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- They should be knowledgeable about what theyre serving,

CHAPTER 1 know their menu inside out, and work as a team player with the
kitchen. They need to be able to sell - with confidence - the full
QUALITY IN SERVING dining experience the restaurant has to offer.
- An evaluation of how well a delivered service conforms to the
clients expectations. Essential Attributes of Food & Beverage Service
- Service business operators often assess the service quality Personnel
provided to their customers in order to improve their service, to 1. Personality Its fine to know the technical aspects of
quickly identify problems, and to better assess customer service, but the guest puts more emphasis on the attitude and
satisfaction. personality of the server.
- Matters of service and what constitutes good service are 2. Team orientation Servers must be willing to participate in
subjective to be sure. In the end, the customers perception is a team effort. They have to be willing to contribute to the
what counts. guests satisfaction.
3. Technical knowledge of product Servers must have
Quality Guest Service thorough knowledge of products the food establishment have
- Delivering quality guest service means creating a memorable to offer. They need to have tableside confidence.
experience for every guest. 4. Ability to read guests and anticipate their needs Some
- Quality guest service is possible, only when we consider all of guests wants lots of attention; others do not want to have their
the following aspects: conversation to be interrupted by a server.
1. Understanding and anticipating each guests wants and 5. Knowledge of the finer points of service.
2. Meeting and exceeding each guests wants and needs. Managing Ongoing Quality Service
3. Helping coworkers meet and exceed each guests wants 1. Understanding the guest.
and needs - The traditional demographic breakdowns age, race, gender,
4. Delivering quality service is not part of your job IT IS YOUR and guests home locations
JOB. - The psychographic breakdowns of how the guests feel; what
their attitudes, beliefs, and values are; and what kind of
Indicator of Quality Service experience they need, want, and expect from the food
The key factors that impact on service quality are as follows: establishment to deliver
1. Tangibles refers to the physical representations or images 2. The guest experience
of service. - Guest experience = service product + service setting +
2. Reliability refers to the ability to perform the service service delivery system
dependably and accurately. - Unique yet similar: Even if the incidents and occurrences
3. Responsiveness is the willingness to help customers and were exactly the same, your experience with the guests would
to provide prompt service. be unique because the wants, needs, tastes, preferences,
4. Assurance is the knowledge and courtesy of staff and their capabilities, and expectations you bring to the experience are
ability to inspire trust and confidence. uniquely yours and may change from day to day. The old
5. Empathy refers to the caring individualized attention saying has it that You cant please every guest, but the food
provided to the customers. establishment has to try, even though everybody is different.

Quality Integration in Service

- A successful restaurant operation depends on both front-of- CHAPTER 2
the-house and back-of-the-house functioning smoothly to
- The kitchen is the center of production and must be run - A guest first impression can make or break a total dining
properly, producing an excellent quality and presentation and experience.
meeting costing goals. - Careful and thorough preparation of the dining area before
- The heart of a service is the encounter between server and guest arrive is therefore essential.
the customer. It is were the emotions meet economics in real
time and where most people judge the quality of service. Napkin Folding
- Comes from the word 'napery', a napkin is principally a small
G.U.E.S.T. square piece of linen or paper. Napkin is used with the purpose
G = GREETING (a warm friendly greeting, introduce yourself) of wiping ones hands and mouth, as well as providing
U = URGENCY (approach the table as soon as possible, keep protection against spillages.
hot food hot and cold food cold when delivering it to them, find - Other than that, napkin can also be use to protects hands
out as soon as possible if checks need to be split so when they from touch hot plate.
are ready to go they don't have to wait for you) - It is usually placed on a persons lap but in some countries, it
E = EYE CONTACT (use eye contact so you are not just stare is customary to tuck one corner of the napkin under the chin to
down at your order pad) cover the whole of the chest area.
S = SMILE (encourage others to smile with your smile) - The history of napkin started way back in Europe around
T = THANK YOU (sincerely thank for having them as your 1400s on the tables of royalty, where they started to use
guest as if you didn't have them, you wouldn't have any money napkins made from warm or even perfumed cloth.
in your pocket or a job even) - At the beginning of the 1800s, napkins became part of the
middle-class lifestyle, mostly to protect the sumptuous dresses
Who Are You As F&B Service Personnel? during meals. This is the era when the folding of napkins as
- Any great restaurant should be more than just providing good decoration for dining tables began. The art really took off
foods it has to have great front-of-the-house too. around 1880 with the incoming prosperity of the Industrial
- A good server has to be so many things all at once efficient Revolution.
and speedy, but also precise; attentive, but not overbearing;
presentable, with excellent personal hygiene and posture; and, Napkin Sizes
of greatest importance, you have to be able to communicate - Napkins come in several sizes and in a wide variety of
well. Being able to listen properly is a key communication skill. materials, each size tailored to a specific use.
Theres nothing more frustrating for a diner than having to - E.g.: A beverage napkin is used when serving drinks and
repeat their requests.
hors doeuvres, like most cloth napkins, is square, about five according to the choice of drinks.
inches to each side. A luncheon napkin is a couple of inches - The four main parts of a glass are;
larger, and a dinner napkin larger still.
- The following list shows what size napkins are used for
various occasions: rim
1. Formal, Multiple Course, Meals
Large napkins (22 - 26 inches square)
2. Buffet Service Medium to large napkins bowl
(18 to 24 inches square or 12 x 22 inches)
3. Informal Dinners Medium napkins stem
(18 to 20 inches square)
4. Luncheons Smaller napkins foot
(14 to 16 inches square)
5. Tea Small napkins (12 inches square)
Mocktails Glassware
6. Cocktails Very small napkins
(9 inches square, 4 x 6 inches, or 6 x 8 inches)

- The theory, evidently, is that the more food and drink that is
served, the more potential there is for spillage. Thus, the
bigger the napkin must be to catch it!
- However, there are no basic rules regarding which is the
correct material, size, colour, and pattern as it depends a great
deal on taste and trends.
- There is often the tendency to match the colour to the
tablecloth, or to the furnishing and style of the dining area.
- The choice of colour and type of napkin may also be
influenced by the style and dcor of the dining room, as well as
the occasion or celebration taking place at the time.

Styles For Table Napkin Folding

Napkin Folding Ideas With Napkin Rings

- The usage of napkin ring or serviette holder started in Europe
during the Napoleonic period. Mostly used by middle-class
family as a way to identify who each napkin belonged to.
- The practical use of the napkin ring soon spread throughout
the western world and it is still widely used today and well
integrated as part of the table setting a good alternative to
napkin folding.
Essential Equipments
Mocktail 1. Jigger - Stainless steel thimble for measuring liquids. Sizes
- Mocktail, an abbreviation for mock cocktail", are festive, non- vary from 5 175ml.
alcoholic party drinks. 2. Boston Shaker - Consists of two cones which overlap when
- It refers to mocktail imitating a cocktail as it is very similar to a fitted together used for mixing mocktails in.
cocktail but does not have alcohol or any other spirits. 3. Hawthorne Strainer - It is plated silver or stainless steel
- Many mocktails are cocktails that remove the alcohol. They with a flat base with holes and has an edge of rolled wire to
are usually made using juices, cream, sugar, honey, fruits, prevent spillage. Used for straining ice and fruit from the
herbs and/or soda. Boston shaker.
- Mocktails are often offered for designated drivers, pregnant 4. Muddler/Long Handled Spoon - Used to stir mocktails, the
women, or any party guests who choose not to drink alcohol. flat end or muddler it for crushing fruit
5. Blender - A blender is a means of blending ice and fruit with
other ingredients to produce smooth creamy textures.
Preparing & Serving Mocktails 6. Waiters Friend - Used for cutting foil from wine bottles,
- It is vital to ensure the glasses are clean, free from marks and opening wine bottles and beer bottles.
dust, free from cracks and chips and highly polished when 7. Muddler/Long Handled Spoon - Used for peeling the zest
preparing mocktails. from citrus fruits. The small sharp holes on the end of the tool
- The glasses used for mocktails vary in size and shape can be used to make shavings and the larger tooth to make
thin strips for fancy garnishes.
8. Tongs - Used for handling garnishes, fruit and ice. cover with the cup handled turned to the right.
9. Gas Torch - Is used to caramelise fruit garnishes. 11. When teaspoons are necessary, these are placed at the
10. Re amer - Quickly and effectively at juicing citrus fruits. right of the spoons or in front of the cover with bowls up.

1. Mocktail Stick A small pointed stick made of plastic or
wood and used for putting fruit on which are placed in a
2. Fruit Juices and Peels Use fresh fruit for drinks when
possible. When cutting lemon or lime peel never include the
white membrane of rind; shave off only the coloured surface
peel or zest.
4. Chilling and Frosting Glasses The simplest way to chill a
glass is to place it in the refrigerator for 30 minutes or freezer
for 5 minutes. To sugar frost a glass, chill it, then rub the inside
and top rim with a strip of lime or lemon peel. Dip the
moistened rim into a bowl of caster sugar, pause, lift the glass
out and tap it (this method is also used with salt for a drink
such as a margarita).
5. Ice Always use fresh ice to make mocktail.

The Art Of Food Plating & Presentation

Always Remember!
- Food plating is about the presentation of food to increase
1. Always measure the correct amount of ingredients to ensure
desire and impress your diners.
the balance of the blend and taste.
- Part of serving great food is presentation it should appeal to
2. Never overfill the mocktail shaker or mixing glass.
your mouth, nose and eyes.
3. Always place ice in the shaker or mixing glass first.
- Hence, planning is essential for excellence in plate
4. Serve mocktails in a chilled glass.
presentation. Planning must not only include what will be on
5. Do not overfill glasses.
the plate but also how the plate will be set up.
6. Add the garnish after pouring the mocktail.
- The presentation must be sufficiently strong and stable so
that when food arrives at the table, it is presented in an
Center Piece attractive and inviting way.
- A center piece is an important item of a display, usually for a
table setting. It refers to any central or important object in a
Five Basics Elements Of Plating
collection of items.
1. Highlight the Key Ingredient
- Center piece helps set the theme of the decorations and bring
Ensure the main ingredient stands out and pay equal attention
extra decorations to the room.
to the support. This refers to the other elements on the plate
- Typically, center pieces are often not too large, to avoid
such as garnishes, sauces and even the plate itself.
difficulty with visibility around the table and to allow for the
2. Get the Right Portion Size
easier serving of dishes.
Ensure there is the right amount of ingredients and the plate
- Major part of the decoration for a wedding reception, being
complements the dish, not too big or too small. Strike the right
used widely at wedding receptions and also others event.
proportion of protein, carbohydrates and vegetables to create a
- Formal functions in Europe can sometimes have very
nutritionally balanced meal.
elaborate center pieces, which can span the entire length of
3. Balance the Dish
the table.
Play with colours, shapes and textures to ensure diners are not
overwhelmed. The presentation should never overpower
Types flavour and function.
1. Table centerpiece 4. Keep It Simple
2. One large centerpiece Select one ingredient to focus on and use space to simplify the
presentation. Clutter distracts from the main elements of your
Setting The Table dish and might confuse the diners on what to focus on.
- It refers to the way a table is set with tableware such as 5. Create a Framework
cutleries and tableware for serving and eating. Start with drawings and sketches to visualise the plate. Find
- The arrangement for a single diner is called a place setting. inspiration from a picture or object. Assemble a practice plate
- The practice of dictating the precise arrangement of to work on executing your vision.
tableware has varied across cultures and historical periods.
Guidelines In Formal Table Setting - Sauces need to be carefully napp so that the correct amount
1.Table appointment must be placed one inch away from the is served in the right place.
edge of the table. - Any spills should be immediately wiped with a fresh, clean,
2. The plate is placed at the center of the cover. damp cloth. Always wipe towards the spill and check that there
3. The knife is placed next to the knife with the bowl facing up. are no signs of the spill remaining.
4. The spoon is placed next to the knife with the bowl facing - Always check plates from several angles as the direction of
up. light in the restaurant may be quite different from yours. Re-
5. The fork is placed at the left side of the cover for not more plate a meal again or replace it if the spillage is too difficult to
than three per cover, tines upward. clean.
6. The napkin is placed next to the fork.
7. the glassware is placed just above the point of the knife. Garnishes
8. The bread and butter plate used in informal dinners is laced - Garnishes serves as an accent to perk up or highlight the
at tne tip of the fork, with butter spreader. colour of the main dish. Its meant to enhance and match the
9. The salt and pepper shakers are placed between each flavours of the dish, not overpower it. These are some simple
cover. guidelines to applying garnishes:
10. The cup and saucer are placed on the wide side of the 1. Refrain from stacking garnishing on one corner of the plate.
2. Provide a flash of colour and shapes by arranging the Lighting
garnishes around the main dish. - The use of natural light during the day is always preferable:
3. Garnishes should always be edible so avoid using parsley This saves money, has psychological benefits and allows color
flowers, lemon twists, cinnamon sticks or raw herbs. discernment.
4. Garnishing should be applied quickly to ensure the food - Lighting can create the mood of a space. When people look
arrives at the table warm. good and feel attractive, they tend to return for repeat visit.
Effective lighting most crucial element is balance. If a room is
Classical Plating too bright, too soft, too deeply shadowed, or too
- The classical plating technique uses the three basic food homogeneously lit, it wont feel comfortable.
items of starch, vegetables and main in a specific - Artificial lighting is usually the least planned element of the
arrangement. atmosphere A restaurant needs varying levels of light intensity.
- A simple guide to a classical plating is to think of the plate as - Bright lights are needed by the staff for cleaning the dining
the face of a clock. area. The breakfast trade desires a moderately high level of
Main: Between 3 to 9 oclock lighting to keep them awake and allow for the reading of the
Starch: Between 9 to 11 oclock morning newspaper.
Vegetables: Between 11 to 3 oclock - A moderate level of lighting is needed at noon to stimulate a
fast turnover of customers.
- A low intensity of light creates a leisurely, intimate
Temperature atmosphere conducive to evening dining. To create these
- In general hot food is served on hot plates, cold food is atmospheres, use a rheostat to control the lighting.
served on cold plates, frozen food may be served on chilled
plates. Warm salads are generally served on cold plates.
- Plates should be sufficiently hot to stay hot and keep food hot Colours
for the time that a diner would complete eating a dish. The - Dining room color combinations can make people hungry,
plate should not be so hot that food would be cooked or that depressed, happy, agitated, eat fast, or eat leisurely. Changing
sauces would boil on the plate unless the dish is a sizzling the color scheme of a dining room can noticeably increase (or
plate dish designed to sizzle food (usually made of cast iron). decrease) business. Color can be used to change the shape
Plates that are kept too hot are very difficult for staff to handle. and add interest to the rooms.
- Hot sauces should be held and served above 85C. Warm - A single solid color in a room is monotonous and boring. Use
emulsion sauces are held and served between 30-37C. a mixture of warm and cool colors. Two opposite colors on the
color wheel, such as green and red or yellow and violet results
in a very pleasing combination.
Plate Selection
- The importance of the plate selection should not be
underestimated. To achieve a well presented dish, the plate Green & Blue: Cool colors. Calms and relaxes excited people.
must be in harmony with the food and the garnishes. Also keep Makes time seem to pass quickly. Tends to encourage
in mind that the plate must be appropriate for the type of food conversation, most suitable for small areas, hot climate and
being served. daytime use. Sometimes negative affects on food display.
Red: Suggests passion, excites, stimulates, can be used for
food display, enhances the skin. Should be used in small areas
because makes the room smaller. Red & Black is a classical
combination. Enhances the appetite. Makes time seem to pass
more slowly.
Yellow: Cheerful. Feeling of warmth. Boosts morale. Suggests
sunlight, particularly appropriated for breakfast areas.
White: White walls in fine dining areas are psychologically
negative and uninviting, but colored walls stimulate food sales.
White is very effective when harmonized with other colors.
White walls encourages turnover in fast food units.
Violet & Purple: Tends to lend elegance and sophistication.
Orange: Friendly, Brown: Relaxing, Gray: Depressing

Tables & Chairs

Setting Restaurant Atmosphere - Round tables are very popular for fine dining room because
it allows guests to converse with all other guests seated at the
table without difficulty.
The Importance Of Good Ambiance - Square & rectangular tables can accommodate groups,
- People are attracted to a restaurant by more than just good when the tables are pushed together.
food. It is a place to see and be seen not just a place to eat. - Fixed banquette seating gives a sense of privacy.
Thus, the way people feel while in the restaurant is fairly - Type of seating used depends upon your needs and space
important. optimization.
- Atmosphere is made up of everything that makes an
impression on people. The building design, decor, interior color Type of Dining Room Tables for 2 Tables for 4/more
scheme, texture of the walls, service, and the food create the
atmosphere. Schools Cafeteria 30 % 70 %
- People want a dining experience, an escape from problems Business Restaurant 60 % 40 %
and everyday routine. The atmosphere should project a feeling Family Restaurant 25 % 75 %
of friendliness and comforting, yet attractive and interestingly Hotel Restaurant 60 % 40 %
Cafe, Tearoom 80 % 20 %
- The atmosphere is remembered long after the meal is
finished. For the restaurant owner this means repeat
Curtains & Window Shades
customers and, hopefully, a profitable operation .
- Curtains and window shades are both functional and
decorative. They offer a sense of privacy and protection from
the sun.
- They should complement the architectural style and theme of work in quiet places, or are lonely, may seek out noisy
the restaurant and can relieve the monotony of the shape of restaurants. Business people will sometimes seek a noisy
the room. The color, style, and material of curtains must restaurant to conduct business so they will not be overheard.
enhance the atmosphere, but not draw undue attention. - A noisy surrounding can create a special atmosphere which
- They should also be able to provide a feeling of warmth and sets people at ease and stimulates people and makes them
coziness. In addition, fit large windows with insulating curtains eat faster. However, before changing the sound patterns of
could conserve heat in the winter and lower the cost of air your restaurant know your customers' needs.
conditioning in summer.
Ceilings - A good music system, proper musical selection and proper
- Historically, ceilings were lavishly decorated with intricate volume have a positive effect on the success of a restaurant.
patterns and designs. Today, ceilings are often neglected, An inadequate sound system can be a major factor in the
large blank surfaces. However, much can be done with ceilings failure of a restaurant.
to complement the theme and decor of a restaurant. - The correct type of background music (slightly louder than the
ambient sound) puts customers in a good mood and helps
Height: make the staff more relaxed and efficient.
- 2.5m (minimum), for small areas, creates sense of - Foreground music, loud enough to be easily heard over the
oppression in large areas. Difficulties may arise in ventilation ambient sound of the room without interrupting conversation, is
and air distribution. used in most type of cafes.
- 3m. Appropriate for small to average size room. - Recreational music, loud enough to dominate the atmosphere
- 3.5m and more, produce impersonal space, may give a sense of the room is used for bars and discotheques.
of grandeur and occasion (banquet). - The higher alcohol sales in a restaurant, the greater the
- The ceiling should not call attention to themselves, but relate customers toleration and need for louder music!
and contribute to the general theme of the restaurant. They
can successfully add to the general atmosphere if they contain Exterior Design
the color, pattern, and subject of the total design scheme. - The function of the exterior design is to attract customers and
invite them in to eat. The exterior design should reflect the
Floor character of the locality, but be different enough to attract
- Everyone entering a restaurant has direct contact with the attention.
floor. Customers consciously look at the floor to see how clean - People are naturally suspicious and hesitant upon entering a
it is. new restaurant. They are looking for some indication, either
- The color, texture, material, and design of the flooring must positive or negative, as to the quality of the restaurant before
complement the total atmosphere of the restaurant. It must they enter.
blend in with and add to the theme of the restaurant without - Signs, parking area, landscaping, design and color of the
calling attention to itself. building, windows, curtains, view of the inside, lighting, flowers
- Carpeting is widely used today in all types of restaurants. It or plants, and type of door will all be closely scrutinized.
adds warmth and a sense of luxury as well as deadening - Fine Dining Exterior may suggest exclusiveness with a
sound. Carpeting will usually have a more comfortable feeling traditional faade and a modest sign. The emphasis is on
if it is of a darker color than the surrounding walls. In general, elegance and good taste. Windows should be usually draped
the color of the carpet and walls should be from the same color to provide privacy. The main feature of awareness is an
family. impressive entrance and a sophisticated menu display.
- Vinyl floor tiling is available in a myriad of styles, sizes. - Caf Exterior: Large windows to show the style.
-- Advantages of resilient tiles are its durability, economy, ease - Restaurants catering to children and young families often
of installation, and simple maintenance. Many fast-food chains use bright colors on the exterior to attract attention. Bright
use ceramic tile flooring because of their easy maintenance colors reflect a happy, friendly, comfortable feeling, and
and extreme durability. The noise from walking on ceramic tile indicate that families are welcome.
creates an exciting atmosphere. - Quick Service (fast food) Exterior: Entrance should be
-- The disadvantages of ceramic tile are its initial cost and the large and open, as well as the windows to create a visual link
commitment to one type of flooring for the life of the building. between the exterior and the counter (because chain
- Terrazzo is a flooring material made from chips of marble, restaurants rely on brand identification).
onyx, or other rock embedded in cement or certain chemical
compounds. It is usually poured in place and ground and Effective Communication Between Servers & Guests
polished to a uniformly textured surface. A terrazzo floor is 1.Introduce yourself.
extremely durable and permanent. It requires very little - Make eye contact with the customers after they are seated
maintenance. Terrazzo is ideal for heavy traffic areas and and promptly introduce yourself. This starts the conversation
where customer turnover is high. out on the right foot, leading to better tips on average, and
- Wood flooring offers many, variations in color and pattern. gives them a polite way to get your attention later.
Wood flooring is available in four forms: strip, plank, parquet, 2.Stay polite, friendly and helpful, even to angry
and fabricated wood blocks. Wood flooring can be finished in customers.
different ways. They can be stained, bleached, streaked, - When speaking to customers, always use respectful terms of
varnished, waxed, or painted. address such as sir, ma'am, and miss.
-- The durability of brick, slate, and stone makes their use as - Act friendly and positive, and make your customers feel as
flooring well suited for high traffic areas such as entrance comfortable as possible.
ways. As in tiling and terrazzo flooring, customers' footsteps 3.Respect the customer's personal space.
will be more noticeable than on carpeting. Plus, the longevity - Never sit down at the table to take an order.
and initial high cost must be considered to use brick, slate and - Don't shake hands or hug unless you are personal friends
stone as flooring. with the customer, or you are shaking hands to greet them as
per restaurant policy.
Acoustic - Other physical interactions depend on the atmosphere of the
- The sounds of a restaurant are part of its atmosphere. place you work, and whether you are a man or woman.
Kitchen noises, customer voices, traffic noises, and dishes 4.Personally advise the customer about their order.
bussing all add to the atmosphere. - If a customer asks for advice, be prepared to answer
- Noise in a dining area is not always undesirable. People who whatever questions they have or recommend your favourite
dish in each category. If a customer orders a dish that gets a ensure that they are meaningful and match the organization's
lot of complaints, try to recommend another option. mandate.
5.Accommodate any reasonable request your customers 3. Measurable
make. - Service standards are quantifiable and linked to monitoring
- Many people have serious reasons to avoid certain activities.
ingredients, including potentially fatal allergies. If you aren't 4. Ambitious but realistic
familiar with every dish on the menu (which you should be), do - Service standards are realistic, based on analysis and
your best to find out for them how it is prepared. consistent with objectives, yet sufficiently challenging to
6.Repeat the order back to your customers. service providers.
- It will gives the customer a chance to correct any mistakes or 5. Communicated
change their mind. - Service standards are clearly communicated to clients,
7.Check on your customers regularly and give them employees, and other stakeholders to help manage
updates. expectations.
- Give them a specific time estimate if they ask how long the 6. Transparent
food will take, whenever possible. - Service standards are monitored and reported to senior
- Stop by to refill your customers' glass whenever it gets low, or management, and performance results are published to ensure
to ask if they'd like to purchase another for non-refillable drinks. transparency and client trust.
8.Clear old dishes promptly but not without talking to the 7. Continuously updated
customer. - Service standards are regularly reviewed and updated as
- Always ask whether the customer is finished before removing appropriate.
dishes with food on them. If there is a lot of food left, ask
whether the food was alright. Functions of Management
9.Befriend your regulars. 1. Planning
- When someone sits in your section more than once, take the 2. Staffing
time to get to know them. Remember their names and favourite 3. Organizing
drinks, where they work etc. Make them feel like they are going 4. Controlling
to a restaurant to visit a friend: you! 5. Directing
10.Don't assume the customer wants the check, but don't
leave them waiting either.
- Ask if there is anything more you can get for them, and that
will open the opportunity for them to ask for dessert, a take-out
item/bag, or the check.


Defining Service Standard

- When developing service standards, the organization should
consider its resources and expected level of demand for
regular day-to-day service operations
- A written set of customer service standards will not only Steps Involved in Staffing Process 1
provide an organization with a set of goals, it will set 1. Manpower Requirement
benchmarks that can be used to monitor and improve service It refers to the process of estimating the manpower
standards. requirement of an organisation. The focus of the manpower
- Service standards serve two key purposes: planning is to get right number of qualified people at the right
1. To provide staff with performance targets. time.
2. To inform clients what to expect. 2. Recruitment
Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting suitable
applicants for employment.
3. Interviewing
Interviews seek to identify certain behavioural characteristics
that determine successful employment practices.
4. Selection
Selection refers to the process of choosing the most suitable
person from among the list of interested candidates to fill the
vacant job position. It involves going through the qualification
and experience of all candidates and matching them with the
expectation for the job so as to decide on the most suitable
ones for the job.
5. Placement
It refers to selected candidates joining the positions in the
organisation for which they have been selected. The
appointment of every candidate is followed by a record of
Characteristics of a Good Service Standard particulars of employment. It serves a useful purpose on many
1. Relevant to customer occasions like selection of employees for training, promotion,
- Service standards are consistent with customer priorities and increments etc.
address aspects of the service they value most within available 6. Induction
resource allocations. Induction is the process of introducing new employees to the
2. Based on consultation organisation. A proper induction programme is likely to reduce
- Service standards are developed in consultation with clients, his anxiety on how to cope with the work and how to become
managers, staff, and other partners in service delivery to
part of the organisation and helps in development of a
favourable attitude towards the organisation and the job.

Restaurant Design
- The design of a restaurant should be a balance between a
welcoming ambience and maximum seating capacity.
Managing Employee Schedules - In other words, you want to pack in enough customers to
- Effective labour scheduling is important to employee morale. - keep busy and turn a profit, while at the same time making
- Employees whose shift preferences are met in scheduling are them feel comfortable.
more likely to be involved, to perform better, and to deliver - It depends on the types of restaurant. Casual dining, for
better service than are employees who feel unhappy with the example, have more seating capacity while the fine dining
schedule. restaurants tend to focus more on ambience.
- In labour scheduling, restaurant managers face dual
challenges: Restaurant Wait Station
-- Overstaffing: excessive labour costs - A crucial part of any well-planned restaurant dining room is
-- Understaffing: invites the opportunity cost of service errors the placement of the wait station.
and lost business. - A good wait station should be accessible to staff, but invisible
to guests. Wait stations should be stocked with coffee,
glassware, silverware and napkins, and condiments.
Planning a Restaurant Dining Room - A portable wait station is easier to be moved to fit the
- A restaurant dining room is more than just tables and chairs. restaurants needs, instead of trying to relocate a table into a
- It is the most important area in the front-of-the-house, less desirable area of the restaurant dining room.
regardless what type of restaurant it is.
- It sets the tone and the ambience of the restaurant.
- A good restaurant dining room design and layout sets the Hostess Station
scene for the guests' dining experience and separates one - It is usually the first area a guest sees, it should be neat and
restaurant from the rest of its competitors. free of clutter.
- The actual host station itself can be as simple as a tall
Planning a Restaurant Dining Room counter or podium or something with a little more character,
1. Types of Restaurant such as a roll top desk.
2. Density of Customers - The host station is also a good spot to put a POS system, if
3. Restaurant Design the host is in charge of taking to-go orders or putting in drink
4. Restaurant Wait Station orders.
5. Hostess Station
Running An Efficient Kitchen Operation
Types of Restaurant - An efficiently run kitchen will able to prepare and cook;
1. Casual Dining Ethnic -- The right amount of highest quality food for the required
2. Fast Food number of people
3. Caf -- Food ready within waiting time
4. Fine Dining -- Maximize the usage of ingredients that already available
5. Fast Casual Dining - A kitchen with a large brigade of chefs can offer an
extensive dinner menu as long as the majority of the mise-en-
Density of Customers place is prepared during the day.
1. The layout plan should be based mostly on the comfort - A kitchen with a smaller brigade will need to offer a smaller
of the guests. menu with dishes that can be assembled quickly. This will
- E.g.: Fine dining restaurants which cater the upper class ensure that even chefs with few skills will be able to work
income, it may be wise to provide more space between the efficiently in a systematic manner.
tables since these restaurants dont really rely on the number
of people per day.
2. Leave adequate space between tables! How To Run An Efficient Kitchen Operation???
- Although more seats means more guests can be 1. Effective Work Flow
accommodated, but their convenience is also must be 2. Working Methods
prioritized. 3. Kitchen Supervision
4. Brigade de Cuisine System

Brigade de Cuisine System

- It is an organizational hierarchy for professional kitchens
developed by the legendary French chef, Georges-Auguste
- Influenced by his experience in the French army, Escoffier
modelled his Brigade system on the military hierarchy.
- This system was based on a strict chain of command and a
separation and delegation of tasks to a host of different kitchen
workers. In the brigade, every man has a job and there is a job
for every man.
- The idea was to avoid duplication of effort, and to help
facilitate communication between the various staff members.

Controlling & Organizing Foodservice Est.

- It is a roles that involves food service manager.
- Managing a food service establishment requires a thorough
understanding of systems.
Working Methods - Effective food service managers are skilled at multitasking
- An efficient kitchen is one in which the chefs prepare and and paying close attention to a range of processes while also
cook the food in the minimal time to the highest standard arranging and motivating individuals performing that take as
with the least effort. control and organizing the operation.
- It is essential that a kitchen adopts a methodical and
economical method of working by: Controlling & Organizing Foodservice Est.
-- Ensuring all kitchen equipment is fully operational. 1. PURCHASING AN INVENTORY
-- Working systematically. 2. PREPARATION
-- Preparing the mise-en-place thoroughly to ensure the follow- 3. FOOD SAFETY
on of a smooth and efficient service. 4. PERSONNEL
-- Following a clear, continuous work plan, as opposed to a
haphazard one. Dishes requiring long preparation or cooking Purchasing an Inventory
should be started first. - Food service managers are responsible for making sure
that kitchens need to have enough inventory on hand to
Kitchen Supervision produce enough product.
- A kitchen will only operate efficiently if it has clear leadership - Also involves knowing how much ingredients in stock to
from the head chef, or in his absence, the sous chef, and, predict how fast the current stock will quickly go through
where appropriate, chefs de partie. the inventory.
- The head chef must be able to make the kitchen work - It is important not to overstock perishable items in order
efficiently and effectively; to minimize waste.
a. Communicate - Food service managers are also responsible for making
b. Co-ordinate, sure that inventory is properly rotated in order to keep
c. Delegate ingredients optimally fresh. First in first out order.
d. Motivate
e. Organize Preparation
f. Initiate - Processes that can be initiated in advance in order to use
g. Mediate production time most efficiently.
h. Inspire -For example, when preparing burgers, the patties may be
i. Make decisions shaped and the bread may be sliced in advance, but the
burgers should not be cooked and the buns should not be
warmed until the customer places his order, so that the final
product is appealing and served warm.

- Motivating and coordinating a team of employees
- Time is critical in many aspects of food preparation and
service, playing into everything from profitability to quality:
If it takes too long to prepare the products, then payroll costs Breakfast Setting
will be too high and if food is overcooked or undercooked it
may be unappealing or even unsafe.
Learn team's individual strengths and weaknesses, and also
study every nuance of the production process.
Schedule staff thoughtfully and monitor processes
meticulously to maximize quality and minimize down time.

Food Safety
1. Implement HACCP!
2. Enforce a cleaning schedule that includes daily tasks as well
as periodic deep cleaning.
3. Make sure that equipment is working well enough to keep
hot foods sufficiently hot and cold foods sufficiently cold.
4. Train staff thoroughly so they understand the importance of
food safety protocols, as well as the specifics of temperature
control and safe food handling.

What is HACCP??? Lunch Setting

- Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
- Food safety system
- Prevent disasters such as foodborne illness outbreak from
- Proactive approach to control every step in the flow of food.
- Goal: to stop, control & prevent problems that impact the
safety of food
- Has 7 principles

7 Principles of HACCP
1. Conduct a hazard analysis
2. Determine the critical control points (CCPs)
3. Establish critical limits
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Identify corrective actions
6. Establish verification procedures
7.Establish record-keeping & documentation procedures

AMERICAN SERVICE What Meaning Of American Service?

- A method of serving hotel or restaurant food, in which
History Of American Service portions of food are placed on plates in kitchen (except for
- The American rules of etiquette were shaped by 17th century bread and butter and salads which are served on the table) by
European society and by military etiquette. the establishment's employees and served to each guest by a
- Influenced of French Royalists came to America following by waiter or waitress.
French Revolution - The accompaniments served with the dish and then balance
- Thomas Jefferson-traveled to France, interest in French the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and colour.
foods and wine
- American service was rudimentary and rustic Table Services
- Americas democratic society didnt highly regard serving - Serves normally take customers order selected from the
traditions European immigrants located in major cities but most menus or their equivalent
appreciated in financial and professional aspects of service. - The food will deliver to the customer seated at their table.
- This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where - American, French and English service.
service is required to be fast. -- American service is a command service style which most
guests and banquet operations are familiar with.
Formal Setting
Styles Of Service
- Plated Service: Food is plated in the kitchen and served to
- A la Carte Service : off the menu service. Guests are
provided a menu as they are seated. Due to the time and cost
constraints, the appetizer, salad and dessert are preselected
selected for all guests.
Table Setting 3. Hors doeuvres trolleys
- Assemble or display small items or entrees preceding main
4. Dessert trolleys
- These trolleys may be used to display and carve different
dessert, fruit and cheese dishes. They are normally used to
visually tempt customers are opposed to playing an active role
in the cooking process of desserts.
5. Liqueur trolleys
- These trolleys are used to prepare and display a range of
beverages either to be served during the meal, such as wine,
or at the end of a meal. This can include specialty coffee.

Advantage Of French Service

1. The guest will receive a great deal of attention and making
them feels importance.
Table Setting Procedures 2. The services provide is extremely elegance and they feels
1. There are many standards to follow in American table like receive royal treatment.
service. There is a proper place for the settings, food is put on 3. It commands higher price than other forms of service
the plates in the kitchen, and clearing of table ware is done 4. The guest enjoy with new experience
from left to right
2. Serving the Table- Most upscale dinners will include 5 Disadvantage Of French Service
courses, encompassing an appetizer , soup, salad, entree, 1. French service the one of expensive services
and dessert. 2. Slow service
3. Many formal restaurants practice the open hand service 3. It requires a bigger dining room space to make French
method, which means that a servers arms are never to be service
crossed in front of a guest, and food is always served from the
guests left side. Equipment & Utensils
4. Plates should be rotated when being served so the protein 1. Carving
of a dish is facing the guest, as opposed to a vegetable. Carving knives, Carving fork, Steel, Carving board, Spoons
5. Clearing the Table- There are some signs to gauge when and meat forks, Any service crockery, cutlery or vessels,
customers are done with their meals in fine dining restaurants. Ladles for serving sauces and accompaniments, Service towel,
6. Napkins will be put back on the table, and cutlery is often and Towel for cleaning trolley.
placed in a vertical position on top of a patrons dinner plate. If 2. Sauting
customers need to get up from the table to use the restroom, Service set, Copper or other appropriate pan, Service towel,
or make a phone call, napkins are placed on the chair to Cooking utensils, Serving cutlery, crockery and dishes,
indicate the meal is not yet finished. Matches
7. Removal of plates should always be conducted from the 3. Filleting
right of the guest, as this is industry standard. For meals with Service set, Fish spatula, Service towel, Knife, Scissors,
multiple courses, empty glasses and plates should be cleared Tweezers-Used to remove small bones
prior the arrival of the next course. 4. Salad
Service set including salad spoons and forks, Knives or
scissors, Plastic or wooden salad bowls, Service towel, Pepper
FRENCH SERVICE grinder, Pans and cooking utensils
5. Dessert
Introduction Pans, Cooking utensils, Service set including forks and
- A Gueridon was a piece of furniture that was found in spoons, Wooden cutting board to slice fruits, Service towels,
French homes, similar to what we might call a sideboard. This Service plates
would be positioned in the dining room of a home and would
hold most of the equipment used at the table, crockery, cutlery, Need For Safety Equipment
glassware etc. - Fire extinguishers or fire blankets, Knowledge about location
- Gueridon service was originally known as French Service and operation of shut off switchespower, water, gas, steam,
and involved serving large joints of meat, poultry, game and LPG, Gloves, aprons, facemasks and protective goggles,
fish. This food would be displayed on a sideboard or side table, Appropriate small equipment, thermometers, First aid kit,
then carved or portioned by service staff allowing guest to have Knowledge of emergency procedures
as much or little as they wished.
- Dating back to the Edwardian era, Gueridon (pronounced Table Setting Of Gueridon Service
girradon) is a specially designed service trolley from which
food may he carved, filleted, flambed, or prepared and silver
served to the guest. This form of service in Australia is
normally found in higher class establishments, yet throughout
Europe and parts of the United States varying forms of
gueridon service can be found in all types of restaurants and

Types Of Gueridon Trolleys

1. Flamb trolleys
- These trolleys are primarily used to cook food items,
commonly using a flamb or saut process
2. Hot carving trolleys
- These trolleys primarily are used to keep cooked meat warm
and to provide sufficient space for meat to be carved and
Set Up Gueridon Trolley/Table 5. Unfold napkin.
6. Take beverage order(ice or warm water).
7. Serve the water (ice or warm water).
8. Take beverage order (juice, soft drinks, sparkling, wine).
9. Ask the guest if they ready for their first course.
10. Clear the menu.
11. Serve the beverage order (juice,soft drinks, sparkling,
12. Serve the appetizer.
13. Clear the appetizer.
14. Crumbing the table.
15. Serve bread (soft roll, garlic bread, cheese stick).
16. Serve the soup.
17. Clear the soup and the bread and butter (BB) plate.
18. Crumbing the table.
Item In Gueridon 19. Serve the main course.
1. GUERIDON TROLLEY 20. Clear the main course and salt and peppershaker.
- There will be a gas hob, chopping board, cutlery drawer, cold 21. Crumbing the table.
store (depending on the trolley type) 22. Serve the dessert.
2. RECHAUD Halfway through the dessert ask the guest if they want coffee
- Small heater that is on a small portable table or tea.
24. Serve the coffee and tea.
Who Handle Gueridon Trolly And Specification Job 25. Clear the dessert.
1. Chef De Rang/ Chief Waiter 26. Crumbing the table.
- will completes all the preparation on gueridon beside the 27. Present the bill when guest ask for it.
guests table includes Boning, carving, flaming or making sauce 28. Give back the guest his or her change and the receipt.
are done in the gueridon in front of diners. 29. If the guest is standing from his table, pull the chair for the
2. Commis De Rang/Assistant Waiter guest.
- will carries the plate and serves each guest also as a chef de 30. Escort guess to the door.
Rang helper. His job to bring the food and clear the dirty dishes 31. Wish the guest thank you and please come again.
from the guest table

Method Serves Food To Customer Using French Service ENGLISH SERVICE

1. Put the clean plate in front of guest
2. Offer to customer before put a bread on the plate English and Family Service
3. Put the food using fork and spoon, Start with left sides of All food cooked in kitchen.
customer Plates are preset and food is carved and put on plate by host
4. Put all food in one plate then
guests serve themselves sides.
French Service Server can use sideboard and plate all food for guests.
Family style food is put on table and guests serve
1. All beverages are served from the silver tray, from the right
by the right hand side of the guest. Advantages
2. All food served from the right by the right hand side of the casual dining, guests control portions, less service skill
guest, bread and butter should be serve on the left by the left needed
hand side of the guest. Soup should be served from right by Disadvantages
the right hand side. less formal, may run out of food, no presentation
3. All empty plates should be clear from right by the right hand
side of the guest.
4. All items are removed from the right hand and are carried
away by the left hand side. Except items that are placed on the American Service - Plate Service
left side of the guest. All food cooked and plated in kitchen.
5. Silver tray should be used for removing glasses, cups and Serve from left result of limited staff
saucers. Advantages
6. Never serve dishes, plates directly from a large tray or casual dining, portion control, less service skill needed
remove them directly on to a large tray. Trays have to stay on
less personal, guests can not choose portion
the sideboard, station or table before served the food.
7. Never stock plate on the table in front of the guest. French Service -service la franaise
8. Serve ladies, elder person and children first. The host of the Louis XIV -1680
party should be served LAST. 3 courses cooked mostly tableside
Cooked from a Guridon
Service Sequence Advantages
1. Greet the guest with the smile. elegant, showcases food, high check average
2. Usher/ Lead the guest to the table.
need highly trained staff, high labor costs, capital investment
3. Seat the guest.
4. Offer the menu.