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QA:Geometry:Circles

CIRCLES

A set of all points which lies at a certain distance from a


fixed point, forms a circle or you can say that a circle is the
locus of all points equidistant from a central point. The fixed
point is called the center and the distance from the center to
these points is called radius. It is denoted by r. Circles are
simple closed curves, dividing the plane into an interior and
exterior part.
M x

A B

C D
O
y

E F

1. Radius: The distance from the center to any point on


the circumference of the circle. In the above fig, OC and
OD are the radius of the circle.

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QA:Geometry:Circles
2. Chord: A line segment whose end points lie on the
circle is called a chord. In the above fig, AB is the chord
of the circle.
3. Diameter: The chord which passes through the center
of the circle is called the diameter. In the above fig, CD
is the diameter. The length of the diameter is 2 times
the length of the radius. The diameter is the longest
chord for any circle.
4. Secant: A line which intersects the circle at two distinct
points is called secant. In the above fig, line y is a
secant.
5. Tangent: A line, which passes through a single point
on the circle, is called as tangent. In the above fig, line
x is the tangent.
6. Arc: An arc is a part of the circumference of the circle.
It is of two types depending on its length, major arc
greater than the semicircle and minor arc less than the
semicircle.
In the above fig, arcAMB is the minor arc and arcAFB is
the major arc.

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QA:Geometry:Circles
7. Circumference: The distance around the circle is
called the circumference of the circle.
22
Circumference = 2r where = or 3.14 and
7
r = radius

8. Length of arc: 1 = 2r where is the angle
360
subtended by the arc at the centre
2
9. Area of the circle: Area = r
2
10. Area of the sector: Area = r where is the
360
angle subtended by the arc at the centre
Some circle combination that we may chance upon are
1. Congruent circles : Circles with equal radius.
2. Concentric circles : Circles with same center and
lying in the same plane,
having different radius.
3. Tangent circles : Circles with only one
common point and lying in
the same plane.

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QA:Geometry:Circles
M EASURING AN ARC
B

A C

D
* The measure of the minor arc is equal to the
measure of that it subtends on the center of the
circle. (central angle)
In the above fig, m(arcABC) = m(AOC)
* The measure of the major arc is equal to the
measure of the corresponding minor arc subtracted
from 360
In the above fig, m (arcADC) = 360 m (arcABC)
* The measure of semicircle is 180

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QA:Geometry:Circles
PROPERTIES OF CIRCLE
1. A perpendicular drawn from the center of the circle to
any chord of the circle, bisects the chord.

X
A B

If OX AB, then XA = XB
2. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the center.

A X B

C Y D

If AB = CD then, OX = OY
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QA:Geometry:Circles
3. Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the
center of the circle.

A B

O
D

C
If AB = CD then, AOB = COD
4. Tangent passing through any point of the circle is
always perpendicular to the radius at the same point

x
P
OP Tangent x
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QA:Geometry:Circles
5. The angles inscribed by the same arc ON the circle are
equal.

X Y

A B

AXB = AYB
6. The measure of the angle inscribed on the circle is half
the angle inscribed at the center by the same chord/arc.

A B

1
ACB = AOB.
2
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QA:Geometry:Circles
7. The angle formed by secant and tangent is half of the
intercepted arc.

O
B
C

D x
P
1
m DPA = ACP = m(arc ABP) on center o.
2
8. (a) If two secants intersects in the exterior of a circle,
the angle which forms will be equal to the half of the
difference of the measures of arc intercepted by them.
C

A
X

1
m CXD = {m (arcCD) m (arc AB)}.
2
(b) Also CX AX = DX BX.
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QA:Geometry:Circles
9. (a) If two secants intersects in the interior of a circle, the
angle which forms will be equal to the half of sum of the
measures of the arc intercepted by them.

A
C
O

B
D
AOC = {m (arcAC) + m (arc BD)}.
(b) Also AO OD = CO OB.
10. (a) If a secant and a tangent intersects in the exterior of
a circle, the angle which forms will be equal to the half
of the difference of the measures of arc intercepted by
them.

O Z
1
m XOZ = {m (arc XY) (arc YZ)}
2
2
(b) Also, OZ = OX OY
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QA:Geometry:Circles
11. (a) Let for two circle-s with centre O and Q, AB and CD
be the direct common tangent.
A
B

O Q

D
C
Length of the direct common tangent
= (distance between centers)2 (r1 r2 )2

Where r1 and r2 are the radius of the circles.


(b) Let for two circles with centre O and Q, AB and CD
be the transverse common tangent.

A
D

O Q

C B

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QA:Geometry:Circles
Length of the transverse common tangent
= (distance between centers)2 (r1 r2 )2

Also, in both the direct and indirect common tangents,


the tangents and the line joining centers are collinear.
12. The angle subtended by a diameter:

A B
O

The diameter of the circle subtends an obtuse


angle at any point in the interior of the circle. In the
above fig, m AZB > 90.
The diameter of the circle subtends a right angle at
any point on the circumference of the circle. In the
above fig, m AYB = 90.

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QA:Geometry:Circles
The diameter of the circle subtends an acute angle
at any point in the exterior of the circle. In the
above fig, m AXB < 90.
Important points to remember
1. There is one and only one circle, which can pass
through three non-collinear points.
2. There is one and only one tangent, which can pass
through a given point on the circle.
3. Two tangents can be drawn on the circle from a
point in the exterior of the circle.
4. The point at which common tangent of any two
tangent circle passes lies on the line joining the
center of the circles.
13. Incircle: A circle touching three sides of a triangle
internally is called an incircle.
X

P Q
O

Y R Z
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QA:Geometry:Circles
The angle subtended at the centre of the circle by
any sides of the triangle is equal to the sum of half
the measure of the angle opposite to that side and
90
1
In the above fig, XOY = Z + 90.
2
Cyclic Quadrilateral: A quadrilateral whose all the vertices
lie on a circle is called Cyclic Quadrilateral.
Q

S T
R

The exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to


the opposite angle of its adjacent angle. In the fig above,
SPQ = QRT
Area of the cyclic quadrilateral =
(s-a) (s-b) (s-c) (s-d)
where, s is the semi perimeter and a, b, c and d are
the sides of the quadrilateral.
In case of rectangle and square inscribed in the circle,
the diagonal is equal to the diameter of the circle.
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QA:Geometry:Circles
ILLUSTRATION
1. In the given figure, RS = 6 and radius of circle is 5.
Find PB

R S
P

B
2 2 2
Solution: (CS) = (PC) + (PS)
2 2 2
5 = (PC) + (3) = 259
PC = 4
PB = 4 + 5 = 9cm
2. Three circles with centers X, Y and Z with unit radius
touch each other at O, P and Q. Find the area of the
shaded region.

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QA:Geometry:Circles

X Y

O P

Area of the shaded region = Area of equilateral


ABC 3(Area of the sector)

3 2 60 22 2
= 2 3 1
4 360 7

= 0.16 sq. units


3. CT is the tangent to the circle with O as a center.
CT = 6 and BC = 4. Find the radius of the circle.

A
O B C

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QA:Geometry:Circles
If r is the radius of the circle
2 2 2 2
(r + 4) = r +6 [Phythagoras theorem]
20
r = = 2.5
8
4. In the fig given below, RS = 16, OA = 6, PQ = 12.
OA and OB are perpendicular to RS and PQ
respectively. Find OB.

Q
B
P

R S
A

1
AS = RS
2
[Perpendicular from the center of the circle bisects
the chord]
2 2 2
(OS) = (OA) + (AS)
OS = 10
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QA:Geometry:Circles
Also, OS = OQ = 10
[radii of the same circle]
2 2 2
(OB) = (OQ) (BQ)
Therefore, OB = 8

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QA:Geometry:Circles
EXERCISE
1. A circle is divided into 8 equal parts by 8 points
a1, a2, a3, a8. Find the measure of X.
a8 a2

a7
X a3

a6 a4
a5

(1) 22.5
(2) 45
(3) 112.5
(4) 67.5
2. AB is the diameter of a circle whose radius is 10. CA of
length 48, is the tangent to the circle at A. Find CBDB.
C

A B

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QA:Geometry:Circles
(1) 1040
(2) 2304
(3) 400
(4) 520
3. AB and CD are the arcs of circle. If the arcs subtend an
angle of 120 at their respective centers, find the area
of the shaded region in the fig below. ABCD is a square
of side 1.
A D

B C

(1)
8 6 3
12

(2)
8 6 3
6

(3)
12 6 3 8
12

(4)
6 6 3 8
6
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QA:Geometry:Circles
4. In the figure below, the shaded rectangle at the corner
measures 6cm 12cm. What is the radius of the circle?

(1) 6
(2) 30
(3) Either of (a) or (b)
(4) Data insufficient
5. A circle is inscribed in an equilateral triangle and a
square is inscribed in the circle. Find the ratio of area of
the triangle to the area of the square.
3 3
(1)
4
4
(2)
3 3
2
(3)
3 3
3 3
(4)
2

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QA:Geometry:Circles
6. Chords PQ and RS of a circle intersect at a point T at
right angles to each other. If the segment PT, TQ and
TS are of length 2, 3 and 6 units respectively, what is
the diameter of the circle?
(1) 5 2
5
(2)
2
(3) 2.5 2
(4) Data insufficient
7. Let PQRS be a convex quadrilateral in which
QPR = 50 and RPS = 60. P lies at the center of
the circle and Q, R, S at the circumference of the same
circle. If T is the point of intersection of PR and QS,
find PTQ.
(1) 85
(2) 95
(3) 110
(4) None

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QA:Geometry:Circles
8. In the diagram given below, P and Q are the centers of
the two circles. ABC is a common tangent drawn to the
circles from the point A, which lies on the passing line
through P and Q. Distance between P and Q is 17cm
and the distance between the points of contact of the
circle (i.e., BC) is 15cm.
(a) What is the diameter of the smaller circle
(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 16
(4) 18
(b) What is the ratio of the areas of the triangle ABP and
triangle AQC?
C
B

A
P Q

(1) 1 : 64
(2) 17 : 81
(3) 64 : 81
(4) 8:9

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QA:Geometry:Circles
9. The area of a circle inscribed in a regular hexagon is
500. Find the area of the hexagon.
(1) 1000 3
(2) 1250 3
(3) 1250
(4) 4000
10. Find the length of the common chord of the two circles
of radii 6cm and 8cm with their centers 10cm apart.
(1) 4.8
(2) 9.6
(3) 9
(4) 7.5
11. In the figure given below O is the center of the circle.
OP = 7.5cm, AB = 5cm and radius OR = 4.5. Find PB.
R P

A
O

B
(1) 6 3
(2) 6
(3) 4
(4) 9
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QA:Geometry:Circles
12. The length of the minute hand of a clock is 49mm. Find
the distance traveled by its outer end in 25 minutes.
(1) 30.8
(2) 770
(3) 12.8
(4) 22
13. In the regular nonagon ABCDEFGHI, AF =
F
G E

H D

I C

A B

(1) AB + AC
(2) AB + BC
(3) AC + FC
(4) None of these

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QA:Geometry:Circles
14. The diagram shows that ABCD is a rhombus of side
40 m, one of the sides AB being the diameter of the
circle with centre O and BAD = 60. A man starts from
C and travels along the outer edge of the figure
CBGAFED and back to C. What is the distance
(approximate) travelled by him?

(1) 160 m
(2) 172 m
(3) 184 m
(4) 191 m
15. If the side of the outermost square is a, then what is
the area of the inner equilateral triangle? (ABCD is a
square)
A
G

B O D

E F

C
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QA:Geometry:Circles
2
3 3a
(1)
32
2
3 3a
(2)
64
2
5 3a
(3)
32
2
3a
(4)
16
16. A circle touches the sides of a quadrilateral ABCD at
P, Q, R and S respectively.

The angles subtended at the centre by a pair of


opposite sides are
(1) Supplementary
(2) Complementary
(3) Equal
(4) unequal

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QA:Geometry:Circles
17. A square is inscribed in a quarter of a circle in such
manner that two of its adjacent vertices lie on the radii
at an equal distance from the centre, while the other
two vertices lie on the circular area. If the square has
sides of length x, then the radius of the circle is
16 x
(1)
4
2x
(2)

(3) x 2.5
(4) x 2

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QA:Geometry:Circles
DIRECTIONS: Refer to the following data to answer the
questions that follow.
A wooden plank is on the roller as shown. It is pushed from
the side as indicated by the arrow such that the angle P
becomes 60 and the horizontal distance between the point
P and centre O is now 10 m.

18. What is the radius of the roller.


10
(1)
3
5
(2)
3
15
(3)
3
(4) None of these

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QA:Geometry:Circles

3 1
19. What is the length of the plank? tan15
3 1

(1)
10 3 2
3

(2)
20 3 2
3

(3)
15 3 2
3
(4) None of these
20. In the following figure, two circles of equal radius touch
each other externally at point C, and AB is the common
tangent to the circle. Find the value of CAB.
A M B

(1) 45
(2) 30
(3) 60
(4) 40

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QA:Geometry:Circles

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QA:Geometry:Circles
ANSWERS KEY
1. (4) 2. (3) 3. (3) 4. (2) 5. (4)
6. (1) 7. (2) 8. (3) 9. (1) 10. (2)
11. (4) 12. (3) 13. (1) 14. (3) 15. (1)
16. (1) 17. (3) 18. (1) 19. (1) 20. (1)

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