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Circles

Circles

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CIRCLES

fixed point, forms a circle or you can say that a circle is the

locus of all points equidistant from a central point. The fixed

point is called the center and the distance from the center to

these points is called radius. It is denoted by r. Circles are

simple closed curves, dividing the plane into an interior and

exterior part.

M x

A B

C D

O

y

E F

the circumference of the circle. In the above fig, OC and

OD are the radius of the circle.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

2. Chord: A line segment whose end points lie on the

circle is called a chord. In the above fig, AB is the chord

of the circle.

3. Diameter: The chord which passes through the center

of the circle is called the diameter. In the above fig, CD

is the diameter. The length of the diameter is 2 times

the length of the radius. The diameter is the longest

chord for any circle.

4. Secant: A line which intersects the circle at two distinct

points is called secant. In the above fig, line y is a

secant.

5. Tangent: A line, which passes through a single point

on the circle, is called as tangent. In the above fig, line

x is the tangent.

6. Arc: An arc is a part of the circumference of the circle.

It is of two types depending on its length, major arc

greater than the semicircle and minor arc less than the

semicircle.

In the above fig, arcAMB is the minor arc and arcAFB is

the major arc.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

7. Circumference: The distance around the circle is

called the circumference of the circle.

22

Circumference = 2r where = or 3.14 and

7

r = radius

8. Length of arc: 1 = 2r where is the angle

360

subtended by the arc at the centre

2

9. Area of the circle: Area = r

2

10. Area of the sector: Area = r where is the

360

angle subtended by the arc at the centre

Some circle combination that we may chance upon are

1. Congruent circles : Circles with equal radius.

2. Concentric circles : Circles with same center and

lying in the same plane,

having different radius.

3. Tangent circles : Circles with only one

common point and lying in

the same plane.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

M EASURING AN ARC

B

A C

D

* The measure of the minor arc is equal to the

measure of that it subtends on the center of the

circle. (central angle)

In the above fig, m(arcABC) = m(AOC)

* The measure of the major arc is equal to the

measure of the corresponding minor arc subtracted

from 360

In the above fig, m (arcADC) = 360 m (arcABC)

* The measure of semicircle is 180

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QA:Geometry:Circles

PROPERTIES OF CIRCLE

1. A perpendicular drawn from the center of the circle to

any chord of the circle, bisects the chord.

X

A B

If OX AB, then XA = XB

2. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the center.

A X B

C Y D

If AB = CD then, OX = OY

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QA:Geometry:Circles

3. Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the

center of the circle.

A B

O

D

C

If AB = CD then, AOB = COD

4. Tangent passing through any point of the circle is

always perpendicular to the radius at the same point

x

P

OP Tangent x

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QA:Geometry:Circles

5. The angles inscribed by the same arc ON the circle are

equal.

X Y

A B

AXB = AYB

6. The measure of the angle inscribed on the circle is half

the angle inscribed at the center by the same chord/arc.

A B

1

ACB = AOB.

2

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QA:Geometry:Circles

7. The angle formed by secant and tangent is half of the

intercepted arc.

O

B

C

D x

P

1

m DPA = ACP = m(arc ABP) on center o.

2

8. (a) If two secants intersects in the exterior of a circle,

the angle which forms will be equal to the half of the

difference of the measures of arc intercepted by them.

C

A

X

1

m CXD = {m (arcCD) m (arc AB)}.

2

(b) Also CX AX = DX BX.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

9. (a) If two secants intersects in the interior of a circle, the

angle which forms will be equal to the half of sum of the

measures of the arc intercepted by them.

A

C

O

B

D

AOC = {m (arcAC) + m (arc BD)}.

(b) Also AO OD = CO OB.

10. (a) If a secant and a tangent intersects in the exterior of

a circle, the angle which forms will be equal to the half

of the difference of the measures of arc intercepted by

them.

O Z

1

m XOZ = {m (arc XY) (arc YZ)}

2

2

(b) Also, OZ = OX OY

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QA:Geometry:Circles

11. (a) Let for two circle-s with centre O and Q, AB and CD

be the direct common tangent.

A

B

O Q

D

C

Length of the direct common tangent

= (distance between centers)2 (r1 r2 )2

(b) Let for two circles with centre O and Q, AB and CD

be the transverse common tangent.

A

D

O Q

C B

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QA:Geometry:Circles

Length of the transverse common tangent

= (distance between centers)2 (r1 r2 )2

the tangents and the line joining centers are collinear.

12. The angle subtended by a diameter:

A B

O

angle at any point in the interior of the circle. In the

above fig, m AZB > 90.

The diameter of the circle subtends a right angle at

any point on the circumference of the circle. In the

above fig, m AYB = 90.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

The diameter of the circle subtends an acute angle

at any point in the exterior of the circle. In the

above fig, m AXB < 90.

Important points to remember

1. There is one and only one circle, which can pass

through three non-collinear points.

2. There is one and only one tangent, which can pass

through a given point on the circle.

3. Two tangents can be drawn on the circle from a

point in the exterior of the circle.

4. The point at which common tangent of any two

tangent circle passes lies on the line joining the

center of the circles.

13. Incircle: A circle touching three sides of a triangle

internally is called an incircle.

X

P Q

O

Y R Z

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QA:Geometry:Circles

The angle subtended at the centre of the circle by

any sides of the triangle is equal to the sum of half

the measure of the angle opposite to that side and

90

1

In the above fig, XOY = Z + 90.

2

Cyclic Quadrilateral: A quadrilateral whose all the vertices

lie on a circle is called Cyclic Quadrilateral.

Q

S T

R

the opposite angle of its adjacent angle. In the fig above,

SPQ = QRT

Area of the cyclic quadrilateral =

(s-a) (s-b) (s-c) (s-d)

where, s is the semi perimeter and a, b, c and d are

the sides of the quadrilateral.

In case of rectangle and square inscribed in the circle,

the diagonal is equal to the diameter of the circle.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

ILLUSTRATION

1. In the given figure, RS = 6 and radius of circle is 5.

Find PB

R S

P

B

2 2 2

Solution: (CS) = (PC) + (PS)

2 2 2

5 = (PC) + (3) = 259

PC = 4

PB = 4 + 5 = 9cm

2. Three circles with centers X, Y and Z with unit radius

touch each other at O, P and Q. Find the area of the

shaded region.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

X Y

O P

ABC 3(Area of the sector)

3 2 60 22 2

= 2 3 1

4 360 7

3. CT is the tangent to the circle with O as a center.

CT = 6 and BC = 4. Find the radius of the circle.

A

O B C

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QA:Geometry:Circles

If r is the radius of the circle

2 2 2 2

(r + 4) = r +6 [Phythagoras theorem]

20

r = = 2.5

8

4. In the fig given below, RS = 16, OA = 6, PQ = 12.

OA and OB are perpendicular to RS and PQ

respectively. Find OB.

Q

B

P

R S

A

1

AS = RS

2

[Perpendicular from the center of the circle bisects

the chord]

2 2 2

(OS) = (OA) + (AS)

OS = 10

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QA:Geometry:Circles

Also, OS = OQ = 10

[radii of the same circle]

2 2 2

(OB) = (OQ) (BQ)

Therefore, OB = 8

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QA:Geometry:Circles

EXERCISE

1. A circle is divided into 8 equal parts by 8 points

a1, a2, a3, a8. Find the measure of X.

a8 a2

a7

X a3

a6 a4

a5

(1) 22.5

(2) 45

(3) 112.5

(4) 67.5

2. AB is the diameter of a circle whose radius is 10. CA of

length 48, is the tangent to the circle at A. Find CBDB.

C

A B

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QA:Geometry:Circles

(1) 1040

(2) 2304

(3) 400

(4) 520

3. AB and CD are the arcs of circle. If the arcs subtend an

angle of 120 at their respective centers, find the area

of the shaded region in the fig below. ABCD is a square

of side 1.

A D

B C

(1)

8 6 3

12

(2)

8 6 3

6

(3)

12 6 3 8

12

(4)

6 6 3 8

6

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QA:Geometry:Circles

4. In the figure below, the shaded rectangle at the corner

measures 6cm 12cm. What is the radius of the circle?

(1) 6

(2) 30

(3) Either of (a) or (b)

(4) Data insufficient

5. A circle is inscribed in an equilateral triangle and a

square is inscribed in the circle. Find the ratio of area of

the triangle to the area of the square.

3 3

(1)

4

4

(2)

3 3

2

(3)

3 3

3 3

(4)

2

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QA:Geometry:Circles

6. Chords PQ and RS of a circle intersect at a point T at

right angles to each other. If the segment PT, TQ and

TS are of length 2, 3 and 6 units respectively, what is

the diameter of the circle?

(1) 5 2

5

(2)

2

(3) 2.5 2

(4) Data insufficient

7. Let PQRS be a convex quadrilateral in which

QPR = 50 and RPS = 60. P lies at the center of

the circle and Q, R, S at the circumference of the same

circle. If T is the point of intersection of PR and QS,

find PTQ.

(1) 85

(2) 95

(3) 110

(4) None

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QA:Geometry:Circles

8. In the diagram given below, P and Q are the centers of

the two circles. ABC is a common tangent drawn to the

circles from the point A, which lies on the passing line

through P and Q. Distance between P and Q is 17cm

and the distance between the points of contact of the

circle (i.e., BC) is 15cm.

(a) What is the diameter of the smaller circle

(1) 8

(2) 9

(3) 16

(4) 18

(b) What is the ratio of the areas of the triangle ABP and

triangle AQC?

C

B

A

P Q

(1) 1 : 64

(2) 17 : 81

(3) 64 : 81

(4) 8:9

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QA:Geometry:Circles

9. The area of a circle inscribed in a regular hexagon is

500. Find the area of the hexagon.

(1) 1000 3

(2) 1250 3

(3) 1250

(4) 4000

10. Find the length of the common chord of the two circles

of radii 6cm and 8cm with their centers 10cm apart.

(1) 4.8

(2) 9.6

(3) 9

(4) 7.5

11. In the figure given below O is the center of the circle.

OP = 7.5cm, AB = 5cm and radius OR = 4.5. Find PB.

R P

A

O

B

(1) 6 3

(2) 6

(3) 4

(4) 9

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QA:Geometry:Circles

12. The length of the minute hand of a clock is 49mm. Find

the distance traveled by its outer end in 25 minutes.

(1) 30.8

(2) 770

(3) 12.8

(4) 22

13. In the regular nonagon ABCDEFGHI, AF =

F

G E

H D

I C

A B

(1) AB + AC

(2) AB + BC

(3) AC + FC

(4) None of these

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QA:Geometry:Circles

14. The diagram shows that ABCD is a rhombus of side

40 m, one of the sides AB being the diameter of the

circle with centre O and BAD = 60. A man starts from

C and travels along the outer edge of the figure

CBGAFED and back to C. What is the distance

(approximate) travelled by him?

(1) 160 m

(2) 172 m

(3) 184 m

(4) 191 m

15. If the side of the outermost square is a, then what is

the area of the inner equilateral triangle? (ABCD is a

square)

A

G

B O D

E F

C

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QA:Geometry:Circles

2

3 3a

(1)

32

2

3 3a

(2)

64

2

5 3a

(3)

32

2

3a

(4)

16

16. A circle touches the sides of a quadrilateral ABCD at

P, Q, R and S respectively.

opposite sides are

(1) Supplementary

(2) Complementary

(3) Equal

(4) unequal

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QA:Geometry:Circles

17. A square is inscribed in a quarter of a circle in such

manner that two of its adjacent vertices lie on the radii

at an equal distance from the centre, while the other

two vertices lie on the circular area. If the square has

sides of length x, then the radius of the circle is

16 x

(1)

4

2x

(2)

(3) x 2.5

(4) x 2

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QA:Geometry:Circles

DIRECTIONS: Refer to the following data to answer the

questions that follow.

A wooden plank is on the roller as shown. It is pushed from

the side as indicated by the arrow such that the angle P

becomes 60 and the horizontal distance between the point

P and centre O is now 10 m.

10

(1)

3

5

(2)

3

15

(3)

3

(4) None of these

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QA:Geometry:Circles

3 1

19. What is the length of the plank? tan15

3 1

(1)

10 3 2

3

(2)

20 3 2

3

(3)

15 3 2

3

(4) None of these

20. In the following figure, two circles of equal radius touch

each other externally at point C, and AB is the common

tangent to the circle. Find the value of CAB.

A M B

(1) 45

(2) 30

(3) 60

(4) 40

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QA:Geometry:Circles

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QA:Geometry:Circles

ANSWERS KEY

1. (4) 2. (3) 3. (3) 4. (2) 5. (4)

6. (1) 7. (2) 8. (3) 9. (1) 10. (2)

11. (4) 12. (3) 13. (1) 14. (3) 15. (1)

16. (1) 17. (3) 18. (1) 19. (1) 20. (1)

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