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VOCABULARY BUILDING-1

Class Exercise (Basic Module)

NATURE OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY


1. ONE MEANINGMANY WORDS (SYNONYMS)
Synonym-Antonym Matrix (PRAISE-CRITICIZE) Appendix I
Synonym Spectrum (MEAN) Appendix II
2. ONE WORDMANY MEANINGS (MULTIPLE USAGE)
Multiple Meaning Tree (SHY) Appendix III
Word Family Tree (DISPENSE) Appendix IV
1. SYNONYMS
DIRECTIONS: Choose the word or phrase you believe is closest in meaning to the key word.
1. EXPEDIENT 8. EFFLUENCE
(1) suitable and advantageous. (1) power to effect by indirect means.
(2) moral or ethical. (2) political power.
(3) troublesome or costly. (3) emanation.
(4) a quick solution. (4) an oily scum, as on water.
2. AVID 9. CRASS
(1) stingy. (1) irritating.
(2) rapid. (2) vulgarly stupid.
(3) greedy. (3) bitter.
(4) bitter. (4) noisy.
3. CONCEIVE 10. TRANSGRESS
(1) to understand; grasp (1) to change sides in a debate.
(2) to bear a child. (2) to sin; offend.
(3) self-love. (3) to forgive.
(4) a large valley. (4) to transport over a specific route.
4. CREDULOUS 11. COY
(1) unbelievable. (1) reticent.
(2) firm in believing. (2) vain.
(3) easily deceived. (3) quiet.
(4) suspicious. (4) authentic.
5. CHRONICALLY 12. ENJOIN
(1) irritably. (1) to share good times.
(2) sickly. (2) to order, direct, or prohibit authoritatively.
(3) habitually. (3) to settle a labour dispute.
(4) due to a run-down condition. (4) to meet in order to negotiate.
6. ENDEMIC 13. MANIFEST
(1) a contagious disease. (1) boasting.
(2) peculiar to a particular locale. (2) evident.
(3) tending to produce vomiting. (3) destined.
(4) a disease affecting children. (4) generous
7. ARCH 14. NOMINAL
(1) playfully sly and roghish. (1) understood; known.
(2) incriminating. (2) unnamed.
(3) patriotic. (3) too small to be considered.
(4) wandering. (4) believable.

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15. PERMISSIVE 25. ESTIMABLE
(1) ungrudging. (1) careless.
(2) immoral. (2) popular.
(3) lenient. (3) worthy of high regard.
(4) relaxed. (4) capable of being counted.
16. DISPENSATION 26. WAIVE
(1) to sell drugs or medicine. (1) to signal.
(2) a religious or political system. (2) a gentle curve.
(3) an excuse. (3) to disturb things.
(4) a gift to a charity or religious order. (4) to refrain from enforcing.
17. ALLUSION 27. GLOSS
(1) a false mental image. (1) to shine.
(2) an indirect reference. (2) to give plausible explanations to cover a
(3) a claim. fault.
(4) a temptation. (3) to act foolishly.
(4) to explain thoroughly.
18. APPREHENSION
(1) approval. 28. STAID
(2) fear of the past. (1) straightforward.
(3) information. (2) dull.
(4) capture (3) theatrical.
(4) sedulous.
19. AFFINITY
(1) daintiness. 29. RUSTIC
(2) on and on without an end. (1) charming.
(3) close similarity. (2) rusted.
(4) strength. (3) unrefined.
(4) easy-going.
20. APPROPRIATE
(1) to take for ones own use. 30. APPRECIABLE
(2) to make fitting and suitable. (1) perceptible.
(3) to express a favorable opinion. (2) grateful.
(4) to give away. (3) pleasant.
(4) very small.
21. EDIFY
(1) to scold. 31. DON
(2) to praise. (1) a lover.
(3) to improve and enlighten. (2) to put on, as a garment.
(4) to have exceptional pleasure from. (3) an infatuation.
(4) to dance lightly.
22. HAIL
(1) to go to. 32. ENACT
(2) to shower. (1) to be in action, to work.
(3) to familiarise. (2) to perform in a play.
(4) to be healthy. (3) to make into a law.
(4) to do or perform again.
23. PRESUMPTUOUS
(1) luxurious. 33. AFFRONT
(2) offensively bold. (1) to advance abreast.
(3) insincere. (2) to offend purposely.
(4) giving grounds for belief. (3) to display anger.
(4) the forefront.
24. EQUABLE
(1) just or fair. 34. INVIOLATE
(2) steady or even. (1) calm.
(3) capable of being compared. (2) excited.
(4) equivalent. (3) brutal.
(4) pure.

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35. TRANSACT 43. ADDUCE
(1) to carry through; accomplish. (1) to find a solution to.
(2) to sin. (2) to persuade.
(3) to give or carry to someone else. (3) to increase.
(4) to move from one place to another (4) to cite or allege.
quickly.
44. CONCEPTION
36. INCUMBENT (1) with the exclusion of.
(1) person occupying a post. (2) a beginning.
(2) clumsy. (3) unaware of.
(3) accomplice. (4) a specific idea.
(4) dutiful.
45. ANTECEDENT
37. REMISS (1) contemporary.
(1) to miss again. (2) prior.
(2) careless. (3) a future generation.
(3) abstracted. (4) conflicting.
(4) sorrowful.
46. ACCREDIT
38. SOBER (1) to vouch for or authorise.
(1) to become more serious. (2) to sell.
(2) to drink excessively. (3) to discount.
(3) to subside. (4) to find fault with.
(4) to make more subtle.
47. WAN
39. UNWONTED (1) pale.
(1) unaccustomed. (2) a storage place.
(2) not desirable. (3) ghastly.
(3) unable to do wrong. (4) to diminish.
(4) inconsistent.
48. WRY
40. UNTOWARD (1) twisted.
(1) unfortunate. (2) dry.
(2) moving away or retreating. (3) funny.
(3) uncovered. (4) a spice.
(4) facing away.
49. CON
41. SUBTLE (1) to end abruptly.
(1) unwilling. (2) to trick.
(2) unsympathetic. (3) to forfeit.
(3) written below. (4) to accompany.
(4) keen or discriminating.
50. ANIMATE
42. SUBSCRIBE (1) to enrage.
(1) to scorn. (2) to cause to move or work faster.
(2) to continue to exist. (3) to describe dramatically.
(3) to agree with. (4) to make more alive.
(4) to receive money.
2. ANTONYMS
DIRECTIONS: Choose the word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the key word.
1. GAINSAY 3. FLOURISH
(1) hesitate. (1) lack of consistency.
(2) intercede. (2) lack of embellishment.
(3) praise. (3) lack of spontaneity.
(4) concur. (4) lack of substance.
2. NICE 4. FINESSE
(1) indirect. (1) indecision.
(2) indecisive. (2) heavy-handedness.
(3) imprecise. (3) extravagance.
(4) imperturbable. (4) competitiveness.
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5. SLACK 15. PRECARIOUS
(1) twisted. (1) certain.
(2) taut. (2) covert.
(3) compact. (3) rescued.
(4) shattered. (4) revived.
6. INIMITABLE 16. ENGENDER
(1) inclined to disagree. (1) enumerate.
(2) eager to advise. (2) emulate.
(3) intelligible. (3) encapsulate.
(4) ordinary. (4) eradicate.
7. PREVARICATION 17. GRIEVOUS
(1) tact. (1) slight.
(2) consistency. (2) solicitous.
(3) veracity. (3) sophisticated.
(4) silence. (4) sparkling.
8. AMORTIZE 18. PRECIPITATE
(1) loosen. (1) desperate.
(2) denounce. (2) determined.
(3) suddenly increase ones indebtedness. (3) dissident.
(4) wisely cause to flourish. (4) deliberate.
9. EMACIATION 19. DISABUSE
(1) invigoration. (1) afflict with pain.
(2) glorification. (2) lead into error.
(3) amelioration. (3) remove from grace.
(4) inundation. (4) free from obligation.
10. UNALLOYED 20. INVETERATE
(1) destabilized. (1) casual.
(2) unregulated. (2) satisfactory.
(3) assimilated. (3) trustworthy.
(4) adulterated. (4) private.
11. FOMENT 21. VERITABLE
(1) squelch. (1) impetuous.
(2) dilute. (2) specious.
(3) liberate. (3) inefficacious.
(4) clear. (4) pernicious.
12. TOY 22. TURPITUDE
(1) think over seriously. (1) saintly behaviour.
(2) admire overtly. (2) clever conversation.
(3) praise unstintingly. (3) lively imagination.
(4) covet irrationally. (4) agitation.
13. RENT 23. STEEP
(1) in abeyance. (1) repulse.
(2) made whole. (2) plummet.
(3) undeserved. (3) clarify.
(4) turned down. (4) parch.
14. TENUOUS 24. ODIUM
(1) finite. (1) ease.
(2) embedded. (2) fragrance.
(3) proximate. (3) eccentricity.
(4) substantial. (4) infatuation.

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25. SEEMLY 35. DISPATCH
(1) indecorous. (1) serenity.
(2) apparent. (2) celerity.
(3) disingenuous. (3) leisureliness.
(4) deleterious. (4) irregularity.
26. PRODIGIOUS 36. DIVESTITURE
(1) implicit. (1) acquisition.
(2) slight. (2) promotion.
(3) premature. (3) consultation.
(4) prodigal. (4) monopolization.
27. MANNERED 37. EXTANT
(1) plain. (1) extensive.
(2) progressive. (2) extraneous.
(3) ignorant. (3) extricable.
(4) artificial. (4) extinct.
28. BANAL 38. TRACTABILITY
(1) faithful. (1) implausibility
(2) arresting. (2) incorrigibility
(3) inclined. (3) impenetrability
(4) forced. (4) indefatigability
29. MUNDANE 39. NOISOME
(1) sufficient. (1) attractively fragrant.
(2) superior. (2) subtly flattering.
(3) spiritual. (3) consistently patient.
(4) perfect. (4) softly glowing.
30. CHARY 40. FERMENT
(1) brisk. (1) purity.
(2) bold. (2) lucidity.
(3) untidy. (3) transparency.
(4) ungenerous. (4) tranquility.
31. CONFOUND 41. BREACH
(1) specify. (1) garner.
(2) signify. (2) solder.
(3) scrutinize. (3) move forward.
(4) discriminate between. (4) keep silent.
32. FLAG 42. REVERE
(1) favour. (1) imitate.
(2) sustain. (2) dismiss.
(3) wax. (3) confuse.
(4) strive. (4) profane.
33. OFFHAND 43. PROPITIATE
(1) accurate. (1) elate.
(2) universal. (2) pester.
(3) appropriate. (3) incense.
(4) premeditated. (4) distract.
34. BROACH 44. STOMACH
(1) keep track of. (1) reformulate.
(2) lay claim to. (2) anticipate.
(3) close off. (3) lose fascination for.
(4) soothe. (4) refuse to tolerate.

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45. PLUMB 48. DISAFFECT
(1) examine superficially. (1) win over.
(2) answer accurately. (2) fail to proceed.
(3) agree. (3) reinstate.
(4) abstain. (4) cause to improve.
46. PINE 49. HAPLESS
(1) fall apart. (1) excited.
(2) become invigorated. (2) elated.
(3) become enraged. (3) fortunate.
(4) stand firm. (4) completely self-reliant.
47. RAVE 50. STOCK
(1) cant. (1) unique.
(2) flak. (2) unfounded.
(3) pan. (3) desirable.
(4) flop. (4) unhealthy.

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APPENDIX I
SYNONYM-ANTONYM MATRIX
PRAISECRITICIZE
PRAISE(v) CRITICIZE(v)

Acclaim(v): praise enthusiastically and publicly Animadvert(v): pass criticism or censure on; speak out
The conference was acclaimed as a success. against
We shall be obliged to animadvert most severely upon you in
our report.
Accolades(n): an expression of praise or admiration Asperse(v): attack or criticize the reputation or integrity of
He received accolades for the courage displayed during He aspersed the place and its inhabitants.
the terror attack. Aspersion(noun[U]): an attack on the reputation or integrity
of a person
I dont think anyone is casting aspersions on your character.
Accredit(v): give credit to/praise someone for Belittle(v): dismiss someone or something as unimportant
something She belittled Amys riding skills whenever she could.
He was accredited with being the worlds fastest
sprinter.
Adulate(v): praise or admire someone excessively Brickbat(n): a critical remark or comment
Adulation(noun [U]): He found it difficult to cope with He received more brickbats than bouquets.
the adulation of the fans.
Applaud(v): show approval or praise by clapping Castigate(v): reprimand someone severely
The crowd whistled and applauded. | His speech was He was castigated for not setting a good example.
loudly applauded.
Applause(noun[U]): They gave him a round of
applause.
Approbate(v): approve formally; sanction (US rare) Censure(v): express severe disapproval of, esp. in a formal
He sent a letter approbating the recommendations of the statement
committee. The critics censured the film.
Approbation(noun[U]): approval or praise Censure(noun[U]): Two MPs were singled out for censure.
He efforts deserve the approbation of the entire (noun[C]): Despite repeated censures, the practice
community. continued.
Approve(v): believe that someone or something is good Disapprove(v): have or express an unfavourable opinion
or acceptable Bob strongly disapproved of drinking and driving.
I strongly approve of his innovative approach. Disapproving(adj): He shot a disapproving glance at her.
Approving(adj): The wine drew approving comments
from everyone.
Commend(v): praise formally or officially Chastise(v): rebuke or reprimand severely
He was commended for his achievements. He chastised his colleagues for their laziness.
Credit(noun[U]): praise in recognition Discredit(v): cause an idea or account seem false and
He deserves the credit for the success of the project. unreliable; harm the good reputation of
To his credit: in praise of: He has five grand slam titles His explanation for the phenomenon was soon discredited.
to his credit. His remarks were taken out of context in an effort to
discredit him.
Defer(v): submit to or acknowledge/praise the merit of Chide(v): scold or rebuke
He deferred to his bosss financial acumen. He was forever being chided for overfamiliarity.
Deference(noun[U]): courteous regard; regard
[Deferential(adj)]
He treated all women in a deferential manner.
Encomium(n): a speech or piece of writing that praises Denounce(v): publicly declare to be wrong or evil
someone or something highly The Assembly denounced the use of violence.
The CEO delivered an appropriate encomium in honour He was widely denounced as a traitor.
of his colleague.
Endorse(v): declare ones public approval/praise or Deplore(v): feel or express strong condemnation of
support of We deplore all violence.
The Principals efforts were endorsed by the teachers
wholeheartedly.
Esteem(v): respect and admire/praise Deprecate(v): express disapproval of
Many of these qualities are esteemed by managers. What I deprecate is persistent indulgence.
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Esteemed(adj): a highly esteemed scholar Deprecating(adj): He sniffed in a deprecating manner.
Esteem(noun[U]): He was held in high esteem by
colleagues
Eulogize(v): praise highly in speech or writing Depreciate(v): disparage or belittle something
He was eulogized as a rock star | a plaque that She was depreciating his aesthetic taste.
eulogizes the workers
Eulogy(n): a speech or piece of writing praising
someone highly, especially as a tribute to someone who
has just died
John Elton presented an eulogy to Princess Diana.
Deride(v): express contempt for; ridicule
The decision was derided by environmentalists.
Derision(noun[U]): My stories were received with disbelief
and derision.
Derisive(adj): He gave a harsh, derisive laugh.
Exalt(v): think or speak very highly of Derogate(v): detract from
The party will continue to exalt their deceased founder. This does not derogate from his duty to act honestly and
faithfully.
Derogatory(adj): She makes derogatory remarks about my
obesity.
Extol(v): praise enthusiastically Detract(v): diminish the worth or value of
He extolled the virtues of the Indian woman. These personal shortcomings in no way detract from her
achievements.
Honour(v): regard with great respect Diatribe(n): a forceful and bitter verbal attack
He has now learnt to honour his fathers memory. -a diatribe against the misguided economic policies of the
Honoured(adj): You will always be welcome as an government
honoured guest.
Kudos(noun [U]): praise and honour received for an Disparage(v): regard and represent as being of little worth
achievement He never missed an opportunity to disparage his
He received much kudos [notmany kudos or a kudo] comprtitors.
for his work. Disparaging(v): He passed disparaging remarks about
ORIGIN: Kudos comes from the Greek word for blacks.
praise. ORIGIN: from Old French desparagier marry someone of
unequal rank and hence bring discredit on
Laud(v): praise (a person or his achievements) highly Excoriate(v): Med. Remove part of the surface of the skin;
The obituary lauded him as a great statesman and criticize someone severely
soldier. He excoriated the government for needless censorship.
Lauded(adj): his much-lauded rendering of Hamlet
Laudable(adj): (of an action, idea, or aim) deserving
praise
Laudable though the aim might be, the results have been
criticized.
Laudatory(adj): (of speech or writing) expressing
praise
The tone of the editorial was laudatory.
Paean(n): a song of praise or triumph; a creative work Execrate(v): feel or express great loathing for
expressing enthusiastic praise They were execrated as dangerous and corrupt.
Moses leads the people in a great paean of triumph | Execrable(adj): extremely bad or unpleasant
paeans of praise for everybodys wisdom -execrable cheap wine
ORIGIN: from Greek paianhymn of thanksgiving to
Apollo
Panegyric(n): a public speech or published text in praise Flak(noun[U]): strong criticism
A panegyric on the pleasures of malt whisky You must be strong enough to take the flak if things go
Panegyrize(v): speak or write in praise of (archaic) wrong.

Plaudits(plural noun): praise Flay(v): strip the skin of; criticize severely and brutally
The network has received plaudits for its sports He flayed the government for not implementing economic
coverage. reforms.
Regard(noun[U]): liking and respect; esteem Fulminate(v): express vehement protest
Scientists hold dolphins in high regard All students fulminated against the new curriculum.
(noun[C]): she had a special regard for Eliot

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Respect(noun[U]): a feeling of deep admiration Harangue(v): lecture at length in an aggressive and critical
The director had a lot of respect for Amitabh as an manner
actor. He harangued the public on their ignorance.
Respect(v): She was respected by everyone she worked
with.
Revere(V): feel deep respect or admiration for Hatchet Job(n): a fierce written attack on someone or his
Picassos paintings were revered by his contemporaries. work (informal)
Reverence(noun[U]): Rituals showed honour and
reverence for the dead.
Reverent(adj): a reverent silence
Reverential(adj): Their names are mentioned in
reverential tones.
Rhapsody(n): an effusively enthusiastic or ecstatic Impute(v): represent (especially something undesirable) as
expression of feeling being done or possessed by someone; attribute (especially
-rhapsodies of praise blame)
Rhapsodize(v): He began to rhapsodize about Gods The company imputed the failure to the CEOs bad
goodness. judgement.
Tribute(n): an act, statement, or gift intended to show Libel(n): a false and typically malicious statement about a
respect/admiration person; a thing that brings undeserved discredit on a person
The video is a tribute to the musicals of the 190s. by misrepresentation
(noun[C]): A symposium was organized to pay tribute to
Darwin.
Venerate(v): regard with great respect; revere Malign(v): speak about someone in a spitefully critical
Mahatma Gandhi was venerated as a saint. manner
Venerable(adj): accord a great deal of respect, Dont you dare malign her in my presence.
especially because of age, wisdom, or charactera
venerable statesman
Obloquy(noun[U]): strong public condemnation
He endured years of contempt and obloquy.
Opprobrium(noun[U]): harsh criticism or censure; public
disgrace arising from shame conduct
-the critical opprobrium generated by his films
-the opprobrium of being closely associated with the
underworld
Pan(v): criticize severely (informal)
The movie was panned by the critics.
Philippic(adj): a bitter attack or denunciation, esp. a verbal
one (literary)
Pillory(v): attack or ridicule publicly
He found himself pilloried by his own party members.
Reprehend(v): reprimand
He displays a recklessness that cannot be too severely
reprehended.
Reprehensible(adj): deserving censure or condemnation
They blamed his complacency and reprehensible laxity for
his downfall.
Reproach(v): express to someone ones disapproval of or
disappointment in their actions
Her friends reproached her for not doing enough for her
family.
You know that isnt true, he reproached her.
Reprobate(v): express or feel disapproval of
His neighbours reprobated his unsocial behavior.
Reprove(v): reprimand someone
He was reproved for obscenity \ Dont be childish, he
reproved mildly.
Reproving(adj): The mother gave her child a reproving
glance.
Revile(v): criticize in a abusive or angrily insulting manner
He was now reviled by the party that he had helped build.

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Scarify(v): criticize severely and hurtfully
The actress was scarified by the critics for the raunchy
scenes.
Slander(v): make false and damaging statements about
someone
They were accused of slandering the Prime Minister.
Stricture(n): a sternly critical or censorious remark or
instruction
They resented his strictures on their lack of civic virtue.
Tirade(n): a long, angry speech of criticism or accusation
He let out a tirade of abuse against the Communists.
Vilify : speak or write about in an abusively disparaging
manner
He has recently been vilified in the press.
Vituperate(v): blame or insult in strong or violent language
(archaic)
Vituperative(adj): bitter and abusive: a vituperative
outburst
Vituperation(noun[U]): No one else attracted such
vituperation from her.

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APPENDIX II
SYNONYM SPECTRUM
MEAN (adj.)
[Synonyms ordered from FAVOURABLEthrough NEUTRALto UNFAVOURABLE]
PENNY-WISE: extremely careful about the way one spends even small amounts of money
Being penny-wise, she has been able to build up a nice little nest egg.
THRIFTY: using money and other resources carefully and not wastefully
He had been brought up to be thrifty and careful.
THRIFT (noun[U]): The mercantile community in India has traditionally espoused the values of thirft and self-
reliance.
ECONOMICAL: (of a person or lifestyle) careful not to waste money or resources
She manages her home in a fairly economical manner.
PRUDENT: acting with or showing care and thought for the future
No prudent money manager would authorize a loan without first knowing its purpose.
CANNY: having or showing shrewdness and good judgement, especially in money or business matters
Canny investors will switch banks if they think they are getting a raw deal.
FRUGAL: sparing or economical as regards money or food
Im a bit too frugal to splash out on these clothes as a mere fad.
SPARING: moderate, economical
Physicians advised sparing use of the ointment.
PARSIMONIOUS: careful in the use of money or other resources (favourable tone)
Even the usually parsimonious Joe paid for drinks all round.
-mean, stingy (unfavourable tone)
He is parsimonious and does not like to spend even a penny on anyone but himself.
MEAN: unwilling to give or share things, especially; not generous
She felt mean not giving a tip | He was so mean that he refused to share his class notes.
SCRIMPING: be extremely careful in even small and necessary expenditures
She scrimped and saved out of sheer habit, though they were quite well off.
PENNY-PINCHING: unwilling to spend money, miserly
To contain the fiscal deficit, the government has taken such penny-pinching measures that even the defence of the
country could be compromised.
CHEESE-PARING: stingy, mean
She is cheese-paring even when it comes to extending hospitality to guests.
TIGHT-FISTED: not willing to spend or give out much money, miserly
My father is so tight-fisted that he has not increased my pocket money for the last two years.
MISERLY: hoarding wealth and spending as little as possible
His miserly grand-uncle proved to be worth at least Rupees ten crores.
STINGY: mean, ungenerous
He is notoriously stingy, so his friends avoided eating out with him.
STINTING: to be very economical or mean about spending or providing something
He is stinting on even the basic expenditures required to run an office efficiently.
NIGGARDLY: ungenerous with money, giving even meagre amounts grudgingly
The defence ministry had to fight for even the niggardly funds doled out by the finance ministry.
SKINFLINTY: characteristic of a skinflint or a miser (informal)
Dont be a skinflintyou earn more than she does.

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APPENDIX III
MULTIPLE MEANING TREE
SHY
Sense-1 (adj.) Sense-2 (adj.) Sense-3 (verb)
SHY: suggests a lack of ease in the SHY: suggests an absence of SHY: suggests hanging back from
company of others, or fearfulness in assertiveness, a lack of vanity or full participation or full assent
facing new experiences presumption

Shy: lacking confidence and uncertain Shy: suggests unwillingness to call Shy: emphasizes a skittish standing
how to behave or what to say in the attention to oneself out of timidity or aside or squeamish holding back out
presence of other people; shy people a lack of social experience of fear, doubt, or caution
try to avoid people/things they feel She did attend office parties, but was The girl shied away from looking the
uneasy about too shy to mingle with people. strange man in the eye.
I was inordinately shy of girls.
Small investors remained shy of the
stock market | People can be very shy
about giving compliments.
Apprehensive: anxious, nervous, or Humble: having or showing a modest Balk/Baulk: hesitate or be unwilling
fearful or low estimate of ones importance to accept an idea or undertaking
Many of the students were very I felt very humble in the company of He baulked at the suggestion of such
apprehensive about their first visit to such illustrious people | my humble drastic measures.
the new school. apologies
Abashed: embarrassed, disconcerted, Demure:(of a woman or her Demur: raise objections or show
or ashamed behavior) reserved, modest, and shy reluctance
He looked slightly abashed. The painting showed a demure Indian Normally she would have accepted
bride. the challenge, but in this instance she
demurred.
Bashful: nervously reluctant to draw Modest: Recoil: suddenly spring back out of
attention to oneself -too modest for the aggressiveness surprise, distaste, or fear at the
Many men are bashful about demanded of him| touchingly modest thought of something
discussing their feelings out in the about her tremendous success
open.
Coy: (esp. of a woman) making a Reserved: slow to reveal emotion or Scruple: hesitate or be reluctant to
pretence of shyness or modesty which opinions do something that one thinks may be
is intended to be alluring He is a reserved, almost taciturn wrong
She gave him a coy smile of man. She doesnt scruple to ask her
invitation. parents for money.
She was coy over the telephone when
he asked for a date; although she had
flirted outrageously with him the
evening before.
Diffident: so modest and hesitant that Reticent: not revealing ones Shirk: avoid or neglect (a duty or
they have difficulty in putting thoughts or feelings readily responsibility)
themselves forward She was extremely reticent about her Some teachers shirk their basic
He was very diffident about working personal affairs. responsibilities to their students.
in close association with senior
management.
Embarrassed: feeling or showing Retiring: shy and fond of being on Shrink: Emphasizes an indecisive
embarrassment ones own cringing from something ominous,
I felt quite embarrassed whenever I -a retiring, acquiescent woman | he frightening, or even disgusting
spoke to her. | an embarrassed silence was such a quiet, retiring man She shrank from entering the seedy
bar with him and once inside she
recoiled at every depraved face that
met her gaze.
Faint-hearted: lacking courage; timid Self-effacing: not claiming attention
They were feeling faint-hearted at the for oneself; retiring and modest
prospect of war. His demeanour was self-effacing,
gracious, and polite.

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Submissive: ready to conform to the Unassumimg: not pretentious or
authority or will of others; meekly arrogant; modest
obedient He was an unassuming and kindly
-a submissive, almost sheeplike man.
people
Timid: lacking normal confidence or Unpretentious: not attempting to
courage; stems from fear, resulting in impress others with an appearance of
nervousness in the presence of others greater importance, talent, or culture
I was too timid to ask for what I than is actually possessed
wanted | She gave him a timid smile. In spite of his fame he was thoroughly
unpretentious and down-to-earth.
Timorous: showing or suffering from Meek: quiet, gentle, and easily
nervousness or a lack of confidence imposed on
-a timorous voice | she was no She brought her meek, little husband
helpless, timorous woman along
She meekly answered the questions
during the interview.
Tremulous: shaking or quivering
slightly; timid, nervous
Where, she asked in a tremulous
voice.
He gave a tremulous smile.

CAT Page 13 Verbal Ability -1(Basic Module)New


APPENDIX IV
WORD FAMILY TREE
DISPENSE (Verb)
DISPENSE: distribute or provide (a service or DISPENSE WITH: manage without or get rid of
information) to a number of people Lets dispense with the formalities, shall we?
Orderlies went about dispensing drinks. -give special exemption from (a rule, law, religious
The courts dispensed swift justice. obligation, etc.)
The Secretary of State was empowered to dispense with
nationality requirement in each case.
The pope personally nominated as bishop, dispensing him
from his impediment
Dispenser: a person or thing that dispenses something Dispensable: able to be replaced or done without;
The king was the protector of the weak and dispenser of superfluous
justice. The captains loss of form made him dispensable
-a paper towel dispenser, a water dispenser
Dispensary: a room where medicines are prepared and Indispensable: absolutely necessary, cannot be replaced or
provided done without
The queue at the hospital dispensary was too long, so I He made himself indispensable to the boss.
bought my medicines from the nearest pharmacy.
Dispensation: the action of distributing or supplying Dispensation: exemption from a rule, religious obligation,
something or usual requirement
There are enough regulations controlling dispensation of Although she was too young, she was given special
medicines. dispensation to play before her birthday.
We cant continue to live off the charitable dispensations of The pope granted King Henry VIII a dispensation to marry
others. Elizabeth of York.

Dispensation: a political, religious, or social system


prevailing at a particular time
There is a peculiar dispensation obtaining in Pakistan
where political power is distributed among the duly elected
civilian government, the army, and the muslim clergy.
Scholarship is conveyed to a wider audience than under the
earlier dispensation.

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