air 3.D. aid in warming/moistening air Amy Warenda Czura.

Larynx (voice box) fibers create vocal folds/cords. 3. -hyaline cartilages around glottis = opening from laryngopharynx to trachea -vocal cords project into glottis -air passing through glottis vibrates folds producing sound Pitch controlled by tensing/relaxing cords: tense & narrow = high pitch Volume controlled by amount of air Functions of larynx: Sound production = phonation 1. Voice production mouth. 3 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . Laryngopharynx: food and air -lower portion -stratified squamous epithelium -continuous with esophagus Lower Respiratory System -folds of epithelium over ligaments of elastic 4. to infection or overuse. Provide continuous airway Speech = formation of sound using mouth and 2. can inhibit covers glottis during swallowing phonation Amy Warenda Czura. Act as switch to route food and air properly tongue with resonance in pharynx. Nasopharynx : air only " mucus production. sinuses and nose Laryngitis = inflammation of vocal folds due -contains epiglottis = elastic cartilage flap. Pharynx: swallowing -chamber between internal nares and entrances -pharyngeal tonsil located on posterior wall to larynx and esophagus (inflammation can block airway) -Three parts -auditory tubes open here B. Oropharynx: food and air -posterior to oral cavity -stratified squamous epithelium -palatine and lingual tonsils in mucosa C. -posterior to nasal cavity Infection ! blockage of sinuses: headache -pseudostratified columnar epithelium from negative pressure -closed off by soft palate and uvula during 3.Rhinitis = inflammation of nasal mucosa ! A.D. Ph.

less cilia. Trachea -trachea branches into -attached inferior to larynx right and left -walls composed of three layers: primary bronchi 1. Primary bronchi with smooth muscle & glands -similar structure as 2. Adventitia: CT with hyaline cartilage -right: steeper angle rings (keep airway open): 15-20 C.5. less cartilage in adventitia activated by inflammatory chemicals 2. -enter lungs at hilum shaped. get smaller in diameter: branch ~23 times creating the bronchial tree As bronchi get smaller. Submucosa: CT with additional mucus trachea (no glands trachealis muscle) 3.D. lamina propria 6. Ph. structure changes: Asthma = strong bronchoconstriction 1. 4 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . Epinephrine 3. Terminal bronchiole -each terminal bronchiole delivers air to one -smallest bronchi of pulmonary lobule (separated by CT) respiratory tree -inside lobule. have opening toward esophagus (along with blood (allow expansion). terminal bronchiole branches -no cartilage into respiratory bronchioles: no cilia or -last part of mucus conducting portion -each respiratory bronchiole connects to alveolar sac made up of many alveoli Trachea. ends connected by and lymphatic trachealis muscle vessels. less mucus inhaler mimics sympathetic (bronchodilate) 7. goblet cells. epithelium thinner. Bronchi and Bronchioles innervated by ANS to control airflow to lungs: Sympathetic = bronchodilation Parasympathetic = bronchoconstriction Amy Warenda Czura. more smooth muscle in lamina propria (histamine). nerves) Inside lungs bronchi branch. reduces airflow. Mucosa: pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

fluid in alveoli phagocytosis of prevents gas exchange particles Pulmonary embolism = block in branch of pulmonary artery. can restrict -Air flows from area of high pressure to low movement of lungs causing breathing difficulty Amy Warenda Czura. Alveolar Pneumonia = inflammation of lungs from macrophages: infection or injury. produce surfactant (phospholipids + proteins).5µm thick): 1. prevent alveolar collapse 3. gas exchange 2. air -left: 2 lobes (accommodates heart) breaks surface tension. Pulmonary Ventilation = movement of air into/out of alveoli -visceral pleura adheres to parietal pleura via surface tension: altering size of pleural -concave base. Thin basal lamina (fusion) 3. Pulmonary ventilation 2. reduced blood flow causes alveolar collapse Gross Anatomy of Lungs Respiratory Physiology 3 steps of respiration: 1. lungs recoil = -housed in pleural cavity atelectasis (collapsed lung) -cavity lined with parietal pleura -lungs covered by visceral pleura Mechanics of breathing: -both pleura produce serous pleural fluid to -Boyle’s Law: gas pressure is inversely reduce friction during expansion proportional to volume Pleurisy = inflammation of pleura. Type II cells: cuboidal epithelial cells. 5 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . Alveoli -alveoli connected to neighbors by alveolar -wrapped in capillaries pores (equalize pressure) -held in place by elastic fibers -Gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane (0. Gas Diffusion/Exchange 3. Ph. lines inside .D. Endothelial cells of capillary -three cell types: 1. Type I cells of alveolus 2. Type I cells: simple squamous epithelium. Gas Transport to/from tissues 1.8. rests on diaphragm cavity will alter size of lungs -right: 3 lobes Pneumothorax = injury of thoracic cavity.

6 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . and -superior = bigger.) = #compliance -a breath = one respiratory cycle -fluid (edema) = # compliance (go to handout) C. Quiet breathing = eupnea -diaphragm: moves 75% of air -external intercostals: elevate ribs.2 L Amy Warenda Czura. CT structure: loss of elastin/replacement by fibrous tissue = # compliance Emphysema = respiratory surface replaced by Rib cage movements can also contribute: scars. air in have loss of surface for gas exchange -inferior = smaller.D. muscles relax. Forced breathing = hyperpnea -maximum rib elevation increases respiratory volume 6X: serratus anterior. Compliance -lung volume # = effort required to expand lungs and chest -air pressure " High compliance = expand easily (normal) -air flows out Low compliance = resist expansion Compliance affected by: A. Eupnea: passive. Ph. Alveolar surface tension -air flows in -surfactant (Type II cells) reduces alveoli surface tension to allow inflation Respiratory distress syndrome = too little Relaxation causes surfactant. requires great force to open diaphragm to rise in alveoli to inhale dome shape: 3. collapse) Respiratory Volumes and Capacities: -"surface tension(#surfact. rectus) contract forcing diaphragm Alveolar ventilation = air reaching alveoli / up. Mobility of thoracic cage -less mobility = # compliance Inspiration -inhalation involves contraction of muscles to increase thoracic volume A. scalenes. 25% more B. space (~1ml / lb body weight) transversus. Alveolar expandability (vs. some air remains in volume decrease conducting portions = anatomic dead B.Contraction of Factors influencing pulmonary ventilation: diaphragm pulls it 1. pectoralis Respiratory rate = breaths/min ~18-20 at rest minor. # elasticity # compliance. thoracic Not all reaches alveoli. thoracic volume further decreases min at rest ~ 4. air out B. Hyperpnea: abdominal muscles (obliques. sternocleidomastoid Respiratory Minute Volume (RMV/MRV) = Expiration respiratory rate X tidal volume ~ 6 L A. Airway resistance toward abdomen: -diameter of bronchi -lung volume " -obstructions -air pressure # 2.

Transport of Oxygen B.5 % dissolved in plasma 1. Substantial differences in PP across the membrane 2.Both tidal volume and respiratory rate are Diffusion at respiratory membrane efficient: adjusted to meet oxygen demands of body 1. Coordination of blood and air flow: " blood -Gasses follow diffusion gradients to diffuse to alveoli with " O2 into liquid: rate depends on partial In Lung: pressure and temperature -PP O2 " in alveoli. 3. pain). ~23% as carbaminohemoglobin @#PP O2 hemoglobin drops O2 -CO2 bound to amino groups of Hb Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: CO out. Bohr effect: Hb releases O2 in acidic pH (high CO2 creates carbonic acid) 2. N2 leaves blood as gas In Tissues: causing bubbles (damage. Distance is small -Air = 79% N2. 21% O2. Gasses are lipid soluble 0. 7 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . trace inert gasses 4. ~ 70% as Carbonic acid -most bound to iron ions on heme of -in RBCs and plasma hemoglobin in erythrocytes: 4 O2/Hb. 0. If pressure suddenly diffuse into alveoli decreases. Large surface area for diffusion -Partial pressure of gas = concentration in air 5.04% CO2.5% at alveoli -reaction reversed at lungs @"PP O2 hemoglobin binds O2 2. 3. Pregnancy: fetal Hb = "O2 binding Amy Warenda Czura.5% H2O. Gas Transport Hypoxia = inadequate O2 delivery to tissues A. Gas Exchange 2. high amounts of N2 " in capillary: diffuse into blood.3bisphosphoglycerate): produced by healthy RBC during glycolysis.D. High Altitude Sickness = #PP O2 at high # in capillary: altitude causes # diffusion into blood diffuse into capillary Decompression Sickness = PP of air gasses -PP CO2 # in alveoli. BPG (2. high underwater. -carbonic anhydrase in RBCs catalyze ~280million Hb/RBC = 1 billion O2/RBC reaction with water: Hemoglobin saturation = %hemes bound to O2 CO2 + H2O $ H2CO3 $ H+ + HCO3- ~ 97. Ph. Pressures and flow reversed: Hyperbaric chambers used to treat O2 into tissues CO2 into capillary 3. causes suffocation (no O2) (handout) Other factors that affect Hb saturation: 1. Temperature: Hb releases O2 in " temp 3. even at Regulation of Respiration low PP CO. ~7% dissolved in plasma as CO2 competes O2 for binding to Hb. Transport of Carbon Dioxide -1. "BPG = "O2 release 4.

8 SCCC BIO132 Chapter 23 Lecture Notes . Ph. # VC 2. Elastic tissue deteriorates: # compliance. Amy Warenda Czura.D. some degree # gas exchange Higher risk for smokers. Arthritic changes in rib cage: # mobility. etc. # RMV 3. dusty job. Emphysema.Age Related Changes 1.