Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 35

,. ..........-,,,.

,~"
.. ' .

Discover the
wonders of
Ancient Rome.
~
..

a
::+ ~-

~ .. .

""; ,'.':;;,:::'"" "'!-;' :~ ~ --~-. -


~- ; . >

....... ' ~.. . "'""~ ,-.

~11'e.R~mram':Jf-p;iltlt,i,ff:ct cS&.t...-11
_...,. .... .

... .':, ~a
( .,.
. ..

. ,
. )a
C:H -~
:p ;"
.
1
. 1 .1.--:
_'_ , .
,.'{ ;

1J-1....'},O"-.::-
-
. ,..

'
..-- .'
;

.,., .,. , .,_ C''" "',' ;..,;;n


C O

...., ............ ... ~

..J4
. .
..
~ . ...
;

. ,. . ~- . ;-f. .

.:r::.:_---.-

~ :ft:.
--~ .. -. .... -~ ~ . ;~ -~ .:~ V . .
. "!'


,,.., '

: ~ . {~ ... ./"'
.: ~:-. -~ ~~ ... .., .. , ..
. . .. ..i.. . -~:

.
.

ln: 'eX
~

a
~~ .

" .
.

.
-
' ..

.

~ t ~~~I J . ~ ~ $ ~
32 ..:J
he time is more than 2,300 years ago. The place is
Rome. Who are the people in this ancient city of
seven hills? More than 2,000 years later, why do so many
people want to know all about the ancient Romans? How
will they find out?

(I

-- ~!""
7~. .
.
---.
_, .
...
This book will take you to ancient Rome. You will learn
about the history and culture of the Roman Empire. You will
learn about everyday life in ancient Rome. Discover why people
in the 21st century are still very curious about the world of the
ancient Romans.

. .

Archaeologists study ancient Roman


objects to find out how people lived.

3
... ... ,
, :.,

. ..-.~~--: . . ... ,:. - : .... , ..... - . .. . . ....... , . ~ . ~: 'i- . ~ -.- .:;; ; - ; ... . .::,,,,; .... : ' -.: - , _ __

. . . . . - .. . .. . - .:
. ..

. : . --. ' .: .... . . . . ,,. . -, . . . . .

. .. . ,,,, ... ~-

,..
~.

,.
i-

.
'
.,.
-.

,_.
.
'

....... :. ... .
. .. :~-.: . . . ..-.. -: '.... . . . .
. ~- .. , -
- : .

. . . . ,~ . '.

; : .. :. . :. .

~- _-: .. \ .....

' . . .

- ;' sttenherdsilltil farmer$,~ettled _, - . some: rcolllart b.istorv Writers . ., ,


. . . .i Qu I fltil overlooking tilt :ftber . tlel.ie'Ved tlti, legtndw~ttue.... . . . . .
trrE;t,uhr) Rivt. Odier .. < . .
. . . . .. _,, ..
. .. . .. . . -.. ~ . ~ .

..

..
.

r,~]:]9r~; l'lnma. . . . ,-~ ';'1Ji}::""-;.iJ"'J/:.i:. kl( :'T .


~a\tli,;tl ff,u .. '~. . . . . . , ~!:: .,:~ /' ' ..
. .- :.flt: . . . ;,.id
!;;.~: .........._. .C; ,. . : ,; . i. ..-_ - . .. . .
n -CC-OE.-~1ng .. -: . :
to a JJrnan ..... R; :. .-

.
,

.
, :-:

- . .. . .
--
+""

. . lige)ld) twit! batiy boys. named .. . . .: - -. . .


. .. -.-.-.._ ..

Roltllulu (BOH M-yoo-lahs)


acnd Ren1ru$ {&t~f..-muhs) ~ ><"'J; wflf .< i ::
~-~: . .
. -- .-

. . ;;

. . ,
4
. .

'.

. ...,- ; ... . . .-
. - - ..,,..
. ' . ;._ .-_
'' , .. _, - .,.

--
--
--
-:-,

1
.
., .. ,
'

0 200

.A. This map shows the land we now call Italy, about 2,400 years agQ~
This land form with water on three sides is called a peninsula.

~-
"~;_

s
...
. '

THE ETRUSCANS
The Etruscans (ee-TRUHS-kinz) were rich traders who lived
north of Rome. They built large cities and developed a way to
bring in a water supply from far away. Known as aqueducts
(AK-wuh-duktz), these water carriers looked like tall bridges.
EARLY RULERS
Around 600 B.C., the Etruscans took control of Rome. They
:uilt thick walls to protect the city against invaders. They built
:Jads to make trade easier.
Etruscan kings ruled for less than 100 years. Rome grew
cn~ealthy under their rule. But the Romans wanted to govern their
~,vn city. They drove out the last Etruscan king around 509 B.C.
. - - -.. '. '* . : . ....-... .... ~, ' :. ~ ....- .-.: -~ . . . - ...... _... . . .. ...: ...;.. ...
~ '- .... ....... ......
- ... ...... - ; -.,...

._,,_.
. . . . . .

'l\:. l\Qtnit~S-formed -a> \l11atd.owfters:C-i.lfflf from


.
..

tepnft:lie_.t o_ goem families that :f ounded Ro~e ..


' ,;t'..... . .

~ $ . l:lti~ f,,Y$,~ i~f MJ)$t Roman .{citiztna .w~r~


.gmr~l1ti ..in . ltrilt1,: ~w.e~ .;p ~ ,(Rlfbr-Bl;I$t~}lz~~
--
.~ ~$1l~l'!d1 w~tker.t'fOt fU~t$i ,. sho.pi~;~p~~s;,_._.;~.~~ts.Bltn:,_
illO f&j~,( . .n44ir$I.~nj'.f~~ers,. tney
-:!,,::' : ;lz!A'. ;.,}t3 ?: .; (~ -,,, . - :; .'1r .; : .:, ;. .\ t , ,
~t J+l'fSt1.. I.ti/~ ;(;J,Jllf .,p,~<11p11.m
..,,~,ldi't~it 1t,bim. t
. W"!t~ Ntri~'tpib~1:1'1Jl..
e.r 'l.f.,~ 1 1n
< ~ , , TL..- -: -~ .-i - .: . t'ft:',k ... :.. >
::~1.rt,":tt1.;1~ .1 :Jtes,f 1V"ea1,11y

.. ~ ..............

8
\Vealthy people lived in
- .-0-story homes that had
7

n.:nning water and toilets.


-=-~ese homes were decorated
-:th beautiful wall paintings
:alled frescoes (FRESS-kohz).
-=-he floors were decorated
rith colorful tiles that were
~~anged to form pictures.
Poorer people lived in
: rowded buildings of several
stories. Some families lived in
: ust one room. They used a
-:;ublic toilet and water from a
ublic fountain.
ROMAN CONQUESTS
The Romans wanted power Historians believe that
and wealth. By 270 B.C., they Hannibal (HAN-ih-buhl), a
ruled most of the Italian general from Carthage, used
peninsula. To control trade, thirty-seven war elephants to
they began to conquer lands scare and attack the Romans.
around the Mediterranean Sea. Hannibal's soldiers shot
They fought with the people arrows and threw spears at
of Carthage (KAR-thihj), the Romans from atop the
which ruled its own large elephants. It was a tough trip
empire. Rome and Carthage for the elephants. Many of the
fought three wars. Rome won animals died in the Alps.
each time.
'

100 200

. <

A. Carthage was a rich trading center on the northern coast of Africa.


It ruled a large empire. The empire included much of northwestern
Africa, southern Spain, and islands in the western Mediterranean.

:-10> '.
- . , ..... . . .. .
11
#.l:
H . iE,:f.t; I;;1.
.. A. . . ......P.-;T
~..... ,....~ ... . . . . ~
.. ' . .. :. . .. " .

.. :..-. : - .. ..... . -:, : /. '- - . ..


' ..
-"-"- , , ~ -'-.> ,'- : . .. .. ... ... ... - . . "; . - :'".. ,, . .. .. * .. ...... . .. . ... .. . - ;.-.;. . . .... . ..: . . .... . -:. . . . . .
..
: ' . : : :- ...: , .: ; . : ' t , . -"'.:.
' ,_. r- -. . . : ,,
:. ;
,_ ' . . . . ,-
. . .
~ ~.. ! :- . ; -: .. .... ;. . ~ , , : .' ' . ,.' ..
- ,

PLEBEIANS GAIN MORE POWER


Early in the republic, plebeians threatened to leave Rome
unless they got more power. Finally, they were allowed to elect
their own leaders. It took almost two hundred years before
plebeians had equal rights under the law. But wealthier Romans
continued to hold more power in government.

Bay of Biscay
ATLANTIC
OCEAN

' .. -
..
~ -i

'
\~-~> ,.\I::~..''Plebeians dema'nded Written-:. ':'..: ~i: c.

t]f>:_, -~'1'.: . . .,;ws


1J;,.\~,/< '"-. .. -_. ~.;. ' . ..
tflatwo.
u ld-b e the
, - ..
sam . e
. . ,,
for' ~

\i_: .< :_ .. ~everyone, rich:(jrp.oor. The_. ..


~~:~~ .:.,:~ twelve tables were fi'rst-carved -',
ti~ .- <-~-~- . . ' . .. . . . . .
._}
1

\i:~J:~, on .blocksof ston-e~ Today only _ .. ~~:


~\:-L~.~: .. - , ; . . . - .,

'{:f~~:: piece$.of these-remain. ,_


, ..
~ .i'. . . . . . . '
~ . .. .
_ ...
~

. . "'"'""""'' - - ~ :;,
...
. :~ , .. ~It

. .:'. (#..J Roman terri-tory in 133 s.c.


~
~~-.- ,.lj

~
E~ -- - ......"'<

If; , r{
&
,i

,.::
i

\<
~I; t ._AfR1CA .
-
113:
AA
~'.ft*4
' 11i
. . ...... . .. .~G:At.E:-~'.~il'l.1-lit:JS . ~.' .
--:~-
" -

0 200 .4~00
'
. ".
'
. '

12
.. ,

HE ROMAN FRONTIER GROWS


In the years after the Ro.mans defeated Carthage, the Roman
~~public continued to grow. The Roman generals became very
: pular with the people. Soon many Roman generals were made
embers of the senate. The most famous of these generals was

Caesa-r QOO-lee-us SEE-zuhr) .

t -. : .

-~\-

;;!i--""'
-, ..;._

'
.. _ .:z:. ;t.'

--..-.,.._.,s;.... .
....._

---

13
. o '. R ,c. A t,
. '

H ,, s.T
.......1. < / .. > <' Julius Caesar was a hero to
most Romans. He brought
PERSPECTIVE: great wealth to Rome and
was one of its greatest leaders.
He forced the government
. Roman roads were so welt built
to make him Rome's ruler
t:hat some are still used today.
Today all k:inds of people use for life. He gave jobs and land
these roads to get to work, to to the poor, and he tried to
. . ;: ,i,.t t d . d
v1s1 .. r1en s, an to go on
ii>

make the government honest.


vacation. But in ancient Roman
But his enemies feared that
. .

times, people almost never .


traveled by road for fun. They . he would make himself king,
still preferred to travel by boat. and their powers would be
Roman roads were used mostly gone forever. On March 15,
by the Roma:n army and
44 B.c., a group of nobles
government officials.
stabbed him to death.

A FIGHT FOR POWER


After Caesar's death, his
l
' ~
adopted son, Octavian
'f .

(ok-TAY-vee-uhn), joined
with the Roman general Mark
Anthony to rule the republic.
But Anthony wanted to rule i
alone. He asked Queen
Cleopatra (klee-oh-PA-truh)
of Egypt for help. Their
armies fought Octavian. But
they were defeated. Now
Rome ruled Egypt.

'

14
with Caesar but returned to Egypt
after his death. Mark Anthony went
... :t~.ic'" ,.
to Egypt to get her help and they #p
fell in love. They married and ..
..
~
r
1,"'.". ;,
.
, - .. '
fr,'
had three children. f .j_t,.
/}:,
,. .;..,

.,.
,i
..

:15
- ... ~-:, ..

.- . ::. ...
. ...

' --.

: ._ z ~

... .. . . .: .. . ... ""


. . ' .
~.-,. '

. . . -

ow Oc~ian1 r~~ttied
.

... . Under the rule of Alljtt1hlsi


-':-. :;.

. AttgsU'lsI.corn~nt:Jed {];f s.f.;4J:,~14), th~


the gov.f fnment. thll! arlD:y; ina , gavernm~nt w0fl(ed well.
. .- '""
-. >>.. : ' .,. ' ~ . r:<i'. '. : ,,; ,. . /:t:' -':':,;;'>,;' ' ,:_,. :, '' ,' ' .. _ "_. '' , ' , .' ' '
the p1UV1Dca .fP!tAH ..v1ffn.. 'f11l~ntei. men wio were nc,t

. . . .,.

.. a~l-owtt:ti .tn~10if~ple.'_,_in the . . . . '. . . . .- . : : . ' .

. . -~_( -,-.

- "';"
. . ~ . :-.;. '
7
. , '7'.J., _,,, . . . "l " . \,, '\ ,, '' $
9
J'' ' . , . : . :
"''T:Th ~~
;, ' ..
~0.ma~)tarm.y was~4iv,.oe<I ,..ctnf.
1
' '"' ' ' ' ..
e
l
~'
egtons ' . ' "\ . ' ' " ., ;,' '''4! J :; ' ' ".

.. . of 5,.000.m:.e,ri~,Each (egi,on was d.iv-idf!d -~ :


",:. -in.ta to ca:fiorts:, E:ach coho-r t ha.d 5 groups
' tathd Centuries.
. One tohort was bigger . '

t:h-aa the others. Each o,f its centuries had


.,;:16.0 men:
How' many rnen were there in\ -
.. ;UteJJiircohOi'.t? How fflany men were ther
' ' ~'

. IO'. total in the other 9 cohorts?


.;.,~ . . . . , . .
. ~

,.v~

. - .-"- .:,. ..-


~ ~~ ..
.. .;_.

~ ' .

. : ..... ~.-
~,\_;"., ~ .- :

. . - .

' =' '-


-i\'i!':

... _,,
...z
. , ...., . ., ..- ... . .. - ... _._, .. .... .. . .. . .. .. ; _, , ,~-. --~. ~. . -

THE ROMAN ARMY,.:.


Men in Rome often chose
-he army as a career. Many
__.l_en served for twenty years
or more. Historians praise
Roman soldiers for their
:ourage and spirit. When
soldiers were not fighting,
. .h ey were building roads,
~ridges, and aqueducts
a:l over the empire.

17 :
- 1,

---~, . , ..... _._._ ..... . ... ti


- -- '!
,.; :
,.
'<
. '

DAILY LIFE
Under Augustus's rule, the helped make important
Romans conquered Britain and decisions. They could also
part of Eastern Europe. Roman own property. Children were
soldiers often settled in these educated at home. Later,
new territories and spread the they went to school to learn
Roman way of life. During reading, writing, arithmetic,
this time, the gap between the and music.
rich and the regular people The ancient Romans had
widened. Slaves became a gods for almost everything
larger part of the population. and made time each day to
The family was the center honor them.
of Roman life. Women often

,
-....
':

"""
,. ~:ft;:iw~~:1-
iJ;,;:
.
~
"
.":,.,._ ..
~~~}

::~., j
...-_.... ... . ,,, .. ..

'j.
.;

18
,..J t 1
_, 'i t..,, d.. " . . :
:.a .:r1aa;:,1:B'. a stOllewa rli:'DUJt aaFQS5
.H
...... .. .
. .. . =. ~

. '*~ . ~ ' . : . .. . ,_.. -. .,: --.. ,: .- ...., . , . . ;~-..

northe:cn Br-itain to ke,ep out inv~ders . -. ,. .. . .

.and to mark the edge of th.e>ampire.


The wall was about 117 kilome~itlong.
A kilometer is:0.62 of a m!ile; How m&fiY
miles long wasthewall? :Ro:und your';
answer to the neares:t mite.
' .,4'

. __ ,
'"" :~'~;;'
.

19
. . .
--
..- . . -. . ...-"- ., . - .. ~ .. a-'~-"-,:,.,
.. .. -- ... _..,.,.,~- "."'"' ,,'
.
... -'.. ..., .:..
.

.
..
.;

; ! ; 1 ' : . ;'
' .. - . .. . ., :: ., . '

THE COLOSSEUM
Blood sports, such as slaves. However, at times, a
gladiator ( GLAD-ee-ay-tur) few women or former soldiers
matches, were a part of Roman also fought. Gladiators had
life. Romans watched these clifferent styles of fighting and
trained men fight to the death clifferent weapons. The fans
in the Colosseum (KAHL-uh- cheered for their favorites and
SEE-um). The Colosseum was treated them like heroes. A

the size of a modern football skilled gladiator-slave could


field and could fit about win his freedom. Popular
50,000 spectators. gladiators could live out their
Most gladiators were male lives in comfort.
. . . i1
. . . . -. .. . -.

,1. .:1<11~':
1 1
:n
.a.1i 7,iM; 1 . ~. :'Ro. ~A. N
: .... . ,...: :1.M . , ,7
r ::,,'E::,
1
B.C
. ..;...A.P,
.. . '1:a /o...
. .. . - .. ,,, ' ., . , . , ...
.
-. . .,i

. ,. ' . . . ''
. ,.-.';,,,,.. _.:. ~--- :.,--~,:.;_ ... :.., .;;::.~,-,,.:; .. .,,~;, , ~; ., ..:.,: ' ; ..
; ;;,: ':;:,:;: ,.:~.;_ . l;. j .... '.~ . . ; {; f~-:i.--.;"~;.
. ;
!
..
.,

;
; .
. '! . _: : . . . - . :. ... .
'.. ' . ~ : .... '
-
!'
:
{
. . . , ...,- ' : .... : : i . ,. . . . t

;. . I .

-.:~~ Rome's largest racetrack,


--CS gathered to watch the
~ 4.

,~ riot ( CHA-ree-uht) races.

~ -=~ and dangerous turns.


- -~ering fans bet on their
-
tite teams. Winning
--~-r-ers won prizes and were
-- ~21,Trespected.
- .I

" '
~~ '

21:
.*
- H _',
> .A p ,. .i 11 -1.I :1
_;_T R - . .... ~
'E: . : :

- ./ ... : . r ... . . . ;

ACHIEVEMENTS
When Augustus came to
power, he worked hard to make
life better for everyone who
lived in the empire. This period
lasted for over 200 years (2 7

B.C.-A.D. 180). It lS called the
Pax Romana. Augustus built
roads and public buildings. He
improved laws and government.
He encouraged the careers of
poets, writers, and other artists.

... -i.r,
.;.. ;;-<
>

-~.' .
.,, ... ....

. ,v~ r ~~~- i,~~~1;':':1:.?,;fit_r:.11:~~


.

,.,~:~i: ":~1~.:~::;";~ -~ ""~!.,__,/ ~' :k:,-,-.:t~ '~ . . ., ~-' -. ~---- ,~ ff':.::-;,,"'".__;(,:. J~ . ~...
,.1~. "'~u:t1-'~~:c~:np ~
,-.i), , : ~ , , . : ~. ~.,,: ,~--

::~r-::~;-;~;fiflf-
;~:-: li::f;!;.
it 1 1
'"',,..:m~- ~u1.
~111:-,~1f.'
~~;~t .~:.:":~::::~:.
"
r~fri !-'~"-iu.,
P='
7
1
,
~. t:~JV.Hl'J ~flV,r; Tl1,

1lt'll'Rmt1e 11.elWHD;~B~t:httl?,c,
' f~ . ,r,

'F '0\';~~~."!;}~;., ;,;1:r~ ~~f:.,r}.:: : ;: ; : .:~~ ._1 .- :<, ::~> :: " 1+~.:,\i;: ~::.::,, :'.r,:t .F;_; t ~t:~ ;} ;::i 'i

~i;:i,~~~-' .
~ ,~,~ -j
~r.ttotlnit:IF ;.: a11a_
~ ~~i~~- ~-
:mtum-4temsl:I!::
~
;; : '~ ~i , ~- ,~. -,.
~~ ~~,
~:.,J.l '.;,,~1:1:t ,
! ~ ' .,~ ! . ; ,j ...... : ,ii. .-""'- :~'Ill:;,-:,;,,_~-,...:*';! _,,.,-.,,, "~--1f-~
.. -~, .. ,,:.~ :'~,: -,, ,,;:-r-,{ >,; \. .
t;"!"':-}~1~~; } ~. ~-i--_ ...

~'k;~1rlt,lfll~~;;-.~~;;efJlir~~~;.r.,.l'4;.~~:::~,'2~ -, _ .-;-,
22
, .... . 1 .. N A
...... . A .... . . . 7 . . . .
1 . . . .
!Lf :I ,:.:. 1::..'T N;:~ROi~A\N .1/-:..,i1:R..I: J.i 11...c:. ~A. D. IBO, 1
.. . .. - . - ._ . .: .. . ... . : ' . . --. ~" =' ... ' ... . - -. . . ....... . . .' . - -~ ~ ... , . . . : . - ... -- ....... I!', . . : . . . : ... - . -_ . . __, -- ; . __ . -

..... -....

-
. . . . .- . . '
,. --, ,.......
.. . ... .- . ::.. .. ..-.. . ,:;.-., :...-~-. ... .. . -, ~ ,. -,.. :. ~...-.--oi-.: ' _,._ -
.. ,: ;. :~,;.;~.',;::-.:,,.-/ . . . ..........~.- ___.....-. -...,, ......,,.;;.:.-.- .-,. .; : ~. , ;.-..,,:.,,~,_.:, ,;. .

. . ..'

. '. ';: ._ :

... : :

. . :"., -. ~. ..
.

. .. :~ . . . . . : _.,
~ ..
. .. .

...
~-.. .. .

. ' ;_ : .- . .
' '
..,..... f. _;

.-..;.,, .

. . .. the Roman Empire ~,~ i(J > . : Jitefttt;j. ~~Bl\t ~ tto1t or - . .

big that one io:d~r and );rt~ 312. 1,.~tei\ he l ~faltedlhe


< . .. . - . goVernll1ent c~titJ, tjtf'triltii;~C,,< .:::, ~aJSiit~:le~ffe~it 'Jilit ~mt~. . -.

. . ......hold tt to.g~ther. ln~dirs. < , d,.J 1~!,: rulef.111 A.n. 330,. h~ . .


<> ..
... ._. . {Iu~tmted the empin: mote . . .. .. lUg~~tl mei citpital Of t:he _. -.- ..
. ,: i ..<;. '/ < : . " ' ....: ; < I ' ! / : /i . . . i '_. ._. ' . i
i :i / (: .... ' ! i i< ! - ; ' . ,...... _. ' .- .

than ever before - . ~mpir~ tc what is modern day

. . --shun) Wlio rilled lrime from - rule the eaS1~m Jlart of the
. .. . ._. -~ .

. . . . . .. . . .... ..... ._ . .. ell'lJaire be~arne WealtDier and < ..


/ a co...emperor to, help him , ... . mote prlW'tdUf than the .
< : rule. This .mOv~ .n d ether ._. . ...... . Western :{)art. .
govemmetlt r,tfOtm1 ~$t~~( ... -
.. th empire for aiitt1~, ' .
. ... ., .. .~ h! : -:-

~ .. . . - - -

. --'. .
..
- - - .

:. '{ : .

' .- I. -

' . - - .,_

~-- .
. . - - .;.- . ..-. .

.:~c:,:,";' :;,
:2
4. .: ..:,. . :': . -
.r . .. - . - . :;,-, : . . . ..
-__ .-___ ." -

.~ " ~.;;, ~,-.


".,;. '-"; .' - . . . .'- . .~-

_;- ,-
-

:
M ;;

...

': _-. ;.__ -


.

;- . . . .
.,. . . - : :- . ". : . ' -- . . ~- .:..-

: . a . J' - .. ~-. :"-"? -. . :.:..f


.. .~..; ....,.

Western Roman Empire


in 330 A.O.
.~.....
t... ......,.J Eastern Roman Empire
Bay of Biscay In 330 A.D.

Black Seo
SPAlff

f
0

ap of the western and eastern empires


: .:
;2
:_
6
2
""':,:.
c'-
E FALL OF ROME'S
ES ERN EMPIRE
-=--~e Roman Empire had grown so
_r,:.e that it was almost impossible to
~-:-~~~d all its borders from other
-"~ ... ~es~ The empire was invaded by
- _: ~alled barbarians (bar-BARE-
~-'22 1 .Romans called them
_ - _- _:ans because they thought they
--:::educated. In A.D . 412, a
: -~an tribe called the Visigoths
____ -,Jr _:~red Rome. German invaders
-
- . -::iquered the whole western
____._.aA../-.

......_._~...,=~LJ_ _-\ .D. 4 76. The great Roman


---::..:-~ .~.-as no more. This date is
-
~---~---.. ~ the fall of Rome.
. .... . . . . . ........ .
;
.,,-=-...- '' .-;-. :. . . - ... - --
- :.
.- . ...... --.c ;- : . - .-. '
. ' .., ... : ..
_
- ; : ~ ;: ' ;, ' < ; .. .. . :: : ~ .; ...:

ROME'S EASTERN
EMPIRE SURVIVES
The eastern empire remained
strong. It became known as the
Byzantine (BIH-zuhn-teen)
Empire and survived for
another thousand years. Its
greatest emperor was Justinian.
He won back some of the lands
that had been part of the
Western empire. He also kept
alive Roman laws. Justinian
supported trade, learning, and
the Christian religion.

.2 a. .
.
. .
.
.
. .
;
.. . . .
.. . .-; .. ,.. ;...,.
.., .
4 . ......., . ;.- -
. ..
. . .. . . . .
:. .. . .: . . :.-~.... ~......~. : . :.

: .: .! - {' . , .
. . .
. .. ~ . . . .. : . ! . .
. . . ,
.~- . . . .

.. ' . " . . . . .
. : .
. :. . : . " .
'

_-u:cient Rome's influence is still felt today. Many countries


,____. -~ a ,vritten constitution that outlines its laws and the rights
::.: ::itizens. All over the.-.w orld, aqueducts, public buildings,
____.__. ::::Jnuments are modeled after those of Rome.

. 129
.. : - . ;_ ..: ~ ~-------

,. ( f t ; , ~1;.k .
.. l~~~,J~;'.~~i~i~i:'
..... -~ -,~-- ..:--.-. '~ -?~ - --~ -. !';. :. .- ......, . ._,J t.__ -,~ ~ . -..:- -.-- .-.... ' ; . _

BJl'tbttill ~es tl~J- . ,S l~j,:i .


.. . ~~~,j11ei~tlll.J ~t'"' - -. ...:.

, .ft~~i~ ~ . JJQi'.J,., .'i,cE!


' .
S~in~,t ',i.1id'. W~ii~ill~1 ;11f~-t i:tijr;. .<.:.:./(.:z, ..--,t.,.

.1Zll~ndat:-w11i/;.-,?.:, :1,. "'Jji:/j'.

~!'\l ~t ititlri~tilm'
' ~~~~~~i;;i\~~~. ;~.-. , .:., , ;:,

.3 o
.
. ' '
- ____ - ":. ---"' ..._

...
- ~
......,,.,; ....... ,:,./ '"' : , - :
. . ..
~~~ - -.- - :'':,.,..... w:~~ ~ ' - - - ,,,_.... __ _ _,..~~;:' ...~ " - - : ,..,,,.'";.,,_.,.......;::,,,_,,., _ .,Y"'.......,_../"" ....~':""':."": :""'.. ''-.,..,_ .. '.t:---,,,.-/"',,.:<- \,.,. ......_
, ,.
::"" ,...;.,.-,..........,,..:",..,. ~-*""" ._,.,. .. -
t
):(,..,,. .,. . ~..........:.........:.)'~- ,. .,.,....,_.,._ ;_ - .. --.. .,.
- '"' ----.... --- "'
......... -.......... /--- .--
, .
""" ,.,.._,
...,.,.,_...,. ...,.,,.., .

,.,..
,
....--~._ ......,./ '""'" ................. ..........,...,:.,..-..,.1 -................ .,.,,. ............. ,..,,... ,,.-,I" _.;.:..,.....,,:.,,_,,y :'I,,,_..,....,,..,...,;>'""':::--..._-:,""...,~,..._... ,,.....<.,,<.,,/ ''"".,...,,-......:. ,..... ....,., .,.,, - - ~ - - ', - - - ...,':.' ..- .......-.,....................,..,.." ..... "");...""""'"'"''.".........,,. _,_

-
~ ~ w ..
,,,,,..._;*:.,.,,..Y:MlW-,,~,._.......,. ..,:""''-,:.:.....,.....;...,..,.., .,;Y/'.,.,._,."'(';,~,.,. ,,.,,,... :,,..,,. - - ,_,!,.._.,..;;,.,.;:i,;......,{,:,,:.:,.,W' "'.;.."""' ,.~..._;
,,(l""""<.,,_,,....,.><or. :......... .-....,.,~,;,. ,.. , ,o.,, ....~.:,..,.,..,..~~... :,._ _...,,..:. -......,;._.., ,,...._ ' - ... ,''~ .,,...,,>,,,..,,, :..:,~~ ,.."y,'.,.,.._.....,..,~'"'
, .,

-:aQrre<IUtt:=::._,-:::t.rut~OJf=:dutt)::a::bttge_strudUrt~t:-carrles:Jn:w.irt~tfroltlfat~:'.-::::::
-p1a '" ;-:: ' a~'l!JC. 6:l-.
~-.=(P1 '" . -. . .
. -::.-~-.to;--" --,.._.:.,........-,.,.//,..., . . ~ ~
'<-,: ' ...... ,.:'"""-.... """'-,.,..... '.......: -.... - " ..,,.,..,.,. ::"~ ....... p...,..~. ., - - .,,,., -~...- -............_ . . .- ~- ,;:~~. . . .,." ,- .- ""~.. .......,, ..,. ..... - *"'~ ...~.., -
__
.-- - - -.,.,.~ ...... ' : - - V"'"-
....: ..... ""'I, .(o..,l','0. ..., ~ ........ ,............,._ ,..... . . _ . . _,..,,, .~.... .,.,.._ "..:......... . . -.....

~~~---
" ' -~ ~
.~ . /'-~.,..,..-......
......
....h .... --~-.__.
..- ............_ , .
....
,: ~- ............. .
....
,,.,._,,;,. >
....
. - - - - - ..... .. ~.....,. ... _ ~
... .., .... ,......~~~----/%,_._.,,.'<"._
,.,, ,:,"' ' " , ... .,,... ........... ,,y(r"(('~:,~--
... ... " ~ ,... ~.
, ......... ., ............ , ...................-~---,... .... .....,.....,........ _
...
_...,.-;t .,. ........ <_ _ .......,... ......., ., ... ..~ ~ ,..,....... ..........,....,.... -,.,.,.,..............
--,-~;:._;.-> :,~.-~~,,. __ - , .,,.~ .,~ ,_: M'..-.,-.::~-- ...,-:- ,_.,._,,.~ -- -'.-'-'-,., - , :,,,~-~ - .,,,:-,,:_-:,_ - -- ..,., ~..,. - ..-,.,,. ..,.-"'---:Vt:::- c.y,"' ~ , , _ ___.,:_ _,
- - - - ...._ , _ _...........,.'O,. - - - - - - " " " .... , . ....._ ,... . .......~ _ . , . _ . _ ........""(..,.,..v,Af"-.........- - .._.,r,-'"'<>,.,.'~"'-.
---:':"" - - , - - -'",,,/-- ,. <- ...,"-'"-,,<>'~. ~~,: ,~,: .,_, ""'" :,-< ....... - ,;,

arcH:~:;:=::_:,::;::(ARC1t):1t~cITrv~t1st~n~ctlire:>--::;-
~-......__.,._,,:..._ - --":::::"""" .,._... ""(........ ..__;' .,,..
:{(5f#ifirCtfull.dfrigotllEr:st1.utt-ut~_::::::;,: _~::::.~~:~~-~w:::;~~::;-~
-,-~~--"'~-
(. -. ,._,,; _' ,,.,,.,,.,,,_.~, ;-~---...- ,.,:~=--- ., ., , ,.,. ,_, -""--:;.: ,., , ., ./~-.. . . . . . . . . . ". .~'.:". ." '., .,. , .__. . - .-.-"'"' - _...,:_.-,'.., _ ':. ---~.- - - ,,' ='- - -- - - . -: " ,..,,,,. '-'~----- '=
-.. . . .-,. .,. ) -.. -., ~ _.: . . , ., paal/l ~ -: , ~ .~ ~.-:,>_...,;
, . '.,.._:;-,.....,.....__.-.
' . ,- .
-.,. ,,__ >"' ;.,.. - - -

'J,,,.: . ,..,.,v. ),......, .,,..~,.; ., . , _ _ ~ ,.,,,. .. ,., -:,., ... "' . ~ -,,. " < _ ...__ "...-:................;..,,._ ,,-:'~'IN'( ~W _.... ....,,..._.......,,,,,..,,,,_-~;- .. ..,.-?("
, ,.- - ---~.....,. - -"",.,... .. ,.,......_....-....:_....-:.,.,..
" .,..._._.,.,~- ....,.,--..~~""'*-"'-"'
. ...,,"'-,-"" - ..._.... -.. . _.,-..,_ . - ( ..,._ ...... . ,.""--,.---<-.
. -~~... - ..~................-:"'- --.
.: ..........,,.......,~... :>0~-_..........., ..,.,~.:.--..._..._ __,.~---~~ - ....----~_,__ .... ~.,__._.,_,,.,,..,. .,,,,..,,.'.-.._ _,,......,...,,:;:. ..._ . . . ~ ,.,.r:;,,- ,......,(,'A..,...,.......,....,.'!"""<,.,..,.., ~
'""'
-.- - . - - .,,,;. . . u ......,,~,-~~~-' ..,.,,.'"'. . . .;11> ...,.;
,.. ""'- -
) ,...........,--.....

-
,.. , ....,.
-
. ... ~............
-
.......
~ -r-~f",.,.,. ""'""-./ '.-: ,.w-. "";....,.. I( --..,
- .,. r ,""-.... -,.--
. .... " . ~ .....~. ""'". .. . . . ., . , . , . , . - : .....
-
A

,...,e. .... -,.,,

'-": ,.,..,.,,..:,.,-
_
-_ _.v"''-
, ..,,,.,
"'->....." ' ' ~. H ,.,.."<':$~...., -.... ... ._..,;-.(rr'+,--.:....,,,.w, _- ~

,
~
...w,,.-""'",...,,.l'"- , .. , "A~..,..;.... . ,,,,"',
~...,... .,._
""" ~- . .,.,,..,,..,,..,..,._,..

...............- .. ,...
-
_....
-....,.., ,.... - ~
t'",.,..,.,-.""('~ .,'
....,,_ -..
.
,,._, ,.,,......,_
"""

. .-....... _ _ #,...,..... ,.....~

...,,<P'"..... .............,,_ -; - -.. ...- .


,
....~"':-.,.. , ,

.
"'"'...
..-......,,.-;; .,,,.,.,.,..';

'
_,.,.,.,(:"', , /."""_........~
.,...,- ~. ..,., ........,,,..
.-,,...., , .,.,..~.. ;_, , :,,.....,...,.~ ...~,.,. ,"""" .-.,,,,,_,,

.._ ('>, ..,......,...


..........
"' ,.../.
,....,,......
.~""W'.'
r.
.W

-
: : oamarlan:: : .: :-{bi..:SA'Rtiie~AJ:-a:p~Onwlio=1s.no1:Cl.viliiet ~(pag:e~11-:::,-:;::::::::--~:. :~;:_,"
- """" -:;. , . ......... - - ~,.;. .........,,..,,..- ......,.... ....--,.;,,-......- ..~_,,.,, ~ ,.-- - ( ....._,...., .,..,JI"~- ' " : - , . - " ...,........,: ~-':o.. ......................................... ~......... #--.;".>.i,,., .....,...., ..,.,.,;( ...., ....................,.................. ...........-
~
. .... ~ -,.,.. ........ ' - - - " ~' ~-,..,.,...,. .+'"-'' \...,..,.,..,..-.....: ,.,.,..,..-_. -
.
..,,.. ~
...........,.. ~-,.,,.............,ii""""" _-., ..~.. ...,..,,_...,,.,.,,.,,....,,,....,;;. ....~.""";:'.... w-...:,.,,_,,...-._. . _ :- """'-,. . . . . . _... .,. . .. ......~..,....................... ,.,.,.,.,.,.:..,,,....,-- .....,._ ........,.

_____, . , . . .,. , __._. . . .,- ,. . .,.,.. , ,.._.*"'"-i.................... __.....,,.,:'. . . . . .~~.,,.,..<.... _,'(' . . . . .,.. . . . . . . . .~-- - ...__. ..:-,-...,............ ,,..,,......,_.,...............-------- - -
-o,$ - . _ _..,.,,............... __,_,,,,.,.."-_,,...,.,..,,., ,...,..,.,. - . . . ~ ..,..,~-. ...,...,.~...., """""< ........,....,.,_,.., - - ~ - " ' .._.: ., ~,..,..,.,,.,..,.._ ...,...,r-~.,...,.,, ""',.,.-.fo... "lo-.,,.,._,.._,._,.,--...,,,..,,,_,,,;; ,,,.. d -~<>..
~- ,
,,......_,.,,,.>...ew.,,,' .,,.,,..,..,._,...,..; .,,..~ - . , ., ...,..,~..,.,> ~ "(,:A" '",v,......_,.,,,. ,..,.,,-... ,..,..,......, ,....,,... ,,... ~,, ':,....,... - ..~_,, . .,,,,.. ...,.)...""" ...,...- _..._ -u. ., .,_,..:"'. ,-,..,~. . ~~_,.,. .....,"<.-:,..- ,..._,.
=-~:fresco:~::,:.:::=~!EREHSS~kob}~
,:
',..,..., - -.........._,:......,...., _
s.tlit1Pagf!.:9J~:::~:::~:~:~.-:~.-. . ~:~.,. _:.:~:.:~
watt:~.fJ.ainUnj::urad~:nnJrJetp:l:a~ ~...... """'""' - "':""""' .,
... ... ...,., - - - ...,., ...... . ..,.,.. :_-,..,.:.:...._,:_ -"".,.,, -
. ...
-",................... _::,":......."'1', ...... ::W-"'''"'' ("" ....,..-<: .......... - .,................._ . ,.....'-v,
'
..,.... . . , . . , . - .,. ~ . : ........... _ _ _
. .,.
,,.,,,,.f,,,...,,:.;;,,,,,_.,,.._ ..,>:-~ - -................... , ........,..,.,.,.,.,,._ ..,........,_, __...."";._.~,....;,.............................. ~---............ --~.... - ,-...,,.,.,..,.,.,,..,,,, ......... . ..., ...-:. ....... ..,-(.,,.....,.,:,,.,.....,... ~ ......... ........._ ..- ...........,.., .
.;
,.,.>"-..:.-- '. . ......,.,. '.,.- ..,,,..,., -

...,v_,,,......,..__..,,:""".,,.,..,,... ,.._.~ . .-...,,,.,.._...., """'Mt. .,,_,,..~,.,.,,,., , ..,,...,_,,


..........,. .,...,,, -:.._,,..,,,,,,,. """"' '"""" ......., ..,...;-Yv~...,._.,...,,....._,;""';,.,_..,,,,.....,.,,r"'" ..,,.........,.,.,.,. .M....,.,._.,.,...,--,-..,.,_ .,..,... .......,..,,..,......__,...., .,,.,., _,.,~.... .,.....,,.~,-..,. .,......,,,,. , ,.,. ......, ,. ",.,.......,...,.?,...~"..,., .~-...,.:>'"""'""~~:'"' .....-'.--,:.,:..........,__...,,,_,, ,...,.,. :"'"- ....... ,,,.. '. ., ,.,... ......,.~.,..- .. ,..,..,..., .,.~""' ~,,.,,.,....,.::--....Jo""_...... ,.,.,...,,,.. .,~.,,.- . , . . . . . , ......................:....-.~. ,...,.,. .,,.... ,...._. ... ............. .,.,..,.....,...,," ""....,

-.:-:p3fiiGian:::,:-rp~ttrutsmrnrmimbet&-of:tl1e.::UPPef-aastfviifiO)Nefe-OesteOGeo::::~:::.: ::
-~:~ .=:.,~-~::~~::.~=~-=--:.:.~:~:-.fr~m1fi a~
- - -
feuna~~s~.:ram~itiei,o.f--~ome-=:cr,age~s};: ::.~= ,-~::::,~~ : '.. :-~-::-:~:::: ~.::.,:=== == ::~=~ =~-,
'1,....,._ ......... ,,_,.,:,,......_, ) - ~~, . ......_. - ~"' .., . .- - ..., __., ~ ....,......,.,...., ./""-....-..,._,..... ,..,_,._,, ..,._::"".......... ,_...,"*"',,;(' ,'"' ~....,,."",._.,,_,, .,..__...l..,~--.,......,.,--.,,,..-~,.,..,. .,,,.....,. _., .,,....,........ - - ~..,.., . ...,-:. .'<~A....,_"-....,..., .,...._ _..,.,.,_..,N-""')">' >,-,w,,-,1"'-..,~......,.,,,_,./ .. ,,...:-_.,~,._.,./""'.,..t,_.. - ~ .... , ~ "'-... .,.,_..,..,,.,_ .-'~-- ;,,,.....,.,
--=- :: ::~
""";.,,,_...,._.,,.,;!'"~ ..,, .~,.. .....," .,.,_...-..,._:

...,,,..,..,.,.,...: .....:.;: .. - .... -~ ---


,.,...,
... ', ... ---.:.,.
-.._,.:H,,_,....,,, " ;h'V.,..,~ .,,,..,.,.,_ _ _ ,...... "'""- """-...,....,.,,,...~,. _,.,.,...,..,. ,,,..,~ ......,. .........__....,.., .,,... - ."'" "" '"'<""'"'"....... .-.'(>.' .......... ~ - ............... ...., , - ~- ....................._ .,-.., .,,.._..........,,.., ................---........ " -~~ ,.....,.., ...,.......,...,. .,..o,,,~ ,,_,.....,.............: '"'w -,,,., .-. ........_ . .......,..... ,..... .,..,.. ..........,,...,.. .,.. '..,..,.,... ,.,., ..., ... .,....,~, ..,,,.,...,._c,... ....,.-""'(.,. ..,, ~# ......,.;...,,,_*'"'<-..................... ,.... ..-.......,...._.. ,,...,'.- ,... ..,./.... '".,.:..;.....,.,.<"-' ' ..,,,..,..,

.::::-,:::P~,i~i:i~-::~-.::::!P!H!~~ ~ ~g~~!Y~-~ !l~lt~~!B"fj3j;_::;:.::--.~::===-::-:::::::=::::.:.


........_,... - ................. ~ ~ .,,/"' - _........... ... --
................ -'

-- -
- -~- ............... ,_,. 'x.- , ........,. -
:.___ ,...,,,,..,..,..,..,., .,... . ...........
"' ....... ..,.,,..,.""-..,;,:. -..,. - ......~ """'N,N,". - -
- .._. , /"'' ,).,_.. ,....._
;, ,.,..,... .......,.., ...,.._. - V, __ ,.,....., -- -
---., '..............,, ,.,..,.........,..,,.
, - - ....... ..,.,r,'~".<....-
- ~
..,.,..,fo~v'I...,., " - - "' --. . ,.,_,........e..."I., ,.,.,..,." ,,.,.. ...,.. - ,,.,.,., ,,, ....... ~ - ..... -.. ,.~,
........... ~""' ~ -
'"- .,.._
. - . _,.... , - . . , . / ' " ' .... _ , . -.................
. v'"'"--:-. ~, .. ,~ ....~{ ........- ,--:....... - ..., ... ...-
-..,. "'- -
........ . .---"'"' ........, ..... ...,...~

-~~~~~-=:::~.~--~-~~~~~~~-~:~~~--~~=~-=~~.--
-
:~:=~==~==-~
~ .....,_,,. . , .... -....... ...,.,. ........... .,,. - - , ~ - , - .....,,....... -
.
~-- -
~
........ , ,.,..
=~ ~ ~ i ~ - i ~ Q ~~:.~-~--:~::
-
...... \,'(,.,...... , ... . ,,. - - -............. / -.......~ - ................ ,,, ...... ._,,,..'" --:-.._ -....:,;...,, ,,."' .,.../"" -,;,,.,.;......,.,_ .,,............. ..... - - .,...,..,.,..; .......... ..:-"" ..... , . , .....,.. , - .. _.,............. .... . .......,.........,, ... ..~ . - , .....- ...._ _,,........ - --;""" ...... .......... - .......... , .~ ....- .. ..,,,.,..._ - .......... )><,.,.. ~ ..... .... .......ff:"'"' :...,,. . : " ' - . - , . , - ~ ~""" - - -.. ..........,... ......... .......,,_ ,..,,.. / ,...,,...,..,. - ...

:::"',.,,...........

..-
.......----,...." ,...,,..":-....."''':''__...........,...._..:..- ........,.:Y'""' .,....,. . . ~--., .,.,. .--= .......... /..,..:.-- ;..........,,,..... ,...,'"""">..-~<P"',,-::""'"'..................._, ,....... ::~....,.<'(,,.,, .....' ,.,...,., ..,,,,, -...../~ '~<-- _,..'_.,,...- . ......_,.~ V""'"'"'-......,...-.,..,. ...........,. , ...... .,. . _ .......... f .......,,.. ,.,. ..... .._.,.......; .V.'ol,._ _ _ _ _: ""I.,.# . ._........,...,,,..*........,,.,...,.,.... .............. ,;-..;"

-... ,,,. ,;:..:. -..... .,. . .-v.w-' .,.t.."'; ~-. ......r"'S /.w.c --:-:.,"'"' - .,... .-'"""' ...... ~ ...~ .. ,,...,..,.,. ........~""'.'"- ,"_,..... -
' .
-~('"' -.'>t~M ....-. , :.............. , .,., ',wt..""~,. .............~..... ,.,.,.....,.:,, ..,."'.,. '.4' ~N )1........................... ,,.,...,,.,..., ..,..... ,.,,,... , ..,.,,,..........,.....,......_,.........
~ .,,:.'- .'"-.- ... ~-\,~""'"""' ,,..,..... _....._ ......." ""'-~.,._-
- ~ .,. .-,: -~~: .,_..,

---
- .
_,....."';.,,.."/IV,,..,..-. --v;;..... -
., ."' __,.,,.,_:..;, ,...,........ r""..... "w.,. . ....-... ..,_., ........- - "~.,.. ,,..,, <N,..,..., ......,.,..... _....,,..,....,...,_ _ ____.............. .,. ,...,.,.
.
..,.,..:::_ ........,,.... ::.--.. .,..,......., "':,..,,..,,........ ,.-.......... ,..-- .......;':.............. _...~~-/~.>- -:...~"'"<//.,..,........._.,. ... ..,,.,_..._.-w.,..,................ ~~.,"t,..,.."--.,_.....,.}:...,,.. ,...,, w-. ._. """' ..,...,. ..,.., ,.,..._..,,4 - - ......,,.... ..,......,
" '"t,.,.. , _, . ,. """"- ........,.,..,_ ..,.,,.i-1' -,..,--"' '.J"#,_~.,....._
. ,.'"'"..... ., ,.,,,..,'*"" -.....,,......,.,,...,.. ,_.("",...,,.....,.., ,.,....,,.. ":...._:-- ..,...,...-

.t:,.;.- 4' - -... "'"'..,."".,...,...........-


~ .~--....' ...............,,.__._.._.

..~ - ,...." " ' - - - ' --.........,..-:,._ .................,.,..,._. ~ - ~ : : ; - -............,..,;,>........,.:-.., ,


.
"'Y' ..,. ,,.,....,,...,~." N~,:;- ,....r .
'(H;,-,.,,,.. , . _ , , , . . . _ - " ' . , . - . , . ..o,. ,

_ . ,.../" """".,. . , .... ,,.,,,,..,.,... """""' _.,.,..


,....,,.... .,-v>" -..._ ,r...,,. ........

--w"" .............- . .
,
,,.,. ., .. __ ..,,..,,.,. .

- -oe.....,, ..........:.......p>""""""'-,...,_.....,...,
'
' '""'"' .,o-r.""' ~ . .. "''" ..~ _;"'..;.. ........,.,..........I'.., ................. ":...... .... _,..,.,.,.,;.,.~.... -:. -:-:....... . ,..-:w .........
.................. - -.. ,, _,,,,_

'
_,,,.d,,......._~- ....{...... ,)>, /'"

................... --::- .-~.,.....,.~,--:................. -.. . . . . --:"":,,...-----. . . - - --,....._,,..........,_ "'---.--..- .......,, - -.,.- ....--
...........,....
,W.,,...; -',,._.,., -

.
,,_w .... - -._.,,_,....,,.,_,_.,.,...',M - ~ -...........~. ~V

- '""~--~--:'.". . . . . . .-..............,...,.... ,.,.. ,.,.y_:-_ _. . . . ,.,,./ . . ......... . "'""' --..:.,.,,..,..,,.;,"' -......:......,...., . . .;,,. . . . . ,. .... _..,:,., ":"'" .-.. ., .
; ~
........._.., -
...., d - - ~ -
~
~
.,,w. ---....,/ "<._.,,,;,;,,,;,. ..~ __,,,.,,...- ,
- ....,,...~- - ~ .......... -=,,.,..., ... - -
~
''""""':o:"_.....,,....,.,,.,:~ "'""":'"; ....,. ,......,.,... -
....,.;-. ~ ~-.: ......... _ ,,...-. - '" ,
,..,,": ...._ ~. ~, - ,-,...--~- -..,...,,...,,.... ..,. .,..,.,._.,....._,,/""..,.,.., _.._..,,4"'-....""cU. ..... _. - - ..- ,.,, --..
.,
"",...,... """' :,_..,-.,(. '*H -.. . ".". <v-.1,~- .. ,,,.,.::.,"""'-"'t-'"-"' .....,..._....,, ,...''..-....-..r""r~-.. ,.,
.....R ~.,,. ." ' -...~,,,.,.._,.....,,..,.._.,,..,. .._.,.....,....,., l",.,.,-,.. - ...-.- .,..,.,...,..,."" ..,_,I"",,,_,.,, - '
.......,., ,,.,..
"-:'--""~ .... ~-".......... '.;. - ,:.,.~-. - ........... - >, .......,,,.,.-..... .1,Y, ..... , -~. ....~ ,.:.,. <

, , . . . . . . , - ;.,....;~............... " ' ' " --"'"""'"--......,,,,...., ...,., "'c,. , ...

.,;!,----"' ... . . . . _,.....- ""',>,- ........... ,.......--.":._,.P" ~......... , ....... ~....~.......--:-:"'-'' ..... ..,,,;,,,...,JI"'~ ......... ~ " ' : - _... ~... ;: : . . / - - - " ~ - - ~ ..,.,..,, ... ~---~_... ..,.,,.,,,f'..,.,.,...... ~ ...... '"' ..~... ":'"'' ......, ~.. - - - ... ,.,, .....,. .......:,..... :..... .,. ~ - - ,,.....,..,............ - ,., - .....,,_ .}~""" ~.................... ............................ , ........,,
..... ..............
'v ~ ...
v ,,,.'''' :,....".,. . .. ... . . ,. , . . . ,._ ..- .. __...._,. ,.,..... ....,,..- .- ....,,,........ -....'.,.,., ,..~""..... "~"""4.' ,.-.. .......,.,.....,-,(,,,~ .... ' . . # ' - - ..~.........;.""':::.".,,.
..~,........... ............_ .v................. ,... ,;." ~ ..............)>,,,,
........ -
" """--. . ""~_.r""' .............._...................< ,..,,...,.,..- """,~ - '"-'.''*.........,:,,.;!-- ................._ ................. _.,,._,._ <-. ,., ...... ..... """" -- ................ ,.

..... --. -::...



_-
...-,
,..,,7--""""-,,.......,_.,,o,.''..,_.,..., :,.:.;-.
.........................,..,.............'" ~ >: ., ...,.,.;'I-............., ..............
.,-...,,,~,.7 h4<.r."YH~ ~,'(,.:"'4" .,-,_.' ...................-"'>:<__.,""'.;..,.,....-,../..<- ''",;..:,-. ...,,,..., - -..~. ,.. f"''~_,,

,, ~,,..~ +;..,. .. .
,.... ~

............ ...... - - -..... <>t. -vX,:..->o, -..._v,,,.."- ....: - ~ ....,.,,,.""""';.: """" ;:,._..,., .............. :~,...-.......: ,,,......., ~"'"' ~.,,,.,.--,.._.......... ,...,........,r..~--,.-) ............. .:_'"? . . . . . , .............,.,,,, __
_... -

. .....,,. ......... "~.,..,,II'"""-.....,...... ~..........


- .
... .........
-
--- .-...- .,....,.., .............. _,.,_.,.,.. ..
'l,, .)'>". . .... ,.....,,.__
- - ~......,.,..,__
, ....... ,..,:... .., - ',!"'""' .
-'"""> _.,,M._. ' '":..-.,,,/""'"' ..,,..._ ...... _ _............. .,.,
,,
_.. .,..., ........... ,.,......, ---.

,,..,.,._,.!"':..,__. , ....,..,.., .........,... - - .............. - - .


... ................. -" .,.,.....'---.c,,,_ .._,.'""""'-,.., ,,,..,_, .,., - -"'""""""' ,.._.,.",;.

, .,,.,
....,
- _~
... ....... .. .....
,. ... ....,., .., ........ - ,,.~w..,,.,. -.,,.,.,w-.,.,
'
.~..,;.--:.....,...,....,. ,..:... ,.,,~.,.,.,,._ ,.,..,.:..
.
,.,..w.w.
. v ., ........ ~.,w, ~.-....,'"' ';,.."""
"'"
____ .,.. .,,~... .......
-
'

..,..._:, .; :'.:... """ ............

----------. ......
.,
.,,,.,., ,,"'\<y ~"rle'. <> .... ,,,,. :-......, ..... . . ..... .,., .,_, ...., ..... "' .,.,....,,..r_,.,..... .,.,-...,. .,, ..,
- : : ...../ ' ' ......... (1: ,..,,,. ,,., .....,,.,, _ _ ,,..., " ....,.,
, " ->',..,.,,........,....,,..,,,....'"...- w,w-

...... __,,,,.. ,,..,,.. ~

..... __.,,. .,.....,,,,.,.,, ........,,,, .....,,............- , - ,. w ,,_ _, ...: __ ..,- -:+.


- .... '
..............._ ,,....,,.._ ,.. ....... .,.,........
_,.,,,....... , ,

:-:~:::=:~:~.:Anth~ny;~~M~
afki:-14::..iJ~-=-~~~~:.::=:::.J.~~:-.:~:::%::::-~:~=~~Raar1an;:i9--:.:=~-~-~:~:-::.:~:-
,.,..- ,..,---::.
,
,.,._ ..........,.,,..,., ___,,..,.,., ,..,..,.~...- .,.,,~..._. .-... ,. .,.....'" .............. ,,.. .,,...,
.,
-..
.......':':'...,.,_-__.. ..,, "",... _..,.,... , ......._.,,.,,,,,.._ .,..,...~ """' ._,........,,.,..,. ,..,...,._.,.,.,.. .__,,''""..,., ..,....,__,.,--:..,..,.,.,;__,._.A'...., , ....,.. ........ -., - ... ~ . - .....,e.,,... ,.._ .,.~ -...,,..,,.....~. ww-..,M'-""'""...,.,.,...-.. ,,.,,NH..,.,,.,./'>"" "_..,....,,i.... ~,_,,,...._ ,,....,,,,.., --... .... _ -,.-.r '"''........, ....,~....., ~-~.;,,_,.. w.,..,.,, ...,,.................. -~.,,.,... ":.,_,,,.-,.,.,: ._,' .,..., "" -............,.. ..,...... , -
~- .,.,._.... .-........

'<,,,,. .....,.... ......._ _ - - . _ ....... / " ' '""<,. ;.. !.......,_ --.-: - .,,,.,,,, ........,.....,.,.,,. ",......... ...-..., .....,,..... .-. .,_,:., ...._,,,..-
.

:::--:: -,_:~:- A1ig 11 i"~,r,~-.-~::-=(n.7 f'-~ :tt-~~}-,-: ~- -;._:-~


,..,. .-.:- . . ""',..,..,..,,., ,.,. .
- ---:;. ~-,"~ :?a.s :,-. -2,-2:_ :~-~:-: ---=~l:f.
.. .R ow-a
~ -..;:l. _,g,~~. . . - -~ ,..--t , t:n-~ -- ~ - -----"'
-~ ., .:' -9,:~. ;, ...~11""
.. ., Y. . .
,-~ ,,. _...~,,. . '. Ii>. . .,.,. . ,. . . ,. , ,..,.,,.,r ,LW " . ----...,.---,.,.,,,....,.-..,..,,.._.,,......,....,;,,:'"-""',._,.,,,..,,.,,...,..-,,~'~,_.,~,,r...,....,..,,.,,.-..,.,._..., ""' .., - ....
......
,..~

,,... :.,,_,_:,..:""""' ......,.,.,.,...,,,..-_,,,. ../"..... ~"-';.,,,...' ..,..,G,,,w"""'""'""'"'._.,, ""'<,,-,.,,.....,.,. ,..,,.,,~ "''""""'""""..._..,.,....,,... ...-,..........,r ..,.,_;; ,.,..,...,,,,.,.. ...,_ -...,.,,_ _ --.....,,.,- ""-,..,. ,..,,.,.. ',,/' ~ .....,..... -..;d., .,.,,...,,.,.,,,..,,~/" ....~_...,,t,'"'~: .-.,....,,........_.. ........__,..._,,...,. ...,,_.,,.,..._,..,;:,,._.,...,,-.-..,, ....,__ ......... ~"'

,.

~ .
_
..... ........" '"~-- (""''

.,.............::--"---,.,,.,"--....... _ - - - -...__._.,....... ,.,, .,,.,- --::, ,-""" ............,.,.,.,,. .......,, - ~ " - - - .,,..- - - - .... ~-------~~""' .,,....,.....,- ....... '.,--.._.: ""';....,.,. ..... ' - . - ....- ......- '<,,.. - - - ..,_ _.;>'"f: ...,. - - - "'"-.. ....... " " - : , - -................... .,.,......, .......,.,"1>--..,.,:.,,,: ..........., ..,,.- ~,,.."' .......,,...- - .......,.,...--

ch~-:r tof-~te;::2,::::::::::~~~:::::::=_::~:--~=;::::.: ~~:~-==:-_ :~~-;: ~-::~~tatins:{lftopte)~:_.4~_:.:~~::~:::.-:;:_,-~:,~~~:=:=::-:=~-~;:::~:.~


-~:=~- ~-:::::~
. - ,~- ,,,_..............,.. ._.... -
.
_.,.,._. <> .,.,,..-- """',,_
-.o., ,,,.. - ~- ,_,-..,..
..... ..,. ,. . 'I.........._..,.,.,,..,,- .--", ."',,..,,.,.,,,. ., '\:,,.,,,,,... ,.,_.,..,,,.. .........,;,..,....,..,.,..,_ _ ...,.,..,,,.._._ ',.Ah- :,...,,... ---:.-..,-:.. ..,..,_.,-_.......,,.,.,.,,... """"' ,.--....'...w' ..... -..,.,... --,._,:-~x-,,.,,.,,.. .,...i.- "',.,,.,.,,,.,. ...........,,.,,,,.,-,... ~,.. ._.
.,-,
.,.,..,,,,.

.... _. __
..
"'""'
-- ........::- " .,.._...., ..

.-
-~:-: _~--~;~-Ci>la.sse.um,--20=~:~~;==~=~.:-~.:= :_~ :.~~,.,c_.:::::.:-;-:~:~:_ :::~.:=.pafrieJati~::s=~;::.:. : -- -
c
.....
,,,-,,,.._ ... - .. ...
_ ....... .,,.,................ .,_. .....,-:"_; ,..,.. .. - ......... ......... .,......,..,.,.,...__...,-- .... ....... <"',,...._..,...- ........,.......,.,.0-. """"' , . - .w"'"'""' ...- , / " " .,,_. .... ~.. -,N-_.,.,,..,...":"...,. .....,,..,,.....-.~_,.,.,,.,...........,_,,..+-"- ........-..,.,..,.. .,.,... ".,....._..:,,,,.,,,.....,.._ _ .__ . .__...,,.....,...- ., . ''"" :.....,,,...--"'"" .............._ .... ,.......,.......... . ,...,,;""'-"
-- ;,...-: ----- -

.....,, ' . ..... -- .

"'C........ , . ,..,_,....,,.....,, - - . :.......-

--- r' .,., ,


.. :---.....,. ~.,.,......:,~ .........--
":,.,,... { - . , , ,,.,~......
.....
...,.---., -... -- ,,.,.,.
... .
.-, ....:

..........,:_...........
..
,.....,,,.,., ,.......,,...- ,.,.,.,.,...- ,,,, .,- ....._/, ............_:\,....,:.

20.~-= =.,=:::::~:== :.-:::::::=~::~-~~~-=,~=~ =~:-~~~.:~=~~:~~~


: ~::~::: gla.al.ator;=-~ e:,- ~r.~::R
_, _ i-~;~~~ :.~ :.= :':. :,~-- -~; ---:~~-=--::.:=::-:.::;::,: :~:=~~~~__-~:-~~'.-=:.

- - ....................... . ... . . . . .. ..........- U"' , ..__..


... v

4' --r~. ., . "-~ 0 .,.,:- _.,. . -. ., -..,.,.


..,;. .. -.,,,.,..,..~ ...,,,...,...............,,.._.,,.... ..............~ ............... , >A.,.,_(_.._,........ .....,...,,.,..,..,-- ..... . . ~-- .--,-- _ _.,.,..:,,..._-:: . . . . . ,,....,,......,.,., _ ...,.... --
, . .... .......,...... - -................""' ,..._..... ~ ... n..y ,:>~....J,-. ,
""-,. "' ,.,.,, -~,,. .,,_(""" ....._.,,_v.,.,' :......,..
-: +-:-~--./,.,, .,,,...,....,...,...__,,,..,.,.,..,,....... .,,,.-..._..........- .....-
'""'-.,..~
.. ...... "' .........
,
--- ...........,_ ""':..,:
..,,.- ..........,"-.-~:.." """' ......_,.,.....,-_ .....-.... ...,, .,,......... ........,,
, __
--
, ~

~ ~
...................... . ...,""'"- "'"-' .......... ' """':- _., ..- " ' " ' ...... - " " ' - ~ . ,.......... . .,,.,.. " ' - -..~:--~...., ">....... :~
,
--,, . . .... . . . .----~:-._)< ---~ ._. ;,.,.,.,"< - ~...,. .....- "nv............._,,_ __ .,..,..,,_/0 , ,."""' ,..,.,,...

..... ---
.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,. - "-"
..........

.,

-l!'
1/!i . ..

1~ ~age 16 ,.
.. .: . ')~--

, ....... ,.,.,.: ..., .....


- ~ ''- -~"" -- ,..,,..,.... '"'-"' ....,.,..,.,, ..,:..........................._ ...-.~.--"v,,.;..,., -~.,.,,,.,.,,.: ~_..,. .,., .................. . The first cohort Hadaoo m:en.: The total num-be11;. of
. . :t . .

m~n
~

"'" '.N,.,,.,.._,,_,__....,,,,,,~- , .......................... -- --,.. _,.,,.-........._---:-;--.:.--.- ' ->~' .,..., --~-...... ,.,,1\-
- ~- Was
in the other 9 cehorts
..,,.,,....,..,.... ,,.. ...,. .............~ .,.,.,.,,,,, ..__.... ,... ~ ........../ .,.,.,........ ._.,... ~, "'<;;,.,,,_,.,....,. - - ' .,_..... ""' - - - ~ .:7-
.. - 7
-,<
. .:
_.,. '.....,. "-v _..,.__M""'.'...............,,,,,.. ,,_....._.,., ,,_,.,.,;,.."-...,,-.. -~_,.,.,.,,# ,._...,,:,-"-,
. ..-.. Wi''w,.,~ ' (\,;., ,,;, w, "
' . .
- - -: -~,.
- , ..,_ __,,. ' - ' M' .,.-..,

--.::::...-- ...,,/'_,. -~,,,.,. ......... ~~---~.... -v....... "'"'-


,_>; ,,- .~-- , " - ""',-
,,,.,,.. -...;.,,,. ;.. ~... -
'
........ ,.,..,.,, ' .,..,-.,.,;,'., .-t,,,. :
.
"""'"'t<;.. - ~ ... --:--..,,"~_-,.,,............___..,..,""~""v..'<:,.,...,_ ... ._, ,,"' ,-- .....
.,
.2 . Page19
' < ~
._ -.,............., ..... , _ ..... ,-h'..,.,.,.,,.,.,._,.. . ........, - ...... .,4 ,..,,. ,u.'""'.11:~ ............ ,.,..,.;.fnwr: ,.;?~.........:. "' ~

about 73 miles. The exact ,afls-~ er is 72..54.


-
..... .,..,."''"',.,.,.

"'
' ~~-~
. *

--.,, ,.. ,~-: -


. ...
..,.,.,..-r.

,.,..,.,,,., -- - _, ... -..,., ... _.-- .. ..


. ---
.,,. ..-.
- --,_.,,
,.,,-.. :/, - , , ,....,._.,)t."''' ......,.._- W._,.,.,. _,..,.....-,1,JWN -,... ......... , ,.,.,._ .,,,,,,.,...-

..-""w,,, .,. - - - "'-,- ...;...- :,,.,,,..x.,.,..,,.,, .....,..,.,,


, ............:-- ............ -... _.,,,

-_.,. ....,N., "'.,, .....-,----._, - - "'~:..........._ ,, ,.,.


,,
..
"~,,. .,..._..,,..,............................. .:-'"-""
"(' . .......
..... .,,..,----. -~ ......... <'
<
,,,. .,.~.,,-- _..,-.;,-..,:"'..... ,,...-----:.,,,,.,,._,. ,,.,,n,-....,..,.,., "":,,~ .,._d-"' ,,,..;.-

. . .
"-. .::;,-,....~."W,,v.,,,.,..,.,,,.~-.",.._.,,.......,. _____.:IO'- - ..., . .,._~ .,~ ~-'-....: . ._,:.,_,,_,. ,..,"..-~,_..,,_ , . _,,,.,.""..... ,._,,.,.,.. - ..... ,.(.,._.,.,:-..,.,_., ...,.,._._._..,......... ,..,.r,,.,.,,,_,,,..,l'M,_

--. -.:---- -- .-
-,,
32 . ...... .....
~
;,<- .,..:,..,.._,...,-.. ......., " '-,;...,,-:,..,.,~,..,.-..,.-. ,......_,,,_....,w ...........,..,._/"""",.._."
~

.... ,...------........... _,.... ~


__, .-; . .,...,,.,.

.....
~ . "":-,.--. ... -- ,.,,..

...,...._
. ,.,,.,..... .....-.'""':...... ,.,,,..~
~-- "'---
. _,..... .................
~
....... ~

.

-~-
'"~

--- ........
--- ......
.., .... _... --...----
,

.,,,. __ ,,_ " .. .....--.,,. -


...........
...... . . ... _ ,...,., ......__. ....., .
f " "' .......,.,,..,,...,.....
~,.... :-:--~ ,.,,_,.,.,,..-........ ....
... ---. --..
......... ......
-., -- ,..-
_....,. __--
...... .
,_,,,,,,,.,.,... ~---- ............ ........ --- _...........
A/Nienl llome
it pcrt af a thematic unit:

r.

A.ncien t Greece
Aleander the Great

.-,
W .... .;lllii: .,.,;. ,. ._;.I Il", ~:l ~im u-,..-
.. ~:f \ v ,: .n
. -. _,
,
Uftl ,t
.;, -r
,. ....:...,...., :.. ,,. ~ - g.11 1 .
~- .-. ~,.. .t,_v J6
':I. .":.'.: ..-~.1-:, , 1.,;.:11
' ,,a . f t.
v '.' ., ...__ _
ac1

t
;

~
i
i

. : 7 ~:_. , .~ :,: C .~.J ;i f.'a.: A?.. ,~- ..:F. :~.. 7 ? ,,.: _..1..- , ... i s. ::c .. : 1.... ; : .. -~t. . ..s.. .e.

~ .. Gfber
~
bOO"k
: t y\Oill . . .

; 11111111 like to re1ac1,:


tmtCitie1

ly

NAVIGATOR.
A NCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

Ancient Rome
Credits:
Executive Editor: Margaret McNamara
Art Director: Glenn Davis
Director of Photography: Lynn Shen 'f' '
'
Literacy Consultants:Tammy Jones, Donna Schmeltekopf-Clark '

Concepting and Editorial Services: Logotek Limited

Photo Credits: Page2-3. 8, 18, 238, Back Cover: North Wind Picture Archives; Page 3, 6, 25, 27A: Gettyimages;
1 ,1.NCMU* Ee:u1.~,1ti -N CoMfAHV
Page4-5: Roger Antrobus/CORBIS; Page 7, ISA, 20, 27: Bettmann/CORBIS; Page 9A, 16, 19, 22A: Araldo de Luca/CORBIS; Iii fifltfl ...,. Jt :felhs.m, NY lQIOl
Page 98, 11: Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS; Page 14, 26: Archivo lconografico, S.A./CORBIS; Page ISB: Sandro Vannini/CORBIS;
Page 17, 21: Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; Page 23A: Granger Collection ~iln\Ghmarksdu~ation~com
ANCIENT CIVILIZATION, S SO(J~l STlLl D1E5

Ancient Rome
..

The ancient Romans ruled the Mediterranean world for


centuries. They were bold warriors, skillful builders; and
clever leaders. Their laws, governments, architecture, and
languages are still part of our lives today.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Erin Ash Sullivan is a writer and teacher at the Willows


Community School in Culver City, California. She received
her B.A. from Amherst College and her Master's degree in
Education from Harvard University. She enjoys quilting, ISB\J 978-1-4J.m- SJJ,5_:_ 4

cooking, and playing guitar.

9 781410 851154

Centres d'intérêt liés